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VIMS Articles

2012

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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Circle Hooks In Commercial, Recreational, And Artisanal Fisheries: Research Status And Needs For Improved Conservation And Management, Je Serafy, Sj Cooke, Ga Diaz, John Graves, Et Al Jul 2012

Circle Hooks In Commercial, Recreational, And Artisanal Fisheries: Research Status And Needs For Improved Conservation And Management, Je Serafy, Sj Cooke, Ga Diaz, John Graves, Et Al

VIMS Articles

The intent of convening the International Symposium on Circle Hooks in Research, Management, and Conservation was to yield a contemporary, science-based assessment of the management and conservation utility of circle hooks in commercial, recreational, and artisanal fisheries around the globe. The symposium objective was to provide a forum for individuals, organizations, and agencies to share relevant research results and perspectives. Based on the presentations, an examination of the literature, and the collective experience and knowledge of the authors, we provide a brief overview of the current status of circle hook research along with a list of research needs, with a ...


Incorporating Circle Hooks Into Atlantic Pelagic Fisheries: Case Studies From The Commercial Tuna/Swordfish Longline And Recreational Billfish Fisheries, John Graves, Az Horodysky, Dw Kerstetter Jul 2012

Incorporating Circle Hooks Into Atlantic Pelagic Fisheries: Case Studies From The Commercial Tuna/Swordfish Longline And Recreational Billfish Fisheries, John Graves, Az Horodysky, Dw Kerstetter

VIMS Articles

An emerging body of literature has demonstrated the benefits of the use of circle hooks relative to standard J-hooks in commercial and recreational fisheries. In the pelagic longline fishery for tunas (Thunnus spp.) and swordfish (Xiphias gladius Linnaeus, 1758), the use of circle hooks has resulted in greater catch rates of some target species, lower catch rates of some bycatch species, and a higher percentage of many target and bycatch species alive at the time of haulback (gear retrieval). However, a lack of agreement among results of studies conducted in different fisheries and areas, using different baits and rigging techniques ...


Global Patterns In The Impact Of Marine Herbivores On Benthic Primary Producers, Alistair G.B. Poore, Alexandra H. Campbell, Ross Coleman, Graham J. Edgar, Veijo Jormalainen, Pamela L. Reynolds, Erik E. Sotka, John J. Stachowicz, Richard Taylor, Mathew A. Vanderklift, J. Emmett Duffy May 2012

Global Patterns In The Impact Of Marine Herbivores On Benthic Primary Producers, Alistair G.B. Poore, Alexandra H. Campbell, Ross Coleman, Graham J. Edgar, Veijo Jormalainen, Pamela L. Reynolds, Erik E. Sotka, John J. Stachowicz, Richard Taylor, Mathew A. Vanderklift, J. Emmett Duffy

VIMS Articles

Despite the importance of consumers in structuring communities, and the widespread assumption that consumption is strongest at low latitudes, empirical tests for global scale patterns in the magnitude of consumer impacts are limited. In marine systems, the long tradition of experimentally excluding herbivores in their natural environments allows consumer impacts to be quantified on global scales using consistent methodology. We present a quantitative synthesis of 613 marine herbivore exclusion experiments to test the influence of consumer traits, producer traits and the environment on the strength of herbivore impacts on benthic producers. Across the globe, marine herbivores profoundly reduced producer abundance ...


Abstracts Of Technical Papers, Presented At The 104th Annual Meeting, National Shellfisheries Association, Seattle, Washington, March 24–29, 2012, National Shellfisheries Association Apr 2012

Abstracts Of Technical Papers, Presented At The 104th Annual Meeting, National Shellfisheries Association, Seattle, Washington, March 24–29, 2012, National Shellfisheries Association

VIMS Articles

No abstract provided.


Bioturbation In A Declining Oxygen Environment, In Situ Observations From Wormcam, S. Kersey Sturdivant, Robert J. Diaz, George R. Cutter Apr 2012

Bioturbation In A Declining Oxygen Environment, In Situ Observations From Wormcam, S. Kersey Sturdivant, Robert J. Diaz, George R. Cutter

VIMS Articles

Bioturbation, the displacement and mixing of sediment particles by fauna or flora, facilitates life supporting processes by increasing the quality of marine sediments. In the marine environment bioturbation is primarily mediated by infaunal organisms, which are susceptible to perturbations in their surrounding environment due to their sedentary life history traits. Of particular concern is hypoxia, dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations ≤2.8 mg l−1, a prevalent and persistent problem that affects both pelagic and benthic fauna. A benthic observing system (Wormcam) consisting of a buoy, telemetering electronics, sediment profile camera, and water quality datasonde was developed and deployed in the ...


Diseases Of Oysters Crassostrea Ariakensis And C. Virginica Reared In Ambient Waters From The Choptank River, Maryland And The Indian River Lagoon, Florida, Cf Dungan, Ryan Carnegie, Km Hill, Cb Mccollough, Se Laramore, Cj Kelly, Na Stokes, J Scarpa Jan 2012

Diseases Of Oysters Crassostrea Ariakensis And C. Virginica Reared In Ambient Waters From The Choptank River, Maryland And The Indian River Lagoon, Florida, Cf Dungan, Ryan Carnegie, Km Hill, Cb Mccollough, Se Laramore, Cj Kelly, Na Stokes, J Scarpa

VIMS Articles

To assess potential benefits and liabilities from a proposed introduction of Asian Suminoe oysters, susceptibilities of exotic Crassostrea ariakensis and native C. virginica oysters were compared during exposures to pathogens endemic in temperate, mesohaline waters of Chesapeake Bay and sub-tropical, polyhaline Atlantic waters of southern Florida, USA. Cohorts of diploid, sibling oysters of both species were periodically tested for diseases while reared in mesocosms receiving ambient waters from the Choptank River, Maryland (>3 yr) or the Indian River Lagoon, Florida (10 to 11 mo). Haplosporidium sp. infections (e.g. MSX disease) were not detected in oysters from either site. Perkinsus ...


Historical Ecology With Real Numbers: Past And Present Extent And Biomass Of An Imperilled Estuarine Habitat, Psez Ermgassen, Md Spalding, B Blake, Ld Coen, B Dumbauld, Mark Luckenbach, Et Al. Jan 2012

Historical Ecology With Real Numbers: Past And Present Extent And Biomass Of An Imperilled Estuarine Habitat, Psez Ermgassen, Md Spalding, B Blake, Ld Coen, B Dumbauld, Mark Luckenbach, Et Al.

VIMS Articles

Historic baselines are important in developing our understanding of ecosystems in the face of rapid global change. While a number of studies have sought to determine changes in extent of exploited habitats over historic timescales, few have quantified such changes prior to late twentieth century baselines. Here, we present, to our knowledge, the first ever large-scale quantitative assessment of the extent and biomass of marine habitat-forming species over a 100-year time frame. We examined records of wild native oyster abundance in the United States from a historic, yet already exploited, baseline between 1878 and 1935 (predominantly 1885-1915), and a current ...


The Ross Sea In A Sea Of Change, Walker O. Smith Jr., Pn Sedwick, Kr Arrigo, Dg Ainley, Ah Orsi Jan 2012

The Ross Sea In A Sea Of Change, Walker O. Smith Jr., Pn Sedwick, Kr Arrigo, Dg Ainley, Ah Orsi

VIMS Articles

The Ross Sea, the most productive region in the Antarctic, reaches farther south than any body of water in the world. While its food web is relatively intact, its oceanography, biogeochemistry, and sea ice coverage have been changing dramatically, and likely will continue to do so in the future. Sea ice cover and persistence have been increasing, in contrast to the Amundsen-Bellingshausen sector, which has resulted in reduced open water duration for its biota. Models predict that as the ozone hole recovers, ice cover will begin to diminish. Currents on the continental shelf will likely change in the coming century ...


Limited Prevalance Of Gaffkaemia (Aerococcus Viridans Var. Homari) Isolated From Wild-Caught European Lobsters Homarus Gammarus In England And Wales, Pd Stebbing, Mj Pond, E Peeler, Hamish J. Small, Sj Greenwood Jan 2012

Limited Prevalance Of Gaffkaemia (Aerococcus Viridans Var. Homari) Isolated From Wild-Caught European Lobsters Homarus Gammarus In England And Wales, Pd Stebbing, Mj Pond, E Peeler, Hamish J. Small, Sj Greenwood

VIMS Articles

Gaffkaemia, caused by Aerococcus viridans var. homari, causes fatal infections in Homarus spp. (clawed lobsters). Despite its high economic significance to the lobster fisheries in the USA and northern Europe, data on its prevalence in captured and wild populations, particularly in Europe, is scarce. Following an outbreak of gaffkaemia in a European lobster holding facility in South Wales (UK), a base-line survey was conducted for gaffkaemia in wild populations of European lobster Homarus gammarus around the coast of England and Wales. In addition, isolates recovered from the original outbreak and the survey were typed using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and ...


Susceptibility Of Juvenile European Lobster Homarus Gammarus To Shrimp Products Infected With High And Low Doses Of White Spot Syndrome Virus, Ks Bateman, J Munro, B Uglow, Hamish J. Small, Gd Stentiford Jan 2012

Susceptibility Of Juvenile European Lobster Homarus Gammarus To Shrimp Products Infected With High And Low Doses Of White Spot Syndrome Virus, Ks Bateman, J Munro, B Uglow, Hamish J. Small, Gd Stentiford

VIMS Articles

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is the most important pathogen known to affect the sustainability and growth of the global penaeid shrimp farming industry. Although most commonly associated with penaeid shrimp farmed in warm waters, WSSV is also able to infect, cause disease in and kill a wide range of other decapod crustaceans, including lobsters, from temperate regions. In 2005, the European Union imported US$500 million worth of raw frozen or cooked frozen commodity products, much of which originated in regions positive for white spot disease (WSD). The presence of WSSV within the UK food market was verified by ...


A Modeling Study On The Response Of Chesapeake Bay To Hurricane Events Of Floyd And Isabel, Kh Cho, Harry V. Wang, Jian Shen, A Valle-Levinson, Yc Teng Jan 2012

A Modeling Study On The Response Of Chesapeake Bay To Hurricane Events Of Floyd And Isabel, Kh Cho, Harry V. Wang, Jian Shen, A Valle-Levinson, Yc Teng

VIMS Articles

The response of Chesapeake Bay to forcing from two hurricanes is investigated using an unstructured-grid three-dimensional hydrodynamic model SELFE. The model domain includes Chesapeake Bay, its tributaries, and the extended continental shelf in the mid-Atlantic Bight. The hurricanes chosen for the study are Hurricane Floyd (1999) and Hurricane Isabel (2003), both of which made landfall within 100 km of the mouth of the Bay. The model results agree reasonably well with field observations of water level, velocity, and salinity. From the Bay's water level response to the hurricanes, it was found that the storm surge in the Bay has ...


Genetic Diversity Of The Caribbean Spiny Lobster Virus, Panulirus Argus Virus 1 (Pav1), And The Discovery Of Pav1 In Lobster Postlarvae, Ja Moss, Mj Butler, Dc Behringer, Jeffrey D. Shields Jan 2012

Genetic Diversity Of The Caribbean Spiny Lobster Virus, Panulirus Argus Virus 1 (Pav1), And The Discovery Of Pav1 In Lobster Postlarvae, Ja Moss, Mj Butler, Dc Behringer, Jeffrey D. Shields

VIMS Articles

Panulirus argus virus 1 (PaV1) is an unclassified, pathogenic virus first discovered in Caribbean spiny lobsters Panulirus argus from the Florida Keys, USA, and has since been confirmed in lobsters in other parts of the Caribbean. Several studies have examined the prevalence, pathogenicity, and population dynamics of the pathogen in the lobster host, but little is known about the genetic diversity of the virus. We analyzed a fragment of viral DNA from lobsters collected in the Florida Keys, which provided the first insight into the genetic diversity of PaV1. The variation in viral sequences, both within and between individual lobsters ...


Comparison Of Crassostrea Virginica Gmelin (Eastern Oyster) Recruitment On Constructed Reefs And Adjacent Natural Oyster Bars Over Decadal Time Scales, Juliana Harding, Melissa Southworth, Roger L. Mann, James Wesson Jan 2012

Comparison Of Crassostrea Virginica Gmelin (Eastern Oyster) Recruitment On Constructed Reefs And Adjacent Natural Oyster Bars Over Decadal Time Scales, Juliana Harding, Melissa Southworth, Roger L. Mann, James Wesson

VIMS Articles

Since 1993, oyster reef replenishment efforts in the Virginia portion of the Chesapeake Bay have relied heavily on construction of oyster shell reefs with enhanced vertical relief. We evaluated the performance of six reefs constructed in proximity to natural subtidal oyster bars by comparing recruit densities (spat m"^ where spat are young-of-the-year oysters with shell heights less than 50 mm) between habitats. Recruitment was higher on the reefs than bars during the first 1-3 yr post-construction, usually by at least an order of magnitude. Within 7 yr, recruitment was similar between reef-bar pairs although both reefs and bars received additions ...


A Fully Coupled 3d Wave-Current Interaction Model On Unstructured Grids, Aron Roland, Yinglong J. Zhang, Harry V. Wang, Yanqiu Meng, Yi-Cheng Teng, Vladimir Maderich, Igor Brovchenko, Mathieu Dutour-Sikiric, Ulrich Zanke Jan 2012

A Fully Coupled 3d Wave-Current Interaction Model On Unstructured Grids, Aron Roland, Yinglong J. Zhang, Harry V. Wang, Yanqiu Meng, Yi-Cheng Teng, Vladimir Maderich, Igor Brovchenko, Mathieu Dutour-Sikiric, Ulrich Zanke

VIMS Articles

We present a new modeling system for wave-current interaction based on unstructured grids and thus suitable for very large-scale high-resolution multiscale studies. The coupling between the 3D current model (SELFE) and the 3rd generation spectral wave model (WWM-II) is done at the source code level and the two models share same sub-domains in the parallel MPI implementation in order to ensure parallel efficiency and avoid interpolation. We demonstrate the accuracy, efficiency, stability and robustness of the coupled SELFE-WWM-II model with a suite of progressively challenging benchmarks with analytical solution, laboratory data, and field data. The coupled model is shown to ...


Interannual Variability Of Primary Production And Dissolved Organic Nitrogen Storage In The North Pacific Subtropical Gyre, Ya-Wei Luo, Hugh W. Ducklow, Marjorie A.M. Friedrichs, Matthew Church, David Karl, Scott C. Doney Jan 2012

Interannual Variability Of Primary Production And Dissolved Organic Nitrogen Storage In The North Pacific Subtropical Gyre, Ya-Wei Luo, Hugh W. Ducklow, Marjorie A.M. Friedrichs, Matthew Church, David Karl, Scott C. Doney

VIMS Articles

The upper ocean primary production measurements from the Hawaii Ocean Time series (HOT) at Station ALOHA in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre showed substantial variability over the last two decades. The annual average primary production varied within a limited range over 1991-1998, significantly increased in 1999-2000 and then gradually decreased afterwards. This variability was investigated using a one-dimensional ecosystem model. The long-term HOT observations were used to constrain the model by prescribing physical forcings and lower boundary conditions and optimizing the model parameters against data using data assimilation. The model reproduced the general interannual pattern in the observed primary production ...


Detecting The Influence Of Initial Pioneers On Succession At Deep-Sea Vents, Lauren S. Mullineaux, Nadine Le Bris, Susan W. Mills, Pauline Henri, Skylar R. Bayer, Richard G. Secrist, Nam Siu Jan 2012

Detecting The Influence Of Initial Pioneers On Succession At Deep-Sea Vents, Lauren S. Mullineaux, Nadine Le Bris, Susan W. Mills, Pauline Henri, Skylar R. Bayer, Richard G. Secrist, Nam Siu

VIMS Articles

Deep-sea hydrothermal vents are subject to major disturbances that alter the physical and chemical environment and eradicate the resident faunal communities. Vent fields are isolated by uninhabitable deep seafloor, so recolonization via dispersal of planktonic larvae is critical for persistence of populations. We monitored colonization near 9 degrees 50'N on the East Pacific Rise following a catastrophic eruption in order to address questions of the relative contributions of pioneer colonists and environmental change to variation in species composition, and the role of pioneers at the disturbed site in altering community structure elsewhere in the region. Pioneer colonists included two ...


Use Of A Natural Isotopic Signature In Otoliths To Evaluate Scale-Based Age Determination For American Shad, Sally A. Upton, Benjamin D. Walther, Simon R. Thorrold, John E. Olney Jan 2012

Use Of A Natural Isotopic Signature In Otoliths To Evaluate Scale-Based Age Determination For American Shad, Sally A. Upton, Benjamin D. Walther, Simon R. Thorrold, John E. Olney

VIMS Articles

We used delta O-18 signatures in otoliths as a natural tag for hatch year to evaluate the scale-based age determination method used for adult American shad Alosa sapidissima in the York River, Virginia. Juveniles of the 2002 year-class exhibited high delta O-18 values in otolith cores that identified adult members of the cohort as they returned to spawn. Recruitment of the 2002 cohort was monitored for three consecutive years, identifying age-4, age-5, and age-6 individuals of the York River stock. The scale-based age determination method was not suitable for aging age-4, age-5, or age-6 American shad in the York River ...


Biotic Dispersal In Eelgrass Zostera Marina, Sarah E. Sumoski, R J. Orth Jan 2012

Biotic Dispersal In Eelgrass Zostera Marina, Sarah E. Sumoski, R J. Orth

VIMS Articles

Dispersal is a critical process in the life history of nearly all plant species and can be facilitated by both abiotic and biotic mechanisms. Despite an abundance of vertebrate fauna utilizing seagrass meadows as a feeding area and thus capable of consuming and excreting seeds, little work has been conducted on biotic seed dispersal mechanisms. The objectives of this study were to (1) determine whether seeds of the seagrass Zostera marina could pass through the digestive systems of resident and transient vertebrates of a seagrass bed and remain viable and (2) determine seed retention times in the guts of each ...


Time Series Of Vertical Flux Of Zooplankton Fecal Pellets On The Continental Shelf Of The Western Antarctic Peninsula, Miram R. Gleiber, Deborah K. Steinberg, Hugh W. Ducklow Jan 2012

Time Series Of Vertical Flux Of Zooplankton Fecal Pellets On The Continental Shelf Of The Western Antarctic Peninsula, Miram R. Gleiber, Deborah K. Steinberg, Hugh W. Ducklow

VIMS Articles

Zooplankton fecal pellet contribution to particulate organic carbon (POC) flux over the continental shelf of the western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) was investigated to better understand the possible effects of changes in zooplankton community structure, due to climate change, on carbon export. Fecal pellets were collected at 170 m depth in a moored sediment trap from January 2004 to January 2009. Fecal pellet shape and size (i.e., carbon content) were quantified to assess flux of pellets from different zooplankton taxa and compared between seasons and years. Fecal pellet POC constituted the dominant proportion of total POC flux, with summer (November ...


Exotic Macroalga Gracilaria Vermiculophylla Provides Superior Nursery Habitat For Native Blue Crab In Chesapeake Bay, Cora Ann Johnston, Rom Lipcius Jan 2012

Exotic Macroalga Gracilaria Vermiculophylla Provides Superior Nursery Habitat For Native Blue Crab In Chesapeake Bay, Cora Ann Johnston, Rom Lipcius

VIMS Articles

Exotic species often reduce the abundance or diversity of species in marine ecosystems, but some exotics may benefit native species, such as when habitat is enhanced. In Chesapeake Bay, the exotic macroalga Gracilaria vermiculophylla (Rhodophyta) has flourished and dispersed widely, yet the consequences for native species diversity and abundance are not well known. We experimentally examined the capacity of the structurally complex G. vermiculophylla to provide nursery habitat for the blue crab Callinectes sapidus in Chesapeake Bay, where native eelgrass nursery habitat has dwindled. We also examined ontogenetic shifts in survival across alternative nursery habitats. In field surveys, juvenile density ...


Ecosystem Metabolism In Shallow Coastal Lagoons: Patterns And Partitioning Of Planktonic, Benthic, And Integrated Community Rates, Juliette C. P. Giordano, Mark Brush, Iris C. Anderson Jan 2012

Ecosystem Metabolism In Shallow Coastal Lagoons: Patterns And Partitioning Of Planktonic, Benthic, And Integrated Community Rates, Juliette C. P. Giordano, Mark Brush, Iris C. Anderson

VIMS Articles

Net ecosystem metabolism (NEM) provides a quantifiable and integrative method for assessing the ecological responses of aquatic ecosystems to anthropogenic disturbance and has been shown to positively relate to nutrient enrichment in some systems. We measured NEM to determine the trophic status of 4 coastal lagoons receiving a range of nutrient loads on the Virginia/Maryland portion of the Delmarva Peninsula, USA. From July 2007 to July 2008, we used the component technique to assess NEM by developing photosynthesis-irradiance curves for both the water column and sediments approximately monthly; we added macroalgal incubations in the summer of 2008. We also ...


Eelgrass Restoration By Seed Maintains Genetic Diversity: Case Study From A Coastal Bay System, Laura K. Reynolds, Michelle Waycott, Karen J. Mcglathery, R J. Orth Jan 2012

Eelgrass Restoration By Seed Maintains Genetic Diversity: Case Study From A Coastal Bay System, Laura K. Reynolds, Michelle Waycott, Karen J. Mcglathery, R J. Orth

VIMS Articles

Genetic diversity is positively associated with plant fitness, stability, and the provision of ecosystem services. Preserving genetic diversity is therefore considered an important component of ecosystem restoration as well as a measure of its success. We examined the genetic diversity of restored Zostera marina meadows in a coastal bay system along the USA mid-Atlantic coast using microsatellite markers to compare donor and recipient meadows. We show that donor meadows in Chesapeake Bay have high genetic diversity and that this diversity is maintained in meadows restored with seeds in the Virginia coastal bays. No evidence of inbreeding depression was detected (F-IS-0 ...


Evaluating The Current Status Of American Shad Stocks In Three Virginia Rivers, Robert J. Latour, Eric J. Hilton, Patrick D. Lynch, Troy D. Tuckey, Brian Watkins, John E. Olney Jan 2012

Evaluating The Current Status Of American Shad Stocks In Three Virginia Rivers, Robert J. Latour, Eric J. Hilton, Patrick D. Lynch, Troy D. Tuckey, Brian Watkins, John E. Olney

VIMS Articles

Directed commercial fisheries for American shad Alosa sapidissima in the primary Virginia tributaries of the Chesapeake Bay have been under moratorium since 1994. Monitoring of adult American shad within these rivers has been ongoing since 1998 through a cooperative program involving commercial fishers. The monitoring program is designed to mimic traditional commercial fishing practices so that stock status can be inferred by comparing contemporary catch-per-unit-effort levels with those derived from historic logbooks. In this paper, we present analyses of the available monitoring and historic catch rate data along with updated stock status information for American shad in the James, York ...


Changes In Biodiversity And Environmental Stressors Influence Community Structure Of An Experimental Eelgrass Zostera Marina System, Rachael E. Blake, J. Emmett Duffy Jan 2012

Changes In Biodiversity And Environmental Stressors Influence Community Structure Of An Experimental Eelgrass Zostera Marina System, Rachael E. Blake, J. Emmett Duffy

VIMS Articles

Changes in biodiversity can result in decreased ecosystem functioning and loss of ecosystem services, but altered biodiversity is only one of many stressors impacting ecosystems. In many estuaries, environmental stressors such as warming water temperatures and eutrophication are increasing and negatively impacting biological communities, particularly seagrasses such as the important habitat-forming species Zostera marina (eelgrass). These negative impacts may change the diversity, composition, and functioning of this important ecosystem, but the interactions of stressors with changes in biodiversity are poorly understood. We manipulated eelgrass communities in a factorial experiment to test how changes in crustacean grazer diversity, warmer water temperatures ...


Histological Assessment Of The Lobster (Homarus Americanus) In The "100 Lobsters" Project, Jeffrey D. Shields, Kersten N. Wheeler, Ja Moss Jan 2012

Histological Assessment Of The Lobster (Homarus Americanus) In The "100 Lobsters" Project, Jeffrey D. Shields, Kersten N. Wheeler, Ja Moss

VIMS Articles

The emergence of epizootic shell disease in the American lobster (Homarus americanus) has been devastating to the industry in the coastal waters of southern New England. A comprehensive assessment of the disease syndrome, known as the "100 Lobsters" Project, was initiated to examine health and physiological parameters among laboratories involved in the research on lobster shell disease. A histological study of the 100 lobsters was undertaken as part of that assessment. Tissues from 90 lobsters from Rhode Island and 19 lobsters from Maine were examined as a general health assessment of the 100 lobsters. Approximately half the lobsters from Rhode ...


Two Decades Of Pelagic Ecology Of The Western Antarctic Peninsula, Deborah K. Steinberg, Dg Martinson, Dp Costa Jan 2012

Two Decades Of Pelagic Ecology Of The Western Antarctic Peninsula, Deborah K. Steinberg, Dg Martinson, Dp Costa

VIMS Articles

Significant strides in our understanding of the marine pelagic ecosystem of the Western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) region have been made over the past two decades, resulting from research conducted aboard ARSV Laurence M. Gould and RVIB Nathaniel B. Palmer. These advances range from an understanding of the physical forcing on biology, to food web ecology (from microbes to top predators), to biogeochemical cycling, often in the larger context of rapid climate warming in the region. The proximity of the WAP to the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and WAP continental shelf bathymetry affects the hydrography and helps structure the biological community. Seasonal ...


Long-Term Increase In Mesozooplankton Biomass In The Sargasso Sea: Linkage To Climate And Implications For Food Web Dynamics And Biogeochemical Cycling, Deborah K. Steinberg, Mw Lomas, Js Cope Jan 2012

Long-Term Increase In Mesozooplankton Biomass In The Sargasso Sea: Linkage To Climate And Implications For Food Web Dynamics And Biogeochemical Cycling, Deborah K. Steinberg, Mw Lomas, Js Cope

VIMS Articles

Changes in zooplankton biomass and species composition over long time scales can have significant effects on biogeochemical cycling and transfer of energy to higher trophic levels. We analyzed size-fractionated mesozooplankton biomass (>200 mu m) from biweekly to monthly day and night tows taken from 1994 to 2010 in the epipelagic zone at the Bermuda Atlantic Time series Study (BATS) site in the oligotrophic North Atlantic subtropical gyre. During this 17-year period total mesozooplankton biomass increased 61% overall, although a few short-term downturns occurred over the course of the time series. The overall increase was higher in the nighttime compared to ...


The "100 Lobsters" Project: A Cooperative Demonstration Project For Health Assessments Of Lobsters From Rhode Island, Jeffrey D. Shields, Kersten N. Wheeler, Ja Moss, B Somers, K Castro Jan 2012

The "100 Lobsters" Project: A Cooperative Demonstration Project For Health Assessments Of Lobsters From Rhode Island, Jeffrey D. Shields, Kersten N. Wheeler, Ja Moss, B Somers, K Castro

VIMS Articles

The emergence of epizootic shell disease in the American lobster (Homarus americanus) has been devastating to the fishing industry in southern New England. In response, research was initiated to understand the roles of the environment, pathogens, and pollutants in the ecology and etiology of the disease. A comprehensive project was initiated in which tissues and hemolymph from 100 lobsters were collected from an endemic area of disease, Narragansett Bay, RI. The project has moved forward with the purpose of compiling, synthesizing, and propagating the findings from the "100 Lobsters" Project. The resulting tissue bank and Web-based data repository and instructional ...


Dysbiosis In Epizootic Shell Disease Of The American Lobster (Homarus Americanus), Nj Meres, Cc Ajuzie, M Sikaroodi, M Vemulapalli, Jeffrey D. Shields, Pm Gillevet Jan 2012

Dysbiosis In Epizootic Shell Disease Of The American Lobster (Homarus Americanus), Nj Meres, Cc Ajuzie, M Sikaroodi, M Vemulapalli, Jeffrey D. Shields, Pm Gillevet

VIMS Articles

Epizootic shell disease (ESD) in the American lobster ( Homarus americanus) is continuing to affect the southern New England lobster population, and the etiology of the disease has not been well defined. We hypothesized that a dysbiotic shift in the shell microbial biofilm played a key part in the etiology of the disease. We analyzed the community structure of the surface microflora of apparently healthy and diseased lobsters using multitag pyrosequencing to correlate the abundance of key taxa within the lesions. Discriminant analysis (DA) was used to identify taxa in the microbial community that were associated with diseased and healthy states ...


Triploid Oysters In The Chesapeake Bay: Comparison Of Diploid And Triploid Crassostrea Virginica, Lionel Degremont, C Garcia, A Frank-Lawale, Standish K. Allen Jr. Jan 2012

Triploid Oysters In The Chesapeake Bay: Comparison Of Diploid And Triploid Crassostrea Virginica, Lionel Degremont, C Garcia, A Frank-Lawale, Standish K. Allen Jr.

VIMS Articles

Diploid and triploid Eastern oysters, Crassostrea virginica, were tested at 3 sites characterized by low on moderate salinity regimes in the Virginia part of the Chesapeake Bay from November 2005 through October 2007. Both diploid and triploid cultures were replicated 3 times by producing separate spawns from different broodstock. Ploidy had a generally consistent effect on the performance of C. virginica at the 3 test sites. At the end of the study, in October 2007, and across all sites, triploid oysters had lower cumulative mortality than diploids (-34%), and greater shell height (+25%), whole weight (+88%), and yield (+152%), as ...