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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Microdialysis: A Method For Quantifying In Situ Nitrogen Fluxes In Soil Microsites, Srusti Maddala, Mary C. Savin, Julie A. Stenken, Lisa S. Wood Jan 2020

Microdialysis: A Method For Quantifying In Situ Nitrogen Fluxes In Soil Microsites, Srusti Maddala, Mary C. Savin, Julie A. Stenken, Lisa S. Wood

Discovery, The Student Journal of Dale Bumpers College of Agricultural, Food and Life Sciences

Microdialysis, a diffusion-based sampling technique commonly used in biomedical research, has recently been recognized as a candidate for monitoring chemical changes in the rhizosphere. The information it provides about nutrient diffusion may improve nitrogen use efficiency, leading to enhanced management and success of restoration projects. The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of microdialysis sampling to quantify the relative recoveries (RR%) of nitrate-N and ammonium-N, the two inorganic nitrogen compounds typically found in soil. The effects of microdialysis flow rate, sample medium concentration, and the presence of both analytes in solution on the relative recoveries obtained from ...


Corn Response To Wastewater-Recycled Phosphorus Fertilizers, Shane R. Ylagan, Kristofor R. Brye Jan 2020

Corn Response To Wastewater-Recycled Phosphorus Fertilizers, Shane R. Ylagan, Kristofor R. Brye

Discovery, The Student Journal of Dale Bumpers College of Agricultural, Food and Life Sciences

The ability to recycle phosphorus (P) from wastewaters could provide a sustainable, continuous source of P that might also help protect surface water quality from P enrichment. The mineral struvite (MgNH4PO4 · 6H2O) is an understudied material that can be created from P- and nitrogen (N)-containing wastewater and has been shown to have agricultural fertilizer value. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of electrochemically precipitated struvite (ECST), chemically precipitated struvite (Crystal Green; CG), diammonium phosphate (DAP), monoammonium phosphate (MAP), rock phosphate (RP), and triple superphosphate (TSP) on corn (Zea mays) response in a greenhouse pot study ...


The Influences Of Poultry Litter Biochar And Water Source On Radish Growth And Nutrition, Julia Allen, David E. Longer, Edward E. Gbur, Lichen Hao Jan 2014

The Influences Of Poultry Litter Biochar And Water Source On Radish Growth And Nutrition, Julia Allen, David E. Longer, Edward E. Gbur, Lichen Hao

Discovery, The Student Journal of Dale Bumpers College of Agricultural, Food and Life Sciences

Many row-crop fields today have declined in soil fertility due to poor management practices and overuse of pesticides. Under these conditions, plant nutrient uptake can be sub-optimal. There are several soil amendments that can be used to improve soil quality and plant growth. This study focused on the addition of biochar to the soil and the use of structured water to enhance plant growth. Biochar is produced by pyrolysis of organic feedstocks. Previous studies which focused on biochar have shown an increase in plant yield, nutrient availability in the soil, and soil water holding capacity. Structured water is the liquid ...


Distribution Of Soil Density At A Bottomland Hardwood Forest Wetland Restoration, Chicot County, Arkansas, B. E. Sleeper, Robert L. Ficklin Jan 2013

Distribution Of Soil Density At A Bottomland Hardwood Forest Wetland Restoration, Chicot County, Arkansas, B. E. Sleeper, Robert L. Ficklin

Journal of the Arkansas Academy of Science

Bottomland hardwood forest (BLHF) soils provide a myriad of ecosystem services, yet much information is lacking with respect to how soil physical properties influence biogeochemical cycling along topographic gradients. Current patterns of vegetation at a 149ha wetland restoration site in Chicot County, Arkansas, suggest the presence of ecologically significant variation in soil properties within the Perry Clay soil series. A study was initiated in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley (LMAV) to map soil bulk density and texture as well as to identify the interrelationships between soil physical properties, soil organic carbon, and total nitrogen. A random grid was used to ...


The Influence Of Poultry Litter Biochar On Early Season Cotton Growth, Taylor D. Coomer, David E. Longer, Derrick M. Oosterhuis, Dimitra A. Loka Jan 2013

The Influence Of Poultry Litter Biochar On Early Season Cotton Growth, Taylor D. Coomer, David E. Longer, Derrick M. Oosterhuis, Dimitra A. Loka

Discovery, The Student Journal of Dale Bumpers College of Agricultural, Food and Life Sciences

Cotton is known for being sensitive to cool, wet soils, especially in the early stages of growth. Amendments to soil can aid cotton seedlings in development and nutrient uptake. However, soil amendments can be costly and detrimental to the environment, and alternatives such as the addition of biochar have been considered. Biochar is produced from biomass that has gone through pyrolysis and has been shown to improve plant yield, microbial response, soil structure, soil cation–exchange capacity, and water use efficiency. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of biochar on early season cotton growth. The aim of this ...


Evaluation Of Cover Crops In High Tunnel Vegetable Rotation, Tyler A. Patrick, Neal Mays, Jason Mcafee, Curt R. Rom Jan 2013

Evaluation Of Cover Crops In High Tunnel Vegetable Rotation, Tyler A. Patrick, Neal Mays, Jason Mcafee, Curt R. Rom

Discovery, The Student Journal of Dale Bumpers College of Agricultural, Food and Life Sciences

Organic vegetable production within high tunnels allows for an extended growing season, crop protection, and environmental control. The USDA National Organic Program (NOP) standards mandate evidence that the soil has been maintained and improved over the course of production. Previous studies have indicated the potential of cover crops for reducing competitive vegetation, and improving soil quality, thus resulting in greater plant growth, nutrient uptake, and yield. However, there has been limited work in the confines of high tunnels as part of a tunnel-system rotation. Ten nitrogen-fixing and ten non-legume cover crops were established under a high tunnel and evaluated for ...


Influence Of Organic Groundcovers On Mycorrhizal Colonization And Symbiosis Of Organically Managed Fruit Crops, Raven Anai Bough, Curt R. Rom Jan 2013

Influence Of Organic Groundcovers On Mycorrhizal Colonization And Symbiosis Of Organically Managed Fruit Crops, Raven Anai Bough, Curt R. Rom

Discovery, The Student Journal of Dale Bumpers College of Agricultural, Food and Life Sciences

Ground covers have the potential to impact the crop rhizosphere biology, which includes organisms such as arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), which in turn affect the crop host plant through symbiosis. There has been evidence that a ground cover that provides a suitable environment for colonization of AMF and subsequent symbiosis could be a tool in organic fruit production. The objective of this research was to compare colonization of AMF in strawberry plant (Frageria x ananassa cv. Radiance) and apple rootstocks (Malus x domestica, cv. M. 26) grown in a greenhouse affected by various ground cover treatments. Inoculation was achieved by ...


Evaluation Of Water-Retention Ability Of Eastern Arkansas Prairie And Agricultural Soil, Maria L. Barrenechea, Kristofor R. Brye Jan 2006

Evaluation Of Water-Retention Ability Of Eastern Arkansas Prairie And Agricultural Soil, Maria L. Barrenechea, Kristofor R. Brye

Discovery, The Student Journal of Dale Bumpers College of Agricultural, Food and Life Sciences

Agricultural land use affects soil physical properties, such as bulk density, water content, organic matter content, and soil structure; all of which in turn affect ecosystem productivity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of: 1) time since aboveground biomass has been removed by haying (i.e., 0 vs. 23 years), and 2) land use (i.e., undisturbed tallgrass prairie vs. cultivated agriculture) on water-retention characteristics in a silt-loam soil of the Grand Prairie region of eastern Arkansas. Soil samples were collected from the 0- to 10-cm depth and were wetted with varying amounts of distillated water ...


Effects Of Vegetation Removal On Native Soil Quality In Eastern Arkansas, Lorena Moreno, Kristofor R. Brye Jan 2004

Effects Of Vegetation Removal On Native Soil Quality In Eastern Arkansas, Lorena Moreno, Kristofor R. Brye

Discovery, The Student Journal of Dale Bumpers College of Agricultural, Food and Life Sciences

Aboveground vegetation removal practices, such as cutting and baling and burning, can both positively and negatively affect a prairie ecosystem. Burning can stimulate growth and species diversity, but removing vegetation and the nutrients it contains without equal replenishment of those nutrients could cause a steady decline in available soil nutrients. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of vegetation removal techniques in a native tallgrass prairie in eastcentral Arkansas. Soil samples were collected from the top 10 cm in each soil mapping unit that existed in each of three prairie areas that differed by the amount of ...


Assessment And Restoration Of A Neighborhood Wetland Invaded By Exotic Plant Species, Ryan Neal, Kimberly R. Payne, Lorena Moreno, Graham Duffy, Jonathan Peck, Mary C. Savin Jan 2004

Assessment And Restoration Of A Neighborhood Wetland Invaded By Exotic Plant Species, Ryan Neal, Kimberly R. Payne, Lorena Moreno, Graham Duffy, Jonathan Peck, Mary C. Savin

Discovery, The Student Journal of Dale Bumpers College of Agricultural, Food and Life Sciences

The University of Arkansas Crop, Soil, and Environmental Sciences (CSES) Club adopted a local wetland in the spring of 2002 through the Fayetteville Parks and Recreation Department. This project has allowed students to interact with local community and governmental organizations as well as other academic departments within the university. Students have gained valuable laboratory and field experience through characterizing hydric soils, identifying bird and plant species, and analyzing water quality, soil nutrients, and microbial biomass. Under the main goal of restoring the wetland, the club has outlined both short and long-term objectives including soil and water assessments; removal of two ...


Characterizing Bean Pod Rot In Arkansas And Missouri, Jeremy H. Taylor, Craig S. Rothrock Jan 2004

Characterizing Bean Pod Rot In Arkansas And Missouri, Jeremy H. Taylor, Craig S. Rothrock

Discovery, The Student Journal of Dale Bumpers College of Agricultural, Food and Life Sciences

Green beans are an important crop grown for processing in both Arkansas and Missouri. Green beans are harvested mechanically using non-selective picking fingers. Harvested beans are then transported in bulk to processing plants that are located at various locations throughout the midSouth. Thus, the crop is managed for high quality, avoiding pod blemishes caused by insects and diseases. One of the consistent quality problems that affect Arkansas and Missouri green bean crops is pod rot. Two of the causal agents of pod rot that have been reported by researchers and vegetable companies alike are Pythium aphanidermatum and an unidentified Phytophthora ...


Acoustic Mapping Of Aquatic Vegetation In Lakes: An Example From Northwest Arkansas, Angela M. Polly, Stephen K. Boss Jan 2003

Acoustic Mapping Of Aquatic Vegetation In Lakes: An Example From Northwest Arkansas, Angela M. Polly, Stephen K. Boss

Journal of the Arkansas Academy of Science

No abstract provided.


Improvements In Turfgrass Color And Density Resulting From Comprehensive Soil Diagnostics, Matt Cordell, Jonathan Davis, David E. Longer Jan 2001

Improvements In Turfgrass Color And Density Resulting From Comprehensive Soil Diagnostics, Matt Cordell, Jonathan Davis, David E. Longer

Discovery, The Student Journal of Dale Bumpers College of Agricultural, Food and Life Sciences

There are roughly 220 golf courses in Arkansas, and as many as 50% of these courses were constructed using common bermudagrass fairways. Although resilient, common bermudagrass loses density and quality over time. In this experiment physical and chemical properties of the soil were analyzed to determine the causes of decline in turf quality observed on several fairways of a local golf course. Once a particular fairway was selected for study and preliminary soil sampling conducted, GS+, a geostatistical computer program, was used to map the location of certain chemical deficiencies. A moderate to severe Mg deficiency was detected throughout the ...


Changes In Forest Soils Following Clearcutting Of Pine Forests In The Ouachita Mountains Of Arkansas, Harlan R. Stoin, Bajuri Bin Kadmin, Lyell F. Thompson Jan 1985

Changes In Forest Soils Following Clearcutting Of Pine Forests In The Ouachita Mountains Of Arkansas, Harlan R. Stoin, Bajuri Bin Kadmin, Lyell F. Thompson

Journal of the Arkansas Academy of Science

Soil characteristics of the mineral surface soil (0-6 cm) on three small watersheds in the Ouachita Mountains of Arkansas from which the pine forests have been clearcut, crushed, and burned for site preparation were studied for the first two years following clearcutting and compared to soils from adjacent uncut pine forest watersheds. Following clearcutting and burning, soil pH was generally higher than in uncut forest soils. The greatest pH differences occurred within several months of burning and generally decreased through the end of the second year. Soil organic matter content was lower immediately following clearcutting and burning and increased to ...


Limnology Of Four Bauxite Open-Pit Lakes, George L. Harp, Ronald D. Hubbard Jan 1972

Limnology Of Four Bauxite Open-Pit Lakes, George L. Harp, Ronald D. Hubbard

Journal of the Arkansas Academy of Science

The aquatic flora and fauna and 18 physicochemical characteristics of four bauxite open-pit lakes were studied from September 1969 to August 1970. The least acid lake (pH 3.4-4.4) supported 49 different aquatic insects, plankton, and higher aquatic plants. The most acid lake (pH 2.7-3.2) supported only 26 different plants and animals. Bauxite open-pit lakes within the pH range studied appear to be as relatively unproductive as their coal strip-mine lake counterparts, with which they share physicochemical and biological characteristics. Benthic macrofaunal diversity and abundance appear to be related more closely to distribution and abundance of leaf ...


Dicalcium Silicate (Brown Mud) As An Agricultural Liming Material, Lyell Thompson, V. H. Ledbetter Jan 1964

Dicalcium Silicate (Brown Mud) As An Agricultural Liming Material, Lyell Thompson, V. H. Ledbetter

Journal of the Arkansas Academy of Science

No abstract provided.


Ionic Exchange In Soils: I. Measurement Of The Exchange Reaction By Means Of An Ion Exchange, D. A. Brown Jan 1953

Ionic Exchange In Soils: I. Measurement Of The Exchange Reaction By Means Of An Ion Exchange, D. A. Brown

Journal of the Arkansas Academy of Science

No abstract provided.