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VIMS Articles

2018

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Articles 1 - 30 of 68

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Comparison Of Methods For Determining Biogeochemical Fluxes From A Restored Oyster Reef, Melanie Jackson, Michael S. Owens, Jeffrey C. Cornwell, M. Lisa Kellogg Dec 2018

Comparison Of Methods For Determining Biogeochemical Fluxes From A Restored Oyster Reef, Melanie Jackson, Michael S. Owens, Jeffrey C. Cornwell, M. Lisa Kellogg

VIMS Articles

Oyster reef restoration can significantly increase benthic denitrification rates. Methods applied to measure nutrient fluxes and denitrification from oyster reefs in previous studies include incubations of sediment cores collected adjacent to oyster clumps, benthic chambers filled with intact reef segments that have undergone in situ equilibration and ex situ incubation, and cores with single oysters. However, fluxes of nutrients vary by orders of magnitude among oyster reefs and methods. This study compares two methods of measuring nutrient and metabolic fluxes on restored oyster reefs: incubations including intact segments of oyster reef and incubations containing oyster clumps without underlying sediments. Fluxes ...


Intensive Oyster Aquaculture Can Reduce Disease Impacts On Sympatric Wild Oysters, Tal Ben-Horin, Colleen Burge, David Bushek, Maya Groner, Dina Proestou, Lauren Huey, Gorka Bidegain, Ryan Carnegie Dec 2018

Intensive Oyster Aquaculture Can Reduce Disease Impacts On Sympatric Wild Oysters, Tal Ben-Horin, Colleen Burge, David Bushek, Maya Groner, Dina Proestou, Lauren Huey, Gorka Bidegain, Ryan Carnegie

VIMS Articles

Risks associated with disease spread from fish and shellfish farming have plagued the growth and public perception of aquaculture worldwide. However, by processing nutrients and organic material from the water column, the culture of many suspension-feeding bivalves has been proposed as a novel solution toward mitigating problems facing coastal water quality, including the removal of disease-causing parasites. Here we developed and simulated an epidemiological model describing sympatric oyster Crassostrea virginica populations in aquaculture and the wild impacted by the protozoan parasite Perkinsus marinus. Our model captured the indirect interaction between wild and cultured populations that occurs through sharing water-borne P ...


Canopy Functions Of R. Maritima And Z. Marina In The Chesapeake Bay, Emily French, Ken Moore Dec 2018

Canopy Functions Of R. Maritima And Z. Marina In The Chesapeake Bay, Emily French, Ken Moore

VIMS Articles

Shoots in seagrass beds form canopies: structurally complex habitats that provide refuge for fauna and trap sediment particles by dampening water movement. Unfortunately, seagrasses are faced with continuing negative impacts to survival, including climate change and poor water quality. In areas where several seagrass species coexist, changing conditions may influence composition of beds so one species is favored over another. Two species found worldwide, Zostera marina and Ruppia maritima, are undergoing this shift: as Z marina dies back, in some locations it is replaced by R. maritima, a smaller-form seagrass with shorter, thinner shoots. This process is occurring in Virginia ...


Assessment Of The Relationship Of Stock And Recruitment In The Atlantic Surfclam Spisula Solidissima In The Northwestern Atlantic Ocean, Jeremy R. Timbs, Eric N. Powell, Roger L. Mann Dec 2018

Assessment Of The Relationship Of Stock And Recruitment In The Atlantic Surfclam Spisula Solidissima In The Northwestern Atlantic Ocean, Jeremy R. Timbs, Eric N. Powell, Roger L. Mann

VIMS Articles

Atlantic surfclams support a major commercial fishery in the western North Atlantic Ocean with landings consistently between 15,000 and 25,000 metric tons since 1982. The stock is not and historically has not been overfished nor has overfishing occurred; however, in recent years landings per unit effort have declined. Surfclams are a biomass dominant on the continental shelf and a bellwether of climate change in the northwestern Atlantic. This study investigated the relationship of broodstock and recruitment during a period when Mid-Atlantic warming initiated a shelf-wide shift in the surfclams range. A species distribution function model was used to ...


Impacts Of A Multi-Trap Line On Benthic Habitat Containing Emergent Epifauna Within The Mid-Atlantic Bight, Cara C. Schweitzer, Rom Lipcius, Bradley G. Stevens Dec 2018

Impacts Of A Multi-Trap Line On Benthic Habitat Containing Emergent Epifauna Within The Mid-Atlantic Bight, Cara C. Schweitzer, Rom Lipcius, Bradley G. Stevens

VIMS Articles

Alteration and degradation of benthic structure by fishing gear can impede efforts to manage fish stock sustainably. Although the impacts of mobile gear are well known, effects of passive gear (e.g. fish traps) upon structure have been little studied. We modified commercial traps for American lobster Homarus americanus and black sea bass Centropristis striata by attaching GoPro (R) cameras to ascertain the degree and nature of impacts to seafloor habitats. Customized traps were included within a line of 20 traps, deployed and retrieved according to standard commercial fishing practice. Less than 5% of traps landed directly on bedforms when ...


Symbiotic Unicellular Cyanobacteria Fix Nitrogen In The Arctic Ocean, K. Harding, K. A. Turk-Kubo, Re Sipler, M. M. Mills, D. A. Bronk Dec 2018

Symbiotic Unicellular Cyanobacteria Fix Nitrogen In The Arctic Ocean, K. Harding, K. A. Turk-Kubo, Re Sipler, M. M. Mills, D. A. Bronk

VIMS Articles

Biological dinitrogen (N2) fixation is an important source of nitrogen (N) in low-latitude open oceans. The unusual N2-fixing unicellular cyanobacteria (UCYN-A)/haptophyte symbiosis has been found in an increasing number of unexpected environments, including northern waters of the Danish Straight and Bering and Chukchi Seas. We used nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry (nanoSIMS) to measure 15N2 uptake into UCYN-A/haptophyte symbiosis and found that UCYN-A strains identical to low-latitude strains are fixing N2 in the Bering and Chukchi Seas, at rates comparable to subtropical waters. These results show definitively that cyanobacterial N2 fixation is not constrained to subtropical waters, challenging ...


Rising Temperatures, Molting Phenology, And Epizootic Shell Disease In The American Lobster, Maya Groner, Jeffrey D. Shields, Df Landers, J Swenarton, Jm Hoenig Nov 2018

Rising Temperatures, Molting Phenology, And Epizootic Shell Disease In The American Lobster, Maya Groner, Jeffrey D. Shields, Df Landers, J Swenarton, Jm Hoenig

VIMS Articles

Phenological mismatchmaladaptive changes in phenology resulting from altered timing of environmental cuesis an increasing concern in many ecological systems, yet its effects on disease are poorly characterized. American lobster (Homarus americanus) is declining at its southern geographic limit. Rising seawater temperatures are associated with seasonal outbreaks of epizootic shell disease (ESD), which peaks in prevalence in the fall. We used a 34-year mark-recapture data set to investigate relationships between temperature, molting phenology, and ESD in Long Island Sound, where temperatures are increasing at 0.4 degrees C per decade. Our analyses support the hypothesis that phenological mismatch is linked to ...


Adaptations By Zostera Marina Dominated Seagrass Meadows In Response To Water Quality And Climate Forcing, Erin C. Shields, Ken Moore, David B. Parrish Nov 2018

Adaptations By Zostera Marina Dominated Seagrass Meadows In Response To Water Quality And Climate Forcing, Erin C. Shields, Ken Moore, David B. Parrish

VIMS Articles

Global assessments of seagrass declines have documented accelerating rates of loss due to anthropogenic sediment and nutrient loadings, resulting in poor water quality. More recently, global temperature increases have emerged as additional major stressors. Seagrass changes in the Chesapeake Bay, USA provide important examples of not only the effects of human disturbance and climate forcing on seagrass loss, but also meadow recovery and resiliency. In the York River sub-tributary of the Chesapeake Bay, the meadows have been monitored intensively using annual aerial imagery, monthly transect surveys, and continuous water quality measurements. Here, Zostera marina has been demonstrating a shift in ...


The Effect Of Capture And Handling Stress In Lophius Americanus In The Scallop Dredge Fishery, Amelia M. Weissman, John W. Mandelman, David Rudders, James A. Sulikowski, Oct 2018

The Effect Of Capture And Handling Stress In Lophius Americanus In The Scallop Dredge Fishery, Amelia M. Weissman, John W. Mandelman, David Rudders, James A. Sulikowski,

VIMS Articles

Capture and handling stress studies are considered a primary research priority, particularly for species and fisheries where discard rates are high, and/or for overfished stocks and species of concern. Lophius americanus, a commercially valuable finfish in New England, constitutes the second highest bycatch species within the sea scallop dredge fishery. Despite its commercial importance, no data exists on the capture and handling stress of monkfish for any gear type. Given these shortcomings, our goals were to evaluate the stress response of monkfish captured in scallop dredge gear by evaluating physical, behavioural and physiological responses to scallop fishing practices. While ...


Successful Recruitment, Survival And Long-Term Persistence Of Eastern Oyster And Hooked Mussel On A Subtidal, Artificial Restoration Reef System In Chesapeake Bay, Rom Lipcius, Russell P. Burke Oct 2018

Successful Recruitment, Survival And Long-Term Persistence Of Eastern Oyster And Hooked Mussel On A Subtidal, Artificial Restoration Reef System In Chesapeake Bay, Rom Lipcius, Russell P. Burke

VIMS Articles

Restoration efforts with native eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica, in Chesapeake Bay and elsewhere have been limited by shell availability, necessitating the use of alternative structures as subtidal reefs, yet these have rarely been evaluated quantitatively. We quantified population structure, density, abundance and biomass of eastern oyster and hooked mussel, Ischadium recurvum, on a concrete modular reef (75 m(2) surface area over 5 m(2) of river bottom) deployed subtidally at 7 m depth in the Rappahannock River, Virginia during October, 2000. After nearly 5 y (May 2005), we took 120 stratified random samples over the reef. The reef was ...


A Hierarchical Bayesian Modeling Approach For The Habitat Distribution Of Smooth Dogfish By Sex And Season In Inshore Coastal Waters Of The Us Northwest Atlantic, Andrea Dell'apa, Maria Grazia Pennino, Charles W Bangley, Christopher F. Bonzek Oct 2018

A Hierarchical Bayesian Modeling Approach For The Habitat Distribution Of Smooth Dogfish By Sex And Season In Inshore Coastal Waters Of The Us Northwest Atlantic, Andrea Dell'apa, Maria Grazia Pennino, Charles W Bangley, Christopher F. Bonzek

VIMS Articles

The Smooth Dogfish Mustelus canis is an abundant, small coastal shark occurring along the U.S. Atlantic coast. Despite being targeted by a directed fishery and having recently undergone a stock assessment that found the population neither overfished nor experiencing overfishing, little is known about the spatial and temporal distribution of this species. Here, we used catch data from the spring and fall Northeast Area Monitoring and Assessment Program's fishery-independent trawl surveys conducted between 2007 and 2016 and various environmental factors to perform hierarchical Bayesian modeling as a first attempt to spatially predict adult Smooth Dogfish CPUE in U ...


An Overview Of Factors Affecting Distribution Of The Atlantic Surfclam (Spisula Solidissima), A Continental Shelf Biomass Dominant, During A Period Of Climate Change, Ee Hofmann, En Powell, Jm Klinck, Dm Munroe, Roger L. Mann, Et Al Oct 2018

An Overview Of Factors Affecting Distribution Of The Atlantic Surfclam (Spisula Solidissima), A Continental Shelf Biomass Dominant, During A Period Of Climate Change, Ee Hofmann, En Powell, Jm Klinck, Dm Munroe, Roger L. Mann, Et Al

VIMS Articles

The Atlantic surfclam (Spisula solidissitna) is a dominant member of the biological community of the Middle Atlantic Bight continental shelf and a commercially harvested species. Climate warming is affecting the biology and distribution of this species, which provides an opportunity to investigate the processes and conditions that are restructuring this fishery and the implications for ecological and socioeconomic systems. A Management Strategy Evaluation (MSE) developed for the surfclam fishery provides a mechanistic description of the surfclam's response to climate change and understanding of the cascade of effects initiated by changes in oceanographic conditions that ultimately appear as social and ...


Fish Assemblage Change Following The Structural Restoration Of A Degraded Stream, Carl A. Favata, Anabela Maia, Manisha Pant, Vaskar Nepal Oct 2018

Fish Assemblage Change Following The Structural Restoration Of A Degraded Stream, Carl A. Favata, Anabela Maia, Manisha Pant, Vaskar Nepal

VIMS Articles

Decades of anthropogenic pressure have harmed riverscapes throughout North America by degrading habitats and water quality and can result in the extirpation of sensitive aquatic taxa. Local stream restoration projects have increased in frequency, but monitoring is still infrequent. In 2010, Kickapoo Creek in East Central Illinois was subjected to a stream restoration project that included implementation of artificial riffles, riprap, scouring keys, and riparian vegetation. We monitored the restoration efforts for 6years after the restoration through annual sampling efforts at restored and reference sites to determine changes in habitat and fish assemblage using standard habitat sampling and electrofishing techniques ...


Short-Term Pain And Long-Term Gain: Using Phased-In Minimum Size Limits To Rebuild Stocks-The Pacific Bluefin Tuna Example, Lisa E. Ailloud, Todd Gedamke, John M. Hoenig Oct 2018

Short-Term Pain And Long-Term Gain: Using Phased-In Minimum Size Limits To Rebuild Stocks-The Pacific Bluefin Tuna Example, Lisa E. Ailloud, Todd Gedamke, John M. Hoenig

VIMS Articles

Like many stocks, the Pacific Bluefin Tuna Thunnus orientalis has been considerably depleted. High exploitation rates on very young fish have reduced the spawning stock biomass (SSB) to 2.6% of the unexploited level. We provide a framework for exploring potential benefits of minimum size regulations as a mechanism for rebuilding stocks, and we illustrate the approach using simulations patterned after Pacific Bluefin Tuna dynamics. We attempt to mitigate short-term losses in yield by considering a phased-in management strategy. With this approach, the minimum size limit (MSL) is gradually increased as biomass rebuilds, giving fishing communities time to adjust to ...


Investigating The Life Cycle Of Haplosporidium Nelsoni (Msx), Se Ford, Na Stokes, Ka Alcox, Bsf Kraus, Rd Barber, Ryan Carnegie, Em Burreson Oct 2018

Investigating The Life Cycle Of Haplosporidium Nelsoni (Msx), Se Ford, Na Stokes, Ka Alcox, Bsf Kraus, Rd Barber, Ryan Carnegie, Em Burreson

VIMS Articles

Attempts to decipher the life cycle of Haplosporidium nelsoni began almost immediately after it was identified as the pathogen causing MSX disease in eastern oysters, Crassostrea virginica. But transmission experiments failed and the spore stage, characteristic of haplosporidans, was extremely rare. Researchers concluded that another host was involved: an intermediate host in which part of the life cycle was produced, or-if the oyster was an accidental host-an alternate host that produces infective elements. A later finding that spores were found more often in spat (< 1 y old) than in adults revived the idea of direct transmission between oysters. The new findings and the availability of molecular diagnostics led us to revive life cycle investigations. Over several years, oyster spat were examined for spores and searched for H. nelsoni in potential non-oyster hosts using both histological and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methodologies. Although ...


Restoring The Eastern Oyster: How Much Progress Has Been Made In 53 Years?, Ab Hernandez, Rd Brumbaugh, P Fredrick, R Grizzle, Mark Luckenbach, Ch Peterson, C Angelini Oct 2018

Restoring The Eastern Oyster: How Much Progress Has Been Made In 53 Years?, Ab Hernandez, Rd Brumbaugh, P Fredrick, R Grizzle, Mark Luckenbach, Ch Peterson, C Angelini

VIMS Articles

Coastal ecosystem restoration is accelerating globally as a means of enhancing shoreline protection, carbon storage, water quality, fisheries, and biodiversity. Among the most substantial of these efforts have been those focused on re-establishing oyster reefs across the US Atlantic and Gulf coasts. Despite considerable investment, it is unclear how the scale of and approaches toward oyster restoration have evolved. A synthesis of 1768 projects undertaken since 1964 reveals that oyster substrate restoration efforts have primarily been concentrated in the Chesapeake Bay and the Gulf Coast, have been heavily reliant on oyster shell, and have re-established 4.5% of the reef ...


Land Use And Salinity Drive Changes In Sav Abundance And Community Composition, Christopher J. Patrick,, Donald E. Weller,, R J. Orth, David J. Wilcox, Michael P. Hannam Sep 2018

Land Use And Salinity Drive Changes In Sav Abundance And Community Composition, Christopher J. Patrick,, Donald E. Weller,, R J. Orth, David J. Wilcox, Michael P. Hannam

VIMS Articles

Conserving and restoring submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) are key management goals for estuaries worldwide because SAV integrates many aspects of water quality and provides a wide range of ecosystem services. Management strategies are typically focused on aggregated abundance of several SAV species, because species cannot be easily distinguished in remotely sensed data. Human land use and shoreline alteration have been shown to negatively impact SAV abundance, but the effects have varied with study, spatial scale, and location. The differences in reported effects may be partly due to the focus on abundance, which overlooks within-community and among-community dynamics that generate total ...


Living Shorelines Support Nearshore Benthic Communities In Upper And Lower Chesapeake Bay, Tm Davenport, Rd Seitz, Ke Knick, N Jackson Sep 2018

Living Shorelines Support Nearshore Benthic Communities In Upper And Lower Chesapeake Bay, Tm Davenport, Rd Seitz, Ke Knick, N Jackson

VIMS Articles

Human population growth and sea-level rise are increasing the demand for protection of coastal property against shoreline erosion. Living shorelines are designed to provide shoreline protection and are constructed or reinforced using natural elements. While living shorelines are gaining popularity with homeowners, their ability to provide ecological services (e.g., habitat provision and trophic transfer) is not well understood, and information is needed to improve coastal and resource management decision-making. We examined benthic community responses to living shorelines in two case-study subestuaries of Chesapeake Bay using a before-after control-impact study design. At Windy Hill, a bulkhead was removed and replaced ...


Dermal Mycobacteriosis And Warming Sea Surface Temperatures Are Associated With Elevated Mortality Of Striped Bass In Chesapeake Bay, Maya L. Groner, John M. Hoenig, Roger Pradel, Remi Choquet, Wolfgang K. Vogelbein, David T. Gauthier, Marjorie A.M. Friedrichs Sep 2018

Dermal Mycobacteriosis And Warming Sea Surface Temperatures Are Associated With Elevated Mortality Of Striped Bass In Chesapeake Bay, Maya L. Groner, John M. Hoenig, Roger Pradel, Remi Choquet, Wolfgang K. Vogelbein, David T. Gauthier, Marjorie A.M. Friedrichs

VIMS Articles

Temperature is hypothesized to alter disease dynamics, particularly when species are living at or near their thermal limits. When disease occurs in marine systems, this can go undetected, particularly if the disease is chronic and progresses slowly. As a result, population-level impacts of diseases can be grossly underestimated. Complex migratory patterns, stochasticity in recruitment, and data and knowledge gaps can hinder collection and analysis of data on marine diseases. New tools enabling quantification of disease impacts in marine environments include coupled biogeochemical hydrodynamic models (to hindcast key environmental data), and multievent, multistate mark-recapture (MMSMR) (to quantify the effects of environmental ...


Discontinuities In Soil Strength Contribute To Destabilization Of Nutrient-Enriched Creeks, Cathleen Wigand, Elizabeth B. Watson, Rose Martin, David S. Johnson, R. Scott Warren, Alana Hanson, Earl Davey,, Roxanne Johnson, Linda Deegan, Aug 2018

Discontinuities In Soil Strength Contribute To Destabilization Of Nutrient-Enriched Creeks, Cathleen Wigand, Elizabeth B. Watson, Rose Martin, David S. Johnson, R. Scott Warren, Alana Hanson, Earl Davey,, Roxanne Johnson, Linda Deegan,

VIMS Articles

In a whole-ecosystem, nutrient addition experiment in the Plum Island Sound Estuary (Massachusetts), we tested the effects of nitrogen enrichment on the carbon and nitrogen contents, respiration, and strength of marsh soils. We measured soil shear strength within and across vegetation zones. We found significantly higher soil percent organic matter, carbon, and nitrogen in the long-term enriched marshes and higher soil respiration rates with longer duration of enrichment. The soil strength was similar in magnitude across depths and vegetation zones in the reference creeks, but showed signs of significant nutrient-mediated alteration in enriched creeks where shear strength at rooting depths ...


Human Influence At The Coast: Upland And Shoreline Stressors Affect Coastal Macrofauna And Are Mediated By Salinity, Rd Seitz, Kathleen E. Knick, Theresa M. Davenport, Gabrielle G. Saluta Aug 2018

Human Influence At The Coast: Upland And Shoreline Stressors Affect Coastal Macrofauna And Are Mediated By Salinity, Rd Seitz, Kathleen E. Knick, Theresa M. Davenport, Gabrielle G. Saluta

VIMS Articles

Anthropogenic stressors can affect subtidal communities within the land-water interface. Increasing anthropogenic activities, including upland and shoreline development, threaten ecologically important species in these habitats. In this study, we examined the consequences of anthropogenic stressors on benthic macrofaunal communities in 14 subestuaries of Chesapeake Bay. We investigated how subestuary upland use (forested, agricultural, developed land) and shoreline development (riprap and bulkhead compared to marsh and beach) affected density, biomass, and diversity of benthic infauna. Upland and shoreline development were parameters included in the most plausible models among a candidate set compared using corrected Akaike's Information Criterion. For benthic macrofauna ...


Impacts Of Coastal Land Use And Shoreline Armoring On Estuarine Ecosystems: An Introduction To A Special Issue, Diann J. Prosser, Thomas E Jordan, Jessica L. Nagel, Rochelle D. Seitz, Donald E. Weller, Dennis F. Whigham Aug 2018

Impacts Of Coastal Land Use And Shoreline Armoring On Estuarine Ecosystems: An Introduction To A Special Issue, Diann J. Prosser, Thomas E Jordan, Jessica L. Nagel, Rochelle D. Seitz, Donald E. Weller, Dennis F. Whigham

VIMS Articles

The nearshore land-water interface is an important ecological zone that faces anthropogenic pressure from development in coastal regions throughout the world. Coastal waters and estuaries like Chesapeake Bay receive and process land discharges loaded with anthropogenic nutrients and other pollutants that cause eutrophication, hypoxia, and other damage to shallow-water ecosystems. In addition, shorelines are increasingly armored with bulkhead (seawall), riprap, and other structures to protect human infrastructure against the threats of sea-level rise, storm surge, and erosion. Armoring can further influence estuarine and nearshore marine ecosystem functions by degrading water quality, spreading invasive species, and destroying ecologically valuable habitat. These ...


Abundance Trends Of Highly Migratory Species In The Atlantic Ocean: Accounting For Water Temperature Profiles, Patrick D. Lynch, Kyle W. Shertzer, Enric Cortes, Robert J. Latour Jul 2018

Abundance Trends Of Highly Migratory Species In The Atlantic Ocean: Accounting For Water Temperature Profiles, Patrick D. Lynch, Kyle W. Shertzer, Enric Cortes, Robert J. Latour

VIMS Articles

Relative abundance trends of highly migratory species (HMS) have played a central role in debates over the health of global fisheries. However, such trends have mostly been inferred from fishery catch rates, which can provide misleading signals of relative abundance. While many biases are accounted for through traditional catch rate standardization, pelagic habitat fished is rarely directly considered. Using a method that explicitly accounts for temperature regimes, we analysed data from the US pelagic longline fishery to estimate relative abundance trends for 34 HMS in the Atlantic Ocean from 1987 through 2013. This represents one of the largest studies of ...


Host And Symbionts In Pocillopora Damicornis Larvae Display Different Transcriptomic Responses To Ocean Acidification And Warming, Emily B. Rivest, Morgan B. Kelly, Melissa B. Debiasse, Gretchen E. Hofmann May 2018

Host And Symbionts In Pocillopora Damicornis Larvae Display Different Transcriptomic Responses To Ocean Acidification And Warming, Emily B. Rivest, Morgan B. Kelly, Melissa B. Debiasse, Gretchen E. Hofmann

VIMS Articles

As global ocean change progresses, reef-building corals and their early life history stages will rely on physiological plasticity to tolerate new environmental conditions. Larvae from brooding coral species contain algal symbionts upon release, which assist with the energy requirements of dispersal and metamorphosis. Global ocean change threatens the success of larval dispersal and settlement by challenging the performance of the larvae and of the symbiosis. In this study, larvae of the reef-building coral Pocillopora damicornis were exposed to elevated pCO2 and temperature to examine the performance of the coral and its symbionts in situ and better understand the mechanisms of ...


Gear And Survey Efficiency Of Patent Tongs For Oyster Populations On Restoration Reefs, David M. Schulte, Rom Lipcius, Rp Burke May 2018

Gear And Survey Efficiency Of Patent Tongs For Oyster Populations On Restoration Reefs, David M. Schulte, Rom Lipcius, Rp Burke

VIMS Articles

Surveys of restored oyster reefs need to produce accurate population estimates to assess the efficacy of restoration. Due to the complex structure of subtidal oyster reefs, one effective and efficient means to sample is by patent tongs, rather than SCUBA, dredges, or bottom cores. Restored reefs vary in relief and oyster density, either of which could affect survey efficiency. This study is the first to evaluate gear (the first full grab) and survey (which includes selecting a specific half portion of the first grab for further processing) efficiencies of hand-operated patent tongs as a function of reef height and oyster ...


Debating The Effectiveness Of Marine Protected Areas, Linwood H. Pendleton, Gabby N. Ahmadia, Howard I. Browman, Ruth Thurstan, David M. Kaplan, Valerio Bartolino May 2018

Debating The Effectiveness Of Marine Protected Areas, Linwood H. Pendleton, Gabby N. Ahmadia, Howard I. Browman, Ruth Thurstan, David M. Kaplan, Valerio Bartolino

VIMS Articles

Increasing the size and number of marine protected areas (MPAs) is widely seen as a way to meet ambitious biodiversity and sustainable development goals. Yet, debate still exists on the effectiveness of MPAs in achieving ecological and societal objectives. Although the literature provides significant evidence of the ecological effects of MPAs within their boundaries, much remains to be learned about the ecological and social effects of MPAs on regional and seascape scales. Key to improving the effectiveness of MPAs, and ensuring that they achieve desired outcomes, will be better monitoring that includes ecological and social data collected inside and outside ...


Activity Seascapes Highlight Central Place Foraging Strategies In Marine Predators That Never Stop Swimming, Yannis P. Papastamatiou, Yuuki Y. Watanabe, Urska Demšar, Vianey Leos-Barajas, Darcy Bradley, Roland Langrock, Kevin C. Weng, Christopher Lowe, Alan M. Friedlander, Jennifer E. Caselle May 2018

Activity Seascapes Highlight Central Place Foraging Strategies In Marine Predators That Never Stop Swimming, Yannis P. Papastamatiou, Yuuki Y. Watanabe, Urska Demšar, Vianey Leos-Barajas, Darcy Bradley, Roland Langrock, Kevin C. Weng, Christopher Lowe, Alan M. Friedlander, Jennifer E. Caselle

VIMS Articles

Background: Central place foragers (CPF) rest within a central place, and theory predicts that distance of patches from this central place sets the outer limits of the foraging arena. Many marine ectothermic predators behave like CPF animals, but never stop swimming, suggesting that predators will incur ‘travelling’ costs while resting. Currently, it is unknown how these CPF predators behave or how modulation of behavior contributes to daily energy budgets. We combine acoustic telemetry, multi-sensor loggers, and hidden Markov models (HMMs) to generate ‘activity seascapes’, which combine space use with patterns of activity, for reef sharks (blacktip reef and grey reef ...


Comparative Performance Of Three Length-Based Mortality Estimators, Quang C. Huynh, Jennifer Beckensteiner, Liese M. Carleton, Benjamin J. Marcek, Vaskar Nepal Kc, Cassidy D. Peterson, Megan A. Wood, John M. Hoenig May 2018

Comparative Performance Of Three Length-Based Mortality Estimators, Quang C. Huynh, Jennifer Beckensteiner, Liese M. Carleton, Benjamin J. Marcek, Vaskar Nepal Kc, Cassidy D. Peterson, Megan A. Wood, John M. Hoenig

VIMS Articles

Length‐based methods provide alternatives for estimating the instantaneous total mortality rate (Z) in exploited marine populations when data are not available for age‐based methods. We compared the performance of three equilibrium length‐based methods: the length‐converted catch curve (LCCC), the Beverton–Holt equation (BHE), and the length‐based spawning potential ratio (LB‐SPR) method. The LCCC and BHE are two historically common procedures that use length as a proxy for age. From a truncated length‐frequency distribution of fully selected animals, the LCCC estimates Z with a regression of the logarithm of catch at length by the ...


Tidal Habitats Support Large Numbers Of Invasive Blue Catfish In A Chesapeake Bay Subestuary, Mary C. Fabrizio, Troy D. Tuckey, Robert J. Latour, Gary C. White, Alicia J. Norris May 2018

Tidal Habitats Support Large Numbers Of Invasive Blue Catfish In A Chesapeake Bay Subestuary, Mary C. Fabrizio, Troy D. Tuckey, Robert J. Latour, Gary C. White, Alicia J. Norris

VIMS Articles

The introduction of a non-native freshwater fish, blue catfish Ictalurus furcatus, in tributaries of Chesapeake Bay resulted in the establishment of fisheries and in the expansion of the population into brackish habitats. Blue catfish are an invasive species in the Chesapeake Bay region, and efforts are underway to limit their impacts on native communities. Key characteristics of the population (population size, survival rates) are unknown, but such knowledge is useful in understanding the impact of blue catfish in estuarine systems. We estimated population size and survival rates of blue catfish in tidal habitats of the James River subestuary. We tagged ...


Allometry Of Individual Reproduction And Defense In Eusocial Colonies: A Comparative Approach To Trade-Offs In Social Sponge- Dwelling Synalpheus Shrimps, Sarah L. Bornbusch, Jonathan S. Lefcheck, J. Emmett Duffy Mar 2018

Allometry Of Individual Reproduction And Defense In Eusocial Colonies: A Comparative Approach To Trade-Offs In Social Sponge- Dwelling Synalpheus Shrimps, Sarah L. Bornbusch, Jonathan S. Lefcheck, J. Emmett Duffy

VIMS Articles

Eusociality, one of the most complex forms of social organization, is thought to have evolved in several animal clades in response to competition for resources and reproductive opportunities. Several species of snapping shrimp in the genus Synalpheus, the only marine organisms known to exhibit eusociality, form colonies characterized by high reproductive skew, and aggressive territoriality coupled with cooperative defense. In eusocial Synalpheus colonies, individual reproduction is limited to female 'queens', whose fecundity dictates colony growth. Given that individual reproduction and defense are both energetically costly, individual and colony fitness likely depend on the optimal allocation of resources by these reproducing ...