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VIMS Articles

2015

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Articles 1 - 30 of 69

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Squidpops: A Simple Tool To Crowdsource A Global Map Of Marine Predation Intensity, J. Emmett Duffy, Shelby L. Zeigler, Justin E. Campbell, Paige M. Bippus, Jonathan S. Lefcheck Nov 2015

Squidpops: A Simple Tool To Crowdsource A Global Map Of Marine Predation Intensity, J. Emmett Duffy, Shelby L. Zeigler, Justin E. Campbell, Paige M. Bippus, Jonathan S. Lefcheck

VIMS Articles

We present a simple, standardized assay, the squidpop, for measuring the relative feeding intensity of generalist predators in aquatic systems. The assay consists of a 1.3-cm diameter disk of dried squid mantle tethered to a rod, which is either inserted in the sediment in soft-bottom habitats or secured to existing structure. Each replicate squidpop is scored as present or absent after 1 and 24 hours, and the data for analysis are proportions of replicate units consumed at each time. Tests in several habitats of the temperate southeastern USA (Virginia and North Carolina) and tropical Central America (Belize) confirmed the ...


Social Control Of Reproduction And Breeding Monopolization In The Eusocial Snapping Shrimp Synalpheus Elizabethae, Stc Chak, Dr Rubenstein, Je Duffy Nov 2015

Social Control Of Reproduction And Breeding Monopolization In The Eusocial Snapping Shrimp Synalpheus Elizabethae, Stc Chak, Dr Rubenstein, Je Duffy

VIMS Articles

Understanding why individuals within altruistic societies forgo reproduction to raise others' offspring has fascinated scientists since Darwin. Although worker polymorphism is thought to have evolved only in sterile workers, worker subcastes appear to be common among social invertebrates and vertebrates. We asked whether sterility accompanies eusociality and morphological differentiation in snapping shrimps (Synalpheus)-the only known marine eusocial group. We show that workers in Synalpheus elizabethae are reproductively totipotent and that female-but not male-gonadal development and mating are mediated by the presence of a queen, apparently without physical aggression. In queenless experimental colonies, a single immature female worker typically became ...


Multitrophic Functional Diversity Predicts Ecosystem Functioning In Experimental Assemblages Of Estuarine Consumers, Js Lefcheck, Je Duffy Oct 2015

Multitrophic Functional Diversity Predicts Ecosystem Functioning In Experimental Assemblages Of Estuarine Consumers, Js Lefcheck, Je Duffy

VIMS Articles

The use of functional traits to explain how biodiversity affects ecosystem functioning has attracted intense interest, yet few studies have a priori altered functional diversity, especially in multitrophic communities. Here, we manipulated multivariate functional diversity of estuarine grazers and predators within multiple levels of species richness to test how species richness and functional diversity predicted ecosystem functioning in a multitrophic food web. Community functional diversity was a better predictor than species richness for the majority of ecosystem properties, based on generalized linear mixed-effects models. Combining inferences from eight traits into a single multivariate index increased prediction accuracy of these models ...


Overcoming Restoration Paradigms: Value Of The Historical Record And Metapopulation Dynamics In Native Oyster Restoration, Rom Lipcius, Russell P. Burke, Danielle N. Mcculloch, Sebastian J. Schreiber, David M. Schulte, Rd Seitz, Jian Shen Sep 2015

Overcoming Restoration Paradigms: Value Of The Historical Record And Metapopulation Dynamics In Native Oyster Restoration, Rom Lipcius, Russell P. Burke, Danielle N. Mcculloch, Sebastian J. Schreiber, David M. Schulte, Rd Seitz, Jian Shen

VIMS Articles

Restoration strategies for native oyster populations rely on multiple sources of information, which often conflict due to time- and space-varying patterns in abundance and distribution. For instance, strategies based on population connectivity and disease resistance can differ, and extant and historical records of abundance and distribution are often at odds, such that the optimal strategy is unclear and valuable restoration sites may be excluded from consideration. This was the case for the Lynnhaven River subestuary of lower Chesapeake Bay, which was deemed unsuitable for Eastern Oyster (Crassostrea virginica) restoration based on physical conditions, disease challenge, and extant oyster abundance. Consequently ...


Trophic Cascades In The Western Ross Sea, Antarctica: Revisited, David G. Ainley, Grant Ballard, Randolph M. Jones, Dennis Jongsomjit, Stephen D. Pierce, Walker O. Smith Jr., Sam Veloz Aug 2015

Trophic Cascades In The Western Ross Sea, Antarctica: Revisited, David G. Ainley, Grant Ballard, Randolph M. Jones, Dennis Jongsomjit, Stephen D. Pierce, Walker O. Smith Jr., Sam Veloz

VIMS Articles

We investigated mesopredator effects on prey availability in the Ross Sea, Antarctica, as - sessing the reasons why Adélie penguin Pygoscelis adeliae foraging trip duration (FTD) increases and diet changes from krill to fish as numbers of foraging penguins and competing cetaceans increase in the penguins’ foraging area. To investigate penguins’ seasonally changing FTD as a function of foraging-population size—previously investigated indirectly—we used bio-logging to determine the penguins’ 3-dimensional foraging volume, while an autonomous glider quantified the depth, abundance, and distribution of potential prey. As numbers of foraging penguins and cetaceans increased, penguins spent more time on foraging trips ...


Abstracts Of Shellfish Technical Papers, Presented At The Joint Meeting Of The Northeast Aquaculture Conference And Exposition And The 35th Milford Aquaculture Seminar, Portland, Maine, January 14–16, 2015, National Shellfisheries Association Aug 2015

Abstracts Of Shellfish Technical Papers, Presented At The Joint Meeting Of The Northeast Aquaculture Conference And Exposition And The 35th Milford Aquaculture Seminar, Portland, Maine, January 14–16, 2015, National Shellfisheries Association

VIMS Articles

No abstract provided.


Abstracts Of Technical Papers, Presented At The 107th Annual Meeting, National Shellfisheries Association, Monterey, California, March 22–26, 2015, National Shellfisheries Association Aug 2015

Abstracts Of Technical Papers, Presented At The 107th Annual Meeting, National Shellfisheries Association, Monterey, California, March 22–26, 2015, National Shellfisheries Association

VIMS Articles

No abstract provided.


Historical Summer Distribution Of The Endangered North Atlantic Right Whale (Eubalaena Glacialis): A Hypothesis Based On Environmental Preferences Of A Congeneric Species, Sophie Monserrat, Maria G. Pennino, Tim D. Smith, Randall R. Reeves, Christine N. Meynard, David M. Kaplan, Ana S.L. Rodrigues Aug 2015

Historical Summer Distribution Of The Endangered North Atlantic Right Whale (Eubalaena Glacialis): A Hypothesis Based On Environmental Preferences Of A Congeneric Species, Sophie Monserrat, Maria G. Pennino, Tim D. Smith, Randall R. Reeves, Christine N. Meynard, David M. Kaplan, Ana S.L. Rodrigues

VIMS Articles

Aim: To obtain a plausible hypothesis for the historical distribution of North Atlantic right whales (NARWs) (Eubalaena glacialis) in their summer feeding grounds. Previously widespread in the North Atlantic, after centuries of hunt- ing, these whales survive as a small population off eastern North America. Because their exploitation began before formal records started, information about their historical distribution is fragmentary.


Enhanced Nutrient Regeneration At Commercial Hard Clam (Mercenaria Mercenaria) Beds And The Role Of Macroalgae, Anna E. Murphy, Iris C. Anderson, Mark W. Luckenbach Jun 2015

Enhanced Nutrient Regeneration At Commercial Hard Clam (Mercenaria Mercenaria) Beds And The Role Of Macroalgae, Anna E. Murphy, Iris C. Anderson, Mark W. Luckenbach

VIMS Articles

High densities of bivalves found in aquaculture can exert ‘top-down’ control on primary production through feeding while simultaneously influencing local ‘bottom-up’ effects on production by enhancing nutrient recycling. Thus bivalves may decrease or increase localized eutrophication (sensu Nixon), depending on environmental conditions and specific culture practices. This study investigates hard clam aquaculture influence on benthic nutrient regeneration and metabolism, seasonally using in situ incubations. Effects of macroalgae, which proliferate on predator-exclusion nets at cultivation sites, are also investigated. Ammonium (NH4 +) and phosphate effluxes averaged 154 and 100 times higher, respectively, at clam beds compared to reference sediments. Macroalgae decreased NH4 ...


Lethal And Sublethal Effects Of Sediment Burial On The Eastern Oyster Crassostrea Virginica, Allison M. Colden, Rom Lipcius May 2015

Lethal And Sublethal Effects Of Sediment Burial On The Eastern Oyster Crassostrea Virginica, Allison M. Colden, Rom Lipcius

VIMS Articles

Eastern oysters Crassostrea virginica are dominant ecosystem engineers that construct complex reefs in estuarine systems. Reef persistence relies on reef growth, which must outpace reef degradation and sediment deposition. The quantitative impact of burial on oyster survival and sublethal effects of sediment deposition are undefined. In this mesocosm study, we quantified effects of partial and complete burial (0, 50, 70, 90, and 110% of oyster shell height) on survival, biodeposition, condition index and growth of oysters (shell height = 25−75 mm). Survival only declined significantly when 90% or more of an oyster was buried; the critical burial depth inducing 50 ...


The Value Of Captains’ Behavioral Choices In The Success Of The Surfclam (Spisula Solidissima) Fishery On The U.S. Mid-Atlantic Coast: A Model Evaluation, Eric N. Powell, John M. Klinck, Daphne M. Munroe, Eileen E. Hoffmann, Paula Moreno, Roger L. Mann Mar 2015

The Value Of Captains’ Behavioral Choices In The Success Of The Surfclam (Spisula Solidissima) Fishery On The U.S. Mid-Atlantic Coast: A Model Evaluation, Eric N. Powell, John M. Klinck, Daphne M. Munroe, Eileen E. Hoffmann, Paula Moreno, Roger L. Mann

VIMS Articles

The response of the surfclam Spisula solidissima to warming of the Mid-Atlantic Bight is manifested by recession of the southern and inshore boundary of the clam’s range. This phenomenon has impacted the fishery through the closure of southern ports and the movement of processing capacity north, impacts that may require responsive actions on the part of fishery captains to mitigate a decline in fishery performance otherwise ineluctably accompanying this shift in range. The purpose of this study was to evaluate options in the behavioral repertoire of captains that might provide mitigation. A model capable of simulating a spatially and ...


Representing Taxonomic, Phylogenetic And Functional Diversity: New Challenges For Mediterranean Marine-Protected Areas, Francois Guilhaumon, Camille Albouy, Et Al, Christine N. Meynard Feb 2015

Representing Taxonomic, Phylogenetic And Functional Diversity: New Challenges For Mediterranean Marine-Protected Areas, Francois Guilhaumon, Camille Albouy, Et Al, Christine N. Meynard

VIMS Articles

To assess gaps in the representation of taxonomic, phylogenetic and func- tional diversity among coastal fishes in Mediterranean marine-protected areas (MPAs).


An Assessment Of Phytoplankton Primary Productivity In The Arctic Ocean From Satellite Ocean Color/In Situ Chlorophyll-A Based Models, Younjoo J. Lee, Et Al., Marjorie A.M. Friedrichs Jan 2015

An Assessment Of Phytoplankton Primary Productivity In The Arctic Ocean From Satellite Ocean Color/In Situ Chlorophyll-A Based Models, Younjoo J. Lee, Et Al., Marjorie A.M. Friedrichs

VIMS Articles

We investigated 32 net primary productivity (NPP) models by assessing skills to reproduce integrated NPP in the Arctic Ocean. The models were provided with two sources each of surface chlorophyll-a concentration (chlorophyll), photosynthetically available radiation (PAR), sea surface temperature (SST), and mixed-layer depth (MLD). The models were most sensitive to uncertainties in surface chlorophyll, generally performing better with in situ chlorophyll than with satellite-derived values. They were much less sensitive to uncertainties in PAR, SST, and MLD, possibly due to relatively narrow ranges of input data and/or relatively little difference between input data sources. Regardless of type or complexity ...


Anthropogenic Controls On Overwash Deposition: Evidence And Consequences, Laura J. Rogers, Laura J. Moore, Evan B. Goldstein, Christopher J. Hein, Jorge Lorenzo-Trueba, Andrew D. Ashton Jan 2015

Anthropogenic Controls On Overwash Deposition: Evidence And Consequences, Laura J. Rogers, Laura J. Moore, Evan B. Goldstein, Christopher J. Hein, Jorge Lorenzo-Trueba, Andrew D. Ashton

VIMS Articles

Accelerated sea level rise and the potential for an increase in frequency of the most intense hurricanes due to climate change threaten the vitality and habitability of barrier islands by lowering their relative elevation and altering frequency of overwash. High-density development may further increase island vulnerability by restricting delivery of overwash to the subaerial island. We analyzed pre-Hurricane Sandy and post-Hurricane Sandy (2012) lidar surveys of the New Jersey coast to assess human influence on barrier overwash, comparing natural environments to two developed environments (commercial and residential) using shore-perpendicular topographic profiles. The volumes of overwash delivered to residential and commercial ...


Large-Scale Examination Of Spatio-Temporal Patterns Of Drifting Fish Aggregating Devices (Dfads) From Tropical Tuna Fisheries Of The Indian And Atlantic Oceans, Alexandra Maufroy, Emmanuel Chassot, Rocio Joo, David M. Kaplan Jan 2015

Large-Scale Examination Of Spatio-Temporal Patterns Of Drifting Fish Aggregating Devices (Dfads) From Tropical Tuna Fisheries Of The Indian And Atlantic Oceans, Alexandra Maufroy, Emmanuel Chassot, Rocio Joo, David M. Kaplan

VIMS Articles

Since the 1990s, massive use of drifting Fish Aggregating Devices (dFADs) to aggregate tropical tunas has strongly modified global purse-seine fisheries. For the first time, a large data set of GPS positions from buoys deployed by French purse-seiners to monitor dFADs is analysed to provide information on spatio-temporal patterns of dFAD use in the Atlantic and Indian Oceans during 2007-2011. First, we select among four classification methods the model that best separates "at sea" from "on board" buoy positions. A random forest model had the best performance, both in terms of the rate of false "at sea" predictions and the ...


Chesapeake Bay Nitrogen Fluxes Derived From A Land-Estuarine Ocean Biogeochemical Modeling System: Model Description, Evaluation, And Nitrogen Budgets, Yang Feng, Marjorie A.M. Friedrichs, John Wilkin, Hanqin Tian, Qichun Yang, Eileen E. Hofmann, Jerry D. Wiggert, Raleigh Hood Jan 2015

Chesapeake Bay Nitrogen Fluxes Derived From A Land-Estuarine Ocean Biogeochemical Modeling System: Model Description, Evaluation, And Nitrogen Budgets, Yang Feng, Marjorie A.M. Friedrichs, John Wilkin, Hanqin Tian, Qichun Yang, Eileen E. Hofmann, Jerry D. Wiggert, Raleigh Hood

VIMS Articles

The Chesapeake Bay plays an important role in transforming riverine nutrients before they are exported to the adjacent continental shelf. Although the mean nitrogen budget of the Chesapeake Bay has been previously estimated from observations, uncertainties associated with interannually varying hydrological conditions remain. In this study, a land-estuarine-ocean biogeochemical modeling system is developed to quantify Chesapeake riverine nitrogen inputs, within-estuary nitrogen transformation processes and the ultimate export of nitrogen to the coastal ocean. Model skill was evaluated using extensive in situ and satellite-derived data, and a simulation using environmental conditions for 2001-2005 was conducted to quantify the Chesapeake Bay nitrogen ...


Decoupling The Influence Of Biological And Physical Processes On The Dissolved Oxygen In The Chesapeake Bay, Jiabi Du, Jian Shen Jan 2015

Decoupling The Influence Of Biological And Physical Processes On The Dissolved Oxygen In The Chesapeake Bay, Jiabi Du, Jian Shen

VIMS Articles

It is instructive and essential to decouple the effects of biological and physical processes on the dissolved oxygen condition, in order to understand their contribution to the interannual variability of hypoxia in Chesapeake Bay since the 1980s. A conceptual bottom DO budget model is applied, using the vertical exchange time scale (VET) to quantify the physical condition and net oxygen consumption rate to quantify biological activities. By combining observed DO data and modeled VET values along the main stem of the Chesapeake Bay, the monthly net bottom DO consumption rate was estimated for 1985-2012. The DO budget model results show ...


A Framework For Quantifying The Magnitude And Variability Of Community Responses To Global Change Drivers, Meghan L. Avolio, Kimberly J. La Pierre, Gregory R. Houseman, Sally E. Koerner, Emily Grman, Forest Isbell, David S. Johnson, Kevin R. Wilcox Jan 2015

A Framework For Quantifying The Magnitude And Variability Of Community Responses To Global Change Drivers, Meghan L. Avolio, Kimberly J. La Pierre, Gregory R. Houseman, Sally E. Koerner, Emily Grman, Forest Isbell, David S. Johnson, Kevin R. Wilcox

VIMS Articles

A major challenge in global change ecology is to predict the trajectory and magnitude of community change in response to global change drivers (GCDs). Here, we present a new framework that not only increases the predictive power of individual studies, but also allows for synthesis across GCD studies and ecosystems. First, we suggest that by quantifying community dissimilarity of replicates both among and within treatments, we can infer both the magnitude and predictability of community change, respectively. Second, we demonstrate the utility of integrating rank abundance curves with measures of community dissimilarity to understand the species-level dynamics driving community changes ...


Robots As Vectors For Marine Invasions: Best Practices For Minimizing Transmission Of Invasive Species Via Observation-Class Rovs., Andrew David Thaler, Amy Freitag, Erika Bergman, Dominik Fretz, William Saleu Jan 2015

Robots As Vectors For Marine Invasions: Best Practices For Minimizing Transmission Of Invasive Species Via Observation-Class Rovs., Andrew David Thaler, Amy Freitag, Erika Bergman, Dominik Fretz, William Saleu

VIMS Articles

Remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) present a potential risk for the transmission of invasive species. This is particularly the case for small, low-cost microROVs that can be easily transported among ecosystems and, if not properly cleaned and treated, may introduce novel species into new regions. Here we present a set of 5 best-practice guidelines to reduce the risk of marine invasive species introduction for microROV operators. These guidelines include: educating ROV users about the causes and potential harm of species invasion; visually inspecting ROVs prior to and at the conclusion of each dive; rinsing ROVs in sterile freshwater following each dive ...


Dual Annual Spawning Races In Atlantic Sturgeon, Matthew T. Balazik, John A. Musick Jan 2015

Dual Annual Spawning Races In Atlantic Sturgeon, Matthew T. Balazik, John A. Musick

VIMS Articles

Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus, Acipenseridae) populations in the United States were listed as either endangered or threatened under the Endangered Species Act in 2012. Because of the endangered/threatened status, a better understanding of Atlantic sturgeon life-history behavior and habitat use is important for effective management. It has been widely documented that Atlantic sturgeon reproduction occurs from late winter to early summer, varying clinally with latitude. However, recent data show Atlantic sturgeon also spawn later in the year. The group that spawns later in the year seems to be completely separate from the spring spawning run. Recognition of the ...


Biodiversity Enhances Ecosystem Multifunctionality Across Trophic Levels And Habitats, Jonathan S. Lefcheck, Jarrett E. K. Byrnes, Forest Isbell, Lars Gamfeldt, John N. Griffin, Nico Esienhaur, Marc J.S. Hensel, Andy Hector, Bradley J. Cardinale, J. Emmett Duffy Jan 2015

Biodiversity Enhances Ecosystem Multifunctionality Across Trophic Levels And Habitats, Jonathan S. Lefcheck, Jarrett E. K. Byrnes, Forest Isbell, Lars Gamfeldt, John N. Griffin, Nico Esienhaur, Marc J.S. Hensel, Andy Hector, Bradley J. Cardinale, J. Emmett Duffy

VIMS Articles

The importance of biodiversity for the integrated functioning of ecosystems remains unclear because most evidence comes from analyses of biodiversity's effect on individual functions. Here we show that the effects of biodiversity on ecosystem function become more important as more functions are considered. We present the first systematic investigation of biodiversity's effect on ecosystem multifunctionality across multiple taxa, trophic levels and habitats using a comprehensive database of 94 manipulations of species richness. We show that species-rich communities maintained multiple functions at higher levels than depauperate ones. These effects were stronger for herbivore biodiversity than for plant biodiversity, and ...


Estimating The Sex Composition Of The Summer Flounder Catch Using Fishery-Independent Data, Jason M. Morson, Eleanor A. Bochenek, Eric N. Powell, Emerson C. Hasbrouck, Jennifer E. Gius, Charles F. Cotton, Kristin Gerbino, Tara Froehlich Jan 2015

Estimating The Sex Composition Of The Summer Flounder Catch Using Fishery-Independent Data, Jason M. Morson, Eleanor A. Bochenek, Eric N. Powell, Emerson C. Hasbrouck, Jennifer E. Gius, Charles F. Cotton, Kristin Gerbino, Tara Froehlich

VIMS Articles

Models that account for sex-specific behavior and population dynamics are becoming more common in the stock assessment of sexually dimorphic fishes. However, such models can be data intensive and require some knowledge or assumptions about the sex ratio of fishery landings. A recent stock assessment review of Summer Flounder Paralichthys dentatus identified the need to account for sex-specific fishing mortality in the assessment model; however, no data on the sex composition of the catch were available. Fishery-independent, sex-specific information for this species is collected annually by the National Marine Fisheries Service's Northeast Fisheries Science Center during their bottom trawl ...


Photosynthesis-Irradiance Responses In The Ross Sea, Antarctica: A Meta-Analysis, Walker O. Smith Jr., K. Donaldson Jan 2015

Photosynthesis-Irradiance Responses In The Ross Sea, Antarctica: A Meta-Analysis, Walker O. Smith Jr., K. Donaldson

VIMS Articles

A meta-analysis of photosynthesis-irradiance measurements was completed using data from the Ross Sea, Antarctica, using a total of 417 independent measurements. P-m(B), the maximum, chlorophyll-specific, irradiancesaturated rate of photosynthesis, averaged 1.1 +/- 0.06 mu gC (mu g Chl)(-1) h(-1). Light-limited, chlorophyll-specific photosynthetic rates (alpha(B)) averaged 0.030 +/- 0.023 mu gC (mu g Chl)(-1) h(-1) (mu mol quanta m(-2) s(-1))(-1). Significant variations in P-m(B) and alpha(B) were found as a function of season, with spring maximum photosynthetic rates being 60% greater than those in summer. Similarly, alpha values ...


Landscape-Level Variation In Disease Susceptibility Related To Shallow-Water Hypoxia, Denise L. Breitburg, Darryl Hondorp, Corinne Audemard, Ryan Carnegie, Rebecca B. Burrell, Mark Trice, Virginia Clark Jan 2015

Landscape-Level Variation In Disease Susceptibility Related To Shallow-Water Hypoxia, Denise L. Breitburg, Darryl Hondorp, Corinne Audemard, Ryan Carnegie, Rebecca B. Burrell, Mark Trice, Virginia Clark

VIMS Articles

Diel-cycling hypoxia is widespread in shallow portions of estuaries and lagoons, especially in systems with high nutrient loads resulting from human activities. Far less is known about the effects of this form of hypoxia than deeper-water seasonal or persistent low dissolved oxygen. We examined field patterns of diel-cycling hypoxia and used field and laboratory experiments to test its effects on acquisition and progression of Perkinsus marinus infections in the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica, as well as on oyster growth and filtration. P. marinus infections cause the disease known as Dermo, have been responsible for declines in oyster populations, and have ...


Risk Characterization For Introduction And Spread Of Multinucleate Sphere X (Msx) In Prince Edward Island, Canada, J Sanchez, Ryan Carnegie, P Warris, J Hill, J Davidson, S. St-Hilaire Jan 2015

Risk Characterization For Introduction And Spread Of Multinucleate Sphere X (Msx) In Prince Edward Island, Canada, J Sanchez, Ryan Carnegie, P Warris, J Hill, J Davidson, S. St-Hilaire

VIMS Articles

Multinucleate Sphere X (MSX) is an important pathogen of the eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) on the east coast of North America. This parasite is currently not present in Prince Edward Island (PEI), but there are concerns that it will spread from Cape Breton, Nova Scotia, where it was recently identified. Introduction of MSX to PEI would cause direct losses to the shellfish industry and it would have long-term implications for exports of oysters. The main goal of this study was to assess the risk of introduction and dissemination of MSX, as estimated by the number of movements of commercial oysters ...


The Exposed Surface Area To Volume Ratio: Is Shell More Efficient Than Limestone In Promoting Oyster Recruitment?, Km Kuykendall, P Moreno, En Powell, Tm Soniat, S Colley, Roger L. Mann, Dm Munroe Jan 2015

The Exposed Surface Area To Volume Ratio: Is Shell More Efficient Than Limestone In Promoting Oyster Recruitment?, Km Kuykendall, P Moreno, En Powell, Tm Soniat, S Colley, Roger L. Mann, Dm Munroe

VIMS Articles

Planting oyster cultch is a common management approach used to enhance recruitment. The two most popular cultch materials are shell and limestone. Both are sold by volume or weight; however, once deposited on oyster grounds, only a small portion of the total surface area of each particle is available for recruitment. Shell and limestone have different surface area to volume properties, and thus provide differential settlement opportunities. Exposed surface area to volume (expSA/V) ratios of oyster shell and limestone fragments were compared, as an indicator of their recruitment potential and cost-effectiveness for cultch planting. Samples were collected from the ...


Settlement, Growth, And Survival Of Eastern Oysters On Alternative Reef Substrates, Seth J. Theuerkauf, Russell P. Burke, Rom Lipcius Jan 2015

Settlement, Growth, And Survival Of Eastern Oysters On Alternative Reef Substrates, Seth J. Theuerkauf, Russell P. Burke, Rom Lipcius

VIMS Articles

Restoration of the native eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) has been severely hindered by the dwindling supply and rising costs of fossil and new oyster shell (OS) for use in reef restoration. Consequently, emphasis has shifted to the use of alternative oyster reef materials, which need to be tested for their effectiveness as settlement substrate. Furthermore, low recruitment of wild larvae has also impeded restoration, indicating a need to assess the potential of field setting of cultured larvae. We experimentally examined oyster settlement, growth and survival on unconsolidated OS, vertically embedded oyster shell (ES) in concrete, and concrete Oyster Castles (OC ...


Effects Of Terrestrial–Aquatic Connectivity On An Estuarine Turtle, Robert E. Isdell, Randolph M. Chambers, Donna M. Bilkovic, Matthias Leu Jan 2015

Effects Of Terrestrial–Aquatic Connectivity On An Estuarine Turtle, Robert E. Isdell, Randolph M. Chambers, Donna M. Bilkovic, Matthias Leu

VIMS Articles

Estuaries world-wide have been modified or fragmented due to human stressors in their terrestrial and aquatic components. Estuary fragmentation often results in reductions in species richness, diversity and connectivity. Effects of human modification on estuaries have been well studied, but less is known about how land use alters connectivity of the terrestrial–aquatic ecotone. We studied the relationship between terrestrial–aquatic connectivity and the distri- bution of an estuarine turtle, diamondback terrapin (Malaclemys terrapin).


Spatiotemporal Overlap Of Spiny Dogfish (Squalus Acanthias) And Commercial Fisheries In The Northeast Us Shelf Large Marine Ecosystem, Skyler R. Sagarese, Michael G. Frisk, Robert M. Cerrato, Kathy A. Sosebee, John Musick, Paul J. Rago Jan 2015

Spatiotemporal Overlap Of Spiny Dogfish (Squalus Acanthias) And Commercial Fisheries In The Northeast Us Shelf Large Marine Ecosystem, Skyler R. Sagarese, Michael G. Frisk, Robert M. Cerrato, Kathy A. Sosebee, John Musick, Paul J. Rago

VIMS Articles

Commercial fishermen have argued that localized concentrations of spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias) in the northeast U.S. shelf large marine ecosystem (NES LME) have impeded their fishing operations when monitoring surveys estimated lower relative abundances. Fishery-dependent and -independent data were analyzed simultaneously to examine whether increased spatial overlap between spiny dogfish and commercial fisheries may explain high catches of this species on fishing grounds. Spatial overlap was quantified between spiny dogfish distribution and commercial fisheries from 1989 to 2009 during autumn and spring in the NES LME. Combined, the sink gillnet (SGN) and otter trawl (OT) fisheries accounted for the ...


Event-To-Seasonal Sediment Dispersal On The Waipaoa River Shelf, New Zealand: A Numerical Modeling Study, Jm Moriarty, Courtney K. Harris, Mg Hadfield Jan 2015

Event-To-Seasonal Sediment Dispersal On The Waipaoa River Shelf, New Zealand: A Numerical Modeling Study, Jm Moriarty, Courtney K. Harris, Mg Hadfield

VIMS Articles

The formation of the geologic record offshore of small mountainous rivers is event-driven and, more so than many other environments, can result in relatively complete sequences. One such river, the Waipaoa in New Zealand, has been studied from its terrestrial source to its oceanic sink over timescales spanning storms, seasons, and the Holocene. This study focused on the formation of riverine deposits on the Waipaoa Shelf during episodic flood and wave events, contrasting deposition during short-lived events to accumulation patterns created over thirteen months. Sediment fluxes and fate were estimated using the numerical hydrodynamic and sediment transport model ROMS, the ...