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Current And Future Remote Sensing Of Harmful Algal Blooms In The Chesapeake Bay To Support The Shellfish Industry, Jl Wolny, Mc Tomlinson, S Schollaert Uz, Ta Egerton, Jr Mckay, A Meredith, Ks Reece, Gp Scott, Rp Stumpf May 2020

Current And Future Remote Sensing Of Harmful Algal Blooms In The Chesapeake Bay To Support The Shellfish Industry, Jl Wolny, Mc Tomlinson, S Schollaert Uz, Ta Egerton, Jr Mckay, A Meredith, Ks Reece, Gp Scott, Rp Stumpf

VIMS Articles

Harmful algal bloom (HAB) species in the Chesapeake Bay can negatively impact fish, shellfish, and human health via the production of toxins and the degradation of water quality. Due to the deleterious effects of HAB species on economically and environmentally important resources, such as oyster reef systems, Bay area resource managers are seeking ways to monitor HABs and water quality at large spatial and fine temporal scales. The use of satellite ocean color imagery has proven to be a beneficial tool for resource management in other locations around the world where high-biomass, nearly monospecific HABs occur. However, remotely monitoring HABs ...


A Screening Tool For The Direct Analysis Of Marine And Freshwater Phycotoxins In Organic Spatt Extracts From The Chesapeake Bay, Michelle D. Onofiro, Claude R. Mallette, Allen R. Place, Juliette L. Smith May 2020

A Screening Tool For The Direct Analysis Of Marine And Freshwater Phycotoxins In Organic Spatt Extracts From The Chesapeake Bay, Michelle D. Onofiro, Claude R. Mallette, Allen R. Place, Juliette L. Smith

VIMS Articles

Many detection methods for phycotoxins, bioactive compounds produced by harmful algae, focus on one compound or a class of related compounds. Multiple harmful algal species often co-occur in the environment, however, emphasizing the need to analyze for the presence of multiple groups of marine and freshwater phycotoxins in environmental samples, e.g., extracts from solid phase adsorption toxin tracking (SPATT). Two methods were developed to screen for 13 phycotoxins (microcystin-RR, -LR, -YR, azaspiracid-1, -2, karlotoxin 3, goniodomin A, brevetoxin-2, yessotoxin, pectenotoxin-2, dinophysistoxin-1, -2, and okadaic acid) in organic SPATT extracts using ultra-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) equipped ...


Comparing Statistical Analyses To Estimate Thresholds In Ecotoxicology, Marcos Krull Apr 2020

Comparing Statistical Analyses To Estimate Thresholds In Ecotoxicology, Marcos Krull

VIMS Articles

Different methods are used in ecotoxicology to estimate thresholds in survival data. This paper uses Monte Carlo simulations to evaluate the accuracy of three methods (maximum likelihood (MLE) and Markov Chain Monte Carlo estimates (Bayesian) of the no-effect concentration (NEC) model and Piecewise regression) in estimating true and apparent thresholds in survival experiments with datasets having different slopes, background mortalities, and experimental designs. Datasets were generated with models that include a threshold parameter (NEC) or not (log-logistic). Accuracy was estimated using root-mean square errors (RMSEs), and RMSE ratios were used to estimate the relative improvement in accuracy by each design ...


Quantifying The Behavioral And Economic Effects Of Regulatory Change In A Recreational Cobia Fishery, Andrew M. Scheld, William M. Goldsmith, Shelby White, Hamish J. Small, Susanna Musick Jan 2020

Quantifying The Behavioral And Economic Effects Of Regulatory Change In A Recreational Cobia Fishery, Andrew M. Scheld, William M. Goldsmith, Shelby White, Hamish J. Small, Susanna Musick

VIMS Articles

Fisheries economists typically assume recreational anglers make decisions that maximize individual angler utility, which may depend on fishery and regulatory conditions. Under this framework, changes in regulations can lead to target species substitution by anglers in response to shifts in expectations of trip utility. A stated preference survey was developed and distributed to recreational cobia (Rachycentron canadum) anglers in Virginia to explore the effects of regulatory change on angler decision-making, species targeting, and resulting economic outcomes. The survey included a series of hypothetical choice scenarios, where respondents were asked to select their most preferred alternative after being presented with different ...


Worker Exposure To Flame Retardants In Manufacturing, Construction And Service Industries, C. Fairfield Estill, J. Slone, A. Mayer, I-C Chen, M. J. La Guardia Jan 2020

Worker Exposure To Flame Retardants In Manufacturing, Construction And Service Industries, C. Fairfield Estill, J. Slone, A. Mayer, I-C Chen, M. J. La Guardia

VIMS Articles

Workers in several industries are occupationally exposed to flame retardants. This study characterizes flame retardant exposure for nine industries through air and hand wipe measures for 105 workers. Specifically, we analyzed 24 analytes from three chemical classes: organophosphate flame retardants (OFRs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and non-PBDE brominated flame retardants (NPBFRs). The industries were: carpet installation, chemical manufacturing, foam manufacturing, electronic scrap, gymnastics, rigid board installation, nail salons, roofing, and spray polyurethane foam. Workers wore personal air samplers for two entire workdays and provided hand wipe samples before and after the second work day. Bulk products were also analyzed. The ...


First Comparison Of French And Australian Oshv-1 Μvars By Bath Exposure, Ca Burge, Kimberly S. Reece, Ak Dhar, P Kirkland, B Morga, L Dégremont, N Faury, B Whipple, A Macintyre, C Friedman Jan 2020

First Comparison Of French And Australian Oshv-1 Μvars By Bath Exposure, Ca Burge, Kimberly S. Reece, Ak Dhar, P Kirkland, B Morga, L Dégremont, N Faury, B Whipple, A Macintyre, C Friedman

VIMS Articles

Economically devastating mortality events of farmed and wild shellfish due to infectious disease have been reported globally. Currently, one of the most significant disease threats to Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas culture is the ostreid herpesvirus 1 (OsHV-1), in particular the emerging OsHV-1 microvariant genotypes. OsHV-1 microvariants (OsHV-1 μvars) are spreading globally, and concern is high among growers in areas unaffected by OsHV-1. No study to date has compared the relative virulence among variants. We provide the first challenge study comparing survival of naïve juvenile Pacific oysters exposed to OsHV-1 μvars from Australia (AUS μvar) and France (FRA μvar). Oysters challenged ...


Microplastics Affect Sedimentary Microbial Communities And Nitrogen Cycling, Meredith E. Seeley, Bk Song, Renia Passie, Robert C. Hale Jan 2020

Microplastics Affect Sedimentary Microbial Communities And Nitrogen Cycling, Meredith E. Seeley, Bk Song, Renia Passie, Robert C. Hale

VIMS Articles

Microplastics are ubiquitous in estuarine, coastal, and deep sea sediments. The impacts of microplastics on sedimentary microbial ecosystems and biogeochemical carbon and nitrogen cycles, however, have not been well reported. To evaluate if microplastics influence the composition and function of sedimentary microbial communities, we conducted a microcosm experiment using salt marsh sediment amended with polyethylene (PE), polyvinyl chloride(PVC), polyurethane foam (PUF) or polylactic acid (PLA) microplastics. We report that the presence of microplastics alters sediment microbial community composition and nitrogen cycling processes. Compared to control sediments without microplastic, PUF- and PLA-amended sediments promote nitrification and denitrification, while PVC amendment ...


Characterization Of Microsporidian Ameson Herrnkindi Sp. Nov. Infecting Caribbean Spiny Lobsters Panulirus Argus, Hamish J. Small, Gd Stentiford, Dc Behringer, Ma Freeman, Nam Atherley, Kimberly S. Reece, Jeffrey D. Shields Oct 2019

Characterization Of Microsporidian Ameson Herrnkindi Sp. Nov. Infecting Caribbean Spiny Lobsters Panulirus Argus, Hamish J. Small, Gd Stentiford, Dc Behringer, Ma Freeman, Nam Atherley, Kimberly S. Reece, Jeffrey D. Shields

VIMS Articles

The Caribbean spiny lobster Panulirus argus supports a large and valuable fishery in the Caribbean Sea. In 2007-2008, a rare microsporidian parasite with spore characteristics typical of the Ameson genus was detected in 2 spiny lobsters from southeast Florida (FL). However, the parasite species was not confirmed by molecular analyses. To address this deficiency, reported here are structural and molecular data on single lobsters displaying comparable ‘cotton-like’ abdominal muscle containing ovoid microsporidian spores found at different locations in FL in 2014 and 2018 and in Saint Kitts and Nevis Islands in 2017. In the lobster from 2014, multiple life stages ...


Parasitic Dinoflagellate Hematodinium Perezi Prevalence In Larval And Juvenile Blue Crabs Callinectes Sapidus From Coastal Bays Of Virginia, Hj Small, Jp Huchin-Mian, Ks Reece, Km Pagenkopp Lohan, Mj Butler Iv, Jd Shields Jun 2019

Parasitic Dinoflagellate Hematodinium Perezi Prevalence In Larval And Juvenile Blue Crabs Callinectes Sapidus From Coastal Bays Of Virginia, Hj Small, Jp Huchin-Mian, Ks Reece, Km Pagenkopp Lohan, Mj Butler Iv, Jd Shields

VIMS Articles

The parasitic dinoflagellate Hematodinium perezi infects the American blue crab Callinectes sapidus and other decapods along the Eastern seaboard and Gulf of Mexico coast of the USA. Large juvenile and adult blue crabs experience high mortality during seasonal outbreaks of H. perezi, but less is known about its presence in the early life history stages of this host. We determined the prevalence of H. perezi in megalopae and early benthic juvenile crabs from multiple locations along the Virginia portion of the Delmarva Peninsula. The DNA of H. perezi was not detected in any megalopae collected from several locations within the ...


Multiple Drivers Of Interannual Oyster Settlement And Recruitment In The Lower Chesapeake Bay, Brendan Turley, Kimberly S. Reece, Jian Shen, Jeong-Ho Lee, Ximing Guo, Jan Mcdowell May 2019

Multiple Drivers Of Interannual Oyster Settlement And Recruitment In The Lower Chesapeake Bay, Brendan Turley, Kimberly S. Reece, Jian Shen, Jeong-Ho Lee, Ximing Guo, Jan Mcdowell

VIMS Articles

Despite global investment in shellfish restoration activities, relatively little attention has been given to predicting optimal restoration sites and testing these expectations. We used a coupled biological-physical connectivity model as a guide to plant two distinct hatchery-spawned strains of the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica, in the Lafayette River, Virginia during the summer of 2013 at two locations corresponding to virtual spawning locations within the connectivity model. We utilized single nucleotide polymorphism markers to test the model predictions by genotyping oysters recruited after planting two hatchery-spawned strains and examining interannual recruitment variability for two successive years. Two spat were identified as ...


Climate Change Enhances Disease Processes In Crustaceans: Case Studies In Lobsters, Crabs, And Shrimps, Jeffrey D. Shields Jan 2019

Climate Change Enhances Disease Processes In Crustaceans: Case Studies In Lobsters, Crabs, And Shrimps, Jeffrey D. Shields

VIMS Articles

Climate change has resulted in increasing temperature and acidification in marine systems. Rising temperature and acidification act as stressors that negatively affect host barriers to infection, thus enhancing disease processes and influencing the emergence of pathogens in ecologically and commercially important species. Given that crustaceans are ectotherms, changes in temperature dominate their physiological and immunological responses to microbial pathogens and parasites. Because of this, the thermal ranges of several crustacean hosts and their pathogens can be used to project the outcomes of infections. Host factors such as molting, maturation, respiration, and immune function are strongly influenced by temperature, which in ...


Tracking Triploid Mortalities Of Eastern Oysters Crassostrea Virginica In The Virginia Portion Of The Chesapeake Bay, Eric Guevelou, Ryan Carnegie, Ja Moss, Karen Hudson, Kimberly S. Reece, Molly M. Rybovich, Standish K. Allen Jr. Jan 2019

Tracking Triploid Mortalities Of Eastern Oysters Crassostrea Virginica In The Virginia Portion Of The Chesapeake Bay, Eric Guevelou, Ryan Carnegie, Ja Moss, Karen Hudson, Kimberly S. Reece, Molly M. Rybovich, Standish K. Allen Jr.

VIMS Articles

Since 2012, aquacultured eastern oysters Crassostrea virginica have been reported by oyster farmers to display mortality approaching 30%, and in some cases 85%, in areas of the lower Chesapeake Bay, VA. Based on accounts from industry, this mortality has typically affected 1-y-old oysters between May and early July, and has tended to occur in triploid oysters, which represent the vast bulk of production in the area. During this period, samples submitted for pathology have not revealed the presence of major pathogens as a cause. In 2015, to gain deeper insight into this mortality and determine whether specific sites, ploidy condition ...


Method For Serial Passage Of Infectious Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus (Ihnv) In Rainbow Trout, Juliette Doumayrou, M. Gray Ryan, Andrew R. Wargo Jan 2019

Method For Serial Passage Of Infectious Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus (Ihnv) In Rainbow Trout, Juliette Doumayrou, M. Gray Ryan, Andrew R. Wargo

VIMS Articles

Transmission is a fundamental component of pathogen fitness. A better understanding of pathogen transmission can greatly improve disease management. In particular, controlled studies of multiple rounds of natural transmission (i.e. serial passage) can provide powerful epidemiological and evolutionary inferences. However, such studies are possible in only a few systems because of the challenges in successfully initiating and maintaining transmission in the laboratory. Here we developed an efficient and reproducible cohabitation method for conducting controlled experiments investigating the effects of serial passage on infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) in rainbow trout. This method was used to investigate the transmission efficiency ...


Prey Lysate Enhances Growth And Toxin Production In An Isolate Of Dinophysis Acuminata, Han Gao, Mengmeng Tong, Xinlong An, Juliette L. Smith Jan 2019

Prey Lysate Enhances Growth And Toxin Production In An Isolate Of Dinophysis Acuminata, Han Gao, Mengmeng Tong, Xinlong An, Juliette L. Smith

VIMS Articles

The physiological and toxicological characteristics of Dinophysis acuminata have been increasingly studied in an attempt to better understand and predict diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) events worldwide. Recent work has identified prey quantity, organic nitrogen, and ammonium as likely contributors to increased Dinophysis growth rates and/or toxicity. Further research is now needed to better understand the interplay between these factors, for example, how inorganic and organic compounds interact with prey and a variety of Dinophysis species and/or strains. In this study, the exudate of ciliate prey and cryptophytes were investigated for an ability to support D. acuminata growth and ...


Intensive Oyster Aquaculture Can Reduce Disease Impacts On Sympatric Wild Oysters, Tal Ben-Horin, Colleen Burge, David Bushek, Maya Groner, Dina Proestou, Lauren Huey, Gorka Bidegain, Ryan Carnegie Dec 2018

Intensive Oyster Aquaculture Can Reduce Disease Impacts On Sympatric Wild Oysters, Tal Ben-Horin, Colleen Burge, David Bushek, Maya Groner, Dina Proestou, Lauren Huey, Gorka Bidegain, Ryan Carnegie

VIMS Articles

Risks associated with disease spread from fish and shellfish farming have plagued the growth and public perception of aquaculture worldwide. However, by processing nutrients and organic material from the water column, the culture of many suspension-feeding bivalves has been proposed as a novel solution toward mitigating problems facing coastal water quality, including the removal of disease-causing parasites. Here we developed and simulated an epidemiological model describing sympatric oyster Crassostrea virginica populations in aquaculture and the wild impacted by the protozoan parasite Perkinsus marinus. Our model captured the indirect interaction between wild and cultured populations that occurs through sharing water-borne P ...


Rising Temperatures, Molting Phenology, And Epizootic Shell Disease In The American Lobster, Maya Groner, Jeffrey D. Shields, Df Landers, J Swenarton, Jm Hoenig Nov 2018

Rising Temperatures, Molting Phenology, And Epizootic Shell Disease In The American Lobster, Maya Groner, Jeffrey D. Shields, Df Landers, J Swenarton, Jm Hoenig

VIMS Articles

Phenological mismatchmaladaptive changes in phenology resulting from altered timing of environmental cuesis an increasing concern in many ecological systems, yet its effects on disease are poorly characterized. American lobster (Homarus americanus) is declining at its southern geographic limit. Rising seawater temperatures are associated with seasonal outbreaks of epizootic shell disease (ESD), which peaks in prevalence in the fall. We used a 34-year mark-recapture data set to investigate relationships between temperature, molting phenology, and ESD in Long Island Sound, where temperatures are increasing at 0.4 degrees C per decade. Our analyses support the hypothesis that phenological mismatch is linked to ...


Investigating The Life Cycle Of Haplosporidium Nelsoni (Msx), Se Ford, Na Stokes, Ka Alcox, Bsf Kraus, Rd Barber, Ryan Carnegie, Em Burreson Oct 2018

Investigating The Life Cycle Of Haplosporidium Nelsoni (Msx), Se Ford, Na Stokes, Ka Alcox, Bsf Kraus, Rd Barber, Ryan Carnegie, Em Burreson

VIMS Articles

Attempts to decipher the life cycle of Haplosporidium nelsoni began almost immediately after it was identified as the pathogen causing MSX disease in eastern oysters, Crassostrea virginica. But transmission experiments failed and the spore stage, characteristic of haplosporidans, was extremely rare. Researchers concluded that another host was involved: an intermediate host in which part of the life cycle was produced, or-if the oyster was an accidental host-an alternate host that produces infective elements. A later finding that spores were found more often in spat (< 1 y old) than in adults revived the idea of direct transmission between oysters. The new findings and the availability of molecular diagnostics led us to revive life cycle investigations. Over several years, oyster spat were examined for spores and searched for H. nelsoni in potential non-oyster hosts using both histological and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methodologies. Although ...


Dermal Mycobacteriosis And Warming Sea Surface Temperatures Are Associated With Elevated Mortality Of Striped Bass In Chesapeake Bay, Maya L. Groner, John M. Hoenig, Roger Pradel, Remi Choquet, Wolfgang K. Vogelbein, David T. Gauthier, Marjorie A.M. Friedrichs Sep 2018

Dermal Mycobacteriosis And Warming Sea Surface Temperatures Are Associated With Elevated Mortality Of Striped Bass In Chesapeake Bay, Maya L. Groner, John M. Hoenig, Roger Pradel, Remi Choquet, Wolfgang K. Vogelbein, David T. Gauthier, Marjorie A.M. Friedrichs

VIMS Articles

Temperature is hypothesized to alter disease dynamics, particularly when species are living at or near their thermal limits. When disease occurs in marine systems, this can go undetected, particularly if the disease is chronic and progresses slowly. As a result, population-level impacts of diseases can be grossly underestimated. Complex migratory patterns, stochasticity in recruitment, and data and knowledge gaps can hinder collection and analysis of data on marine diseases. New tools enabling quantification of disease impacts in marine environments include coupled biogeochemical hydrodynamic models (to hindcast key environmental data), and multievent, multistate mark-recapture (MMSMR) (to quantify the effects of environmental ...


Effects-Based Spatial Assessment Of Contaminated Estuarine Sediments From Bear Creek, Baltimore Harbor, Md, Usa, Se Hartzell, Michael A. Unger, Bl Mcgee, Lt Yonkos Jan 2018

Effects-Based Spatial Assessment Of Contaminated Estuarine Sediments From Bear Creek, Baltimore Harbor, Md, Usa, Se Hartzell, Michael A. Unger, Bl Mcgee, Lt Yonkos

VIMS Articles

The original publication of this paper contains an error. The correct image of figure 5 is shown in this paper.


Collection Techniques For The Analyses Of Pathogens In Crustaceans, Jeffrey D. Shields Nov 2017

Collection Techniques For The Analyses Of Pathogens In Crustaceans, Jeffrey D. Shields

VIMS Articles

Outbreaks of diseases have been reported from a number of ecologically or commercially important crustaceans in tropical, temperature, and boreal waters. The etiology of a disease is often unknown prior to these outbreaks and the effect of the pathogen on the host population is poorly understood. Various techniques can be used to collect, identify, and monitor host populations for pathogens. These include classical methods, such as visual or histological assessment, to more refined techniques, such as simple and quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays. The strengths and weaknesses of the different methods are presented as well as some general guidelines for ...


Impact Of Disease On The Survival Of Three Commercially Fished Species, John M. Hoenig, Maya L. Groner, Matthew W. Smith, Wolfgang K. Vogelbein, David M. Taylor, Donald F. Landers, John T. Swenarton, David T. Gauthier, Philip W. Sadler, Mark A. Matsche, Ashley N. Haines, Hamish J. Small, Roger Pradel, Remi Choquet, Jeffrey D. Shields Oct 2017

Impact Of Disease On The Survival Of Three Commercially Fished Species, John M. Hoenig, Maya L. Groner, Matthew W. Smith, Wolfgang K. Vogelbein, David M. Taylor, Donald F. Landers, John T. Swenarton, David T. Gauthier, Philip W. Sadler, Mark A. Matsche, Ashley N. Haines, Hamish J. Small, Roger Pradel, Remi Choquet, Jeffrey D. Shields

VIMS Articles

Recent increases in emergent infectious diseases have raised concerns about the sustainability of some marine species. The complexity and expense of studying diseases in marine systems often dictate that conservation and management decisions are made without quantitative data on population-level impacts of disease. Mark-recapture is a powerful, underutilized, tool for calculating impacts of disease on population size and structure, even in the absence of etiological information. We applied logistic regression models to mark-recapture data to obtain estimates of disease-associated mortality rates in three commercially important marine species: snow crab (Chionoecetes opilio) in Newfoundland, Canada, that experience sporadic epizootics of bitter ...


Vaccine Effects On Heterogeneity In Susceptibility And Implications For Population Health Management, Ke Langwig, Ar Wargo, Dr Jones, Jr Viss, Bj Rutan, Et Al. Jan 2017

Vaccine Effects On Heterogeneity In Susceptibility And Implications For Population Health Management, Ke Langwig, Ar Wargo, Dr Jones, Jr Viss, Bj Rutan, Et Al.

VIMS Articles

Heterogeneity in host susceptibility is a key determinant of infectious disease dynamics but is rarely accounted for in assessment of disease control measures. Understanding how susceptibility is distributed in populations, and how control measures change this distribution, is integral to predicting the course of epidemics with and without interventions. Using multiple experimental and modeling approaches, we show that rainbow trout have relatively homogeneous susceptibility to infection with infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus and that vaccination increases heterogeneity in susceptibility in a nearly all-or-nothing fashion. In a simple transmission model with an R-0 of 2, the highly heterogeneous vaccine protection would cause ...


Transmission Routes Maintaining A Viral Pathogen Of Steelhead Trout Within A Complex Multi-Host Assemblage, Rachel Breyta, Ilana Brito, Paige Ferguson, Gael Kurath, Kerry Naish, Maureen Purcell, Ar Wargo, Shannon Ladeau Jan 2017

Transmission Routes Maintaining A Viral Pathogen Of Steelhead Trout Within A Complex Multi-Host Assemblage, Rachel Breyta, Ilana Brito, Paige Ferguson, Gael Kurath, Kerry Naish, Maureen Purcell, Ar Wargo, Shannon Ladeau

VIMS Articles

This is the first comprehensive region wide, spatially explicit epidemiologic analysis of surveillance data of the aquatic viral pathogen infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) infecting native salmonid fish. The pathogen has been documented in the freshwater ecosystem of the Pacific Northwest of North America since the 1950s, and the current report describes the disease ecology of IHNV during 2000-2012. Prevalence of IHNV infection in monitored salmonid host cohorts ranged from 8% to 30%, with the highest levels observed in juvenile steelhead trout. The spatial distribution of all IHNV-infected cohorts was concentrated in two sub-regions of the study area, where historic ...


Honored Life Member Eugene M. Burreson March 25, 2009, Ryan Carnegie, Cf Dungan, A Villalba, Kimberly S. Reece Jan 2017

Honored Life Member Eugene M. Burreson March 25, 2009, Ryan Carnegie, Cf Dungan, A Villalba, Kimberly S. Reece

VIMS Articles

No abstract provided.


Human Indoor Exposure To Airborne Halogenated Flame Retardants: Influence Of Airborne Particle Size, M. J. La Guardia, Erika D. Schreder, Nancy Uding, Robert C. Hale Jan 2017

Human Indoor Exposure To Airborne Halogenated Flame Retardants: Influence Of Airborne Particle Size, M. J. La Guardia, Erika D. Schreder, Nancy Uding, Robert C. Hale

VIMS Articles

Inhalation of halogenated flame-retardants (HFRs) released from consumer products is an important route of exposure. However, not all airborne HFRs are respirable, and thus interact with vascular membranes within the gas exchange (alveolar) region of the lung. HFRs associated with large (> 4 mu m), inhalable airborne particulates are trapped on the mucosal lining of the respiratory tract and then are expelled or swallowed. The latter may contribute to internal exposure via desorption from particles in the digestive tract. Exposures may also be underestimated if personal activities that re-suspend particles into the breathing zone are not taken into account. Here, samples ...


Behavioral Analysis Of Microphallus Turgidus Cercariae In Relation To Microhabitat Of Two Host Grass Shrimp Species (Palaemonetes Spp.), Pa O'Leary, Oj Pung Jan 2017

Behavioral Analysis Of Microphallus Turgidus Cercariae In Relation To Microhabitat Of Two Host Grass Shrimp Species (Palaemonetes Spp.), Pa O'Leary, Oj Pung

VIMS Articles

The behavior of Microphallus turgidus cercariae was examined and compared to microhabitat selection of the second intermediate hosts of the parasite, Palaemonetes spp. grass shrimp. Cercariae were tested for photokinetic and geotactic responses, and a behavioral ethogram was established for cercariae in control and grass shrimp-conditioned brackish water. Photo kinesis trials were performed using a half-covered Petri dish, and geotaxis trials used a graduated cylinder. Both photokinesis and geotaxis trials were performed in lighted and unlighted conditions. In 9 of 10 photokinesis experiments, over half of the cercariae swam horizontally under the covered half of a Petri dish in both ...


Replication And Shedding Kinetics Of Infectious Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus In Juvenile Rainbow Trout, Ar Wargo, Rj Scott, B Kerr, G Kurath Jan 2017

Replication And Shedding Kinetics Of Infectious Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus In Juvenile Rainbow Trout, Ar Wargo, Rj Scott, B Kerr, G Kurath

VIMS Articles

Viral replication and shedding are key components of transmission and fitness, the kinetics of which are heavily dependent on virus, host, and environmental factors. To date, no studies have quantified the shedding kinetics of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), or how they are associated with replication, making it difficult to ascertain the transmission dynamics of this pathogen of high agricultural and conservation importance. Here, the replication and shedding kinetics of two M genogroup IHNV genotypes were examined in their naturally co-evolved rainbow trout host. Within host virus replication began rapidly, approaching maximum values by day ...


Impact Of Environment And Ontogeny On Relative Fecundity And Egg Quality Of Female Oysters (Crassostrea Virginica) From Four Sites In Northern Chesapeake Bay, Hl Glandon, Ak Michaelis, Et Al, Kimberly S. Reece, Et Al Dec 2016

Impact Of Environment And Ontogeny On Relative Fecundity And Egg Quality Of Female Oysters (Crassostrea Virginica) From Four Sites In Northern Chesapeake Bay, Hl Glandon, Ak Michaelis, Et Al, Kimberly S. Reece, Et Al

VIMS Articles

Resource allocation to reproduction is a primary physiological concern for individuals, and can vary with age, environment, or a combination of both factors. In this study we quantified the impact of environment and individual age on the reproductive output of female oysters Crassostrea virginica. We determined the relative fecundity, egg total lipid content, and overall and omega- 3/omega-6 fatty acid signatures (FAS) of eggs spawned by female oysters over a 2-year period (n = 32 and n = 64). Variation was quantified spatially and ontogenetically by sampling young and old oyster populations from two rivers in Chesapeake Bay, totaling four collection ...


Improving Marine Disease Surveillance Through Sea Temperature Monitoring, Outlooks And Projections, J Maynard, R Van Hooidonk, Cd Harvell, Cm Eakin, G Liu, Jeffrey D. Shields, Et Al. Jan 2016

Improving Marine Disease Surveillance Through Sea Temperature Monitoring, Outlooks And Projections, J Maynard, R Van Hooidonk, Cd Harvell, Cm Eakin, G Liu, Jeffrey D. Shields, Et Al.

VIMS Articles

To forecast marine disease outbreaks as oceans warm requires new environmental surveillance tools. We describe an iterative process for developing these tools that combines research, development and deployment for suitable systems. The first step is to identify candidate host-pathogen systems. The 24 candidate systems we identified include sponges, corals, oysters, crustaceans, sea stars, fishes and sea grasses (among others). To illustrate the other steps, we present a case study of epizootic shell disease (ESD) in the American lobster. Increasing prevalence of ESD is a contributing factor to lobster fishery collapse in southern New England (SNE), raising concerns that disease prevalence ...


Ahr-Related Activities In A Creosote-Adapted Population Of Adult Atlantic Killifish, Fundulus Heteroclitus, Two Decades Post-Epa Superfund Status At The Atlantic Wood Site, Portsmouth, Va Usa, Jv Wojdylo, Wolfgang K. Vogelbein, Lj Bain, Cd Rice Jan 2016

Ahr-Related Activities In A Creosote-Adapted Population Of Adult Atlantic Killifish, Fundulus Heteroclitus, Two Decades Post-Epa Superfund Status At The Atlantic Wood Site, Portsmouth, Va Usa, Jv Wojdylo, Wolfgang K. Vogelbein, Lj Bain, Cd Rice

VIMS Articles

Atlantic killifish, Fundulus heteroclitus, are adapted to creosote-based PAHs at the US EPA Superfund site known as Atlantic Wood (AW) on the southern branch of the Elizabeth River, VA USA. Subsequent to the discovery of the AW population in the early 1990s, these fish were shown to be recalcitrant to CYP1A induction by PAHs under experimental conditions, and even to the time of this study, killifish embryos collected from the AW site are resistant to developmental deformities typically associated with exposure to PAHs in reference fish. Historically, however, 90 +% of the adult killifish at this site have proliferative hepatic lesions ...