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VIMS Articles

2009

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Articles 1 - 30 of 31

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Nutrient Enrichment And Food Web Composition Affect Ecosystem Metabolism In An Experimental Seagrass Habitat, Amanda C. Spivak, Elizabeth A. Canuel, J. Emment Duffy, J. Paul Richardson Oct 2009

Nutrient Enrichment And Food Web Composition Affect Ecosystem Metabolism In An Experimental Seagrass Habitat, Amanda C. Spivak, Elizabeth A. Canuel, J. Emment Duffy, J. Paul Richardson

VIMS Articles

Food web composition and resource levels can influence ecosystem properties such as productivity and elemental cycles. In particular, herbivores occupy a central place in food webs as the species richness and composition of this trophic level may simultaneously influence the transmission of resource and predator effects to higher and lower trophic levels, respectively. Yet, these interactions are poorly understood.


First Records Of Hypleurochilus Geminatus And Centropristis Philadelphica From Chesapeake Bay, Aimee D. Halvorson Oct 2009

First Records Of Hypleurochilus Geminatus And Centropristis Philadelphica From Chesapeake Bay, Aimee D. Halvorson

VIMS Articles

During the fall of 2007, Centropristis philadelphica (rock seabass) and Hypleurochilus geminatus (crested blenny) were collected from Chesapeake Bay. These captures are significant as they represent the first substantiated record of C. philadelphica from Chesapeake Bay and only the second and third validated records of H. geminatus. Additionally, the first record of H. geminatus from Chesapeake Bay was only recently recognized since the specimen had been previously misidentified as Parablennius marmoreus (seaweed blenny). The collection of seven individuals of H. geminatus in 2007, from two locations, indicates that the species may be resident within the Chesapeake Bay estuary.


Abstracts Of Technical Papers Presented At The 101st Annual Meeting National Shellfisheries Association Savannah, Georgia March 22–26, 2009, National Shellfisheries Association Aug 2009

Abstracts Of Technical Papers Presented At The 101st Annual Meeting National Shellfisheries Association Savannah, Georgia March 22–26, 2009, National Shellfisheries Association

VIMS Articles

No abstract provided.


Idiopathic Lesions And Visual Deficits In The American Lobster (Homarus Americanus) From Long Island Sound, Ny, Christopher R. Magel, Jeffrey D. Shields, Richard Brill Jul 2009

Idiopathic Lesions And Visual Deficits In The American Lobster (Homarus Americanus) From Long Island Sound, Ny, Christopher R. Magel, Jeffrey D. Shields, Richard Brill

VIMS Articles

In 1999, a mass mortality of the American lobster (Homarus americanus) occurred in western Long Island Sound (WLIS). Although the etiology of this event remains unknown, bottom water temperature, hypoxia, heavy metal poisoning, and pesticides are potential causal factors. Lobsters from WLIS continue to display signs of morbidity, including lethargy and cloudy grey eyes that contain idiopathic lesions. As the effect of these lesions on lobster vision is unknown, we used electroretinography (ERG) to document changes in visual function in lobsters from WLIS, while using histology to quantify the extent of physical damage. Seventy-three percent of lobsters from WLIS showed ...


Accelerating Loss Of Seagrasses Across The Globe Threatens Coastal Ecosystems, Michelle Waycott, Carlos M. Duarte, Tim J. Carruthers, Robert J. Orth, Wc Dennison, Suzanne Olyarnik, Ainsley Calladine, James W. Fourqurean, Kl Heck, A. Randall Hughes, Gary A. Kendrick, W. Judson Kenworthy, Frederick T. Short, Susan L. Williams May 2009

Accelerating Loss Of Seagrasses Across The Globe Threatens Coastal Ecosystems, Michelle Waycott, Carlos M. Duarte, Tim J. Carruthers, Robert J. Orth, Wc Dennison, Suzanne Olyarnik, Ainsley Calladine, James W. Fourqurean, Kl Heck, A. Randall Hughes, Gary A. Kendrick, W. Judson Kenworthy, Frederick T. Short, Susan L. Williams

VIMS Articles

Coastal ecosystems and the services they provide are adversely affected by a wide variety of human activities. In particular, seagrass meadows are negatively affected by impacts accruing from the billion or more people who live within 50 km of them. Seagrass meadows provide important ecosystem services, including an estimated $1.9 trillion per year in the form of nutrient cycling; an order of magnitude enhancement of coral reef fish productivity; a habitat for thousands of fish, bird, and invertebrate species; and a major food source for endangered dugong, manatee, and green turtle. Although individual impacts from coastal development, degraded water ...


A Molecular Phylogeny Of The Remoras And Their Relatives, Kn Gray, Jan Mcdowell, Bb Collette, Je Graves Mar 2009

A Molecular Phylogeny Of The Remoras And Their Relatives, Kn Gray, Jan Mcdowell, Bb Collette, Je Graves

VIMS Articles

The Echeneoidea comprise three families of cosmopolitan tropical/subtropical marine fishes: the Echeneidae (remoras), Coryphaenidae (dolphin fishes), and Rachycentridae (cobia). Complete nucleotide sequences from the mitochondrial 12S rRNA, 16S rRNA, protein-coding ND2, and nuclear ITS-1 gene regions were used to reconstruct the phylogenetic history of these fishes. Parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian analyses of combined data sets resolved trees of similar topology. Congruent with evolutionary hypotheses based on larval morphology, a monophyletic Rachycentridae + Coryphaenidae was resolved with high support. Within a monophyletic Echeneidae, the subfamilies Echeneinae and Remorinae were monophyletic. In agreement with recent morphological analyses, the genus Remora was ...


Diversity Has Stronger Top-Down Than Bottom-Up Effects On Decomposition, Ds Srivastava, Bj Cardinale, Al Downing, Je Duffy, Et Al Mar 2009

Diversity Has Stronger Top-Down Than Bottom-Up Effects On Decomposition, Ds Srivastava, Bj Cardinale, Al Downing, Je Duffy, Et Al

VIMS Articles

The flow of energy and nutrients between trophic levels is affected by both the trophic structure of food webs and the diversity of species within trophic levels. However, the combined effects of trophic structure and diversity on trophic transfer remain largely unknown. Here we ask whether changes in consumer diversity have the same effect as changes in resource diversity on rates of resource consumption. We address this question by focusing on consumer-resource dynamics for the ecologically important process of decomposition. This study compares the top-down effect of consumer (detritivore) diversity on the consumption of dead organic matter (decomposition) with the ...


Effects Of Food On Bacterial Community Composition Associated With The Copepod Acartia Tonsa Dana, K Tang, C Dziallas, K Hutalle-Schmelzer, Hp Grossart Jan 2009

Effects Of Food On Bacterial Community Composition Associated With The Copepod Acartia Tonsa Dana, K Tang, C Dziallas, K Hutalle-Schmelzer, Hp Grossart

VIMS Articles

The estuarine copepod Acartia tonsa naturally carried diverse strains of bacteria on its body. The bacterial community composition (BCC) remained very conservative even when the copepod was fed different axenic algal species, indicating that the food per se did not much affect BCC associated with the copepod. In xenic algal treatments, however, copepod-associated BCC differed with each alga fed, even though the same bacterial source was used to inoculate the algae. In addition, starved copepods taken at the same location but at different times significantly differed in their BCC. Algal species composition and copepod life history therefore serve to regulate ...


Introduction To The First Symposium On The Biology Of The Parasitic Crustacea, Jeffrey D. Shields, Cb Boyko Jan 2009

Introduction To The First Symposium On The Biology Of The Parasitic Crustacea, Jeffrey D. Shields, Cb Boyko

VIMS Articles

No abstract provided.


Simple Staining Method For Differentiating Live And Dead Marine Zooplankton In Field Samples, Dt Elliott, Kw Tang Jan 2009

Simple Staining Method For Differentiating Live And Dead Marine Zooplankton In Field Samples, Dt Elliott, Kw Tang

VIMS Articles

We describe and evaluate a method for the use of neutral red staining to differentiate live and dead zooplankton in marine field samples. The protocol can be easily incorporated into shipboard zooplankton sampling. The use of neutral red in laboratory studies is common, but its application for quantifying natural live/dead zooplankton composition under field conditions has not been evaluated in detail. We tested the accuracy and precision of the method for a range of salinities and temperatures, and for common estuarine zooplankton groups. Detailed descriptions of staining intensities and patterns are provided. In addition, we evaluated potential artifact mortality ...


Size-Fractionated Photosynthesis/Irradiance Relationships During Phaeocystis Antarctica-Dominated Blooms In The Ross Sea, Antarctica, Ar Shields, Walker O. Smith Jr. Jan 2009

Size-Fractionated Photosynthesis/Irradiance Relationships During Phaeocystis Antarctica-Dominated Blooms In The Ross Sea, Antarctica, Ar Shields, Walker O. Smith Jr.

VIMS Articles

In the Ross Sea, there are two major phytoplankton functional groups: diatoms and prymnesiophytes (dominated by Phaeocystis antarctica). Phaeocystis antarctica often occurs in colonial form, but also as solitary cells, and the two forms have distinct ecological roles. A comparison of the growth characteristics of solitary and colonial forms of Phaeocystis sp. is essential to understanding the differential impact each has on biogeochemical and ecological processes, and to allow parameterization of each form in numerical models. We measured the biomass and photosynthetic responses of two size fractions (> 20 and < 20 mu m), representing colonies and solitary cells, at locations dominated by P. antarctica to assess the relative photosynthetic potential of the two forms. While the relative contribution of each form to total P. antarctica biomass differed among years, there were no significant differences between maximum photosynthetic rates of colonial and solitary forms within years. Substantial interannual variations in biomass and maximum photosynthetic rates normalized to chlorophyll a (PmB) and initial light-limited rates of photosynthesis (alpha) were observed among years for the colonial fractions; however, interannual variations in maximum rates of photosynthesis or alpha of solitary cells were not observed. A laboratory experiment with P. antarctica, together with field data, showed that growth stage of colonies strongly affected the maximum photosynthetic rates. Under nutrient-replete conditions and exponential growth, colonial cells had higher maximum photosynthetic rates than solitary cells, but as growth rate declined and senescence began, the solitary cells' rates became greater. This may be a reason for the high abundance of colonies that is often found in the Ross Sea during austral spring. Our results suggest that photosynthetic rates may influence the composition of the morphotypes of Phaeocystis, but do not appear to be the sole factor in regulating this critical biological variable.


The Bridge Web Site Growing And Sustaining Partnerships Between Ocean Science And Education, Vp Clark, La Lawrence, C Petrone, L Larkin Jan 2009

The Bridge Web Site Growing And Sustaining Partnerships Between Ocean Science And Education, Vp Clark, La Lawrence, C Petrone, L Larkin

VIMS Articles

No abstract provided.


Deep-Sea Mystery Solved: Astonishing Larval Transformations And Extreme Sexual Dimorphism Unite Three Fish Families, Gd Johnson, Jr Paxton, Tt Sutton, Tp Satoh, T Sado, M Miya Jan 2009

Deep-Sea Mystery Solved: Astonishing Larval Transformations And Extreme Sexual Dimorphism Unite Three Fish Families, Gd Johnson, Jr Paxton, Tt Sutton, Tp Satoh, T Sado, M Miya

VIMS Articles

The oceanic bathypelagic realm (1000-4000 m) is a nutrient-poor habitat. Most fishes living there have pelagic larvae using the rich waters of the upper 200 m. Morphological and behavioural specializations necessary to occupy such contrasting environments have resulted in remarkable developmental changes and life-history strategies. We resolve a long-standing biological and taxonomic conundrum by documenting the most extreme example of ontogenetic metamorphoses and sexual dimorphism in vertebrates. Based on morphology and mitogenomic sequence data, we show that fishes currently assigned to three families with greatly differing morphologies, Mirapinnidae (tapetails), Megalomycteridae (bignose fishes) and Cetomimidae (whalefishes), are larvae, males and females ...


Inter-Relationships Of Haplosporidians Deduced From Ultrastructural Studies, Pm Hine, Ryan Carnegie, Em Burreson, My Engelsma Jan 2009

Inter-Relationships Of Haplosporidians Deduced From Ultrastructural Studies, Pm Hine, Ryan Carnegie, Em Burreson, My Engelsma

VIMS Articles

We reviewed papers reporting haplosporidian ultrastructure to compare inter-relationships based on ultrastructure with those based on molecular data, to identify features that may be important in haplosporidian taxonomy, and to consider parasite taxonomy in relation to host taxonomy. There were links between the following: (1) the plasmodia of an abalone parasite, Haplosporidium nelsoni and Urosporidium crescens in the release of haplosporosomes; (2) H. costale and H. armoricanum in haplosporosome shape and presence and shape of Golgi in spores; (3) basal asporous crustacean haplosporidians which form haplosporosomes from formative bodies (FBs) in vegetative stages - H. nelsoni, which forms haplosporosomes from FBs ...


Survival And Recovery Of Phaeocystis Antarctica (Prymnesiophyceae) From Prolonged Darkness And Freezing, Kw Tang, Walker O. Smith Jr., Ar Shields, Dt Elliott Jan 2009

Survival And Recovery Of Phaeocystis Antarctica (Prymnesiophyceae) From Prolonged Darkness And Freezing, Kw Tang, Walker O. Smith Jr., Ar Shields, Dt Elliott

VIMS Articles

The colony-forming haptophyte Phaeocystis antarctica is an important primary producer in the Ross Sea, and must survive long periods of darkness and freezing temperature in this extreme environment. We conducted experiments on the responses of P. antarctica-dominated phytoplankton assemblages to prolonged periods of darkness and freezing. Chlorophyll and photosynthetic capacity of the alga declined nonlinearly and independently of each other in the dark, and darkness alone would potentially reduce photosynthetic capacity by only 60 per cent over 150 days (approximately the length of the Antarctic winter in the southern Ross Sea). The estimated reduction of colonial mucous carbon is higher ...


Species-Specific Differences In Long-Chain N-3 Essential Fatty Acid, Sterol, And Steroidal Ketone Production In Six Heterotrophic Protist Species, Fle Chu, Ed Lund, Pr Littreal, Ke Ruck, E Harvey Jan 2009

Species-Specific Differences In Long-Chain N-3 Essential Fatty Acid, Sterol, And Steroidal Ketone Production In Six Heterotrophic Protist Species, Fle Chu, Ed Lund, Pr Littreal, Ke Ruck, E Harvey

VIMS Articles

We investigated the capability and species-specific differences in long-chain n-3 essential fatty acid (LCn-3EFA), sterol, and steroidal ketone production of 6 heterotrophic protists: 3 thecate dinoflagellates (Cryptoperidiniopsis brodyi, Pfiesteria piscicida, and Luciella masanensis), 1 athecate dinoflagellate (Amphidinium longum), 1 herbivorous ciliate (Strombidinopsis sp.), and 1 bacterivorous ciliate (Uronema sp.) by feeding them algae (Rhodomonas salina or Dunaliella tertiolecta) or bacteria. The 3 thecate species did not convert algal sterols to other usual and common sterols. Instead, they produced sterols and steroidal ketones, such as dinosterol, dinostanol, dinosterone, and dinostanone, usually found in autotrophic dinoflagellates when fed R. salina or D ...


Microbial Activities Accompanying Decomposition Of Cladoceran And Copepod Carcasses Under Different Environmental Conditions, Kw Tang, Sl Bickel, C Dziallas, Hp Grossart Jan 2009

Microbial Activities Accompanying Decomposition Of Cladoceran And Copepod Carcasses Under Different Environmental Conditions, Kw Tang, Sl Bickel, C Dziallas, Hp Grossart

VIMS Articles

Cladoceran and copepod carcasses in both marine and freshwater environments represent concentrated reservoirs of organic substrates for water column bacteria. We studied the microbial abundance, activities, and diversity associated with decomposing carcasses of different zooplankton species over short and long time scales, and in oligotrophic vs. eutrophic environments. Fresh carcasses of Daphnia cucullata, Diaphanosoma brachyurum, and Eudiaptomus gracilis were rapidly colonized by bacteria, which reached peak abundances within 1.5 d at 20 degrees C and then decreased. Cell-specific exoenzymatic activity on protein and lipid analogs and production rate of bacteria associated with the carcasses were all higher than in ...


State And Local Governments Plan For Development Of Most Land Vulnerable To Rising Sea Level Along The Us Atlantic Coast, J. G. Titus, Carl Hershner Jan 2009

State And Local Governments Plan For Development Of Most Land Vulnerable To Rising Sea Level Along The Us Atlantic Coast, J. G. Titus, Carl Hershner

VIMS Articles

Rising sea level threatens existing coastal wetlands. Overall ecosystems could often survive by migrating inland, if adjacent lands remained vacant. On the basis of 131 state and local land use plans, we estimate that almost 60% of the land below 1 m along the US Atlantic coast is expected to be developed and thus unavailable for the inland migration of wetlands. Less than 10% of the land below 1 m has been set aside for conservation. Environmental regulators routinely grant permits for shore protection structures (which block wetland migration) on the basis of a federal finding that these structures have ...


Estimation Of Bottom Trawl Catch Efficiency For Two Demersal Fishes, The Atlantic Croaker And White Perch, In Chesapeake Bay, Joel C. Hoffman, Chris F. Bonzek, Robert J. Latour Jan 2009

Estimation Of Bottom Trawl Catch Efficiency For Two Demersal Fishes, The Atlantic Croaker And White Perch, In Chesapeake Bay, Joel C. Hoffman, Chris F. Bonzek, Robert J. Latour

VIMS Articles

The use of fisheries-independent trawl survey data to estimate fish abundance in shallow coastal systems can present challenges for producing reliable population estimates. We used hydroacoustic and trawl data to estimate the catch efficiency of a demersal trawl that is presently used in surveys to support stock assessments in Chesapeake Bay, USA. Specifically, we determined the efficiency of catching Atlantic croakers Micropogonias undulatus and white perch Morone americana, two of the most common species captured in the trawl survey. Monotypic hauls (>90% by abundance) from 2003 to 2004 were used to estimate catch efficiency, defined as the ratio of the ...


Factors Influencing Mortality Estimates In Post-Release Survival Studies, Michael K. Musyl, Christopher D. Moyes, Richard Brill, Nuno M. Fragoso Jan 2009

Factors Influencing Mortality Estimates In Post-Release Survival Studies, Michael K. Musyl, Christopher D. Moyes, Richard Brill, Nuno M. Fragoso

VIMS Articles

Campana et al. (2009; Mar Ecol Prog Ser 387:241-253) explored the survival Of blue sharks Prionace glauca captured and released from the North Atlantic commercial longline fishery. We think that their comments and comparisons do not accurately reflect a previous survival study of blue sharks in Hawaii (Moyes et al. 2006; Trans Am Fish Soc 135:1389-1397). The differences in mortality between the studies, similar to 5% in the Hawaii-based fishery and similar to 35% in the North Atlantic fishery, were suggested to be due to failure of Moyes et al. (2006) to accurately reflect commercial fishing conditions. Careful ...


Effects Of Diet On Release Of Dissolved Organic And Inorganic Nutrients By The Copepod Acartia Tonsa, Grace K. Saba, Deborah K. Steinberg, Deborah A. Bronk Jan 2009

Effects Of Diet On Release Of Dissolved Organic And Inorganic Nutrients By The Copepod Acartia Tonsa, Grace K. Saba, Deborah K. Steinberg, Deborah A. Bronk

VIMS Articles

Acartia tonsa copepods are not limited to herbivory and can derive up to half their daily ration from predation on heterotrophic ciliates and dinoflagellates. The effects of an omnivorous diet on nutrient regeneration, however, remain unknown. In this study, we fed A. tonsa an exclusively carnivorous diet of either (1a) heterotrophic dinoflagellate Oxyrrhis marina or (1b) Gyrodinium dominans, (2) an exclusively herbivorous diet of Thalassiosira weissflogii diatoms, or (3) a mixed omnivorous diet. We measured the release rate, composition, and stoichiometry of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP), and nitrogen (urea) in addition to the inorganic nutrients, ammonium ...


Ecology Of Small Neritic Fishes In The Western Gulf Of Alaska. Ii. Consumption Of Krill In Relation To Krill Standing Stock And The Physical Environment, Matthew T. Wilson, Christina M. Jump, Andre Buchheister Jan 2009

Ecology Of Small Neritic Fishes In The Western Gulf Of Alaska. Ii. Consumption Of Krill In Relation To Krill Standing Stock And The Physical Environment, Matthew T. Wilson, Christina M. Jump, Andre Buchheister

VIMS Articles

Krill (Euphausiacea) is a patchily distributed taxon whose availability may limit neritic fishes in temperate oceans. In the western Gulf of Alaska, krill-fish aggregations were associated with high-flow areas over the shelf. We examined fish impacts on krill standing stocks in areas of different temperature, salinity, and net current velocity. Samples were collected during September 2000, 2001, and 2003 over a 48-site grid within a known walleye pollock nursery. Krill were a dietary staple of the dominant fishes: walleye pollock Theragra chalcogramma, capelin Mallotus villosus, and eulachon Thaleichthys pacificus, but their proportion in diets varied by predator species and predator ...


Epifaunal Community Composition And Nutrient Addition Alter Sediment Organic Matter Composition In A Natural Eelgrass Zostera Marina Bed: A Field Experiment, Amanda C. Spivak, Elizabeth A. Canuel, J. Emmett Duffy, James G. Douglass Jan 2009

Epifaunal Community Composition And Nutrient Addition Alter Sediment Organic Matter Composition In A Natural Eelgrass Zostera Marina Bed: A Field Experiment, Amanda C. Spivak, Elizabeth A. Canuel, J. Emmett Duffy, James G. Douglass

VIMS Articles

Eutrophication and fishing are common perturbations in aquatic ecosystems that have pervasive effects on community structure, including species diversity and abundance. While sediment biogeochemical processes probably respond to these stressors, the linkages to ecosystem functioning remain poorly understood. To explore these linkages, we experimentally manipulated water column nutrient levels and food web composition (i.e. predator and grazer presence and absence) in a factorial design using field enclosures situated in a natural eelgrass Zostera marina bed. After 28 d, we quantified sediment organic matter (SOM) abundance and composition using measures of total organic carbon and nitrogen as well as fatty ...


Quantification Of Coral Heat Shock Proteins From Individual Coral Polyps, Erin Bromage, Lawrence Carpenter, Stephen Kaattari, Mark Patterson Jan 2009

Quantification Of Coral Heat Shock Proteins From Individual Coral Polyps, Erin Bromage, Lawrence Carpenter, Stephen Kaattari, Mark Patterson

VIMS Articles

The induction and regulation of heat shock proteins (hsps) is a significant defense mechanism that can preserve metabolic function and foster recovery from short-term stress events. Present coral sampling methodologies that involve hsp analysis often require the harvesting of large samples of live coral colonies that may already be stressed or in poor health. In the present study, 3 novel protocols were developed to: (1) extract single coral polyps, minimizing colony trauma; (2) purify protein from single coral polyps (approximately 12 mm); and (3) develop a more sensitive protein quantification method. The preliminary testing of 5 separate protein preparation methods ...


The Repulsive And Feeding-Deterrent Effects Of Electropositive Metals On Juvenile Sandbar Sharks (Carcharhinus Plumbeus), Richard Brill, Peter Bushnell, Leonie Smith, Coley Speaks, Rumya Sundaram, John Wang Jan 2009

The Repulsive And Feeding-Deterrent Effects Of Electropositive Metals On Juvenile Sandbar Sharks (Carcharhinus Plumbeus), Richard Brill, Peter Bushnell, Leonie Smith, Coley Speaks, Rumya Sundaram, John Wang

VIMS Articles

Reducing shark bycatch and depredation (i.e., damage caused by sharks to gear, bait, and desired fish species) in pelagic longline fisheries targeting tunas and swordfish is a priority. Electropositive metals (i.e., a mixture of the lanthanide elements lanthanum, cerium, neodymium, and praseodymium) have been shown to deter spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias, primarily a coastal species) from attacking bait, presumably because of interactions with the electroreceptive system of this shark. We undertook to determine the possible effectiveness of electropositive metals for reducing the interactions of pelagic sharks with longline gear, using sandbar sharks (Carcharhinus plumbeus, family Carcharhinidae) as a ...


Use Of Pop-Up Satellite Archival Tag Technology To Study Postrelease Survival Of And Habitat Use By Estuarine And Coastal Fishes: An Application To Striped Bass (Morone Saxatilis), John E. Graves, Andrij Z. Horodysky, Robert J. Latour Jan 2009

Use Of Pop-Up Satellite Archival Tag Technology To Study Postrelease Survival Of And Habitat Use By Estuarine And Coastal Fishes: An Application To Striped Bass (Morone Saxatilis), John E. Graves, Andrij Z. Horodysky, Robert J. Latour

VIMS Articles

Pop-up satellite archival tags (PSATs) have been used to study movements, habitat use, and postrelease survival of large pelagic vertebrates, but the size of these tags has historically precluded their use on smaller coastal species. To evaluate a new generation of smaller PSATs for the study of postrelease survival and habitat use of coastal species, we attached Microwave Telemetry, Inc., X-tags to ten striped bass (Morone saxatilis) 94-112 cm total length (TL) caught on J hooks and circle hooks during the winter recreational fishery in Virginia. Tags collected temperature and depth information every five minutes and detached from the fish ...


Survival And Growth Of Triploid Crassostrea Virginica (Gmelin, 1791) And C-Ariakensis (Fujita, 1913) In Bottom Environments Of Chesapeake Bay: Implications For An Introduction, Pr Kingsley-Smith, Hd Harwell, M. Lisa Kellogg, Standish K. Allen Jr., Donald W. Meritt, Kennedy Paynter, Mark Luckenbach Jan 2009

Survival And Growth Of Triploid Crassostrea Virginica (Gmelin, 1791) And C-Ariakensis (Fujita, 1913) In Bottom Environments Of Chesapeake Bay: Implications For An Introduction, Pr Kingsley-Smith, Hd Harwell, M. Lisa Kellogg, Standish K. Allen Jr., Donald W. Meritt, Kennedy Paynter, Mark Luckenbach

VIMS Articles

Survival and growth of triploid Crassostrea virginica and triploid C. ariakensis were investigated at four sites Surrounding Chesapeake Bay, United States, that varied tried in salinity, tidal regime, water depth, predation intensity and disease pressure. Four experimental treatments were established at each site: C. virginica; C. ariakensis; 50:50 of C. virginica: C. ariakensis: and shell only. Oysters were deployed at mean shell heights of 12.80 min and 13.85 mm (C. virginica and C. ariakensis, respectively), at an overall density of 347.5 oysters m(-2). Oyster survival and growth varied significantly, with site and species. Survival was ...


Population Studies Of The Native Eastern Oyster, Crassostrea Virginica, (Gmelin, 1791) In The James River, Virginia, Usa, Roger L. Mann, Melissa Southworth, Juliana M. Harding, James A. Wesson Jan 2009

Population Studies Of The Native Eastern Oyster, Crassostrea Virginica, (Gmelin, 1791) In The James River, Virginia, Usa, Roger L. Mann, Melissa Southworth, Juliana M. Harding, James A. Wesson

VIMS Articles

We describe oyster population trends in the James River, VA from 1993 through 2006 using quantitative fishery independent survey data collected using a stratified random design, The 23 reefs contained in the study area cover a total of 2.41 to 4.98 X 10(7) m(2). There is a marked pattern in density of oysters among X 10(7) m(2) and vary in individual size from 1.26 X 10(4) m(2) the reefs: during the Study period a small group of reefs comprising 5.4% of the total a rea consistently contained between 25.7 ...


Mortality Of The Veined Rapa Whelk, Rapana Venosa, In Relation To A Bloom Of Alexandrium Monilatum In The York River, United States, Juliana M. Harding, Roger L. Mann, P Moeller, Ms Hsia Jan 2009

Mortality Of The Veined Rapa Whelk, Rapana Venosa, In Relation To A Bloom Of Alexandrium Monilatum In The York River, United States, Juliana M. Harding, Roger L. Mann, P Moeller, Ms Hsia

VIMS Articles

Veined rapa whelks (Rapana venosa), carnivorous marine gastropods experienced significant mortality during an Alexandrium monilatum bloom in the lower York River, VA in September 2007. Rapa whelks stopped feeding as dissolved oxygen and chlorophyll concentrations increased with the development of the bloom. Whelk mortality was preceded by external signs of stress including reduced ventilation, inability to attach to hard Substrates, periodic Pumping of the opercular plate, and increased mucus production over a period of 24-48 h prior to death. High concentrations (2-7 mu g g(-1) tissue) of goniodimum A, a toxin produced by A. monilatum, were observed in bivalves ...


Synergistic Effects Of Iron And Temperature On Antarctic Phytoplankton And Microzooplankton Assemblages, J. M. Rose, Y. Feng, Et Al, Walker O. Smith Jr., B. Sigist, S. Tozzi, Et Al Jan 2009

Synergistic Effects Of Iron And Temperature On Antarctic Phytoplankton And Microzooplankton Assemblages, J. M. Rose, Y. Feng, Et Al, Walker O. Smith Jr., B. Sigist, S. Tozzi, Et Al

VIMS Articles

Iron availability and temperature are important limiting factors for the biota in many areas of the world ocean, and both have been predicted to change in future climate scenarios. However, the impacts of combined changes in these two key factors on microbial trophic dynamics and nutrient cycling are unknown. We examined the relative effects of iron addition (+1 nM) and increased temperature (+4 degrees C) on plankton assemblages of the Ross Sea, Antarctica, a region characterized by annual algal blooms and an active microbial community. Increased iron and temperature individually had consistently significant but relatively minor positive effects on total ...