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VIMS Articles

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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

The Importance Of Antarctic Krill In Biogeochemical Cycles, El Cavan, A Belcher, Sl Hill, S Kawaguchi, S Mccormack, B Meyer, S Nicol, K Schmidt, Deborah K. Steinberg, Ga Tarling, Pw Boyd Oct 2019

The Importance Of Antarctic Krill In Biogeochemical Cycles, El Cavan, A Belcher, Sl Hill, S Kawaguchi, S Mccormack, B Meyer, S Nicol, K Schmidt, Deborah K. Steinberg, Ga Tarling, Pw Boyd

VIMS Articles

Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) are swarming, oceanic crustaceans, up to two inches long, and best known as prey for whales and penguins – but they have another important role. With their large size, high biomass and daily vertical migrations they transport and transform essential nutrients, stimulate primary productivity and influence the carbon sink. Antarctic krill are also fished by the Southern Ocean’s largest fishery. Yet how krill fishing impacts nutrient fertilisation and the carbon sink in the Southern Ocean is poorly understood. Our synthesis shows fishery management should consider the influential biogeochemical role of both adult and larval Antarctic krill.


Ecosystem Services Of Restored Oyster Reefs In A Chesapeake Bay Tributary: Abundance And Foraging Of Estuarine Fishes, Bruce Pfirrmann, Rd Seitz Oct 2019

Ecosystem Services Of Restored Oyster Reefs In A Chesapeake Bay Tributary: Abundance And Foraging Of Estuarine Fishes, Bruce Pfirrmann, Rd Seitz

VIMS Articles

Restoration of oyster reefs in coastal ecosystems may enhance fish and fisheries by providing valuable refuge and foraging habitat, but understanding the effects of restoration requires an improved understanding of fish habitat use and trophic dynamics, coupled with long-term (>5 yr) monitoring of restored habitats. We evaluated the relationship between large (3-5 ha) restored subtidal oyster reefs and mobile estuarine fishes in the Lynnhaven River System (LRS), Virginia, more than 8 yr following reef construction. We compared the (1) diversity, (2) abundance, (3) size, (4) stomach fullness, (5) diet composition, and (6) daily consumption rate of fishes collected from restored ...


Temporal, Spatial, And Biological Variation Of Nematode Epidemiology In American Eels, Zt Warshafsky, Troy D. Tuckey, Wk Vogelbein, Rj Latour, Ar Wargo Oct 2019

Temporal, Spatial, And Biological Variation Of Nematode Epidemiology In American Eels, Zt Warshafsky, Troy D. Tuckey, Wk Vogelbein, Rj Latour, Ar Wargo

VIMS Articles

This is the accepted manuscript version of the article.

American eels (Anguilla rostrata) are infected by the non-native parasitic nematode Anguillicoloides crassus, which can cause severe swim bladder damage. We investigated epidemiology of A. crassus to better understand its population-level effects on American eels. Nematode prevalence, abundance, and intensity and swim bladder damage were quantified in glass eels, elvers, and yellow eels from the lower Chesapeake Bay and related to season of capture, river system, and total length. Age-variant force-of-infection and disease-associated mortality were estimated using a three-state irreversible disease model, which assumes recovery is not possible. Results showed glass ...


Scientific Considerations For Acidification Monitoring In The Us Mid-Atlantic Region, Ka Goldsmith, S Lau, Et Al, Eh Shadwick, Et Al Sep 2019

Scientific Considerations For Acidification Monitoring In The Us Mid-Atlantic Region, Ka Goldsmith, S Lau, Et Al, Eh Shadwick, Et Al

VIMS Articles

Coastal and ocean acidification has the potential to cause significant environmental and societal impacts. Monitoring carbonate chemistry parameters over spatial and temporal scales is challenging, especially with limited resources. A lack of monitoring data can lead to a limited understanding of real-world conditions. Without such data, robust experimental and model design is challenging, and the identification and understanding of episodic acidification events is nearly impossible. We present considerations for resource managers, academia, and industry professionals who are currently developing acidification monitoring programs in the Mid-Atlantic region. We highlight the following considerations for deliberation: 1) leverage existing infrastructure to include multiple ...


Bacterial And Archaeal Specific-Predation In The North Atlantic Basin, Lm Seyler, S Tuorto, Lr Mcguinness, Dl Gong, Lj Kerkof Sep 2019

Bacterial And Archaeal Specific-Predation In The North Atlantic Basin, Lm Seyler, S Tuorto, Lr Mcguinness, Dl Gong, Lj Kerkof

VIMS Articles

Stable isotope probing (SIP) was used to track prokaryotic and eukaryotic carbon uptake along a meridional transect (Long. 52°W) in the North Atlantic to assess if 13C-resource partitioning between bacteria and archaea and 13C-labeled eukaryotic predators could be detected. One-liter SIP microcosms were amended with 13C-acetate or 13C-urea and incubated for 48 h. Our data indicated archaea often outcompeted bacteria for 13C-urea while both archaea and bacteria could incorporate 13C-acetate. This 13C label could also be tracked into eukaryotic microbes. The largest number of 13C-labeled eukaryotic OTUs, and the greatest percentage ...


Global Change Effects On Plant Communities Are Magnified By Time And The Number Of Global Change Factors Imposed, Kj Komatsu, Ml Avolio, Et Al, David S. Johnson, Et Al Sep 2019

Global Change Effects On Plant Communities Are Magnified By Time And The Number Of Global Change Factors Imposed, Kj Komatsu, Ml Avolio, Et Al, David S. Johnson, Et Al

VIMS Articles

Global change drivers (GCDs) are expected to alter community structure and consequently, the services that ecosystems provide. Yet, few experimental investigations have examined effects of GCDs on plant community structure across multiple ecosystem types, and those that do exist present conflicting patterns. In an unprecedented global synthesis of over 100 experiments that manipulated factors linked to GCDs, we show that herbaceous plant community responses depend on experimental manipulation length and number of factors manipulated. We found that plant communities are fairly resistant to experimentally manipulated GCDs in the short term (< 10 y). In contrast, long-term (>= 10 y) experiments show increasing community divergence of treatments from ...


Evaluation Of The Stock Structure Of Cobia (Rachycentron Canadum) In The Southeastern United States By Using Dart-Tag And Genetics Data, M Perkinson, T Darden, M Jamison, Mj Walker, Mr Denson, J Franks, R Hendon, Susanna Musick, Es Orbesen Aug 2019

Evaluation Of The Stock Structure Of Cobia (Rachycentron Canadum) In The Southeastern United States By Using Dart-Tag And Genetics Data, M Perkinson, T Darden, M Jamison, Mj Walker, Mr Denson, J Franks, R Hendon, Susanna Musick, Es Orbesen

VIMS Articles

Available tag-recapture and population genetics data for cobia (Rachycentron canadum) in the south-eastern United States were evaluated to provide information on population structure and determine the geographic boundary between stocks in the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic Ocean. The movements of 1750 cobia were evaluated on the basis of assigned tagging and recapture zones. Genetic samples from an additional 2796 cobia collected during the presumed spawning season were genotyped at 10 microsatellite loci, and standard population genetic statistical analyses were applied to the resulting sample data set. Tag- recapture results indicate that cobia tagged south of Cape Canaveral, Florida ...


It’S About Time: A Synthesis Of Changing Phenology In The Gulf Of Maine Ecosystem, Md Staudinger, Ke Mills, Et Al, Ds Johnson, Et Al Aug 2019

It’S About Time: A Synthesis Of Changing Phenology In The Gulf Of Maine Ecosystem, Md Staudinger, Ke Mills, Et Al, Ds Johnson, Et Al

VIMS Articles

The timing of recurring biological and seasonal environmental events is changing on a global scale relative to temperature and other climate drivers. This study considers the Gulf of Maine ecosystem, a region of high social and ecological importance in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean and synthesizes current knowledge of (a) key seasonal processes, patterns, and events; (b) direct evidence for shifts in timing; (c) implications of phenological responses for linked ecological-human systems; and (d) potential phenology-focused adaptation strategies and actions. Twenty studies demonstrated shifts in timing of regional marine organisms and seasonal environmental events. The most common response was earlier timing ...


Combined Effects Of Acute Temperature Change And Elevated Pco2 On The Metabolic Rates And Hypoxia Tolerances Of Clearnose Skate (Rostaraja Eglanteria), Summer Flounder (Paralichthys Dentatus), And Thorny Skate (Amblyraja Radiata), Gail D. Schwieterman, Daniel P. Crear, Brooke N. Anderson, Danielle R. Lavoie, James A. Sulikowski, Peter G. Bushnell, Richard Brill Jul 2019

Combined Effects Of Acute Temperature Change And Elevated Pco2 On The Metabolic Rates And Hypoxia Tolerances Of Clearnose Skate (Rostaraja Eglanteria), Summer Flounder (Paralichthys Dentatus), And Thorny Skate (Amblyraja Radiata), Gail D. Schwieterman, Daniel P. Crear, Brooke N. Anderson, Danielle R. Lavoie, James A. Sulikowski, Peter G. Bushnell, Richard Brill

VIMS Articles

Understanding how rising temperatures, ocean acidification, and hypoxia affect the performance of coastal fishes is essential to predicting species-specific responses to climate change. Although a population’s habitat influences physiological performance, little work has explicitly examined the multi-stressor responses of species from habitats differing in natural variability. Here, clearnose skate (Rostaraja eglanteria) and summer flounder (Paralichthys dentatus) from mid-Atlantic estuaries, and thorny skate (Amblyraja radiata) from the Gulf of Maine, were acutely exposed to current and projected temperatures (20, 24, or 28 °C; 22 or 30 °C; and 9, 13, or 15 °C, respectively) and acidification conditions (pH 7.8 ...


Toward A Coordinated Global Observing System For Seagrasses And Marine Macroalgae, J. Emmett Duffy, L. Benedetti-Cecchi, Et Al, Robert J. Orth, Et Al Jul 2019

Toward A Coordinated Global Observing System For Seagrasses And Marine Macroalgae, J. Emmett Duffy, L. Benedetti-Cecchi, Et Al, Robert J. Orth, Et Al

VIMS Articles

In coastal waters around the world, the dominant primary producers are benthic macrophytes, including seagrasses and macroalgae, that provide habitat structure and food for diverse and abundant biological communities and drive ecosystem processes. Seagrass meadows and macroalgal forests play key roles for coastal societies, contributing to fishery yields, storm protection, biogeochemical cycling and storage, and important cultural values. These socio-economically valuable services are threatened worldwide by human activities, with substantial areas of seagrass and macroalgal forests lost over the last half-century. Tracking the status and trends in marine macrophyte cover and quality is an emerging priority for ocean and coastal ...


Mechanisms Involving Sensory Pathway Steps Inform Impacts Of Global Climate Change On Ecological Processes, Emily B. Rivest, Brittany Jellison, Gabriel Ng, Et Al Jul 2019

Mechanisms Involving Sensory Pathway Steps Inform Impacts Of Global Climate Change On Ecological Processes, Emily B. Rivest, Brittany Jellison, Gabriel Ng, Et Al

VIMS Articles

Human-caused environmental change will have significant non-lethal and indirect impacts on organisms due to altered sensory pathways, with consequences for ecological interactions. While a growing body of work addresses how global ocean change can impair the way organisms obtain and use information to direct their behavior, these efforts have typically focused on one step of the pathway (e.g., reception of a cue/signal), one sensory modality (e.g., visual), or one environmental factor (e.g., temperature). An integrated view of how aspects of environmental change will impact multiple sensory pathways and related ecological processes is needed to better anticipate ...


Treading Water: Tools To Help Us Coastal Communities Plan For Sea Level Rise Impacts, E A. Smith, W Sweet, Molly Mitchell, R Domingues, C P. Weaver, M Baringer, G Goni, J Haines, Jon Derek Loftis, John D. Boon, David M. Malmquist Jun 2019

Treading Water: Tools To Help Us Coastal Communities Plan For Sea Level Rise Impacts, E A. Smith, W Sweet, Molly Mitchell, R Domingues, C P. Weaver, M Baringer, G Goni, J Haines, Jon Derek Loftis, John D. Boon, David M. Malmquist

VIMS Articles

As communities grapple with rising seas and more frequent flooding events, they need improved projections of future rising and flooding over multiple time horizons, to assist in a multitude of planning efforts. There are currently a few different tools available that communities can use to plan, including the Sea Level Report Card and products generated by a United States. Federal interagency task force on sea level rise. These tools are a start, but it is recognized that they are not necessarily enough at present to provide communities with the type of information needed to support decisions that range from seasonal ...


Effects Of Dietary Taurine Level On Visual Function In European Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus Labrax), Richard Brill, Andrij Z. Horodysky, Allen R. Place, Mary E. Larkin, Renate Reimschuessel Jun 2019

Effects Of Dietary Taurine Level On Visual Function In European Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus Labrax), Richard Brill, Andrij Z. Horodysky, Allen R. Place, Mary E. Larkin, Renate Reimschuessel

VIMS Articles

Dietary insufficiencies have been well documented to decrease growth rates and survival (and therefore overall production) in fish aquaculture. By contrast, the effects of dietary insufficiencies on the sensory biology of cultured fish remains largely unstudied. Diets based solely on plant protein sources could have advantages over fish-based diets because of the cost and ecological effects of the latter, but plant proteins lack the amino acid taurine. Adequate levels of taurine are, however, necessary for the development of a fully functional visual system in mammals. As part of ongoing studies to determine the suitability of plant-based diets, we investigated the ...


Plasticity In Standard And Maximum Aerobic Metabolic Rates In Two Populations Of An Estuarine Dependent Teleost, Spotted Seatrout (Cynoscion Nebulosus), Jingwei Song, Richard Brill, Jan Mcdowell Jun 2019

Plasticity In Standard And Maximum Aerobic Metabolic Rates In Two Populations Of An Estuarine Dependent Teleost, Spotted Seatrout (Cynoscion Nebulosus), Jingwei Song, Richard Brill, Jan Mcdowell

VIMS Articles

We studied the effects of metabolic cold adaptation (MCA) in two populations of a eurythermal species, spotted seatrout (Cynoscion nebulosus) along the U.S. East Coast. Fish were captured from their natural environment and acclimated at control temperatures 15 °C or 20 °C. Their oxygen consumption rates, a proxy for metabolic rates, were measured using intermittent flow respirometry during acute temperature decrease or increase (2.5 °C per hour). Mass-specific standard metabolic rates (SMR) were higher in fish from the northern population across an ecologically relevant temperature gradient (5 °C to 30 °C). SMR were up to 37% higher in ...


Parasitic Dinoflagellate Hematodinium Perezi Prevalence In Larval And Juvenile Blue Crabs Callinectes Sapidus From Coastal Bays Of Virginia, Hj Small, Jp Huchin-Mian, Ks Reece, Km Pagenkopp Lohan, Mj Butler Iv, Jd Shields Jun 2019

Parasitic Dinoflagellate Hematodinium Perezi Prevalence In Larval And Juvenile Blue Crabs Callinectes Sapidus From Coastal Bays Of Virginia, Hj Small, Jp Huchin-Mian, Ks Reece, Km Pagenkopp Lohan, Mj Butler Iv, Jd Shields

VIMS Articles

The parasitic dinoflagellate Hematodinium perezi infects the American blue crab Callinectes sapidus and other decapods along the Eastern seaboard and Gulf of Mexico coast of the USA. Large juvenile and adult blue crabs experience high mortality during seasonal outbreaks of H. perezi, but less is known about its presence in the early life history stages of this host. We determined the prevalence of H. perezi in megalopae and early benthic juvenile crabs from multiple locations along the Virginia portion of the Delmarva Peninsula. The DNA of H. perezi was not detected in any megalopae collected from several locations within the ...


Enhanced Nitrous Oxide Production In Denitrifying Dechloromonas Aromatica Strain Rcb Under Salt Or Alkaline Stress Conditions, H Han, Bk Song, Mj Song, S Yoon Jun 2019

Enhanced Nitrous Oxide Production In Denitrifying Dechloromonas Aromatica Strain Rcb Under Salt Or Alkaline Stress Conditions, H Han, Bk Song, Mj Song, S Yoon

VIMS Articles

Salinity and pH have direct and indirect impacts on the growth and metabolic activities of microorganisms. In this study, the effects of salt and alkaline stresses on the kinetic balance between nitrous oxide (N2O) production and consumption in the denitrification pathway of Dechloromonas aromatica strain RCB were examined. N2O accumulated transiently only in insignificant amounts at low salinity (


Change Detection In A Marine Protected Area (Mpa) Over Three Decades On Bonaire, Dutch Caribbean, N. J. Relles, M. R. Patterson, D. O.B. Jones Jun 2019

Change Detection In A Marine Protected Area (Mpa) Over Three Decades On Bonaire, Dutch Caribbean, N. J. Relles, M. R. Patterson, D. O.B. Jones

VIMS Articles

The island of Bonaire is a long-established Marine Protected Area (MPA), the reefs of which were extensively mapped in the early 1980s. Satellite remote sensing techniques were used to construct reef maps for 2008-2009. Metrics describing the spatial structure of coral habitat at the landscape scale - including coral cover, fragmentation, patch size and connectivity between patches - were calculated and compared between these two time periods. Changes were evaluated in and out of the MPAs and in areas exposed and sheltered from storm damage. Overall, coral cover has declined during the past three decades, being replaced by sand, but the decline ...


Multiple Drivers Of Interannual Oyster Settlement And Recruitment In The Lower Chesapeake Bay, Brendan Turley, Kimberly S. Reece, Jian Shen, Jeong-Ho Lee, Ximing Guo, Jan Mcdowell May 2019

Multiple Drivers Of Interannual Oyster Settlement And Recruitment In The Lower Chesapeake Bay, Brendan Turley, Kimberly S. Reece, Jian Shen, Jeong-Ho Lee, Ximing Guo, Jan Mcdowell

VIMS Articles

Despite global investment in shellfish restoration activities, relatively little attention has been given to predicting optimal restoration sites and testing these expectations. We used a coupled biological-physical connectivity model as a guide to plant two distinct hatchery-spawned strains of the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica, in the Lafayette River, Virginia during the summer of 2013 at two locations corresponding to virtual spawning locations within the connectivity model. We utilized single nucleotide polymorphism markers to test the model predictions by genotyping oysters recruited after planting two hatchery-spawned strains and examining interannual recruitment variability for two successive years. Two spat were identified as ...


Modeling Quantitative Value Of Habitats For Marine And Estuarine Populations, Romauld N. Lipcius, David B. Eggleston, F.J. Fodrie, Et Al May 2019

Modeling Quantitative Value Of Habitats For Marine And Estuarine Populations, Romauld N. Lipcius, David B. Eggleston, F.J. Fodrie, Et Al

VIMS Articles

Coastal habitats (e.g., seagrass beds, shallow mud and sand flats) strongly influence survival, growth, and reproduction of exploited marine fish and invertebrate species. Many of these species have declined over the past decades, coincident with widespread degradation of coastal habitats, such that an urgent need exists to model the quantitative value of coastal habitats to their population dynamics. Demand for habitat considerations will increase as fisheries management contends with habitat issues in stock assessments and management in general moves towards a more ecosystem-based approach. The modeling of habitat function to support fishery species has, to date, been done on ...


Quantifying Habitat Selection And Variability In Habitat Suitability For Juvenile White Sharks, Cf White, K Lyons, Sj Jorgensen, J O'Sullivan, C Winkler, Kevin C. Weng, Cg Lowe May 2019

Quantifying Habitat Selection And Variability In Habitat Suitability For Juvenile White Sharks, Cf White, K Lyons, Sj Jorgensen, J O'Sullivan, C Winkler, Kevin C. Weng, Cg Lowe

VIMS Articles

While adult white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) are apex predators with a circumglobal distribution, juvenile white sharks (JWS) feed primarily on bottom dwelling fishes and tend to be coastally associated. Despite the assumedly easier access to juveniles compared to large, migratory adults, limited information is available on the movements, environments, and distributions of individuals during this life stage. To quantify movement and understand their distribution in the southern California Bight, JWS were captured and fitted with dorsal fin-mounted satellite transmitters (SPOT tags; n = 18). Nine individuals crossed the U.S. border into Baja California, Mexico. Individuals used shallow habitats (134.96 ...


Bridging Disciplines To Advance Elasmobranch Conservation: Applications Of Physiological Ecology, K Lyons, Js Bigman, Et Al, Kevin C. Weng, Et Al, Richard Brill, Cn Bedore May 2019

Bridging Disciplines To Advance Elasmobranch Conservation: Applications Of Physiological Ecology, K Lyons, Js Bigman, Et Al, Kevin C. Weng, Et Al, Richard Brill, Cn Bedore

VIMS Articles

A strength of physiological ecology is its incorporation of aspects of both species' ecology and physiology; this holistic approach is needed to address current and future anthropogenic stressors affecting elasmobranch fishes that range from overexploitation to the effects of climate change. For example, physiology is one of several key determinants of an organism's ecological niche (along with evolutionary constraints and ecological interactions). The fundamental role of physiology in niche determination led to the development of the field of physiological ecology. This approach considers physiological mechanisms in the context of the environment to understand mechanistic variations that beget ecological trends ...


A General Theory Of Age-Length Keys: Combining The Forward And Inverse Keys To Estimate Age Composition From Incomplete Data, Lisa E. Ailloud, John M. Hoenig Apr 2019

A General Theory Of Age-Length Keys: Combining The Forward And Inverse Keys To Estimate Age Composition From Incomplete Data, Lisa E. Ailloud, John M. Hoenig

VIMS Articles

There are two approaches to estimating age composition from a large number of length observations and a limited number of age determinations: the forward and the inverse age-length keys. The forward key looks at the distribution of age within each length bin while the inverse key looks at the distribution of length at each age. The former is more precise but has stringent requirements for the way data are collected. The latter approach is more widely applicable. We review the theory of the two keys with particular attention to necessary assumptions and the restrictions on when the methods are applicable ...


A Data-Driven Modeling Approach For Simulating Algal Blooms In The Tidal Freshwater Of James River In Response To Riverine Nutrient Loading, Jian Shen, Qubin Qin, Ya Wang, Mac Sisson Apr 2019

A Data-Driven Modeling Approach For Simulating Algal Blooms In The Tidal Freshwater Of James River In Response To Riverine Nutrient Loading, Jian Shen, Qubin Qin, Ya Wang, Mac Sisson

VIMS Articles

Algal blooms often occur in the tidal freshwater (TF) of the James River estuary, a tributary of the Chesapeake Bay. The timing of algal blooms correlates highly to a summer low-flow period when residence time is long and nutrients are available. Because of complex interactions between physical transport and algal dynamics, it is challenging to predict interannual variations of bloom correctly using a complex eutrophication model without having ahigh-resolution model gridto resolve complexgeometryand anaccurate estimate of nutrientloading to drive the model. In this study, an approach using long-term observational data (from 1990 to 2013) and the Support vector machine (LS-SVM ...


Estimating Age Composition For Multiple Years When There Are Gaps In The Ageing Data: The Case Of Western Atlantic Bluefin Tuna, Lisa E. Ailloud, Matthew V. Lauretta, John F. Walter Iii, John M. Hoenig Apr 2019

Estimating Age Composition For Multiple Years When There Are Gaps In The Ageing Data: The Case Of Western Atlantic Bluefin Tuna, Lisa E. Ailloud, Matthew V. Lauretta, John F. Walter Iii, John M. Hoenig

VIMS Articles

Age–length key (ALK) methods generally perform well when length samples and age samples are representative of the underlying population. It is unclear how well these methods perform when lengths are representative but age samples are sparse (i.e. age samples are small or missing in many years, and some length groups do not have any age observations). With western Atlantic bluefin tuna, the available age data are sparse and have been, for the most part, collected opportunistically. We evaluated two methods capable of accommodating sparse age data: a novel hybrid ALK (combining forward ALKs and cohort slicing) and the ...


Advancing Marine Biogeochemical And Ecosystem Reanalyses And Forecasts As Tools For Monitoring And Managing Ecosystem Health, K Fennel, M Gehlen, P Brasseur, Cw Brown, C Ciavatta, G Cossarini, A Crise, Ca Edwards, D Ford, Marjorie A.M. Friedrichs, Et Al Mar 2019

Advancing Marine Biogeochemical And Ecosystem Reanalyses And Forecasts As Tools For Monitoring And Managing Ecosystem Health, K Fennel, M Gehlen, P Brasseur, Cw Brown, C Ciavatta, G Cossarini, A Crise, Ca Edwards, D Ford, Marjorie A.M. Friedrichs, Et Al

VIMS Articles

Ocean ecosystems are subject to a multitude of stressors, including changes in ocean physics and biogeochemistry, and direct anthropogenic influences. Implementation of protective and adaptive measures for ocean ecosystems requires a combination of ocean observations with analysis and prediction tools. These can guide assessments of the current state of ocean ecosystems, elucidate ongoing trends and shifts, and anticipate impacts of climate change and management policies. Analysis and prediction tools are defined here as ocean circulation models that are coupled to biogeochemical or ecological models. The range of potential applications for these systems is broad, ranging from reanalyses for the assessment ...


Examining Derelict Pot Impacts On Harvest In A Commercial Blue Crab Callinectes Sapidus Fishery, James A. Delbene, Donna M. Bilkovic, Andrew M. Scheld Feb 2019

Examining Derelict Pot Impacts On Harvest In A Commercial Blue Crab Callinectes Sapidus Fishery, James A. Delbene, Donna M. Bilkovic, Andrew M. Scheld

VIMS Articles

Pot fisheries occur worldwide with a significant proportion of the gear becoming derelict. Derelict pots induce detrimental ecological and economic impacts, and more recently were found to reduce blue crab harvests in the Chesapeake Bay commercial fishery. We simulated the presence of derelict pots near actively fished pots in seasonal field experiments to quantify the effect derelict pots have on blue crab harvest. Derelict pots reduced harvests by 30% during the summer, but not during the fall. Female blue crab capture rates were consistently lower when derelict pots were present; while capture rates of the less abundant males were not ...


The Mechanisms Of Phenology: The Patterns And Processes Of Phenological Shifts, Helen E. Chmura, Heather M Kharouba, Jaime Ashander, Sean M. Ehlman, Emily B. Rivest, Louie H. Yang Feb 2019

The Mechanisms Of Phenology: The Patterns And Processes Of Phenological Shifts, Helen E. Chmura, Heather M Kharouba, Jaime Ashander, Sean M. Ehlman, Emily B. Rivest, Louie H. Yang

VIMS Articles

Species across a wide range of taxa and habitats are shifting phenological events in response to climate change. While advances are common, shifts vary in magnitude and direction within and among species, and the basis for this variation is relatively unknown. We examine previously suggested patterns of variation in phenological shifts in order to understand the cue-response mechanisms that underlie phenological change. Here, we review what is known about the mechanistic basis for nine factors proposed to predict phenological change (latitude, elevation, habitat type, trophic level, migratory strategy, ecological specialization, species' seasonality, thermoregulatory mode, and generation time). We find that ...


Vertical Stratification Of Sediment Microbial Communities Along Geochemical Gradients Of A Subterranean Estuary Located At The Gloucester Beach Of Virginia, United States, Yiguo Hong, Jiapeng Wu, Stephanie Wilson, Bk Song Jan 2019

Vertical Stratification Of Sediment Microbial Communities Along Geochemical Gradients Of A Subterranean Estuary Located At The Gloucester Beach Of Virginia, United States, Yiguo Hong, Jiapeng Wu, Stephanie Wilson, Bk Song

VIMS Articles

Subterranean estuaries (STEs) have been recognized as important ecosystems for the exchange of materials between the land and sea, but the microbial players of biogeochemical processes have not been well examined. In this study, we investigated the bacterial and archaeal communities within 10 cm depth intervals of a permeable sediment core (100 cm in length) collected from a STE located at Gloucester Point (GP-STE), VA, United States. High throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA genes and subsequent bioinformatics analyses were conducted to examine the composition, diversity, and potential functions of the sediment communities. The community composition varied significantly from the surface ...


Ocean Change Within Shoreline Communities: From Biomechanics To Behaviour And Beyond, Brian Gaylord, Kristina M. Barclay, Brittany M. Jellison, Laura L. Jurgens, Aaron T. Ninokawa, Emily B. Rivest, Lindsey R. Leighton Jan 2019

Ocean Change Within Shoreline Communities: From Biomechanics To Behaviour And Beyond, Brian Gaylord, Kristina M. Barclay, Brittany M. Jellison, Laura L. Jurgens, Aaron T. Ninokawa, Emily B. Rivest, Lindsey R. Leighton

VIMS Articles

Humans are changing the physical properties of Earth. In marine systems, elevated carbon dioxide concentrations are driving notable shifts in temperature and seawater chemistry. Here, we consider consequences of such perturbations for organism biomechanics and linkages amongst species within communities.In particular,we examine case examples of altered morphologies and material properties, disrupted consumer–prey behaviours, and the potential for modulated positive (i.e. facilitative) interactions amongst taxa, as incurred through increasing ocean acidity and rising temperatures. We focus on intertidal rocky shores of temperate seas as model systems, acknowledging the longstanding role of these communities in deciphering ecological principles ...


Environmental Controls On Pteropod Biogeography Along The Western Antarctic Peninsula, Ps Thibodeau, Deborah K. Steinberg, Se Stammerjohn, C Hauri Jan 2019

Environmental Controls On Pteropod Biogeography Along The Western Antarctic Peninsula, Ps Thibodeau, Deborah K. Steinberg, Se Stammerjohn, C Hauri

VIMS Articles

Pteropods are abundant zooplankton in the Western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) and important grazers of phytoplankton and prey for higher trophic levels. We analyzed long-term (1993-2017) trends in summer (January-February) abundance of WAP pteropods in relation to environmental controls (sea ice, sea surface temperature, climate indices, phytoplankton biomass and productivity, and carbonate chemistry) and interspecies dynamics using general linear models. There was no overall directional trend in abundance of thecosomes, Limacina helicina antarctica and Clio pyramidata, throughout the entire WAP, although L. antarctica abundance increased in the slope region and C. pyramidata abundance increased in the South. High L. antarctica abundance ...