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Wildland Resources Faculty Publications

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Articles 1 - 30 of 211

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Large-Diameter Trees Dominate Snag And Surface Biomass Following Reintroduced Fire, James A. Lutz, Soren Struckman, Tucker J. Furniss, C. Alina Cansler, Sara J. Germain, Larissa L. Yocom, Darren Mcavoy, Crystal A. Kolden, Alistair M. S. Smith, Mark E. Swanson, Andrew J. Larson Jul 2020

Large-Diameter Trees Dominate Snag And Surface Biomass Following Reintroduced Fire, James A. Lutz, Soren Struckman, Tucker J. Furniss, C. Alina Cansler, Sara J. Germain, Larissa L. Yocom, Darren Mcavoy, Crystal A. Kolden, Alistair M. S. Smith, Mark E. Swanson, Andrew J. Larson

Wildland Resources Faculty Publications

The reintroduction of fire to landscapes where it was once common is considered a priority to restore historical forest dynamics, including reducing tree density and decreasing levels of woody biomass on the forest floor. However, reintroducing fire causes tree mortality that can have unintended ecological outcomes related to woody biomass, with potential impacts to fuel accumulation, carbon sequestration, subsequent fire severity, and forest management. In this study, we examine the interplay between fire and carbon dynamics by asking how reintroduced fire impacts fuel accumulation, carbon sequestration, and subsequent fire severity potential. Beginning pre-fire, and continuing 6 years post-fire, we tracked ...


Network Structure Of Vertebrate Scavenger Assemblages At The Global Scale: Drivers And Ecosystem Functioning Implications, Esther Sebastián-González, Zebensui Morales-Reyes, Francisco Botella, Lara Naves-Alegre, Juan M. Pérez-García, Patricia Mateo-Tomás, Pedro P. Olea, Marcos Moleón, Jomar M. Barbosa, Fernando Hiraldo, Eneko Arrondo, José A. Donázar, Ainara Cortés‐Avizanda, Nuria Selva, Sergio A. Lambertucci, Aishwarya Bhattacharjee, Alexis L. Brewer, Erin F. Abernethy, Kelsey L. Turner, James C. Beasley, Travis L. Devault, Hannah C. Gerke, Olin E. Rhodes Jr., Andrés Ordiz, Camilla Wikenros, Barbara Zimmermann, Petter Wabakken, Christopher C. Wilmers, Justine A. Smith, Corinne J. Kendall, Darcy Ogada, Ethan Frehner, Maximilian L. Allen, Heiko U. Wittmer, James R. A. Butler, Johan T. Du Toit, Et Al. May 2020

Network Structure Of Vertebrate Scavenger Assemblages At The Global Scale: Drivers And Ecosystem Functioning Implications, Esther Sebastián-González, Zebensui Morales-Reyes, Francisco Botella, Lara Naves-Alegre, Juan M. Pérez-García, Patricia Mateo-Tomás, Pedro P. Olea, Marcos Moleón, Jomar M. Barbosa, Fernando Hiraldo, Eneko Arrondo, José A. Donázar, Ainara Cortés‐Avizanda, Nuria Selva, Sergio A. Lambertucci, Aishwarya Bhattacharjee, Alexis L. Brewer, Erin F. Abernethy, Kelsey L. Turner, James C. Beasley, Travis L. Devault, Hannah C. Gerke, Olin E. Rhodes Jr., Andrés Ordiz, Camilla Wikenros, Barbara Zimmermann, Petter Wabakken, Christopher C. Wilmers, Justine A. Smith, Corinne J. Kendall, Darcy Ogada, Ethan Frehner, Maximilian L. Allen, Heiko U. Wittmer, James R. A. Butler, Johan T. Du Toit, Et Al.

Wildland Resources Faculty Publications

The organization of ecological assemblages has important implications for ecosystem functioning, but little is known about how scavenger communities organize at the global scale. Here, we test four hypotheses on the factors affecting the network structure of terrestrial vertebrate scavenger assemblages and its implications on ecosystem functioning. We expect scavenger assemblages to be more nested (i.e. structured): 1) in species‐rich and productive regions, as nestedness has been linked to high competition for carrion resources, and 2) regions with low human impact, because the most efficient carrion consumers that promote nestedness are large vertebrate scavengers, which are especially sensitive ...


Predictors Of Puma Occupancy Indicate Prey Vulnerability Is More Important Than Prey Availability In A Highly Fragmented Landscape, Courtney A. C. Coon, Peter J. Mahoney, Emilie Edelblutte, Zara Mcdonald, David C. Stoner Mar 2020

Predictors Of Puma Occupancy Indicate Prey Vulnerability Is More Important Than Prey Availability In A Highly Fragmented Landscape, Courtney A. C. Coon, Peter J. Mahoney, Emilie Edelblutte, Zara Mcdonald, David C. Stoner

Wildland Resources Faculty Publications

Habitat fragmentation represents the single greatest conservation challenge of the 21st century. This problem is particularly acute for large, obligate carnivores like pumas Puma concolor which have persisted in North and South America in the face of habitat fragmentation and other anthropogenic disturbances. Shrinking habitat and reduced connectivity mean that mapping habitat is increasingly important for species conservation in multiple-use landscapes. Previous work suggests that pumas occupy habitats where sufficient stalking cover and preferred prey are present, yet the intersection of these factors has rarely been assessed. Here we used data from 68 299 camera trap nights collected from 181 ...


The First Record Of Raccoon Dog (Nyctereutes Procyonoides) In Turkey, Morteza Naderi, Emrah Çoban, Josip Kusak, Mübeccel Çisel Kemahli Aytekin, Mark William Chynoweth, İsmail Kayahan Ağirkaya, Neslihan Güven, Ayşegül Çoban, Çağan Hakkı Şekercioğlu Mar 2020

The First Record Of Raccoon Dog (Nyctereutes Procyonoides) In Turkey, Morteza Naderi, Emrah Çoban, Josip Kusak, Mübeccel Çisel Kemahli Aytekin, Mark William Chynoweth, İsmail Kayahan Ağirkaya, Neslihan Güven, Ayşegül Çoban, Çağan Hakkı Şekercioğlu

Wildland Resources Faculty Publications

The raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) was recorded for the first time in Turkey on May 10, 2019, and June 5, 2019, in the same location after 4668 nights of camera trapping in the forests of the Sarıkamış region and Allahuekber Mountains in eastern Turkey. It was recorded in a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) forest at 2340 m above sea level with extensive snow cover. Given that the nearest known population is in the forests of Georgia approximately 105 km away, there may already be a viable population in Turkey. As an omnivorous species with a high adaptive ability and ...


Anthropogenic Disturbance And Population Viability Of Woodland Caribou In Ontario, John M. Fryxell, Tal Avgar, Boyan Liu, James A. Baker, Arthur R. Rodgers, Jennifer Shuter, Ian D. Thompson, Douglas E. B. Reid, Andrew M. Kittle, Anna Mosser, Steven G. Newmaster, Tom D. Nudds, Garrett M. Street, Glen S. Brown, Brent Patterson Feb 2020

Anthropogenic Disturbance And Population Viability Of Woodland Caribou In Ontario, John M. Fryxell, Tal Avgar, Boyan Liu, James A. Baker, Arthur R. Rodgers, Jennifer Shuter, Ian D. Thompson, Douglas E. B. Reid, Andrew M. Kittle, Anna Mosser, Steven G. Newmaster, Tom D. Nudds, Garrett M. Street, Glen S. Brown, Brent Patterson

Wildland Resources Faculty Publications

One of the most challenging tasks in wildlife conservation and management is to clarify how spatial variation in land cover due to anthropogenic disturbance influences wildlife demography and long‐term viability. To evaluate this, we compared rates of survival and population growth by woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) from 2 study sites in northern Ontario, Canada that differed in the degree of anthropogenic disturbance because of commercial logging and road development, resulting in differences in predation risk due to gray wolves (Canis lupus). We used an individual‐based model for population viability analysis (PVA) that incorporated adaptive patterns of caribou ...


Food Availability Modulates Temperature-Dependent Effects On Growth, Reproduction, And Survival In Daphnia Magna, Gustavo S. Betini, Xueqi Wang, Tal Avgar, Matthew M. Guzzo, John M. Fryxell Dec 2019

Food Availability Modulates Temperature-Dependent Effects On Growth, Reproduction, And Survival In Daphnia Magna, Gustavo S. Betini, Xueqi Wang, Tal Avgar, Matthew M. Guzzo, John M. Fryxell

Wildland Resources Faculty Publications

Reduced body size and accelerated life cycle due to warming are considered major ecological responses to climate change with fitness costs at the individual level. Surprisingly, we know little about how relevant ecological factors can alter these life history trade‐offs and their consequences for individual fitness. Here, we show that food modulates temperature‐dependent effects on body size in the water flea Daphnia magna and interacts with temperature to affect life history parameters. We exposed 412 individuals to a factorial manipulation of food abundance and temperature, tracked each reproductive event, and took daily measurements of body size from each ...


Interactions With Humans Shape Coyote Responses To Hazing, Julie K. Young, Edd Hammill, Stewart W. Breck Dec 2019

Interactions With Humans Shape Coyote Responses To Hazing, Julie K. Young, Edd Hammill, Stewart W. Breck

Wildland Resources Faculty Publications

Medium and large carnivores coexist with people in urban areas globally, occasionally resulting in negative interactions that prompt questions about how to reduce human-wildlife conflict. Hazing, i.e., scaring wildlife, is frequently promoted as an important non-lethal means for urbanites to reduce conflict but there is limited scientific evidence for its efficacy. We used a population of captive coyotes (Canis latrans) to simulate urban human-coyote interactions and subsequent effects of hazing on coyote behavior. Past experiences with humans significantly affected the number of times a coyote approached a human to necessitate hazing. Coyotes that had been hand fed by adults ...


Sage‐Grouse Breeding And Late Brood‐Rearing Habitat Guidelines In Utah, David K. Dahlgren, Terry Messmer, Benjamin A. Crabb, Michel Kohl, Shandra Nicole Frey, Eric T. Thacker, Randy T. Larsen, Rick J. Baxter Dec 2019

Sage‐Grouse Breeding And Late Brood‐Rearing Habitat Guidelines In Utah, David K. Dahlgren, Terry Messmer, Benjamin A. Crabb, Michel Kohl, Shandra Nicole Frey, Eric T. Thacker, Randy T. Larsen, Rick J. Baxter

Wildland Resources Faculty Publications

Delineation, protection, and restoration of habitats provide the basis for endangered and threatened species recovery plans. Species recovery plans typically contain guidelines that provide managers with a scientific basis to designate and manage critical habitats. As such, habitat guidelines are best developed using data that capture the full diversity of ecological and environmental conditions that provide habitat across the species’ range. However, when baseline information, which fails to capture habitat diversity, is used to develop guidelines, inconsistencies and problems arise when applying those guidelines to habitats within an ecologically diverse landscape. Greater sage‐grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus; sage‐ grouse) populations in ...


Parsing The Effects Of Demography, Climate And Management On Recurrent Brucellosis Outbreaks In Elk, Gavin Cotterill, Paul C. Cross, Jerod A. Merkle, Jared D. Rogerson, Brandon M. Scurlock, Johan T. Du Toit Dec 2019

Parsing The Effects Of Demography, Climate And Management On Recurrent Brucellosis Outbreaks In Elk, Gavin Cotterill, Paul C. Cross, Jerod A. Merkle, Jared D. Rogerson, Brandon M. Scurlock, Johan T. Du Toit

Wildland Resources Faculty Publications

  1. Zoonotic pathogens can harm human health and well‐being directly or by impacting livestock. Pathogens that spillover from wildlife can also impair conservation efforts if humans perceive wildlife as pests. Brucellosis, caused by the bacterium Brucella abortus, circulates in elk and bison herds of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem and poses a risk to cattle and humans. Our goal was to understand the relative effects of climatic drivers, host demography and management control programmes on disease dynamics.
  2. Using >20 years of serologic, demographic and environmental data on brucellosis in elk, we built stochastic compartmental models to assess the influences of climate ...


Dna Persistence In Predator Saliva From Multiple Species And Methods For Optimal Recovery From Depredated Carcasses, Antoinette J. Piaggio, Susan A. Shriner, Julie K. Young, Doreen L. Griffin, Peggy Callahan, Darren J. Wostenberg, Eric M. Gese, Matthew W. Hopken Nov 2019

Dna Persistence In Predator Saliva From Multiple Species And Methods For Optimal Recovery From Depredated Carcasses, Antoinette J. Piaggio, Susan A. Shriner, Julie K. Young, Doreen L. Griffin, Peggy Callahan, Darren J. Wostenberg, Eric M. Gese, Matthew W. Hopken

Wildland Resources Faculty Publications

Molecular forensics is an important component of wildlife research and management. Using DNA from noninvasive samples collected at predation sites, we can identify predator species and obtain individual genotypes, improving our understanding of predator–prey dynamics and impacts of predators on livestock and endangered species. To improve sample collection strategies, we tested two sample collection methods and estimated degradation rates of predator DNA on the carcasses of multiple prey species. We fed carcasses of calves (Bos taurus) and lambs (Ovis aires) to three captive predator species: wolves (Canis lupus), coyotes (C. latrans), and mountain lions (Puma concolor). We swabbed the ...


Soil Net Nitrogen Mineralisation Across Global Grasslands, A. C. Risch, S. Zimmermann, R. Ochoa-Hueso, M. Schütz, B. Frey, J. L. Firn, P. A. Fay, F. Hagedorn, E. T. Borer, E. W. Seabloom, W. S. Harpole, J. M. H. Knops, R. L. Mcculley, A. A. D. Broadbent, C. J. Stevens, M. L. Silveira, Peter B. Adler, Et Al. Oct 2019

Soil Net Nitrogen Mineralisation Across Global Grasslands, A. C. Risch, S. Zimmermann, R. Ochoa-Hueso, M. Schütz, B. Frey, J. L. Firn, P. A. Fay, F. Hagedorn, E. T. Borer, E. W. Seabloom, W. S. Harpole, J. M. H. Knops, R. L. Mcculley, A. A. D. Broadbent, C. J. Stevens, M. L. Silveira, Peter B. Adler, Et Al.

Wildland Resources Faculty Publications

Soil nitrogen mineralisation (Nmin), the conversion of organic into inorganic N, is important for productivity and nutrient cycling. The balance between mineralisation and immobilisation (net Nmin) varies with soil properties and climate. However, because most global-scale assessments of net Nmin are laboratory-based, its regulation under field-conditions and implications for real-world soil functioning remain uncertain. Here, we explore the drivers of realised (field) and potential (laboratory) soil net Nmin across 30 grasslands worldwide. We find that realised Nmin is largely explained by temperature of the wettest quarter, microbial biomass, clay content and bulk density. Potential N ...


Corridors Or Risk? Movement Along, And Use Of, Linear Features Varies Predictably Among Large Mammal Predator And Prey Species, Melanie Dickie, Scott R. Mcnay, Glenn D. Sutherland, Michael Cody, Tal Avgar Oct 2019

Corridors Or Risk? Movement Along, And Use Of, Linear Features Varies Predictably Among Large Mammal Predator And Prey Species, Melanie Dickie, Scott R. Mcnay, Glenn D. Sutherland, Michael Cody, Tal Avgar

Wildland Resources Faculty Publications

  1. Space‐use behaviour reflects trade‐offs in meeting ecological needs and can have consequences for individual survival and population demographics. The mechanisms underlying space use can be understood by simultaneously evaluating habitat selection and movement patterns, and fine‐resolution locational data are increasing our ability to do so.
  2. We use high‐resolution location data and an integrated step‐selection analysis to evaluate caribou, moose, bear, and wolf habitat selection and movement behaviour in response to anthropogenic habitat modification, though caribou data were limited. Space‐use response to anthropogenic linear features (LFs) by predators and prey is hypothesized to increase predator ...


The Tail Wagging The Dog: Positive Attitude Towards Livestock Guarding Dogs Do Not Mitigate Pastoralists’ Opinions Of Wolves Or Grizzly Bears, Daniel Kinka, Julie K. Young Oct 2019

The Tail Wagging The Dog: Positive Attitude Towards Livestock Guarding Dogs Do Not Mitigate Pastoralists’ Opinions Of Wolves Or Grizzly Bears, Daniel Kinka, Julie K. Young

Wildland Resources Faculty Publications

While the re-establishment of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) and wolves (Canis lupus) in the American West marks a success for conservation, it has been contentious among pastoralists. Coincidentally, livestock guarding dogs (LGDs; Canis familiaris) have been widely adopted by producers of domestic sheep (Ovis aries) in the United States to mitigate livestock depredation by wild carnivores. We surveyed pastoralists to measure how experience with and attitudes towards LGDs related to attitudes towards livestock predators, and found positive responses regarding LGDs and negative responses regarding wolves and grizzly bears. The more respondents agreed that LGDs reduce the need for lethal management ...


A Case For Eustress In Grazing Animals, Juan J. Villalba, Xavier Manteca Sep 2019

A Case For Eustress In Grazing Animals, Juan J. Villalba, Xavier Manteca

Wildland Resources Faculty Publications

Herbivores grazing in extensive systems are exposed to a series of challenges, rooted in the inherent spatial and temporal variability of their environment that potentially constrain their health, nutrition, and welfare. Nevertheless, in this review, we argue that challenges induced by some biotic (e.g., vegetation) and abiotic (e.g., terrain) factors may also be viewed as “positive” sources of stress or eustress, since they present complex problems, that when solved successfully elicit a greater degree of behavioral plasticity and adaptability in grazing animals. Chemically and structurally diverse landscapes require animals to display complex behaviors and exhibit adaptive capabilities, like ...


Tannin-Containing Legumes And Forage Diversity Influence Foraging Behavior, Diet Digestibility, And Nitrogen Excretion By Lambs, Sebastian Lagrange, Juan J. Villalba Sep 2019

Tannin-Containing Legumes And Forage Diversity Influence Foraging Behavior, Diet Digestibility, And Nitrogen Excretion By Lambs, Sebastian Lagrange, Juan J. Villalba

Wildland Resources Faculty Publications

Diverse combinations of forages with different nutrient profiles and plant secondary compounds may improve intake and nutrient utilization by ruminants. We tested the influence of diverse dietary combinations of tannin- (sainfoin-Onobrichis viciifolia; birdsfoot trefoil-Lotus corniculatus) and non-tannin- (alfalfa-Medicago sativa L.) containing legumes on intake and diet digestibility in lambs. Freshly cut birdsfoot trefoil, alfalfa, and sainfoin were offered in ad libitum amounts to 42 lambs in individual pens assigned to 7 treatments (6 animals/treatment): 1) single forage species (sainfoin [SF], birdsfoot trefoil [BFT], and alfalfa [ALF]), 2) all possible 2-way choices of the 3 forage species ...


Home Range And Habitat Use Of West Virginia Canis Latrans (Coyote), Lauren L. Mastro, Dana J. Morin, Eric M. Gese Aug 2019

Home Range And Habitat Use Of West Virginia Canis Latrans (Coyote), Lauren L. Mastro, Dana J. Morin, Eric M. Gese

Wildland Resources Faculty Publications

Canis latrans (Coyote) has undergone a range expansion in the United States over the last century. As a highly opportunistic species, its home range and habitat use changes with ecological context. Coyotes were first reported in West Virginia in 1950 but were not commonly observed until the 1990s, and there is scant information on Coyotes in the region. We used telemetry data from 8 radiocollared Coyotes in West Virginia to estimate home-range size and third-order habitat selection. Home-range areas (95% utilization distributions; UDs) varied from 5.22 to 27.79 km2 (mean = 12.48 ± 2.61 km2), with ...


Environmental Differences Between Migratory And Resident Ungulates—Predicting Movement Strategies In Rocky Mountain Mule Deer (Odocoileus Hemionus) With Remotely Sensed Plant Phenology, Snow, And Land Cover, Benjamin Robb, Qiongyu Huang, Joseph O. Sexton, David C. Stoner, Peter Leimgruber Aug 2019

Environmental Differences Between Migratory And Resident Ungulates—Predicting Movement Strategies In Rocky Mountain Mule Deer (Odocoileus Hemionus) With Remotely Sensed Plant Phenology, Snow, And Land Cover, Benjamin Robb, Qiongyu Huang, Joseph O. Sexton, David C. Stoner, Peter Leimgruber

Wildland Resources Faculty Publications

Migration is a valuable life history strategy for many species because it enables individuals to exploit spatially and temporally variable resources. Globally, the prevalence of species’ migratory behavior is decreasing as individuals forgo migration to remain resident year-round, an effect hypothesized to result from anthropogenic changes to landscape dynamics. Efforts to conserve and restore migrations require an understanding of the ecological characteristics driving the behavioral tradeoff between migration and residence. We identified migratory and resident behaviors of 42 mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) based on GPS locations and correlated their locations to remotely sensed indicators of forage quality, land cover, snow ...


The Differences Between Rewilding And Restoring An Ecologically Degraded Landscape, Johan Du Toit, Nathalie Pettorelli Aug 2019

The Differences Between Rewilding And Restoring An Ecologically Degraded Landscape, Johan Du Toit, Nathalie Pettorelli

Wildland Resources Faculty Publications

  1. Rewilding is a developing concept in ecosystem stewardship that involves reorganizing and regenerating wildness in an ecologically degraded landscape, with present and future ecosystem function being of higher consideration than historical benchmark conditions. This approach differs from ecosystem restoration but the two concepts are often conflated because (a) they both rely on similar management actions (at least initially) and (b) it can be erroneously assumed that they both aim for similar states of wildness.
  2. Rewilding and restoring both influence biodiversity, and common management actions such as species reintroductions (e.g. beavers or wolves) can be integral to a rewilding project ...


Temperature Triggers A Non-Linear Response In Resource–Consumer Interaction Strength, Gustavo S. Betini, Tal Avgar, Kevin S. Mccann, John M. Fryxell Aug 2019

Temperature Triggers A Non-Linear Response In Resource–Consumer Interaction Strength, Gustavo S. Betini, Tal Avgar, Kevin S. Mccann, John M. Fryxell

Wildland Resources Faculty Publications

Although temperature is recognized as a major determinant of many ecological processes, it is still not clear whether temperature increase caused by climate change will strengthen or weaken species interactions. One hypothesis is that interactions will respond non‐monotonically to temperature because thermal performance curves, which determine the strength of these interactions, are also non‐monotonic. To evaluate this hypothesis, we developed a temperature‐dependent consumer–resource model and tested predictions from this model in large freshwater mesocosms populated with green algae (Chlorella vulgaris) and herbivorous zooplankton (Daphnia magna). We found both in the model simulations and empirical investigations that ...


Synthesis Paper: Targeted Livestock Grazing: Prescription For Healthy Rangelands, Derek W. Bailey, Jeffrey C. Mosley, Richard E. Estell, Andres F. Cibils, Marc Horney, John R. Hendrickson, John W. Walker, Karen L. Launchbaugh, Elizabeth A. Burritt Aug 2019

Synthesis Paper: Targeted Livestock Grazing: Prescription For Healthy Rangelands, Derek W. Bailey, Jeffrey C. Mosley, Richard E. Estell, Andres F. Cibils, Marc Horney, John R. Hendrickson, John W. Walker, Karen L. Launchbaugh, Elizabeth A. Burritt

Wildland Resources Faculty Publications

Targeted livestock grazing is a proven tool for manipulating rangeland vegetation, and current knowledge about targeted livestock grazing is extensive and expanding rapidly. Targeted grazing prescriptions optimize the timing, frequency, intensity, and selectivity of grazing (or browsing) in combinations that purposely exert grazing/browsing pressure on specific plant species or portions of the landscape. Targeted grazing differs from traditional grazing management in that the goal of targeted grazing is to apply defoliation or trampling to achieve specific vegetation management objectives, whereas the goal of traditional livestock grazing management is generally the production of livestock commodities. A shared aim of targeted ...


Thresholds Are In The Eye Of The Beholder: Plants And Wildlife Respond Differently To Short‐Term Cattle Corrals, Kari E. Veblen, Lauren M. Porensky Jul 2019

Thresholds Are In The Eye Of The Beholder: Plants And Wildlife Respond Differently To Short‐Term Cattle Corrals, Kari E. Veblen, Lauren M. Porensky

Wildland Resources Faculty Publications

Rangelands are governed by threshold dynamics, and factors such as drought, wildfire, and herbivory can drive change across thresholds and between ecological states. Most work on this topic has focused on shifts in a single response variable, vegetation, and little research has considered how to reconcile responses of more than one variable to determine whether a system has undergone a genuine state change. In sub‐Saharan Africa, mobile overnight livestock corrals (bomas) can be used by managers to precipitate ecological transitions from areas dominated by bare ground to productive ecosystem hotspots (glades) that are attractive to wild herbivores. We asked ...


Persistence And Conspecific Observations Improve Problem-Solving Abilities Of Coyotes, Julie K. Young, Laura Touzot, Stacey P. Brummer Jul 2019

Persistence And Conspecific Observations Improve Problem-Solving Abilities Of Coyotes, Julie K. Young, Laura Touzot, Stacey P. Brummer

Wildland Resources Faculty Publications

Social learning has important ecological and evolutionary consequences but the role of certain factors, such as social rank, neophobia (i.e., avoidance of novel stimuli), persistence, and task-reward association, remain less understood. We examined the role of these factors in social learning by captive coyotes (Canis latrans) via three studies. Study 1 involved individual animals and eliminated object neophobia by familiarizing the subjects to the testing apparatus prior to testing. Studies 2 and 3 used mated pairs to assess social rank, and included object neophobia, but differed in that study 3 decoupled the food reward from the testing apparatus (i ...


Determining The Sensitivity Of Grassland Area Burned To Climate Variation In Xilingol, China, With An Autoregressive Distributed Lag Approach, Ali Hassan Shabbir, Jiquan Zhang, Xingpeng Liu, James A. Lutz, Carlos Valencia, James D. Johnston Jul 2019

Determining The Sensitivity Of Grassland Area Burned To Climate Variation In Xilingol, China, With An Autoregressive Distributed Lag Approach, Ali Hassan Shabbir, Jiquan Zhang, Xingpeng Liu, James A. Lutz, Carlos Valencia, James D. Johnston

Wildland Resources Faculty Publications

We examined the relationship between climate variables and grassland area burned in Xilingol, China, from 2001 to 2014 using an autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) model, and describe the application of this econometric method to studies of climate influences on wildland fire. We show that there is a stationary linear combination of non-stationary climate time series (cointegration) that can be used to reliably estimate the influence of different climate signals on area burned. Our model shows a strong relationship between maximum temperature and grassland area burned. Mean monthly wind speed and monthly hours of sunlight were also strongly associated with area ...


Estimating Historical Forest Density From Land‐Survey Data: A Response To Baker And Williams (2018), Carrie R. Levine, Charles V. Cogbill, Brandon M. Collins, Andrew J. Larson, James A. Lutz, Malcolm P. North, Christina M. Restaino, Hugh D. Safford, Scott L. Stephens, John J. Battles Jun 2019

Estimating Historical Forest Density From Land‐Survey Data: A Response To Baker And Williams (2018), Carrie R. Levine, Charles V. Cogbill, Brandon M. Collins, Andrew J. Larson, James A. Lutz, Malcolm P. North, Christina M. Restaino, Hugh D. Safford, Scott L. Stephens, John J. Battles

Wildland Resources Faculty Publications

In the Western United States, historical forest conditions are used to inform land management and ecosystem restoration goals (North et al. 2009, Stephens et al. 2016). This interest is based on the premise that historical forests were resilient to ecological disturbances (Keane et al. 2018). Researchers throughout the United States have used the General Land Office (GLO) surveys of the late 19th and early 20th centuries to estimate historical forest conditions (Bourdo 1956, Schulte and Mladenoff 2001, Cogbill et al. 2002, Paciorek et al. 2016). These surveys were conducted throughout the United States and represent a systematic, historical sample of ...


Amphibians Of Santa Teresa, Brazil: The Hotspot Further Evaluated, Rodrigo Barbosa Ferreira, Alexander Tamanini Mônico, Emanuel Teixeira Da Silva, Fernanda Cristina Ferreira Lirio, Cássio Zocca, Marcio Marques Mageski, João Filipe Riva Tonini, Karen H. Beard, Charles Duca, Thiago Silva-Soares Jun 2019

Amphibians Of Santa Teresa, Brazil: The Hotspot Further Evaluated, Rodrigo Barbosa Ferreira, Alexander Tamanini Mônico, Emanuel Teixeira Da Silva, Fernanda Cristina Ferreira Lirio, Cássio Zocca, Marcio Marques Mageski, João Filipe Riva Tonini, Karen H. Beard, Charles Duca, Thiago Silva-Soares

Wildland Resources Faculty Publications

A checklist of the amphibians of Santa Teresa municipality, in southeastern Brazil is presented based on fieldwork, examination of specimens in collections, and a literature review. This new amphibian list of Santa Teresa includes 108 species, of which 106 (~98%) belong to Anura and two (~2%) to Gymnophiona. Hylidae was the most represented family with 47 species (43%). Compared to the previous amphibian lists for Santa Teresa, 14 species were added, 17 previously reported species were removed, and 13 species were re-identified based on recent taxonomic rearrangements. Of the 14 species added, 11 (79%) were first recorded during our fieldwork ...


Pasture Chemoscapes And Their Ecological Services, Juan J. Villalba, Karen A. Beauchemin, Pablo Gregorini, Jennifer W. Macadam Jun 2019

Pasture Chemoscapes And Their Ecological Services, Juan J. Villalba, Karen A. Beauchemin, Pablo Gregorini, Jennifer W. Macadam

Wildland Resources Faculty Publications

Ruminant livestock-production systems are between a rock and a hard place; they are experiencing increasing societal pressure to reduce environmental impacts in a world that demands increased food supply. Recent improvements in the understanding of the nutritional ecology of livestock by scientists may help livestock producers respond to these seemingly contradictory demands. Forages are nutrition and pharmacy centers with primary (nutrients) and plant secondary compounds (PSC; pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals), which can provide multiple services for the proper functioning of agroecosystems. Legumes with lower contents of fiber and higher contents of nonstructural carbohydrates, coupled with different types and concentrations of PSC (e ...


Fuel Dynamics After Reintroduced Fire In An Old-Growth Sierra Nevada Mixed-Conifer Forest, C. Alina Cansler, Mark E. Swanson, Tucker J. Furniss, Andrew J. Larson, James A. Lutz May 2019

Fuel Dynamics After Reintroduced Fire In An Old-Growth Sierra Nevada Mixed-Conifer Forest, C. Alina Cansler, Mark E. Swanson, Tucker J. Furniss, Andrew J. Larson, James A. Lutz

Wildland Resources Faculty Publications

Background: Surface fuel loadings are some of the most important factors contributing to fire intensity and fire spread. In old-growth forests where fire has been long excluded, surface fuel loadings can be high and can include woody debris ≥100 cm in diameter. We assessed surface fuel loadings in a long-unburned old-growth mixed-conifer forest in Yosemite National Park, California, USA, and assessed fuel consumption from a management-ignited fire set to control the progression of the 2013 Rim Fire. Specifically, we characterized the distribution and heterogeneity of pre-fire fuel loadings, both along transects and contained in duff mounds around large trees. We ...


Space Use And Movement Of Urban Bobcats, Julie K. Young, Julie M. Golla, John P. Draper, Derek Broman, Terry Blankenship, Richard Heilbrun May 2019

Space Use And Movement Of Urban Bobcats, Julie K. Young, Julie M. Golla, John P. Draper, Derek Broman, Terry Blankenship, Richard Heilbrun

Wildland Resources Faculty Publications

Global urbanization is rapidly changing the landscape for wildlife species that must learn to persist in declining wild spacing, adapt, or risk extinction. Many mesopredators have successfully exploited urban niches, and research on these species in an urban setting offers insights into the traits that facilitate their success. In this study, we examined space use and activity patterns from GPS-collared bobcats (Lynx rufus) in the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex, Texas, USA. We found that bobcats select for natural/agricultural features, creeks, and water ways and there is greater home-range overlap in these habitats. They avoid roads and are less likely ...


Ectoparasite Burden Influences The Denning Behavior Of A Small Desert Carnivore, Bryan M. Kluever, David T. Iles, Eric M. Gese May 2019

Ectoparasite Burden Influences The Denning Behavior Of A Small Desert Carnivore, Bryan M. Kluever, David T. Iles, Eric M. Gese

Wildland Resources Faculty Publications

Quantifying the impacts of parasitism on a host can be arduous and is generally understudied for ectoparasites, with known works being either laboratory‐focused, correlational‐based, or only focusing on a few species and spatial extents. Many mammalian species have evolved the modality of denning behavior, a lifestyle that can lead to higher ectoparasite burden, and it has been posited that animals may alter their denning behavior in an attempt to reduce exposure to ectoparasites. We conducted a test of the ectoparasite release hypothesis for kit foxes (Vulpes macrotis) and fleas in the Great Basin Desert of the western United ...


Additional Thoughts On Rigor In Wildlife Science: Unappreciated Impediments, John A. Bissonette May 2019

Additional Thoughts On Rigor In Wildlife Science: Unappreciated Impediments, John A. Bissonette

Wildland Resources Faculty Publications

Traditionally, most scientists accepted reductionist and mechanistic approaches as the rigorous way to do science. Sells et al. (2018) recently raised the argument about reliability in wildlife science. Chamberlin (1890), Platt (1964), Romesburg (1981, 1991, 2009), and Williams (1997) were rightly referenced as very influential papers. My intention in this letter is not to refute the essence of the Sells et al. (2018) commentary but to add seldom addressed but important aspects that influence the attainment of rigor and certainty in wildlife studies. The elements of a rigorous approach (i.e., strong inference) as described by Platt (1964) included devising ...