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The Role Of Sexual Reproduction In The Maintenance Of Established Zostera Marina Meadows, Andrew J. Johnson, R J. Orth, Ken Moore Mar 2020

The Role Of Sexual Reproduction In The Maintenance Of Established Zostera Marina Meadows, Andrew J. Johnson, R J. Orth, Ken Moore

VIMS Articles

For clonal plants, the role of sexual reproduction in the maintenance of populations can vary widely. Some species are dependent on repeated seedling recruitment. For other species, interactions between adults and seedlings within existing populations can affect seedling survival and limit sexual reproduction in existing populations. Genetic studies of seagrass populations increasingly suggest sexual reproduction is important for the resilience and stability of their populations, but as of yet little observational data support these findings. Because seagrass populations provide important ecosystem services and are threatened with increasing anthropogenic impacts, understanding their reliance on sexual reproduction is evolutionarily and ecologically important ...


Positive Ecological Interactions And The Success Of Seagrass Restoration, Stephanie R. Valdez, Y. Stacy Zhang, Tjisse Van Der Heide, Mathew A. Vanderklift, Flavia Tarquinio, R J. Orth, Brian R. Silliman Feb 2020

Positive Ecological Interactions And The Success Of Seagrass Restoration, Stephanie R. Valdez, Y. Stacy Zhang, Tjisse Van Der Heide, Mathew A. Vanderklift, Flavia Tarquinio, R J. Orth, Brian R. Silliman

VIMS Articles

Seagrasses provide multiple ecosystem services including nursery habitat, improved water quality, coastal protection, and carbon sequestration. However, seagrasses are in crisis as global coverage is declining at an accelerating rate. With increased focus on ecological restoration as a conservation strategy, methods that enhance restoration success need to be explored. Decades of work in coastal plant ecosystems, including seagrasses, has shown that positive species relationships and feedbacks are critical for ecosystem stability, expansion, and recovery from disturbance. We reviewed the restoration literature on seagrasses and found few studies have tested for the beneficial effects of including positive species interactions in seagrass ...


Water Temperature During Winter May Control Striped Bass Recruitment During Spring By Affecting The Development Time Of Copepod Nauplii, Nicole C. Millette, J. J. Pierson, E. W. North Jan 2020

Water Temperature During Winter May Control Striped Bass Recruitment During Spring By Affecting The Development Time Of Copepod Nauplii, Nicole C. Millette, J. J. Pierson, E. W. North

VIMS Articles

Striped bass (Morone saxatilis) are anadromous fish that support an important fishery along the east coast of North America. In Chesapeake Bay, strong juvenile recruitment of striped bass can occur when larvae overlap with high concentrations of their zooplankton prey, but the mechanisms fostering the temporal overlap are unknown. Here, the influence of winter temperature on the peak abundances of a key prey, Eurytemora carolleeae, was estimated with a temperature-dependent developmental model. The role of these peaks in regulating striped bass recruitment was explored in three nursery areas: upper Chesapeake Bay, Choptank River, and Patuxent River. Model results indicated that ...


Using Long-Term Data From Antarctica To Teach Ocean Acidification, Patrica S. Thibodeau Jan 2020

Using Long-Term Data From Antarctica To Teach Ocean Acidification, Patrica S. Thibodeau

VIMS Articles

There is a mystery to be solved! This lesson plan asks students to identify the Who, What, When, Where, Why, and How of ocean acidification (OA). Global oceans have absorbed approximately a third of the CO2 produced by human activities, such as burning of fossil fuels, over the past decade (Sabine et al. 2004). This accumulation of CO2 in the ocean has lowered average global ocean pH and decreased the concentration of carbonate ions (CO/ ) (Fabry et al. 2008). As a result of this OA, the carbonate chemistry of the global ocean is rapidly changing and affecting marine organisms (Orr ...


Alternative Substrates Used For Oyster Reef Restoration: A Review, Taylor Goelz, Bruce Vogt, Troy Hartley Jan 2020

Alternative Substrates Used For Oyster Reef Restoration: A Review, Taylor Goelz, Bruce Vogt, Troy Hartley

VIMS Articles

Oyster populations and reef habitats have notably declined in the last century around the world. The ecological, economic, and cultural values of oysters have led to a variety of restoration efforts seeking to recover these lost benefits. Limitations of the native oyster shell substrate and the large-scale nature of many restoration projects have resulted in the increased use of a variety of alternative, or artificial, substrates to create reef structures. A text mining package was used to conduct a review of alternative substrates used for oyster restoration. Specifically, the review (1) assessed commonly used alternative substrates, (2) locations where alternative ...


Seabed Resuspension In The Chesapeake Bay: Implications For Biogeochemical Cycling And Hypoxia, Julia M. Moriarty, Marjorie A.M. Friedrichs, Courtney K. Harris Jan 2020

Seabed Resuspension In The Chesapeake Bay: Implications For Biogeochemical Cycling And Hypoxia, Julia M. Moriarty, Marjorie A.M. Friedrichs, Courtney K. Harris

VIMS Articles

Sediment processes, including resuspension and transport, affect water quality in estuaries by altering light attenuation, primary productivity, and organic matter remineralization, which then influence oxygen and nitrogen dynamics. The relative importance of these processes on oxygen and nitrogen dynamics varies in space and time due to multiple factors and is difficult to measure, however, motivating a modeling approach to quantify how sediment resuspension and transport affect estuarine biogeochemistry. Results from a coupled hydrodynamic-sediment transport-biogeochemical model of the Chesapeake Bay for the summers of 2002 and 2003 showed that resuspension increased light attenuation, especially in the northernmost portion of the Bay ...


Minimal Effects Of Oyster Aquaculture On Local Water Quality: Examples From Southern Chesapeake Bay, Jessica Turner, M. Lisa Kellogg, Grace M. Massey, Carl Friedrichs Nov 2019

Minimal Effects Of Oyster Aquaculture On Local Water Quality: Examples From Southern Chesapeake Bay, Jessica Turner, M. Lisa Kellogg, Grace M. Massey, Carl Friedrichs

VIMS Articles

As the oyster aquaculture industry grows and becomes incorporated into management practices, it is important to understand its effects on local environments. This study investigated how water quality and hydrodynamics varied among farms as well as inside versus outside the extent of caged grow-out areas located in southern Chesapeake Bay. Current speed and water quality variables (chlorophyll-a fluorescence, turbidity, and dissolved oxygen) were measured along multiple transects within and adjacent to four oyster farms during two seasons. At the scale of individual aquaculture sites, we were able to detect statistically significant differences in current speed and water quality variables between ...


The Importance Of Antarctic Krill In Biogeochemical Cycles, El Cavan, A Belcher, Sl Hill, S Kawaguchi, S Mccormack, B Meyer, S Nicol, K Schmidt, Deborah K. Steinberg, Ga Tarling, Pw Boyd Oct 2019

The Importance Of Antarctic Krill In Biogeochemical Cycles, El Cavan, A Belcher, Sl Hill, S Kawaguchi, S Mccormack, B Meyer, S Nicol, K Schmidt, Deborah K. Steinberg, Ga Tarling, Pw Boyd

VIMS Articles

Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) are swarming, oceanic crustaceans, up to two inches long, and best known as prey for whales and penguins – but they have another important role. With their large size, high biomass and daily vertical migrations they transport and transform essential nutrients, stimulate primary productivity and influence the carbon sink. Antarctic krill are also fished by the Southern Ocean’s largest fishery. Yet how krill fishing impacts nutrient fertilisation and the carbon sink in the Southern Ocean is poorly understood. Our synthesis shows fishery management should consider the influential biogeochemical role of both adult and larval Antarctic krill.


Ecosystem Services Of Restored Oyster Reefs In A Chesapeake Bay Tributary: Abundance And Foraging Of Estuarine Fishes, Bruce Pfirrmann, Rd Seitz Oct 2019

Ecosystem Services Of Restored Oyster Reefs In A Chesapeake Bay Tributary: Abundance And Foraging Of Estuarine Fishes, Bruce Pfirrmann, Rd Seitz

VIMS Articles

Restoration of oyster reefs in coastal ecosystems may enhance fish and fisheries by providing valuable refuge and foraging habitat, but understanding the effects of restoration requires an improved understanding of fish habitat use and trophic dynamics, coupled with long-term (>5 yr) monitoring of restored habitats. We evaluated the relationship between large (3-5 ha) restored subtidal oyster reefs and mobile estuarine fishes in the Lynnhaven River System (LRS), Virginia, more than 8 yr following reef construction. We compared the (1) diversity, (2) abundance, (3) size, (4) stomach fullness, (5) diet composition, and (6) daily consumption rate of fishes collected from restored ...


Global Change Effects On Plant Communities Are Magnified By Time And The Number Of Global Change Factors Imposed, Kj Komatsu, Ml Avolio, Et Al, David S. Johnson, Et Al Sep 2019

Global Change Effects On Plant Communities Are Magnified By Time And The Number Of Global Change Factors Imposed, Kj Komatsu, Ml Avolio, Et Al, David S. Johnson, Et Al

VIMS Articles

Global change drivers (GCDs) are expected to alter community structure and consequently, the services that ecosystems provide. Yet, few experimental investigations have examined effects of GCDs on plant community structure across multiple ecosystem types, and those that do exist present conflicting patterns. In an unprecedented global synthesis of over 100 experiments that manipulated factors linked to GCDs, we show that herbaceous plant community responses depend on experimental manipulation length and number of factors manipulated. We found that plant communities are fairly resistant to experimentally manipulated GCDs in the short term (< 10 y). In contrast, long-term (>= 10 y) experiments show increasing community divergence of treatments from ...


It’S About Time: A Synthesis Of Changing Phenology In The Gulf Of Maine Ecosystem, Md Staudinger, Ke Mills, Et Al, Ds Johnson, Et Al Aug 2019

It’S About Time: A Synthesis Of Changing Phenology In The Gulf Of Maine Ecosystem, Md Staudinger, Ke Mills, Et Al, Ds Johnson, Et Al

VIMS Articles

The timing of recurring biological and seasonal environmental events is changing on a global scale relative to temperature and other climate drivers. This study considers the Gulf of Maine ecosystem, a region of high social and ecological importance in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean and synthesizes current knowledge of (a) key seasonal processes, patterns, and events; (b) direct evidence for shifts in timing; (c) implications of phenological responses for linked ecological-human systems; and (d) potential phenology-focused adaptation strategies and actions. Twenty studies demonstrated shifts in timing of regional marine organisms and seasonal environmental events. The most common response was earlier timing ...


Toward A Coordinated Global Observing System For Seagrasses And Marine Macroalgae, J. Emmett Duffy, L. Benedetti-Cecchi, Et Al, Robert J. Orth, Et Al Jul 2019

Toward A Coordinated Global Observing System For Seagrasses And Marine Macroalgae, J. Emmett Duffy, L. Benedetti-Cecchi, Et Al, Robert J. Orth, Et Al

VIMS Articles

In coastal waters around the world, the dominant primary producers are benthic macrophytes, including seagrasses and macroalgae, that provide habitat structure and food for diverse and abundant biological communities and drive ecosystem processes. Seagrass meadows and macroalgal forests play key roles for coastal societies, contributing to fishery yields, storm protection, biogeochemical cycling and storage, and important cultural values. These socio-economically valuable services are threatened worldwide by human activities, with substantial areas of seagrass and macroalgal forests lost over the last half-century. Tracking the status and trends in marine macrophyte cover and quality is an emerging priority for ocean and coastal ...


Mechanisms Involving Sensory Pathway Steps Inform Impacts Of Global Climate Change On Ecological Processes, Emily B. Rivest, Brittany Jellison, Gabriel Ng, Et Al Jul 2019

Mechanisms Involving Sensory Pathway Steps Inform Impacts Of Global Climate Change On Ecological Processes, Emily B. Rivest, Brittany Jellison, Gabriel Ng, Et Al

VIMS Articles

Human-caused environmental change will have significant non-lethal and indirect impacts on organisms due to altered sensory pathways, with consequences for ecological interactions. While a growing body of work addresses how global ocean change can impair the way organisms obtain and use information to direct their behavior, these efforts have typically focused on one step of the pathway (e.g., reception of a cue/signal), one sensory modality (e.g., visual), or one environmental factor (e.g., temperature). An integrated view of how aspects of environmental change will impact multiple sensory pathways and related ecological processes is needed to better anticipate ...


Enhanced Nitrous Oxide Production In Denitrifying Dechloromonas Aromatica Strain Rcb Under Salt Or Alkaline Stress Conditions, H Han, Bk Song, Mj Song, S Yoon Jun 2019

Enhanced Nitrous Oxide Production In Denitrifying Dechloromonas Aromatica Strain Rcb Under Salt Or Alkaline Stress Conditions, H Han, Bk Song, Mj Song, S Yoon

VIMS Articles

Salinity and pH have direct and indirect impacts on the growth and metabolic activities of microorganisms. In this study, the effects of salt and alkaline stresses on the kinetic balance between nitrous oxide (N2O) production and consumption in the denitrification pathway of Dechloromonas aromatica strain RCB were examined. N2O accumulated transiently only in insignificant amounts at low salinity (


Change Detection In A Marine Protected Area (Mpa) Over Three Decades On Bonaire, Dutch Caribbean, N. J. Relles, M. R. Patterson, D. O.B. Jones Jun 2019

Change Detection In A Marine Protected Area (Mpa) Over Three Decades On Bonaire, Dutch Caribbean, N. J. Relles, M. R. Patterson, D. O.B. Jones

VIMS Articles

The island of Bonaire is a long-established Marine Protected Area (MPA), the reefs of which were extensively mapped in the early 1980s. Satellite remote sensing techniques were used to construct reef maps for 2008-2009. Metrics describing the spatial structure of coral habitat at the landscape scale - including coral cover, fragmentation, patch size and connectivity between patches - were calculated and compared between these two time periods. Changes were evaluated in and out of the MPAs and in areas exposed and sheltered from storm damage. Overall, coral cover has declined during the past three decades, being replaced by sand, but the decline ...


The Mechanisms Of Phenology: The Patterns And Processes Of Phenological Shifts, Helen E. Chmura, Heather M Kharouba, Jaime Ashander, Sean M. Ehlman, Emily B. Rivest, Louie H. Yang Feb 2019

The Mechanisms Of Phenology: The Patterns And Processes Of Phenological Shifts, Helen E. Chmura, Heather M Kharouba, Jaime Ashander, Sean M. Ehlman, Emily B. Rivest, Louie H. Yang

VIMS Articles

Species across a wide range of taxa and habitats are shifting phenological events in response to climate change. While advances are common, shifts vary in magnitude and direction within and among species, and the basis for this variation is relatively unknown. We examine previously suggested patterns of variation in phenological shifts in order to understand the cue-response mechanisms that underlie phenological change. Here, we review what is known about the mechanistic basis for nine factors proposed to predict phenological change (latitude, elevation, habitat type, trophic level, migratory strategy, ecological specialization, species' seasonality, thermoregulatory mode, and generation time). We find that ...


Vertical Stratification Of Sediment Microbial Communities Along Geochemical Gradients Of A Subterranean Estuary Located At The Gloucester Beach Of Virginia, United States, Yiguo Hong, Jiapeng Wu, Stephanie Wilson, Bk Song Jan 2019

Vertical Stratification Of Sediment Microbial Communities Along Geochemical Gradients Of A Subterranean Estuary Located At The Gloucester Beach Of Virginia, United States, Yiguo Hong, Jiapeng Wu, Stephanie Wilson, Bk Song

VIMS Articles

Subterranean estuaries (STEs) have been recognized as important ecosystems for the exchange of materials between the land and sea, but the microbial players of biogeochemical processes have not been well examined. In this study, we investigated the bacterial and archaeal communities within 10 cm depth intervals of a permeable sediment core (100 cm in length) collected from a STE located at Gloucester Point (GP-STE), VA, United States. High throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA genes and subsequent bioinformatics analyses were conducted to examine the composition, diversity, and potential functions of the sediment communities. The community composition varied significantly from the surface ...


Ocean Change Within Shoreline Communities: From Biomechanics To Behaviour And Beyond, Brian Gaylord, Kristina M. Barclay, Brittany M. Jellison, Laura L. Jurgens, Aaron T. Ninokawa, Emily B. Rivest, Lindsey R. Leighton Jan 2019

Ocean Change Within Shoreline Communities: From Biomechanics To Behaviour And Beyond, Brian Gaylord, Kristina M. Barclay, Brittany M. Jellison, Laura L. Jurgens, Aaron T. Ninokawa, Emily B. Rivest, Lindsey R. Leighton

VIMS Articles

Humans are changing the physical properties of Earth. In marine systems, elevated carbon dioxide concentrations are driving notable shifts in temperature and seawater chemistry. Here, we consider consequences of such perturbations for organism biomechanics and linkages amongst species within communities.In particular,we examine case examples of altered morphologies and material properties, disrupted consumer–prey behaviours, and the potential for modulated positive (i.e. facilitative) interactions amongst taxa, as incurred through increasing ocean acidity and rising temperatures. We focus on intertidal rocky shores of temperate seas as model systems, acknowledging the longstanding role of these communities in deciphering ecological principles ...


Environmental Controls On Pteropod Biogeography Along The Western Antarctic Peninsula, Ps Thibodeau, Deborah K. Steinberg, Se Stammerjohn, C Hauri Jan 2019

Environmental Controls On Pteropod Biogeography Along The Western Antarctic Peninsula, Ps Thibodeau, Deborah K. Steinberg, Se Stammerjohn, C Hauri

VIMS Articles

Pteropods are abundant zooplankton in the Western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) and important grazers of phytoplankton and prey for higher trophic levels. We analyzed long-term (1993-2017) trends in summer (January-February) abundance of WAP pteropods in relation to environmental controls (sea ice, sea surface temperature, climate indices, phytoplankton biomass and productivity, and carbonate chemistry) and interspecies dynamics using general linear models. There was no overall directional trend in abundance of thecosomes, Limacina helicina antarctica and Clio pyramidata, throughout the entire WAP, although L. antarctica abundance increased in the slope region and C. pyramidata abundance increased in the South. High L. antarctica abundance ...


The Fiddler Crab, Minuca Pugnax, Follows Bergmann's Rule, David S. Johnson, Cynthia Crowley, Katherine Longmire, Bethany Williams, Serina Wittyngham Jan 2019

The Fiddler Crab, Minuca Pugnax, Follows Bergmann's Rule, David S. Johnson, Cynthia Crowley, Katherine Longmire, Bethany Williams, Serina Wittyngham

VIMS Articles

Bergmann's rule predicts that organisms at higher latitudes are larger than ones at lower latitudes. Here, we examine the body size pattern of the Atlantic marsh fiddler crab, Minuca pugnax (formerly Uca pugnax), from salt marshes on the east coast of the United States across 12 degrees of latitude. We found that M. pugnax followed Bergmann's rule and that, on average, crab carapace width increased by 0.5 mm per degree of latitude. Minuca pugnax body size also followed the temperature–size rule with body size inversely related to mean water temperature. Because an organism's size influences ...


Variations In The Abundance And Distribution Of Aggregates In The Ross Sea, Antarctica, Vernon L. Asper, Walker O. Smith Jr. Jan 2019

Variations In The Abundance And Distribution Of Aggregates In The Ross Sea, Antarctica, Vernon L. Asper, Walker O. Smith Jr.

VIMS Articles

The vertical distribution and temporal changes in aggregate abundance and sizes were measured in the Ross Sea, Antarctica between 2002 and 2005 to acquire a more complete understanding of the mechanisms and rates of carbon export from the euphotic layer. Aggregate abundance was determined by photographic techniques, and water column parameters (temperature, salinity, fluorescence, transmissometry) were assessed from CTD profiles. During the first three years the numbers of aggregates increased seasonally, being much more abundant within the upper 200 m in late summer than in early summer from 50 to 100 m (12.5 L–1 in early summer vs ...


Herbivory Regulates The Establishment Of A Native Species Of Submerged Aquatic Vegetation (Sav) In A Tidal Estuary Of The Usa, A. J. Johnson, R. J. Orth, Ken Moore Jan 2019

Herbivory Regulates The Establishment Of A Native Species Of Submerged Aquatic Vegetation (Sav) In A Tidal Estuary Of The Usa, A. J. Johnson, R. J. Orth, Ken Moore

VIMS Articles

Herbivores are a diverse group of fauna that shape the distribution and composition of plant communities. In some cases, herbivory may prevent the re-establishment of submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV), such as Vallisneria americana, into systems. The goal of this study was to investigate the role and nature of herbivory on V. americana transplants with camera and transect surveys of grazing intensity and with field and laboratory grazing experiments using a suspected herbivore, the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus. Camera surveys recorded C. sapidus clipping and consuming shoots of V. americana for the first time. Grazing intensity surveys in low-salinity regions of ...


A Novel Adaptation Facilitates Seed Establishment Under Marine Turbulent Flows, Gary A. Kendrick, Andrew W. Pomeroy, R J. Orth, Marion L. Cambridge, Jeremy Shaw, Et Al Jan 2019

A Novel Adaptation Facilitates Seed Establishment Under Marine Turbulent Flows, Gary A. Kendrick, Andrew W. Pomeroy, R J. Orth, Marion L. Cambridge, Jeremy Shaw, Et Al

VIMS Articles

Seeds of Australian species of the seagrass genus Posidonia are covered by a membranous wing that we hypothesize plays a fundamental role in seed establishment in sandy, wave swept marine environments. Dimensions of the seed and membrane were quantified under electron microscopy and micro-CT scans, and used to model rotational, drag and lift forces. Seeds maintain contact with the seabed in the presence of strong turbulence: the larger the wing, the more stable the seed. Wing surface area increases from P. sinuosa < P. australis < P.coriacea correlating with their ability to establish in increasingly energetic environments. This unique seed trait ...


Evaluating Confidence In The Impact Of Regulatory Nutrient Reduction On Chesapeake Bay Water Quality, Isaac D. Irby, Marjorie A.M. Friedrichs Jan 2019

Evaluating Confidence In The Impact Of Regulatory Nutrient Reduction On Chesapeake Bay Water Quality, Isaac D. Irby, Marjorie A.M. Friedrichs

VIMS Articles

Excess nutrients derived from anthropogenic activity have resulted in the degradation of coastal water quality and an increase in low-oxygen and hypoxic events worldwide. In an effort to curb these impacts and restore water quality in the Chesapeake Bay, a maximum load of nutrients has been established based on a framework of regulatory standards and models. This research aims to evaluate the projected changes in water quality resulting from the implementation of these nutrient reductions by applying the regulatory methodology to two different models that have been previously shown to have similar model skill. Results demonstrate that although the two ...


Alkalinity In Tidal Tributaries Of The Chesapeake Bay, R. G. Najjar, M. Herrmann, S. M. Cintrón Del Valle, Jaclyn R. Friedman, Marjorie A.M. Friedrichs, Et Al Jan 2019

Alkalinity In Tidal Tributaries Of The Chesapeake Bay, R. G. Najjar, M. Herrmann, S. M. Cintrón Del Valle, Jaclyn R. Friedman, Marjorie A.M. Friedrichs, Et Al

VIMS Articles

Despite the important role of alkalinity in estuarine carbon cycling, the seasonal and decadal variability of alkalinity, particularly within multiple tidal tributaries of the same estuary, is poorly understood. Here we analyze more than 25,000 alkalinity measurements, mostly from the 1980s and 1990s,in the major tidal tributaries of the Chesapeake Bay, a large, coastal‐plain estuary of eastern North America.The long‐term means of alkalinity in tidal‐fresh waters vary by a factor of 6 among seven tidal tributaries,reflecting the alkalinity of nontidal rivers draining to these estuaries. At 25 stations, mostly in the Potomac River ...


Are Coastal Habitats Important Nurseries? A Meta-Analysis, Jonathan S. Lefcheck, Brent B. Hughes, Andrew J. Johnson, Bruce W. Pfirrman, Douglas B. Rasher, Ashley R. Smyth, Bethany L. Williams, Michael W. Beck, R J. Orth Jan 2019

Are Coastal Habitats Important Nurseries? A Meta-Analysis, Jonathan S. Lefcheck, Brent B. Hughes, Andrew J. Johnson, Bruce W. Pfirrman, Douglas B. Rasher, Ashley R. Smyth, Bethany L. Williams, Michael W. Beck, R J. Orth

VIMS Articles

Nearshore‐structured habitats—including underwater grasses, mangroves, coral, and other biogenic reefs, marshes, and complex abiotic substrates—have long been postulated to function as important nurseries for juvenile fishes and invertebrates. Here, we review the evolution of the “nursery habitat hypothesis” and use >11,000 comparisons from 160 peer‐reviewed studies to test whether and which structured habitats increase juvenile density, growth, and survival. In general, almost all structured habitats significantly enhanced juvenile density—and in some cases growth and survival—relative to unstructured habitats. Underwater grasses and mangroves also promoted juvenile density and growth beyond what was observed in ...


Comparison Of Methods For Determining Biogeochemical Fluxes From A Restored Oyster Reef, Melanie Jackson, Michael S. Owens, Jeffrey C. Cornwell, M. Lisa Kellogg Dec 2018

Comparison Of Methods For Determining Biogeochemical Fluxes From A Restored Oyster Reef, Melanie Jackson, Michael S. Owens, Jeffrey C. Cornwell, M. Lisa Kellogg

VIMS Articles

Oyster reef restoration can significantly increase benthic denitrification rates. Methods applied to measure nutrient fluxes and denitrification from oyster reefs in previous studies include incubations of sediment cores collected adjacent to oyster clumps, benthic chambers filled with intact reef segments that have undergone in situ equilibration and ex situ incubation, and cores with single oysters. However, fluxes of nutrients vary by orders of magnitude among oyster reefs and methods. This study compares two methods of measuring nutrient and metabolic fluxes on restored oyster reefs: incubations including intact segments of oyster reef and incubations containing oyster clumps without underlying sediments. Fluxes ...


Canopy Functions Of R. Maritima And Z. Marina In The Chesapeake Bay, Emily French, Ken Moore Dec 2018

Canopy Functions Of R. Maritima And Z. Marina In The Chesapeake Bay, Emily French, Ken Moore

VIMS Articles

Shoots in seagrass beds form canopies: structurally complex habitats that provide refuge for fauna and trap sediment particles by dampening water movement. Unfortunately, seagrasses are faced with continuing negative impacts to survival, including climate change and poor water quality. In areas where several seagrass species coexist, changing conditions may influence composition of beds so one species is favored over another. Two species found worldwide, Zostera marina and Ruppia maritima, are undergoing this shift: as Z marina dies back, in some locations it is replaced by R. maritima, a smaller-form seagrass with shorter, thinner shoots. This process is occurring in Virginia ...


Adaptations By Zostera Marina Dominated Seagrass Meadows In Response To Water Quality And Climate Forcing, Erin C. Shields, Ken Moore, David B. Parrish Nov 2018

Adaptations By Zostera Marina Dominated Seagrass Meadows In Response To Water Quality And Climate Forcing, Erin C. Shields, Ken Moore, David B. Parrish

VIMS Articles

Global assessments of seagrass declines have documented accelerating rates of loss due to anthropogenic sediment and nutrient loadings, resulting in poor water quality. More recently, global temperature increases have emerged as additional major stressors. Seagrass changes in the Chesapeake Bay, USA provide important examples of not only the effects of human disturbance and climate forcing on seagrass loss, but also meadow recovery and resiliency. In the York River sub-tributary of the Chesapeake Bay, the meadows have been monitored intensively using annual aerial imagery, monthly transect surveys, and continuous water quality measurements. Here, Zostera marina has been demonstrating a shift in ...


Restoring The Eastern Oyster: How Much Progress Has Been Made In 53 Years?, Ab Hernandez, Rd Brumbaugh, P Fredrick, R Grizzle, Mark Luckenbach, Ch Peterson, C Angelini Oct 2018

Restoring The Eastern Oyster: How Much Progress Has Been Made In 53 Years?, Ab Hernandez, Rd Brumbaugh, P Fredrick, R Grizzle, Mark Luckenbach, Ch Peterson, C Angelini

VIMS Articles

Coastal ecosystem restoration is accelerating globally as a means of enhancing shoreline protection, carbon storage, water quality, fisheries, and biodiversity. Among the most substantial of these efforts have been those focused on re-establishing oyster reefs across the US Atlantic and Gulf coasts. Despite considerable investment, it is unclear how the scale of and approaches toward oyster restoration have evolved. A synthesis of 1768 projects undertaken since 1964 reveals that oyster substrate restoration efforts have primarily been concentrated in the Chesapeake Bay and the Gulf Coast, have been heavily reliant on oyster shell, and have re-established 4.5% of the reef ...