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VIMS Articles

2016

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Articles 1 - 30 of 76

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Impact Of Environment And Ontogeny On Relative Fecundity And Egg Quality Of Female Oysters (Crassostrea Virginica) From Four Sites In Northern Chesapeake Bay, Hl Glandon, Ak Michaelis, Et Al, Kimberly S. Reece, Et Al Dec 2016

Impact Of Environment And Ontogeny On Relative Fecundity And Egg Quality Of Female Oysters (Crassostrea Virginica) From Four Sites In Northern Chesapeake Bay, Hl Glandon, Ak Michaelis, Et Al, Kimberly S. Reece, Et Al

VIMS Articles

Resource allocation to reproduction is a primary physiological concern for individuals, and can vary with age, environment, or a combination of both factors. In this study we quantified the impact of environment and individual age on the reproductive output of female oysters Crassostrea virginica. We determined the relative fecundity, egg total lipid content, and overall and omega- 3/omega-6 fatty acid signatures (FAS) of eggs spawned by female oysters over a 2-year period (n = 32 and n = 64). Variation was quantified spatially and ontogenetically by sampling young and old oyster populations from two rivers in Chesapeake Bay, totaling four collection ...


Temporal Dynamics Of Condition For Estuarine Fishes In Their Nursery Habitats, R. W. Schloesser, Mary C. Fabrizio Sep 2016

Temporal Dynamics Of Condition For Estuarine Fishes In Their Nursery Habitats, R. W. Schloesser, Mary C. Fabrizio

VIMS Articles

The condition of individuals in a year class may contribute to recruitment variability due to differential survival of poor-and well-conditioned fish, but the temporal dynamics of juvenile fish condition are poorly understood. We examined inter- and intra-annual dynamics of condition for juveniles of 3 species collected from estuarine nursery areas of Chesapeake Bay from November 2010 to June 2014. We describe temporal patterns in length-based indices, the hepatosomatic index (HSI), and relative subdermal lipid estimates for juvenile summer flounder Paralichthys dentatus (n = 1771), Atlantic croaker Micropogonias undulatus (n = 3911), and striped bass Morone saxatilis (n = 874). Multiple indices provided a ...


The Demographic Consequences Of Growing Older And Bigger In Oyster Populations, Jl Moore, Rom Lipcius, B Puckettt, Sj Schrieber Aug 2016

The Demographic Consequences Of Growing Older And Bigger In Oyster Populations, Jl Moore, Rom Lipcius, B Puckettt, Sj Schrieber

VIMS Articles

Structured population models, particularly size-or age-structured, have a long history of informing conservation and natural resource management. While size is often easier to measure than age and is the focus of many management strategies, age-structure can have important effects on population dynamics that are not captured in size-only models. However, relatively few studies have included the simultaneous effects of both age-and size-structure. To better understand how population structure, particularly that of age and size, impacts restoration and management decisions, we developed and compared a size-structured integral projection model (IPM) and an age-and size-structured IPM, using a population of Crassostrea gigas ...


Quantitative Validation Of A Habitat Suitability Index For Oyster Restoration, Seth J. Theuerkauf, Rom Lipcius May 2016

Quantitative Validation Of A Habitat Suitability Index For Oyster Restoration, Seth J. Theuerkauf, Rom Lipcius

VIMS Articles

Habitat suitability index (HSI) models provide spatially explicit information on the capacity of a given habitat to support a species of interest, and their prevalence has increased dramatically in recent years. Despite caution that the reliability of HSIs must be validated using independent, quantitative data, most HSIs intended to inform terrestrial and marine species management remain unvalidated. Furthermore, of the eight HSI models developed for eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) restoration and fishery production, none has been validated. Consequently, we developed, calibrated, and validated an HSI for the eastern oyster to identify optimal habitat for restoration in a tributary of Chesapeake ...


Biodiversity Enhances Reef Fish Biomass And Resistance To Climate Change, Je Duffy, Js Lefcheck, Rd Stuart-Smith, Sa Navarrete, Gj Edgar Jan 2016

Biodiversity Enhances Reef Fish Biomass And Resistance To Climate Change, Je Duffy, Js Lefcheck, Rd Stuart-Smith, Sa Navarrete, Gj Edgar

VIMS Articles

Fishes are the most diverse group of vertebrates, play key functional roles in aquatic ecosystems, and provide protein for a billion people, especially in the developing world. Those functions are compromised by mounting pressures on marine biodiversity and ecosystems. Because of its economic and food value, fish biomass production provides an unusually direct link from biodiversity to critical ecosystem services. We used the Reef Life Survey's global database of 4,556 standardized fish surveys to test the importance of biodiversity to fish production relative to 25 environmental drivers. Temperature, biodiversity, and human influence together explained 47% of the global ...


Patterns Of Genome Size Variation In Snapping Shrimp, Nw Jeffery, K Hultgren, Stc Chak, Tr Gregory, Dr Rubenstein Jan 2016

Patterns Of Genome Size Variation In Snapping Shrimp, Nw Jeffery, K Hultgren, Stc Chak, Tr Gregory, Dr Rubenstein

VIMS Articles

Although crustaceans vary extensively in genome size, little is known about how genome size may affect the ecology and evolution of species in this diverse group, in part due to the lack of large genome size datasets. Here we investigate interspecific, intraspecific, and intracolony variation in genome size in 39 species of Synalpheus shrimps, representing one of the largest genome size datasets for a single genus within crustaceans. We find that genome size ranges approximately 4-fold across Synalpheus with little phylogenetic signal, and is not related to body size. In a subset of these species, genome size is related to ...


The Logic Of Comparative Life History Studies For Estimating Key Parameters, With A Focus On Natural Mortality Rate, Jm Hoenig, Ayh Then, Ea Babcock, Ng Hall, Da Hewitt, Sa Hesp Jan 2016

The Logic Of Comparative Life History Studies For Estimating Key Parameters, With A Focus On Natural Mortality Rate, Jm Hoenig, Ayh Then, Ea Babcock, Ng Hall, Da Hewitt, Sa Hesp

VIMS Articles

There are a number of key parameters in population dynamics that are difficult to estimate, such as natural mortality rate, intrinsic rate of population growth, and stock-recruitment relationships. Often, these parameters of a stock are, or can be, estimated indirectly on the basis of comparative life history studies. That is, the relationship between a difficult to estimate parameter and life history correlates is examined over a wide variety of species in order to develop predictive equations. The form of these equations may be derived from life history theory or simply be suggested by exploratory data analysis. Similarly, population characteristics such ...


Interannual And Seasonal Variabilities In Air-Sea Co2 Fluxes Along The Us Eastern Continental Shelf And Their Sensitivity To Increasing Air Temperatures And Variable Winds, Bronwyn Cahill, John Wilkin, Katja Fennel, Doug Vandemark, Marjorie A.M. Friedrichs Jan 2016

Interannual And Seasonal Variabilities In Air-Sea Co2 Fluxes Along The Us Eastern Continental Shelf And Their Sensitivity To Increasing Air Temperatures And Variable Winds, Bronwyn Cahill, John Wilkin, Katja Fennel, Doug Vandemark, Marjorie A.M. Friedrichs

VIMS Articles

Uncertainty in continental shelf air-sea CO2 fluxes motivated us to investigate the impact of interannual and seasonal variabilities in atmospheric forcing on the capacity of three shelf regions along the U.S. eastern continental shelf to act as a sink or source of atmospheric CO2. Our study uses a coupled biogeochemical-circulation model to simulate scenarios of present-day and future-perturbed mesoscale forcing variability. Overall, the U.S. eastern continental shelf acts as a sink for atmospheric CO2. There is a clear gradient in air-sea CO2 flux along the shelf region, with estimates ranging from -0.6MtCyr(-1) in the South Atlantic ...


Chemical Formation Of Hybrid Di-Nitrogen Calls Fungal Codenitrification Into Question, Rebecca L. Phillips, Bk Song, Andrew M. S. Mcmillan, Gwen Grelet, Bevan S. Weir, Thilak Palmada, Craig Tobias Jan 2016

Chemical Formation Of Hybrid Di-Nitrogen Calls Fungal Codenitrification Into Question, Rebecca L. Phillips, Bk Song, Andrew M. S. Mcmillan, Gwen Grelet, Bevan S. Weir, Thilak Palmada, Craig Tobias

VIMS Articles

Removal of excess nitrogen (N) can best be achieved through denitrification processes that transform N in water and terrestrial ecosystems to di-nitrogen (N-2) gas. The greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O) is considered an intermediate or end-product in denitrification pathways. Both abiotic and biotic denitrification processes use a single N source to form N2O. However, N-2 can be formed from two distinct N sources (known as hybrid N-2) through biologically mediated processes of anammox and codenitrification. We questioned if hybrid N-2 produced during fungal incubation at neutral pH could be attributed to abiotic nitrosation and if N2O was consumed during N-2 ...


Faunal Communities Are Invariant To Fragmentation In Experimental Seagrass Landscapes, Jonathan S. Lefcheck, Scott R. Marion, Alfonso V. Lombana, R J. Orth Jan 2016

Faunal Communities Are Invariant To Fragmentation In Experimental Seagrass Landscapes, Jonathan S. Lefcheck, Scott R. Marion, Alfonso V. Lombana, R J. Orth

VIMS Articles

Human-driven habitat fragmentation is cited as one of the most pressing threats facing many coastal ecosystems today. Many experiments have explored the consequences of fragmentation on fauna in one foundational habitat, seagrass beds, but have either surveyed along a gradient of existing patchiness, used artificial materials to mimic a natural bed, or sampled over short timescales. Here, we describe faunal responses to constructed fragmented landscapes varying from 4-400 m(2) in two transplant garden experiments incorporating live eelgrass (Zostera marina L.). In experiments replicated within two subestuaries of the Chesapeake Bay, USA across multiple seasons and non-consecutive years, we comprehensively ...


Optimal Hurricane Overwash Thickness For Maximizing Marsh Resilience To Sea Level Rise, David C. Walters, Matthew L. Kirwan Jan 2016

Optimal Hurricane Overwash Thickness For Maximizing Marsh Resilience To Sea Level Rise, David C. Walters, Matthew L. Kirwan

VIMS Articles

The interplay between storms and sea level rise, and between ecology and sediment transport governs the behavior of rapidly evolving coastal ecosystems such as marshes and barrier islands. Sediment deposition during hurricanes is thought to increase the resilience of salt marshes to sea level rise by increasing soil elevation and vegetation productivity. We use mesocosms to simulate burial of Spartina alterniflora during hurricane-induced overwash events of various thickness (0-60 cm), and find that adventitious root growth within the overwash sediment layer increases total biomass by up to 120%. In contrast to most previous work illustrating a simple positive relationship between ...


The Dilemma Of Derelict Gear, Andrew M. Scheld, D. M. Bilkovic, Kirk J. Havens Jan 2016

The Dilemma Of Derelict Gear, Andrew M. Scheld, D. M. Bilkovic, Kirk J. Havens

VIMS Articles

Every year, millions of pots and traps are lost in crustacean fisheries around the world. Derelict fishing gear has been found to produce several harmful environmental and ecological effects, however socioeconomic consequences have been investigated less frequently. We analyze the economic effects of a substantial derelict pot removal program in the largest estuary of the United States, the Chesapeake Bay. By combining spatially resolved data on derelict pot removals with commercial blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) harvests and effort, we show that removing 34,408 derelict pots led to significant gains in gear efficiency and an additional 13,504 MT in ...


Themed Issue Article: Conservation Physiology Of Marine Fishes Fisheries Conservation On The High Seas: Linking Conservation Physiology And Fisheries Ecology For The Management Of Large Pelagic Fishes, Andrij Z. Horodysky, Steven J. Cooke, John Graves, Richard Brill Jan 2016

Themed Issue Article: Conservation Physiology Of Marine Fishes Fisheries Conservation On The High Seas: Linking Conservation Physiology And Fisheries Ecology For The Management Of Large Pelagic Fishes, Andrij Z. Horodysky, Steven J. Cooke, John Graves, Richard Brill

VIMS Articles

Populations of tunas, billfishes and pelagic sharks are fished at or over capacity in many regions of the world. They are captured by directed commercial and recreational fisheries (the latter of which often promote catch and release) or as incidental catch or bycatch in commercial fisheries. Population assessments of pelagic fishes typically incorporate catch-per-unit-effort time-series data from commercial and recreational fisheries; however, there have been notable changes in target species, areas fished and depth-specific gear deployments over the years that may have affected catchability. Some regional fisheries management organizations take into account the effects of time-and area-specific changes in the ...


Diel Variations In Survey Catch Rates And Survey Catchability Of Spiny Dogfish And Their Pelagic Prey In The Northeast Us Continental Shelf Large Marine Ecosystem, Skyler R. Sagarese, Michael G. Frisk, Robert M. Cerrato, Kathy A. Sosebee, John A. Musick Jan 2016

Diel Variations In Survey Catch Rates And Survey Catchability Of Spiny Dogfish And Their Pelagic Prey In The Northeast Us Continental Shelf Large Marine Ecosystem, Skyler R. Sagarese, Michael G. Frisk, Robert M. Cerrato, Kathy A. Sosebee, John A. Musick

VIMS Articles

This study examines the potential uncertainty in survey biomass estimates of Spiny Dogfish Squalus acanthias in the Northeast U.S. Continental Shelf Large Marine Ecosystem (NES LME). Diel catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE) estimates are examined from the Northeast Fisheries Science Center bottom trawl surveys conducted during autumn (1963-2009) and spring (1968-2009). Influential environmental variables on survey catchability are identified for Spiny Dogfish life history stages and five pelagic prey species: Butterfish Peprilus triacanthus, Atlantic Herring Clupea harengus, shortfin squid Illex spp., longfin squid Doryteuthis spp., and Atlantic Mackerel Scomber scombrus. Daytime survey catchability was significantly higher than nighttime catchability for most species ...


Contribution And Pathways Of Diazotroph-Derived Nitrogen To Zooplankton During The Vahine Mesocosm Experiment In The Oligotrophic New Caledonia Lagoon, Brian P. V. Hunt, Sophie Bonnet, Hugo Berthelot, Brandon J. Conroy, Rachel A. Foster, Marc Pagano Jan 2016

Contribution And Pathways Of Diazotroph-Derived Nitrogen To Zooplankton During The Vahine Mesocosm Experiment In The Oligotrophic New Caledonia Lagoon, Brian P. V. Hunt, Sophie Bonnet, Hugo Berthelot, Brandon J. Conroy, Rachel A. Foster, Marc Pagano

VIMS Articles

In oligotrophic tropical and subtropical oceans, where strong stratification can limit the replenishment of surface nitrate, dinitrogen (N-2) fixation by diazotrophs can represent a significant source of nitrogen (N) for primary production. The VAHINE (VAriability of vertical and tropHIc transfer of fixed N-2 in the south-wEst Pacific) experiment was designed to examine the fate of diazotroph-derived nitrogen (DDN) in such ecosystems. In austral summer 2013, three large ( similar to aEuro parts per thousand aEuro-50aEuro-m(3)) in situ mesocosms were deployed for 23 days in the New Caledonia lagoon, an ecosystem that typifies the low-nutrient, low-chlorophyll environment, to stimulate diazotroph production ...


Oyster Planting Protocols To Deter Losses To Cownose Ray Predation, Roger L. Mann, Melissa Southworth, Robert A. Fisher, James A. Wesson, A. J. Erskine, T Leggett Jan 2016

Oyster Planting Protocols To Deter Losses To Cownose Ray Predation, Roger L. Mann, Melissa Southworth, Robert A. Fisher, James A. Wesson, A. J. Erskine, T Leggett

VIMS Articles

The utility of shell overlays to oyster (Crassostrea virginica) plantings as a cownose ray (Rhinoptera bonasus) predator deterrence mechanism was examined. Typical industry practice of oyster seed planting was followed in an experimental design employing treatment areas of 0.5-1.0 acre (0.2-0.4 hectare). Areas were prepared in the Lower Machodoc Creek, Virginia, by the initial application of shell to insure a stable substrate under planted seed oysters. Seed oysters were planted using standard industry methods. Experimental areas were located, two upstream and two downstream, of a constriction in the Lower Machodoc that dictated differing physical environments in ...


Variability In Fish Tissue Proximate Composition Is Consistent With Indirect Effects Of Hypoxia In Chesapeake Bay Tributaries, Troy Tuckey, Mary C. Fabrizio Jan 2016

Variability In Fish Tissue Proximate Composition Is Consistent With Indirect Effects Of Hypoxia In Chesapeake Bay Tributaries, Troy Tuckey, Mary C. Fabrizio

VIMS Articles

The spatial and temporal extent of summer hypoxia (dissolved oxygen [DO] concentration <= 2 mg/L) in Chesapeake Bay and its tributaries has been increasing for decades, consequently affecting fish distribution and abundance by shifting biomass to non-hypoxic habitats. Hypoxia in coastal waters impacts food web dynamics, thereby limiting ecosystem productivity and affecting regional fisheries. Additionally, laboratory studies of Atlantic Croakers Micropogonias undulatus have shown that hypoxia serves as an endocrine disruptor, reducing the production of the yolk precursor vitellogenin as well as affecting other biochemical pathways. Reproductive potential is therefore lower in hypoxia-exposed Atlantic Croakers than in fish that are taken from normoxic conditions. We examined field-caught Atlantic Croakers from three Chesapeake Bay tributaries with different DO levels to evaluate patterns in the lipid content of somatic and gonadal tissues. We found that somatic lipid content was not affected by the presence of hypoxia, whereas ovarian lipid content was significantly affected by the severity of hypoxia. Furthermore, Atlantic Croakers that were exposed indirectly to mild hypoxia (lasting hours to days) exhibited greater ovarian lipid content than fish that were captured from normoxic sites. As expected, severe hypoxia reduced the ability of Atlantic Croakers to accumulate lipids in their ovaries, likely affecting reproductive output. Stock assessment models that ignore the effects of hypoxia may yield overly optimistic production estimates for hypoxia-exposed populations, particularly if environmentally invariant fecundity and growth are assumed.


Prediction Of The Export And Fate Of Global Ocean Net Primary Production: The Exports Science Plan, Da Siegel, Ko Buesseler, Et Al, Deborah K. Steinberg Jan 2016

Prediction Of The Export And Fate Of Global Ocean Net Primary Production: The Exports Science Plan, Da Siegel, Ko Buesseler, Et Al, Deborah K. Steinberg

VIMS Articles

Ocean ecosystems play a critical role in the Earth's carbon cycle and the quantification of their impacts for both present conditions and for predictions into the future remains one of the greatest challenges in oceanography. The goal of the EXport Processes in the Ocean from Remote Sensing (EXPORTS) Science Plan is to develop a predictive understanding of the export and fate of global ocean net primary production (NPP) and its implications for present and future climates. The achievement of this goal requires a quantification of the mechanisms that control the export of carbon from the euphotic zone as well ...


A Carbon Budget For The Amundsen Sea Polynya, Antarctica: Estimating Net Community Production And Export In A Highly Productive Polar Ecosystem, Pl Yager, Rm Sherrell, Et Al, Re Sipler, Et Al Jan 2016

A Carbon Budget For The Amundsen Sea Polynya, Antarctica: Estimating Net Community Production And Export In A Highly Productive Polar Ecosystem, Pl Yager, Rm Sherrell, Et Al, Re Sipler, Et Al

VIMS Articles

Polynyas, or recurring areas of seasonally open water surrounded by sea ice, are foci for energy and material transfer between the atmosphere and the polar ocean. They are also climate sensitive, with both sea ice extent and glacial melt influencing their productivity. The Amundsen Sea Polynya (ASP) is the greenest polynya in the Southern Ocean, with summertime chlorophyll a concentrations exceeding 20 μg L−1. During the Amundsen Sea Polynya International Research Expedition (ASPIRE) in austral summer 2010–11, we aimed to determine the fate of this high algal productivity. We collected water column profiles for total dissolved inorganic carbon ...


Responses Of Antarctic Marine And Freshwater Ecosystems To Changing Ice Conditions, Mk Obryk, Pt Doran, Et Al, Deborah K. Steinberg, Hw Ducklow Jan 2016

Responses Of Antarctic Marine And Freshwater Ecosystems To Changing Ice Conditions, Mk Obryk, Pt Doran, Et Al, Deborah K. Steinberg, Hw Ducklow

VIMS Articles

Polar regions are warming more rapidly than lower latitudes, and climate models predict that this trend will continue into the coming decades. Despite these observations and predictions, relatively little is known about how polar ecosystems have responded and will continue to respond to this change. Two Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) sites, located in contrasting environments in Antarctica, have been studying marine and aquatic terrestrial ecosystems for more than two decades. We use data from these research areas to show that the extent and thickness of ice covers are highly sensitive to short- and long-term climate variation and that this variation ...


Challenges Associated With Modeling Low-Oxygen Waters In Chesapeake Bay: A Multiple Model Comparison, Isaac D. Irby, Marjorie A.M. Friedrichs, Carl T. Friedrichs, Aaron Bever, Raleigh R. Hood, Lyon W.J. Lanerolle, Ming Li, Lewis Linker, Malcolm Scully, Kevin Sellner, Jian Shen, Jeremy Testa, Hao Wang, Peng Wang, Meng Xia Jan 2016

Challenges Associated With Modeling Low-Oxygen Waters In Chesapeake Bay: A Multiple Model Comparison, Isaac D. Irby, Marjorie A.M. Friedrichs, Carl T. Friedrichs, Aaron Bever, Raleigh R. Hood, Lyon W.J. Lanerolle, Ming Li, Lewis Linker, Malcolm Scully, Kevin Sellner, Jian Shen, Jeremy Testa, Hao Wang, Peng Wang, Meng Xia

VIMS Articles

As three-dimensional (3-D) aquatic ecosystem models are used more frequently for operational water quality forecasts and ecological management decisions, it is important to understand the relative strengths and limitations of existing 3-D models of varying spatial resolution and biogeochemical complexity. To this end, 2-year simulations of the Chesapeake Bay from eight hydrodynamic-oxygen models have been statistically compared to each other and to historical monitoring data. Results show that although models have difficulty resolving the variables typically thought to be the main drivers of dissolved oxygen variability (stratification, nutrients, and chlorophyll), all eight models have significant skill in reproducing the mean ...


The Nature Of Organic Carbon In Density-Fractionated Sediments In The Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta (California), S. G. Wakeham, Elizabeth A. Canuel Jan 2016

The Nature Of Organic Carbon In Density-Fractionated Sediments In The Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta (California), S. G. Wakeham, Elizabeth A. Canuel

VIMS Articles

Rivers are the primary means by which sediments and carbon are transported from the terrestrial biosphere to the oceans but gaps remain in our understanding of carbon associations from source to sink. Bed sediments from the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta (CA) were fractionated according to density and analyzed for sediment mass distribution, elemental (C and N) composition, mineral surface area, and stable carbon and radiocarbon isotope compositions of organic carbon (OC) and fatty acids to evaluate the nature of organic carbon in river sediments. OC was unevenly distributed among density fractions. Mass and OC were in general concentrated in mesodensity ...


Dissolved Organic Carbon Fluxes In The Middle Atlantic Bight: An Integrated Approach Based On Satellite Data And Ocean Model Products, Antonio Mannino, Sergio R. Signorini, Michael Novak, John Wilkin, Marjorie A.M. Friedrichs, Raymond G. Najjar Jan 2016

Dissolved Organic Carbon Fluxes In The Middle Atlantic Bight: An Integrated Approach Based On Satellite Data And Ocean Model Products, Antonio Mannino, Sergio R. Signorini, Michael Novak, John Wilkin, Marjorie A.M. Friedrichs, Raymond G. Najjar

VIMS Articles

Continental margins play an important role in global carbon cycle, accounting for 15-21% of the global marine primary production. Since carbon fluxes across continental margins from land to the open ocean are not well constrained, we undertook a study to develop satellite algorithms to retrieve dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and combined these satellite data with physical circulation model products to quantify the shelf boundary fluxes of DOC for the U.S. Middle Atlantic Bight (MAB). Satellite DOC was computed through seasonal relationships of DOC with colored dissolved organic matter absorption coefficients, which were derived from an extensive set of in ...


Saltmarsh Plant Responses To Eutrophication, David S. Johnson, Rs Warren, La Deegan, Tj Mozdzer Jan 2016

Saltmarsh Plant Responses To Eutrophication, David S. Johnson, Rs Warren, La Deegan, Tj Mozdzer

VIMS Articles

In saltmarsh plant communities, bottom-up pressure from nutrient enrichment is predicted to increase productivity, alter community structure, decrease biodiversity, and alter ecosystem functioning. Previous work supporting these predictions has been based largely on short-term, plot-level (e.g., 1-300 m(2)) studies, which may miss landscape-level phenomena that drive ecosystem-level responses. We implemented an ecosystem-scale, nine-year nutrient experiment to examine how saltmarsh plants respond to simulated conditions of coastal eutrophication. Our study differed from previous saltmarsh enrichment studies in that we applied realistic concentrations of nitrate (70-100 mu M NO3-), the most common form of coastal nutrient enrichment, via tidal water ...


Improving Marine Disease Surveillance Through Sea Temperature Monitoring, Outlooks And Projections, J Maynard, R Van Hooidonk, Cd Harvell, Cm Eakin, G Liu, Jeffrey D. Shields, Et Al. Jan 2016

Improving Marine Disease Surveillance Through Sea Temperature Monitoring, Outlooks And Projections, J Maynard, R Van Hooidonk, Cd Harvell, Cm Eakin, G Liu, Jeffrey D. Shields, Et Al.

VIMS Articles

To forecast marine disease outbreaks as oceans warm requires new environmental surveillance tools. We describe an iterative process for developing these tools that combines research, development and deployment for suitable systems. The first step is to identify candidate host-pathogen systems. The 24 candidate systems we identified include sponges, corals, oysters, crustaceans, sea stars, fishes and sea grasses (among others). To illustrate the other steps, we present a case study of epizootic shell disease (ESD) in the American lobster. Increasing prevalence of ESD is a contributing factor to lobster fishery collapse in southern New England (SNE), raising concerns that disease prevalence ...


Parallelism And Epistasis In Skeletal Evolution Identified Through Use Of Phylogenomic Mapping Strategies, Jm Daane, N Rohner, P Konstantinidis, S Djuranovic, Mp Harris Jan 2016

Parallelism And Epistasis In Skeletal Evolution Identified Through Use Of Phylogenomic Mapping Strategies, Jm Daane, N Rohner, P Konstantinidis, S Djuranovic, Mp Harris

VIMS Articles

The identification of genetic mechanisms underlying evolutionary change is critical to our understanding of natural diversity, but is presently limited by the lack of genetic and genomic resources for most species. Here, we present a new comparative genomic approach that can be applied to a broad taxonomic sampling of nonmodel species to investigate the genetic basis of evolutionary change. Using our analysis pipeline, we show that duplication and divergence of fgfr1a is correlated with the reduction of scales within fishes of the genus Phoxinellus. As a parallel genetic mechanism is observed in scale-reduction within independent lineages of cypriniforms, our finding ...


Critical Assessment And Ramifications Of A Purported Marine Trophic Cascade, R. Dean Grubbs, John K. Carleson, Jason G. Romine, Tobey H. Curtis, W. David Mcelroy, Camilla T. Candless, Charles F. Cotton, John A. Musick Jan 2016

Critical Assessment And Ramifications Of A Purported Marine Trophic Cascade, R. Dean Grubbs, John K. Carleson, Jason G. Romine, Tobey H. Curtis, W. David Mcelroy, Camilla T. Candless, Charles F. Cotton, John A. Musick

VIMS Articles

When identifying potential trophic cascades, it is important to clearly establish the trophic linkages between predators and prey with respect to temporal abundance, demographics, distribution, and diet. In the northwest Atlantic Ocean, the depletion of large coastal sharks was thought to trigger a trophic cascade whereby predation release resulted in increased cownose ray abundance, which then caused increased predation on and subsequent collapse of commercial bivalve stocks. These claims were used to justify the development of a predator-control fishery for cownose rays, the “Save the Bay, Eat a Ray” fishery, to reduce predation on commercial bivalves. A reexamination of data ...


Experimental Assessment Of Lionfish Removals To Mitigate Reef Fish Community Shifts On Northern Gulf Of Mexico Artificial Reefs, Kristen A. Dahl, William F. Patterson, Richard A. Snyder Jan 2016

Experimental Assessment Of Lionfish Removals To Mitigate Reef Fish Community Shifts On Northern Gulf Of Mexico Artificial Reefs, Kristen A. Dahl, William F. Patterson, Richard A. Snyder

VIMS Articles

Substantial declines in reef fishes were observed at northern Gulf of Mexico artificial reef sites between 2009-2010 and 2011-2012, a period that bracketed the appearance of invasive lionfish in this ecosystem. Small demersal reef fishes, the predominant prey of lionfish in other systems, displayed the greatest declines. However, a confounding factor during this time was the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill (DWH) in summer 2010. In some areas, targeted lionfish removals have been demonstrated to mitigate negative effects on native fishes. Therefore, we conducted a 2 yr experiment to examine the effectiveness and ecological benefits of targeted lionfish removals at artificial ...


An Individual-Based Approach To Year-Class Strength Estimation, S Thanassekos, Rj Latour, Mary C. Fabrizio Jan 2016

An Individual-Based Approach To Year-Class Strength Estimation, S Thanassekos, Rj Latour, Mary C. Fabrizio

VIMS Articles

Estimating year-class strength-the number of larvae hatched in a given year-from survey data is key to investigating fish population dynamics. Year-class strength can be estimated from catch-at-age data using catch curves. In practice, most catch-curve assumptions are violated, which can result in spurious estimates of year-class strength. Among the simplifying assumptions is that pooling individuals into annual age-classes provides a representation of the population age structure that is adequate for estimating mortality. This oversimplification is unnecessary when age data are available at finer scales, and can lead to biased results. We present a new method to estimate past year-class strength ...


Ahr-Related Activities In A Creosote-Adapted Population Of Adult Atlantic Killifish, Fundulus Heteroclitus, Two Decades Post-Epa Superfund Status At The Atlantic Wood Site, Portsmouth, Va Usa, Jv Wojdylo, Wolfgang K. Vogelbein, Lj Bain, Cd Rice Jan 2016

Ahr-Related Activities In A Creosote-Adapted Population Of Adult Atlantic Killifish, Fundulus Heteroclitus, Two Decades Post-Epa Superfund Status At The Atlantic Wood Site, Portsmouth, Va Usa, Jv Wojdylo, Wolfgang K. Vogelbein, Lj Bain, Cd Rice

VIMS Articles

Atlantic killifish, Fundulus heteroclitus, are adapted to creosote-based PAHs at the US EPA Superfund site known as Atlantic Wood (AW) on the southern branch of the Elizabeth River, VA USA. Subsequent to the discovery of the AW population in the early 1990s, these fish were shown to be recalcitrant to CYP1A induction by PAHs under experimental conditions, and even to the time of this study, killifish embryos collected from the AW site are resistant to developmental deformities typically associated with exposure to PAHs in reference fish. Historically, however, 90 +% of the adult killifish at this site have proliferative hepatic lesions ...