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VIMS Articles

2011

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Abstracts Of Technical Papers Presented At The 103rd Annual Meeting National Shellfisheries Association Baltimore, Maryland March 27–31, 2011, National Shellfisheries Association Aug 2011

Abstracts Of Technical Papers Presented At The 103rd Annual Meeting National Shellfisheries Association Baltimore, Maryland March 27–31, 2011, National Shellfisheries Association

VIMS Articles

No abstract provided.


Jellyfish Blooms Result In A Major Microbial Respiratory Sink Of Carbon In Marine Systems, Robert H. Condon, Deborah K. Steinberg, Paul Del Giorgio, Thierry Bouvier, Deborah A. Bronk, William Graham, Hugh W. Ducklow Jun 2011

Jellyfish Blooms Result In A Major Microbial Respiratory Sink Of Carbon In Marine Systems, Robert H. Condon, Deborah K. Steinberg, Paul Del Giorgio, Thierry Bouvier, Deborah A. Bronk, William Graham, Hugh W. Ducklow

VIMS Articles

Jellyfish blooms occur in many estuarine and coastal regions and may be increasing in their magnitude and extent worldwide. Voracious jellyfish predation impacts food webs by converting large quantities of carbon (C), fixed by primary producers and consumed by secondary producers, into gelatinous biomass, which restricts C transfer to higher trophic levels because jellyfish are not readily consumed by other predators. In addition, jellyfish release colloidal and dissolved organic matter (jelly-DOM), and could further influence the functioning of coastal systems by altering microbial nutrient and DOM pathways, yet the links between jellyfish and bacterioplankton metabolism and community structure are unknown ...


The Functional Role Of Producer Diversity In Ecosystems, Bradley J. Cardinale, Kristin L. Matulich, David U. Hooper, Jarrett E. K. Byrnes, Emmett J. Duffy, Lars Gamfeldt, Patricia Balvanera, Mary I. O'Connor, Andrew Gonzalez Mar 2011

The Functional Role Of Producer Diversity In Ecosystems, Bradley J. Cardinale, Kristin L. Matulich, David U. Hooper, Jarrett E. K. Byrnes, Emmett J. Duffy, Lars Gamfeldt, Patricia Balvanera, Mary I. O'Connor, Andrew Gonzalez

VIMS Articles

Over the past several decades, a rapidly expanding field of research known as biodiversity and ecosystem functioning has begun to quantify how the world's biological diversity can, as an independent variable, control ecological processes that are both essential for, and fundamental to, the functioning of ecosystems. Research in this area has often been justified on grounds that (1) loss of biological diversity ranks among the most pronounced changes to the global environment and that (2) reductions in diversity, and corresponding changes in species composition, could alter important services that ecosystems provide to humanity (e.g., food production, pest/disease ...


Oyster Reefs At Risk And Recommendations For Conservation, Restoration, And Management, Michael W. Beck, Robert D. Brumbaugh, Laura Airoldi, Alvar Carranza, Loren D. Coen, Christine Crawford, Omar Defeo, Graham J. Edgar, Boze Handcock, Matthew C. Kay, Hunter S. Lenihan, Mark Luckenbach, Caitlyn L. Toropova, Guofan Zhang, Ximing Guo Feb 2011

Oyster Reefs At Risk And Recommendations For Conservation, Restoration, And Management, Michael W. Beck, Robert D. Brumbaugh, Laura Airoldi, Alvar Carranza, Loren D. Coen, Christine Crawford, Omar Defeo, Graham J. Edgar, Boze Handcock, Matthew C. Kay, Hunter S. Lenihan, Mark Luckenbach, Caitlyn L. Toropova, Guofan Zhang, Ximing Guo

VIMS Articles

Native oyster reefs once dominated many estuaries, ecologically and economically. Centuries of resource extraction exacerbated by coastal degradation have pushed oyster reefs to the brink of functional extinction worldwide. We examined the condition of oyster reefs across 144 bays and 44 ecoregions; our comparisons of past with present abundances indicate that more than 90% of them have been lost in bays (70%) and ecoregions (63%). In many bays, more than 99% of oyster reefs have been lost and are functionally extinct. Overall, we estimate that 85% of oyster reefs have been lost globally. Most of the world's remaining wild ...


Postrelease Survival, Vertical And Horizontal Movements, And Thermal Habitats Of Five Species Of Pelagic Sharks In The Central Pacific Ocean, Michael K. Musyl, Richard Brill, Daniel S. Curran, Nuno M. Fragoso, Lianne Mcnaughton, Anders Nielsen, Bert S. Kikkawa, Christopher D. Moyes Jan 2011

Postrelease Survival, Vertical And Horizontal Movements, And Thermal Habitats Of Five Species Of Pelagic Sharks In The Central Pacific Ocean, Michael K. Musyl, Richard Brill, Daniel S. Curran, Nuno M. Fragoso, Lianne Mcnaughton, Anders Nielsen, Bert S. Kikkawa, Christopher D. Moyes

VIMS Articles

From 2001 to 2006, 71 pop-up satellite archival tags (PSATs) were deployed on five species of pelagic shark (blue shark [Prionace glauca]; shortfin mako [Isurus oxyrinchus]; silky shark [Carcharhinus falciformis]; oceanic whitetip shark [C. longimanus]; and bigeye thresher [Alopias superciliosus]) in the central Pacific Ocean to determine speciesspecific movement patterns and survival rates after release from longline fishing gear. Only a single postrelease mortality could be unequivocally documented: a male blue shark which succumbed seven days after release. Meta-analysis of published reports and the current study (n=78 reporting PSATs) indicated that the summary effect of postrelease mortality for blue ...


Regional Variation In The Annual Feeding Cycle Of Juvenile Walleye Pollock (Theragra Chalcogramma) In The Western Gulf Of Alaska, Matthew T. Wilson, Andre Buchheister, Christina M. Jump Jan 2011

Regional Variation In The Annual Feeding Cycle Of Juvenile Walleye Pollock (Theragra Chalcogramma) In The Western Gulf Of Alaska, Matthew T. Wilson, Andre Buchheister, Christina M. Jump

VIMS Articles

Juvenile fish in temperate coastal oceans exhibit an annual cycle of feeding, and within this cycle, poor wintertime feeding can reduce body growth, condition, and perhaps survival, especially in food-poor areas. We examined the stomach contents of juvenile walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) to explain previously observed seasonal and regional variation in juvenile body condition. Juvenile walleye pollock (1732 fish, 37-250 mm standard length) of the 2000 year class were collected from three regions in the Gulf of Alaska (Kodiak, Semidi, and Shumagin) representing an area of the continental shelf of ca. 100,000 km(2) during four seasons (August 2000 ...


An Evaluation Of The Effects Of Blue Crab (Callinectes Sapidus) Behavior On The Efficacy Of Crab Pots As A Tool For Estimating Population Abundance, Samuel Kersey Sturdivant, Kl Clark Jan 2011

An Evaluation Of The Effects Of Blue Crab (Callinectes Sapidus) Behavior On The Efficacy Of Crab Pots As A Tool For Estimating Population Abundance, Samuel Kersey Sturdivant, Kl Clark

VIMS Articles

Crab traps have been used extensively in studies on the population dynamics of blue crabs to provide estimates of catch per unit of effort; however, these estimates have been determined without adequate consideration of escape rates. We examined the ability of the blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) to escape crab pots and the possibility that intraspecific crab interactions have an effect on catch rates. Approximately 85% of crabs that entered a pot escaped, and 83% of crabs escaped from the bait chamber (kitchen). Blue crabs exhibited few aggressive behavioral interactions in and around the crab pot and were documented to move ...


Lack Of Transmission Of Hematodinium Sp In The Blue Crab Callinectes Sapidus Through Cannibalism, Cw Li, Kn Wheeler, Jeffrey D. Shields Jan 2011

Lack Of Transmission Of Hematodinium Sp In The Blue Crab Callinectes Sapidus Through Cannibalism, Cw Li, Kn Wheeler, Jeffrey D. Shields

VIMS Articles

Hematodinium spp. are parasitic dinoflagellates of marine crustaceans. Outbreaks of Hematodinium sp. have impacted commercial landings of the blue crab Callinectes sapidus in the coastal bays of Virginia and Maryland (USA), with seasonal peaks in prevalence reaching 85%. The life cycle and transmission routes of the parasite in blue crabs are poorly understood. Cannibalism and waterborne transmission may be routes of transmission, although little conclusive evidence has been reported for these modes. We examined cannibalism as a route by a series of experiments wherein we repeatedly fed adult and juvenile crabs the tissues of crabs infected with Hematodinium. In each ...


Linked Indicator Sets For Addressing Biodiversity Loss, Th Sparks, Shm Butchart, A Balmford, L Bennun, D Stanwell-Smith, Rj Diaz, Et Al. Jan 2011

Linked Indicator Sets For Addressing Biodiversity Loss, Th Sparks, Shm Butchart, A Balmford, L Bennun, D Stanwell-Smith, Rj Diaz, Et Al.

VIMS Articles

The target adopted by world leaders of significantly reducing the rate of biodiversity loss by 2010 was not met but this stimulated a new suite of biodiversity targets for 2020 adopted by the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) in October 2010. Indicators will be essential for monitoring progress towards these targets and the CBD will be defining a suite of relevant indicators, building on those developed for the 2010 target. Here we argue that explicitly linked sets of indicators offer a more useful framework than do individual indicators because the former are easier to understand, communicate and ...


Characterization Of Photochromogenic Mycobacterium Spp. From Chesapeake Bay Striped Bass Morone Saxatilis, Dt Gauthier, Am Helenthal, Mw Rhodes, Wolfgang K. Vogelbein, Hi Kator Jan 2011

Characterization Of Photochromogenic Mycobacterium Spp. From Chesapeake Bay Striped Bass Morone Saxatilis, Dt Gauthier, Am Helenthal, Mw Rhodes, Wolfgang K. Vogelbein, Hi Kator

VIMS Articles

A large diversity of Mycobacterium spp. has been isolated from striped bass Morone saxatilis in Chesapeake Bay, USA. The new species M. shottsii and M. pseudoshottsii are the dominant isolates, while the classical fish pathogen M. marinum is found much less frequently. M. fortuitum and M. chelonae, other Mycobacterium spp. known to commonly infect fishes, have not yet been aseptically isolated from striped bass within Chesapeake Bay. While M. pseudoshottsii and M. shottsii have been phenotypically and genotypically characterized, other less common mycobacterial isolates have not. In the present study, we describe 17 photochromogenic isolates from Chesapeake Bay striped bass ...


Fossil And Contemporary Aerosol Particulate Organic Carbon In The Eastern United States: Implications For Deposition And Inputs To Watersheds, As Wozniak, Je Bauer, Rm Dickhut Jan 2011

Fossil And Contemporary Aerosol Particulate Organic Carbon In The Eastern United States: Implications For Deposition And Inputs To Watersheds, As Wozniak, Je Bauer, Rm Dickhut

VIMS Articles

Atmospheric particulate matter samples were collected from mid-Atlantic and northeastern U. S. (Virginia and New York, respectively) sites to assess the fossil versus contemporary sources contributing to aerosol organic carbon (OC) and the implications for its deposition to watersheds. Mean particulate matter total OC (TOC) deposition rates (wet + dry deposition) were calculated to be 1.6 and 2.4 mg C m(-2) d(-1) for the Virginia and New York sites, respectively. Wet deposition of particulate TOC was determined to be the dominant depositional mode, accounting for >65% (Virginia) and >80% (New York) of total aerosol TOC deposition. Isotopic ...


A General Equilibrium Model For Atlantic Herring (Clupea Harengus) With Ecosystem Considerations, Je Kirkley, J Walden, R Fare Jan 2011

A General Equilibrium Model For Atlantic Herring (Clupea Harengus) With Ecosystem Considerations, Je Kirkley, J Walden, R Fare

VIMS Articles

A framework is presented for assessing the economic ramifications of ecosystem-based management decisions, with attention focused on Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) in New England. The Atlantic herring has often been referred to as the most important fish in the northeastern United States because it is a filter-feeder, is believed to improve water quality, and is very important to the health, growth, and abundance of major gamefish, marine mammals, seabirds, and several species of fish. Although many approaches for examining the potential economic ramifications of ecosystem-based management are possible, attention is focused on one method that can be used given existing ...


Food Chain Length And Omnivory Determine The Stability Of A Marine Subtidal Food Web, Zt Long, Jf Bruno, Je Duffy Jan 2011

Food Chain Length And Omnivory Determine The Stability Of A Marine Subtidal Food Web, Zt Long, Jf Bruno, Je Duffy

VIMS Articles

P>1. Using a subtidal marine food web as a model system, we examined how food chain length (predators present or absent) and the prevalence of omnivory influenced temporal stability (and its components) of herbivores and plants. We held the density of top predators constant but manipulated their identity to generate a gradient in omnivory prevalence. 2. We measured temporal stability as the inverse of the coefficient of variation of abundance over time. Predators and omnivory could influence temporal stability through effects on abundance (the 'abundance' effect), summed variance across taxa (the 'portfolio effect') or summed covariances among taxa (the ...


Copepod Guts As Biogeochemical Hotspots In The Sea: Evidence From Microelectrode Profiling Of Calanus Spp., Kw Tang, Rn Glud, A Glud, S Rysgaard, Tg Nielsen Jan 2011

Copepod Guts As Biogeochemical Hotspots In The Sea: Evidence From Microelectrode Profiling Of Calanus Spp., Kw Tang, Rn Glud, A Glud, S Rysgaard, Tg Nielsen

VIMS Articles

The environmental conditions inside the gut of Calanus hyperboreus and C. glacialis were measured with microelectrodes. An acidic potential hydrogen (pH) gradient was present in the gut of C. hyperboreus, and the lowest pH recorded was 5.40. The gut pH of a starved copepod decreased by 0.53 after the copepod resumed feeding for a few hours, indicating the secretion of acidic digestive fluid. A copepod feeding on Thalassiosira weissflogii (diatom) had slightly lower pH than that feeding on Rhodomonas salina (cryptophyte). Oxygen was undersaturated in the gut of both C. hyperboreus and C. glacialis, with a steep gradient ...


Widespread Survey Finds No Evidence Of Haplosporidium Nelsoni (Msx) In Gulf Of Mexico Oysters, Se Ford, J Paterno, E Scarpa, Na Stokes, Y Kim, Et Al. Jan 2011

Widespread Survey Finds No Evidence Of Haplosporidium Nelsoni (Msx) In Gulf Of Mexico Oysters, Se Ford, J Paterno, E Scarpa, Na Stokes, Y Kim, Et Al.

VIMS Articles

The advent of molecular detection assays has provided a set of very sensitive tools for the detection of pathogens in marine organisms, but it has also raised problems of how to interpret positive signals that are not accompanied by visual confirmation. PCR-positive results have recently been reported for Haplosporidium nelsoni (MSX), a pathogen of the oyster Crassostrea virginica in 31 of 40 oysters from 6 sites in the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea. Histological confirmation of the PCR results was not undertaken, and no haplosporidian has been reported from the numerous histological studies and surveys of oysters in ...


The Effect Of Stimulation Frequency On The Transmural Ventricular Monophasic Action Potential In Yellowfin Tuna Thunnus Albacares, M Patrick, E White, Richard Brill, Ha Shiels Jan 2011

The Effect Of Stimulation Frequency On The Transmural Ventricular Monophasic Action Potential In Yellowfin Tuna Thunnus Albacares, M Patrick, E White, Richard Brill, Ha Shiels

VIMS Articles

Monophasic action potentials (MAPs) were recorded from the spongy and compact layers of the yellowfin tuna Thunnus albacares ventricle as stimulation frequency was increased. MAP duration decreased with increase in stimulation frequency in both the spongy and compact myocardial layers, but no significant difference in MAP duration was observed between the layers.


Catchability Of Pelagic Trawls For Sampling Deep-Living Nekton In The Mid-North Atlantic, M Heino, Fm Porteiro, Tt Sutton, T Falkenhaug, Or Godo Jan 2011

Catchability Of Pelagic Trawls For Sampling Deep-Living Nekton In The Mid-North Atlantic, M Heino, Fm Porteiro, Tt Sutton, T Falkenhaug, Or Godo

VIMS Articles

Material collected in summer 2004 from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge between Iceland and the Azores with three pelagic trawls was used to estimate relative catchabilities of common fish, cephalopod, decapod, and jellyfish species. Catchability is defined as the ratio of numbers caught between two trawls, standardized for towed distance. Taxon-specific catchability coefficients were estimated for two large pelagic trawls with graded meshes, using a smaller pelagic trawl with a uniform mesh size as the reference trawl. Two of the trawls were equipped with multiple opening-closing codends that allowed sampling of different depth layers. Generalized linear and mixed models suggest that most ...


Frequency Of Multiple Paternity In The Spiny Dogfish Squalus Acanthias In The Western North Atlantic, A Verissimo, D Grubbs, Jan Mcdowell, J Musick, D Portnoy Jan 2011

Frequency Of Multiple Paternity In The Spiny Dogfish Squalus Acanthias In The Western North Atlantic, A Verissimo, D Grubbs, Jan Mcdowell, J Musick, D Portnoy

VIMS Articles

Multiple paternity (MP) has been shown to be widespread in elasmobranch fishes although its prevalence and the number of sires per litter vary considerably among species. In the squaloid shark Squalus acanthias, MP has been reported, but whether it is a common feature of the species' reproductive strategy is unknown. In this study, we determined the frequency of MP in 29 litters of S. acanthias sampled from the lower Chesapeake Bay and coastal Virginia waters, using 7 highly polymorphic nuclear DNA microsatellite loci. Only 5 litters (17% of the total) were genetically polyandrous, with at least 2 sires per litter ...


Early Season Depletion Of Dissolved Iron In The Ross Sea Polynya: Implications For Iron Dynamics On The Antarctic Continental Shelf, P. N. Sedwick, Walker O. Smith Jr. Jan 2011

Early Season Depletion Of Dissolved Iron In The Ross Sea Polynya: Implications For Iron Dynamics On The Antarctic Continental Shelf, P. N. Sedwick, Walker O. Smith Jr.

VIMS Articles

The Ross Sea polynya is among the most productive regions in the Southern Ocean and may constitute a significant oceanic CO2 sink. Based on results from several field studies, this region has been considered seasonally iron limited, whereby a "winter reserve" of dissolved iron (dFe) is progressively depleted during the growing season to low concentrations (similar to 0.1 nM) that limit phytoplankton growth in the austral summer (December-February). Here we report new iron data for the Ross Sea polynya during austral summer 2005-2006 (27 December-22 January) and the following austral spring 2006 (16 November-3 December). The summer 2005-2006 data ...


Vertical Structure, Seasonal Drawdown, And Net Community Production In The Ross Sea, Antarctica, Matthew C. Long, Robert B. Dunbar, Philippe D. Tortell, Walker O. Smith Jr., David A. Mucciarone, Giacomo R. Ditullio Jan 2011

Vertical Structure, Seasonal Drawdown, And Net Community Production In The Ross Sea, Antarctica, Matthew C. Long, Robert B. Dunbar, Philippe D. Tortell, Walker O. Smith Jr., David A. Mucciarone, Giacomo R. Ditullio

VIMS Articles

We calculate net community production (NCP) during summer 2005-2006 and spring 2006 in the Ross Sea using multiple approaches to determine the magnitude and consistency of rates. Water column carbon and nutrient inventories and surface ocean O-2/Ar data are compared to satellite-derived primary productivity (PP) estimates and C-14 uptake experiments. In spring, NCP was related to stratification proximal to upper ocean fronts. In summer, the most intense C drawdown was in shallow mixed layers affected by ice melt; depth-integrated C drawdown, however, increased with mixing depth. Delta O-2/Ar-based methods, relying on gas exchange reconstructions, underestimate NCP due to ...


Global Conservation Priorities For Marine Turtles, Bryan P. Wallace, John A. Musick Jan 2011

Global Conservation Priorities For Marine Turtles, Bryan P. Wallace, John A. Musick

VIMS Articles

Where conservation resources are limited and conservation targets are diverse, robust yet flexible priority-setting frameworks are vital. Priority-setting is especially important for geographically widespread species with distinct populations subject to multiple threats that operate on different spatial and temporal scales. Marine turtles are widely distributed and exhibit intra-specific variations in population sizes and trends, as well as reproduction and morphology. However, current global extinction risk assessment frameworks do not assess conservation status of spatially and biologically distinct marine turtle Regional Management Units (RMUs), and thus do not capture variations in population trends, impacts of threats, or necessary conservation actions across ...


Lessons Learned From Efforts To Restore Oyster Populations In Maryland And Virginia, 1990 To 2007, Vs Kennedy, Dl Breitburg, Mc Christman, Mark Luckenbach, Kennedy Paynter, J Kramer, Kevin Sellner, J Dew-Baxter, C Keller, Roger L. Mann Jan 2011

Lessons Learned From Efforts To Restore Oyster Populations In Maryland And Virginia, 1990 To 2007, Vs Kennedy, Dl Breitburg, Mc Christman, Mark Luckenbach, Kennedy Paynter, J Kramer, Kevin Sellner, J Dew-Baxter, C Keller, Roger L. Mann

VIMS Articles

A century-long decline of the fishery for the Eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin, 1791) in Maryland and Virginia stimulated numerous efforts by federal, state, and nongovernmental agencies to restore oyster populations, with limited success. To learn from recent efforts, we analyzed records of restoration and monitoring activities undertaken between 1990 and 2007 by 12 such agencies. Of the 1,037 oyster bars (reefs, beds, or grounds) for which we obtained data, 43% experienced both restoration and monitoring, with the remaining experiencing either restoration or monitoring only. Restoration activities involved adding substrate (shell), transplanting hatchery or wild seed (juvenile oysters), bar ...


Genetic Diversity In U.S. Hatchery Stocks Of Crassostrea Ariakensis (Fujita, 1913) And Comparison With Natural Populations In Asia, Jie Xiao, Jan F. Cordes, Ja Moss, Kimberly S. Reece Jan 2011

Genetic Diversity In U.S. Hatchery Stocks Of Crassostrea Ariakensis (Fujita, 1913) And Comparison With Natural Populations In Asia, Jie Xiao, Jan F. Cordes, Ja Moss, Kimberly S. Reece

VIMS Articles

Although several different U.S. hatchery stocks of the Asian Suminoe oyster Crassosirea ariakensis were used in laboratory and field trials assessing performance, and in comparative studies with the native oyster Crassostrea virginica, the genetic composition of these hatchery stocks has not yet been examined comprehensively. Using eight microsatellite markers we investigated the genetic variability among five hatchery stocks and compared the genetic makeup of these stocks with 8 wild populations from Asia. Results showed significant genetic differentiation among the 5 hatchery stocks that was 6-fold larger than that observed among wild populations. A significant reduction in genetic diversity was ...


Observations On The Early Life History And Growth Rates Of Juvenile Channel Whelks Busycotypus Canaliculatus (Linnaeus, 1758), Juliana Harding Jan 2011

Observations On The Early Life History And Growth Rates Of Juvenile Channel Whelks Busycotypus Canaliculatus (Linnaeus, 1758), Juliana Harding

VIMS Articles

Channel whelks (Busycotypus canaliculatus) were cultured from hatch through 171 days to describe the early life history and growth rates of juveniles. Whelks began to hatch at water temperatures of 15-18 degrees C. Channel whelks grew quickly from average shell lengths (SL) at hatch of 3.8 mm (SE = 0.1) to an average of 48.4 mm SL (SE = 1.3, n = 42 individuals) at 171 days post-hatch. The largest individual reached 53.2 mm SL, a gain of similar to 49.4 mm SL in 171 days, with a growth rate of 0.29 mm/day. Juvenile whelks ...


Sailfish Habitat Utilization And Vertical Movements In The Southern Gulf Of Mexico And Florida Straits, David W. Kerstetter, Shannon M. Bayse, Jenny L. Fenton, John Graves Jan 2011

Sailfish Habitat Utilization And Vertical Movements In The Southern Gulf Of Mexico And Florida Straits, David W. Kerstetter, Shannon M. Bayse, Jenny L. Fenton, John Graves

VIMS Articles

Pop-up satellite archival tags (PSATs) were deployed on 19 sailfish Istiophorus platypterus captured in the southern Gulf of Mexico and Florida Straits between 2005 and 2007 on commercial pelagic longline gear (n = 18) and recreational rod-and-reel gear (n = 1). The data from three tags indicated mortality events and were excluded from subsequent analyses. All PSATs were programmed to collect pressure (depth), temperature, and light-level data for 10 d at approximately 90-s intervals. These transmitted point data subsequently allowed the reconstruction of vertical movement patterns. The remaining 16 PSAT data sets indicate that sailfish are primarily associated with the upper surface ...


Declining Impact Of An Introduced Pathogen: Haplosporidium Nelsoni In The Oyster Crassostrea Virginica In Chesapeake Bay, Ryan B. Carnegie, Eugene M. Burreson Jan 2011

Declining Impact Of An Introduced Pathogen: Haplosporidium Nelsoni In The Oyster Crassostrea Virginica In Chesapeake Bay, Ryan B. Carnegie, Eugene M. Burreson

VIMS Articles

Disease caused by the parasite Haplosporidium nelsoni has devastated Crassostrea virginica in Chesapeake Bay, exacerbating effects of overharvesting and adversely impacting the ecology of the bay. H. nelsoni is thought to persist as an impediment to oyster restoration because strong reproductive contributions from oysters in low-salinity refugia from parasitism have prevented development of disease resistance. On the contrary, long-term data indicate that while infection pressure on naive sentinels has grown, H. nelsoni levels in wild oysters have fallen, with prevalence typically below 20% and advanced infections uncommon. A transplant experiment comparing naive sentinels with oysters from disease-enzootic populations indicated that ...


Multi-Locus Phylogeny Of Sponge-Dwelling Snapping Shrimp (Caridea: Alpheidae: Synalpheus) Supports Morphology-Based Species Concepts, Km Hultgren, Je Duffy Jan 2011

Multi-Locus Phylogeny Of Sponge-Dwelling Snapping Shrimp (Caridea: Alpheidae: Synalpheus) Supports Morphology-Based Species Concepts, Km Hultgren, Je Duffy

VIMS Articles

Alpheid snapping shrimp are one of the most diverse groups of coral-reef fauna, and sponge-dwelling shrimp in the genus Synalpheus (gambarelloides species group) have in particular become a model system for studying the evolution of social biology and host use in marine invertebrates. Despite recent advances in understanding the evolution and systematics of Synalpheus, the taxonomy and phylogenetic relationships within this group remain challenging. More than 20 new species in the S. gambarelloides species group have been described over the past two decades, primarily within several cryptic species complexes, which has doubled the known diversity of this group in the ...


Escaping Paradise: Larval Export From Hawaii In An Indo-Pacific Reef Fish, The Yellow Tang Zebrasoma Flavescens, Jeff A. Eble, Robert J. Toonen, Laurie Sorenson, Larry V. Basch Jan 2011

Escaping Paradise: Larval Export From Hawaii In An Indo-Pacific Reef Fish, The Yellow Tang Zebrasoma Flavescens, Jeff A. Eble, Robert J. Toonen, Laurie Sorenson, Larry V. Basch

VIMS Articles

The depauperate marine ecosystems of the Hawaiian Archipelago share a high proportion of species with the southern and western Pacific, indicating historical and/or ongoing connections across the large oceanic expanse separating Hawaii from its nearest neighbors. The rate and direction of these interactions are, however, unknown. While previous biogeographic studies have consistently described Hawaii as a diversity sink, prevailing currents likely offer opportunities for larval export. To assess interactions between the remote reefs of the Hawaiian Archipelago and the species-rich communities of the Central and West Pacific, we surveyed 14 nuclear microsatellite loci (nDNA, n = 857) and a 614 ...


Review Of Panulirus Argus Virus 1-A Decade After Its Discovery, Dc Behringer, Mj Butler, Jeffrey D. Shields, Ja Moss Jan 2011

Review Of Panulirus Argus Virus 1-A Decade After Its Discovery, Dc Behringer, Mj Butler, Jeffrey D. Shields, Ja Moss

VIMS Articles

In 2000, a pathogenic virus was discovered in juvenile Caribbean spiny lobsters Panulirus argus from the Florida Keys, USA. Panulirus argus virus 1 (PaV1) is the first naturally occurring pathogenic virus reported from lobsters, and it profoundly affects their ecology and physiology. PaV1 is widespread in the Caribbean with infections reported in Florida (USA), St. Croix, St. Kitts, Yucatan (Mexico), Belize, and Cuba. It is most prevalent and nearly always lethal in the smallest juvenile lobsters, but this declines with increasing lobster size; adults harbor the virus, but do not present the characteristic signs of the disease. No other PaV1 ...


Cownose Ray (Rhinoptera Bonasus) Predation Relative To Bivalve Ontogeny, Robert A. Fisher, Garrett C. Call, Rd Grubbs Jan 2011

Cownose Ray (Rhinoptera Bonasus) Predation Relative To Bivalve Ontogeny, Robert A. Fisher, Garrett C. Call, Rd Grubbs

VIMS Articles

The purpose of this study was to determine the ability of the cownose ray, Rhinoptera bonasus (Mitchill, 1815), to manipulate oysters and clams, to test for relative prey preference, and to investigate whether susceptibility to cownose ray predation changes with bivalve ontogeny. We investigated patterns of predation for captive adult and young-of-year cownose rays on 4 species of bivalves, including Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin, 1791), Crassostrea ariakensis (Fujita, 1913), Mercenaria mercenaria (Linnaeus, 1758), and Mya arenaria Linnaeus, 1758. In oyster (C. virginica) trials, predation probabilities by adult rays were highest at shell heights of 30-70 mm and shell depths of 8-22 ...