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VIMS Articles

2008

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Articles 1 - 30 of 56

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Mycobacteriosis-Associated Mortality In Wild Striped Bass (Morone Saxatilis) From Chesapeake Bay, Usa, Dt Gauthier, Rj Latour, Dm Helsey, Cf Bonzek, J Gartland, Ej Burge, Wk Vogelbein Oct 2008

Mycobacteriosis-Associated Mortality In Wild Striped Bass (Morone Saxatilis) From Chesapeake Bay, Usa, Dt Gauthier, Rj Latour, Dm Helsey, Cf Bonzek, J Gartland, Ej Burge, Wk Vogelbein

VIMS Articles

The striped bass (Morone saxatilis) is an economically and ecologically important finfish species along the Atlantic seaboard of the United States. Recent stock assessments in Chesapeake Bay (USA) indicate that non-fishing mortality in striped bass has increased since 1999, concomitant with very high (>50%) prevalence of visceral and dermal disease caused by Mycobacterium spp. Current fishery assessment models do not differentiate between disease and other components of non-fishing mortality (e. g., senescence, predation); therefore, disease impact on the striped bass population has not been established. Specific measurement of mortality associated with mycobacteriosis in wild striped bass is complicated because the ...


Relative And Interactive Effects Of Plant And Grazer Richness In A Benthic Marine Community, Jf Bruno, Ke Boyer, Je Duffy, Sc Lee Aug 2008

Relative And Interactive Effects Of Plant And Grazer Richness In A Benthic Marine Community, Jf Bruno, Ke Boyer, Je Duffy, Sc Lee

VIMS Articles

The interactive effects of changing biodiversity of consumers and their prey are poorly understood but are likely to be important under realistic scenarios of biodiversity loss and gain. We performed two factorial manipulations of macroalgal group (greens, reds, and browns) and herbivore species (amphipods, sea urchin, and fish) composition and richness in outdoor mesocosms simulating a subtidal, hard-substratum estuarine community in North Carolina, USA. In the experiment where grazer richness treatments were substitutive, there were no significant effects of algal or herbivore richness on final algal biomass. However, in the experiment in which grazer treatments were additive (i.e., species-specific ...


Abstracts Of Technical Papers Presented At The 100th Annual Meeting National Shellfisheries Association Providence, Rhode Island April 6–10, 2008, National Shellfisheries Association Aug 2008

Abstracts Of Technical Papers Presented At The 100th Annual Meeting National Shellfisheries Association Providence, Rhode Island April 6–10, 2008, National Shellfisheries Association

VIMS Articles

No abstract provided.


Why Biodiversity Is Important To The Functioning Of Real-World Ecosystems, Je Duffy Aug 2008

Why Biodiversity Is Important To The Functioning Of Real-World Ecosystems, Je Duffy

VIMS Articles

Controlled experiments have substantially advanced our understanding of the links between changing biodiversity and ecosystem functioning (BEF) in recent years. However, controversy continues regarding the relevance of BEF experiments to the complex ecosystems and large spatial and temporal scales of interest in conservation and management. Here, I address some of the persistent criticisms regarding experimental BEF research and argue that these have been overstated. Contrary to some suggestions, many putative artifacts attributed to experiments render their conclusions about BEF links stronger, rather than weaker. Like other broad ecological concepts, BEF focuses on general patterns, rather than looking at species-level, applied ...


Bacterial Vs. Zooplankton Control Of Sinking Particle Flux In The Ocean's Twilight Zone, Deborah K. Steinberg, Benjamin A.S. Van Mooy, Ken O. Buesseler, Philip W. Boyd, Toru Kobari, David M. Karl Jul 2008

Bacterial Vs. Zooplankton Control Of Sinking Particle Flux In The Ocean's Twilight Zone, Deborah K. Steinberg, Benjamin A.S. Van Mooy, Ken O. Buesseler, Philip W. Boyd, Toru Kobari, David M. Karl

VIMS Articles

The downward flux of particulate organic carbon (POC) decreases significantly in the oceanÂs mesopelagic or ‘twilight’ zone due both to abiotic processes and metabolism by resident biota. Bacteria and zooplankton solubilize and consume POC to support their metabolism, but the relative importance of bacteria vs. zooplankton in the consumption of sinking particles in the twilight zone is unknown. We compared losses of sinking POC, using differences in export flux measured by neutrally buoyant sediment traps at a range of depths, with bacteria and zooplankton metabolic requirements at the Hawaii Ocean Time‐series station ALOHA in the subtropical Pacific and the ...


Misuse Of Pcr Assay For Diagnosis Of Molluscprotistan Infections, Em Burreson Jun 2008

Misuse Of Pcr Assay For Diagnosis Of Molluscprotistan Infections, Em Burreson

VIMS Articles

: Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays are useful tools for pathogen surveillance, butthey are only proxy indications of pathogen presence in that they detect a DNA sequence. To be use-ful for detection of actual infections, PCR assays must be thoroughly tested for sensitivity and speci-ficity, and ultimately validated against a technique, typically histology, which allows visualization ofthe parasite in host tissues. There is growing use of PCR assays for pathogen surveillance, but toooften the assumption is made that a positive PCR result verifies an infection in a tested host. Thisassumption is valid only if the assay has been properly validated for ...


Us Caribbean Fish Trap Fishery Socioeconomic Study, Jj Agar, Jr Waters, M Valdes-Pizzini, M Shivlani, T Murray, Je Kirkley, D Suman May 2008

Us Caribbean Fish Trap Fishery Socioeconomic Study, Jj Agar, Jr Waters, M Valdes-Pizzini, M Shivlani, T Murray, Je Kirkley, D Suman

VIMS Articles

Concerns over the potential impacts of trap fishing on coral reefs and associated habitats prompted a socioeconomic study to characterize the U.S. Caribbean fish trap fishery in anticipation of management actions. Stratified random interviews of one hundred fishermen revealed the presence of a diverse fishery, with appreciable inter-island differences in levels of fishing dependence, fishing practices, and capital investment. High levels of fishing dependence Were observed among fishermen in the U.S. Virgin Islands, whereas Puerto Rican fishermen exhibited a more diversified livelihood strategy. Fishermen from St. Croix derived 62% of their household income from fish traps, significantly more ...


Bottom-Up And Climatic Forcing On The Worldwide Population Of Leatherback Turtles, Vs Saba, Jr Spotilia, Fp Chavez, Ja Musick May 2008

Bottom-Up And Climatic Forcing On The Worldwide Population Of Leatherback Turtles, Vs Saba, Jr Spotilia, Fp Chavez, Ja Musick

VIMS Articles

Nesting populations of leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) in the Atlantic and western Indian Oceans are increasing or stable while those in the Pacific are declining. It has been suggested that leatherbacks in the eastern Pacific may be resource limited due to environmental variability derived from the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO), but this has yet to be tested. Here we explored bottom-up forcing and the responding reproductive output of nesting leatherbacks worldwide. We achieved this through an extensive review of leatherback nesting and migration data and by analyzing the spatial, temporal, and quantitative nature of resources as indicated by net ...


The Charisma Of Coastal Ecosystems: Addressing The Imbalance, Carlos M. Duarte, Wc Dennison, Robert J. Orth, Tim J. Carruthers Feb 2008

The Charisma Of Coastal Ecosystems: Addressing The Imbalance, Carlos M. Duarte, Wc Dennison, Robert J. Orth, Tim J. Carruthers

VIMS Articles

Coastal ecosystems including coral reefs, mangrove forests, seagrass meadows, and salt marshes are being lost at alarming rates, and increased scientific understanding of causes has failed to stem these losses. Coastal habitats receive contrasting research effort, with 60% of all of the published research carried out on coral reefs, compared to 11–14% of the records for each of salt marshes, mangrove forests, and seagrass meadows. In addition, these highly connected and interdependent coastal ecosystems receive widely contrasting media attention that is disproportional to their scientific attention. Seagrass ecosystems receive the least attention in the media (1.3% of the ...


Settlement Of Crassostrea Ariakensis Larvae: Effects Of Substrate, Biofilms, Sediment And Adult Chemical Cues, Mario N. Tamburri, Mark W. Luckenbach, Denise L. Brietburg, Stephanie M. Bonniwell Jan 2008

Settlement Of Crassostrea Ariakensis Larvae: Effects Of Substrate, Biofilms, Sediment And Adult Chemical Cues, Mario N. Tamburri, Mark W. Luckenbach, Denise L. Brietburg, Stephanie M. Bonniwell

VIMS Articles

The Suminoe oyster (Crassostrea ariakensis) is being considered for introduction into the Chesapeake Bay. However, our current understanding of the biology and ecology of C. ariakensis is insufficient to predict whether an introduction will be successful, provide desired benefits, or have adverse impacts. Behavior of native Eastern oyster (C. virginica) pediveligers has been studied for many years and it is well established that they use a variety of habitat characteristics when selecting a site for colonization. Perhaps the most important of these are chemical cues emitted by adult conspecifics, which can lead to gregarious larval settlement and dense, persistent reef ...


Effects Of Salinity On Bonamia Sp Survival In The Asian Oyster Crassostrea Ariakensis, C Audemard, Rb Carnegie, Na Stokes, Mj Bishop, Ch Peterson, Eugene M. Burreson Jan 2008

Effects Of Salinity On Bonamia Sp Survival In The Asian Oyster Crassostrea Ariakensis, C Audemard, Rb Carnegie, Na Stokes, Mj Bishop, Ch Peterson, Eugene M. Burreson

VIMS Articles

A novel Bonamia sp. discovered in Bogue Sound, NC, has recently emerged as a parasitic threat to the Asian oyster Crassostrea ariakensis. Because this oyster is being considered for introduction to the mid-Atlantic region, more data are needed to better evaluate the risks associated with this parasite. Field observations collected from North Carolina and information on other Bonamia spp. suggest an affinity for higher salinities, and direct transmissibility; in the absence of explicit experimental tests, however, this is largely hypothetical. Consequently, we used laboratory trials to test the direct transmissibility and the persistence of Bonamia sp. in infected triploid C ...


Comparative Ultrastructure Of Digestive Diverticulae In Bathymodiolin Mussels: Discovery Of An Unknown Spherical Inclusion (Six) In Digestive Cells Of A Seep Mussel, Carol R. Logan, Megan B. Evans, Megan E. Ward, Joseph L. Scott, Ryan B. Carnegie, Cl Van Dover Jan 2008

Comparative Ultrastructure Of Digestive Diverticulae In Bathymodiolin Mussels: Discovery Of An Unknown Spherical Inclusion (Six) In Digestive Cells Of A Seep Mussel, Carol R. Logan, Megan B. Evans, Megan E. Ward, Joseph L. Scott, Ryan B. Carnegie, Cl Van Dover

VIMS Articles

Mussels in the genus Bathymodiolus host endosymbiotic bacteria in their gills, from which the mussel derives much of its nutrition. Bathymodiolin mussels also have functional digestive systems and, as in shallow-water mytilid mussels, cells of the digestive diverticulae are of two types: basophilic secretory cells and columnar digestive cells. Cellular contents of secretory and digestive cells of Bathymodiolus thermophilus and Bathymodiolus brevior from deep-sea hydrothermal vents are comparable to cellular contents of these cell types observed in shallow-water mytilids. In the seep mussel Bathymodiolus heckerae, cellular contents of columnar cells were anomalous, being dominated by an unknown cellular inclusion herein ...


Molecular Epizootiology Of Perkinsus Marinus And P-Chesapeaki Infections Among Wild Oysters And Clams In Chesapeake Bay, Usa, Ks Reece, Cf Dungan, Em Burreson Jan 2008

Molecular Epizootiology Of Perkinsus Marinus And P-Chesapeaki Infections Among Wild Oysters And Clams In Chesapeake Bay, Usa, Ks Reece, Cf Dungan, Em Burreson

VIMS Articles

Perkinsus marinus and P. chesapeaki host ranges among wild Chesapeake Bay, USA, region bivalves were examined by surveying Crassostrea virginica oysters and members of several sympatric clam species from 11 locations. Perkinsus genus- and species-specific PCR assays were performed on DNA samples from 731 molluscs, and species-specific in situ hybridization assays were performed on a selected subset of histological samples whose PCR results indicated dual or atypical Perkinsus sp. infections. PCR assays detected P. marinus in 92% of oysters, but the P. chesapeaki PCR assay was positive for only 6% of oysters, and P. marinus was detected by PCR in ...


Anti-Lipopolysaccharide Factors In The American Lobster Homarus Americanus: Molecular Characterization And Transcriptional Response To Vibrio Fluvialis Challenge, Km Beale, Dw Towle, N Jayasundara, Cm Smith, Jd Shields, Hj Small, Sj Greenwood Jan 2008

Anti-Lipopolysaccharide Factors In The American Lobster Homarus Americanus: Molecular Characterization And Transcriptional Response To Vibrio Fluvialis Challenge, Km Beale, Dw Towle, N Jayasundara, Cm Smith, Jd Shields, Hj Small, Sj Greenwood

VIMS Articles

Two partial mRNA sequences predicted to encode anti-lipopolysaccharide factors (ALFs) were identified among expressed sequence tags generated from the American lobster Homarus americanus and complete cDNA sequences were obtained from library clones. Comparison of the translated amino acid sequences to those publicly available confirmed similarity to arthropod anti-lipopolysaccharide factors. Both protein sequences, designated ALFHa-1 and ALFHa-2, contained an N-terminal signal peptide and two half-cysteines participating in a disulfide bridge, features conserved in other ALFs. Predicted secondary structures were similar to that described for the ALF from the horseshoe crab Limulus polyphemus. As part of an exploratory study of immunity in ...


Two New Genera And Three New Species Of Leeches (Hirudinida:Piscicolidae) From New Zealand Marine Fishes, Em Burreson, Ji Williams Jan 2008

Two New Genera And Three New Species Of Leeches (Hirudinida:Piscicolidae) From New Zealand Marine Fishes, Em Burreson, Ji Williams

VIMS Articles

The marine leech fauna of New Zealand is poorly known and based primarily on studies by Richardson in the 1950s. Three new species have recently been discovered. Dollfusobdella kaikourae n. gen.. n. sp. is described from Kaikoura, New Zealand parasitising pectoral fins of Scorpaena cardinalis, and thornfish, Bovichtus variegatus. It is characterised by a cylindrical body widest at the posterior portion Of the urosome and tapering, gradually to the oral sucker: the total length is not known to exceed 10 mm. The urosome segments are 3-annulate. each with large tubercles dorsally and smaller tubercles ventrally, but lacking Pulsatile vesicles. The ...


Quantifying Benthic Exchange Of Fine Sediment Via Continuous, Noninvasive Measurements Of Settling Velocity And Bed Erodibility, Ct Friedrichs, Gm Cartwright, Pj Dickhudt Jan 2008

Quantifying Benthic Exchange Of Fine Sediment Via Continuous, Noninvasive Measurements Of Settling Velocity And Bed Erodibility, Ct Friedrichs, Gm Cartwright, Pj Dickhudt

VIMS Articles

No abstract provided.


Influence Of Sociality On Allometric Growth And Morphological Differentiation In Sponge-Dwelling Alpheid Shrimp, E Toth, Je Duffy Jan 2008

Influence Of Sociality On Allometric Growth And Morphological Differentiation In Sponge-Dwelling Alpheid Shrimp, E Toth, Je Duffy

VIMS Articles

Eusocial societies are defined by a reproductive division of labour between breeders and nonbreeders that is often accompanied by morphological differentiation. Some eusocial taxa are further characterized by a subdivision of tasks among nonbreeders, often resulting in morphological differentiation among different groups (subcastes) that specialize on different sets of tasks. We investigated the possibility of morphological castes in eusocial shrimp colonies (Zuzalpheus, formerly part of Synalpheus) by comparing growth allometry and body proportions of three eusocial shrimp species with three pair-forming species (species where reproductive females and males occur in equal sex ratios). Allometry of eusocial species differed in several ...


Ocean Urea Fertilization For Carbon Credits Poses High Ecological Risks, Pm Glibert, R Azanza, M Burford, K Furuya, E Abal, D. A. Bronk, Et Al. Jan 2008

Ocean Urea Fertilization For Carbon Credits Poses High Ecological Risks, Pm Glibert, R Azanza, M Burford, K Furuya, E Abal, D. A. Bronk, Et Al.

VIMS Articles

The proposed plan for enrichment of the Sulu Sea, Philippines, a region of rich marine biodiversity, with thousands of tonnes of urea in order to stimulate algal blooms and sequester carbon is flawed for multiple reasons. Urea is preferentially used as a nitrogen source by some cyanobacteria and dinoflagellates, many of which are neutrally or positively buoyant. Biological pumps to the deep sea are classically leaky, and the inefficient burial of new biomass makes the estimation of a net loss of carbon from the atmosphere questionable at best. The potential for growth of toxic dinoflagellates is also high, as many ...


Phytoplankton And Bacterial Uptake Of Inorganic And Organic Nitrogen During An Induced Bloom Of Phaeocystis Pouchetii, Mp Sanderson, Da Bronk, Jc Nejstgaard, Pg Verity, Af Sazhin, Et Al. Jan 2008

Phytoplankton And Bacterial Uptake Of Inorganic And Organic Nitrogen During An Induced Bloom Of Phaeocystis Pouchetii, Mp Sanderson, Da Bronk, Jc Nejstgaard, Pg Verity, Af Sazhin, Et Al.

VIMS Articles

A mesocosm experiment was conducted during the spring of 2003 in Raunefjord, west Norway. Inorganic nutrients (16 mu mol 1(-1) nitrate, 1 mu mol 1(-1) phosphate) were added to 2 enclosures with 10% of those concentrations (1.6 mu mol 1(-1) nitrate, 0.1 mu mol 1(-1) phosphate) added daily thereafter; a third unamended mesocosm was used as a control. Nitrogen (N) (ammonium, nitrate, urea and amino acid) uptake rates for >0.8 mu m (largely composed of phytoplankton) and 0.2 to 0.8 mu m (largely composed of bacteria) size classes were measured, as ...


What Exactly Are You Inferring? A Closer Look At Hypothesis Testing, Mc Newman Jan 2008

What Exactly Are You Inferring? A Closer Look At Hypothesis Testing, Mc Newman

VIMS Articles

This critical review describes the confused application of significance tests in environmental toxicology and chemistry that often produces incorrect inferences and indefensible regulatory decisions. Following a brief review of statistical testing theory, nine recommendations are put forward. The first is that confidence intervals be used instead of hypothesis tests whenever possible. The remaining recommendations are relevant if hypothesis tests are used. They are as follows: Define and justify Type I and II error rates a priori; set and justify an effect size a priori; do not confuse p(E vertical bar H-0) and p(H-0 vertical bar E); design tests ...


Photosynthetic Maximum Quantum Yield Increases Are An Essential Component Of The Southern Ocean Phytoplankton Response To Iron, Mr Hiscock, Vp Lance, Am Apprill, Rr Bidigare, Zi Johnson, Wo Smith Jr., Et Al. Jan 2008

Photosynthetic Maximum Quantum Yield Increases Are An Essential Component Of The Southern Ocean Phytoplankton Response To Iron, Mr Hiscock, Vp Lance, Am Apprill, Rr Bidigare, Zi Johnson, Wo Smith Jr., Et Al.

VIMS Articles

It is well established that an increase in iron supply causes an increase in total oceanic primary production in many regions, but the physiological mechanism driving the observed increases has not been clearly identified. The Southern Ocean iron enrichment experiment, an iron fertilization experiment in the waters closest to Antarctica, resulted in a 9-fold increase in chlorophyll (Chl) concentration and a 5-fold increase in integrated primary production. Upon iron addition, the maximum quantum yield of photosynthesis (phi(m)) rapidly doubled, from 0.011 to 0.025 mol C.mol quanta(-1). Paradoxically, this increase in light-limited productivity was not accompanied ...


Biomarkers Of Oogenesis In Macoma Balthica Determined By Subtractive Immunization, E Bromage, Wc Long, S Kaattari Jan 2008

Biomarkers Of Oogenesis In Macoma Balthica Determined By Subtractive Immunization, E Bromage, Wc Long, S Kaattari

VIMS Articles

We employed the technique of subtractive immunization (SI) to identify specific biomarkers of oocyte development in Macoma balthica. Analysis revealed that 2 novel proteins (45 and 96 kDa) were induced during female gametogenesis that were neither present during other life stages, nor in male clam tissues. A total of 78 viable hybridomas were specific for either the 45 or 96 kD M balthica proteins. Subsequent peptide fragment analysis of the 96 kDa protein revealed that it was essentially identical (>99.9%) to the evolutionarily conserved heat shock protein 70 family. The resultant hybridomas were screened for their utility in a ...


Transmission Of Panulirus Argus Virus 1 (Pav1) And Its Effect On The Survival Of Juvenile Caribbean Spiny Lobster, Mark J. Butler, Donald C. Behringer, Jeffrey D. Shields Jan 2008

Transmission Of Panulirus Argus Virus 1 (Pav1) And Its Effect On The Survival Of Juvenile Caribbean Spiny Lobster, Mark J. Butler, Donald C. Behringer, Jeffrey D. Shields

VIMS Articles

The Caribbean spiny lobster Panulirus argus, an important fisheries species, is host to Panulirus argus virus 1 (PaV1), a lethal, unclassified virus—the first found in any species of lobster— prevalent in juvenile lobsters. We describe a series of laboratory experiments aimed at assessing the likely modes of disease transmission, determining the survival of lobsters relative to each transmission pathway and identifying potential alternate hosts. Given evidence for lower prevalence of PaV1 in large lobsters, the effect of lobster size on susceptibility was also examined. Results demonstrated that PaV1 can be transmitted to juvenile lobsters via inoculation, ingestion of diseased ...


Quantitative Significance Of N-3 Essential Fatty Acid Contribution By Heterotrophic Protists In Marine Pelagic Food Webs, Fu-Lin E. Chu, Eric D. Lund, Jennifer A. Podbesek Jan 2008

Quantitative Significance Of N-3 Essential Fatty Acid Contribution By Heterotrophic Protists In Marine Pelagic Food Webs, Fu-Lin E. Chu, Eric D. Lund, Jennifer A. Podbesek

VIMS Articles

To assess the contribution of n-3 essential lipids by heterotrophic protists in the pelagic food webs, we examined the kinetics and efficiency of long-chain n-3 essential fatty acid (LCn-3EFA) production of 2 common heterotrophic protists, Oxyrrhis marina and Gyrodinium dominans, fed an alga (Dunaliella tertiolecta) deficient in both eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). D. tertiolecta was rapidly ingested and consumed by the heterotrophic protists. Growth rates ranged from 0.77 to 0.82 and 0.78 to 0.92 d(-1) in O. marina and G. dominans, respectively. LCn-3EFA production in the 2 heterotrophic protists reached the highest ...


Influence Of Sea Ice On Primary Production In The Southern Ocean: A Satellite Perspective, Walker O. Smith Jr., Josefino C. Comiso Jan 2008

Influence Of Sea Ice On Primary Production In The Southern Ocean: A Satellite Perspective, Walker O. Smith Jr., Josefino C. Comiso

VIMS Articles

Sea ice in the Southern Ocean is a major controlling factor on phytoplankton productivity, but the relationship is modified by regional differences in atmospheric and oceanographic conditions. We used the phytoplankton biomass, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), and cloud cover data from Sea-viewing Wide Field of View Sensor (SeaWiFS), ice concentrations data from Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) and Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-EOS (AMSR-E), sea-surface temperature data from advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR), and a vertically integrated model to estimate primary productivity south of 60 degrees S. We also selected six areas within the Southern Ocean and analyzed the ...


Building The Holocene Clinothem In The Gulf Of Papua: An Ocean Circulation Study, Rudy Slingerland, Robert W. Selover, Andrea S. Ogston, Timothy R. Keen, Neal W. Driscoll, John D. Milliman Jan 2008

Building The Holocene Clinothem In The Gulf Of Papua: An Ocean Circulation Study, Rudy Slingerland, Robert W. Selover, Andrea S. Ogston, Timothy R. Keen, Neal W. Driscoll, John D. Milliman

VIMS Articles

This paper investigates the role that tidal and wind-driven flows and buoyant river plumes play in the development of the Holocene clinothem in the Gulf of Papua. Time series data from bottom tripods and a mooring were obtained at four locations near the mouth of the Fly River during portions of 2003 and 2004. Flows in the Gulf of Papua during calendar year 2003 were hindcast every 3 h using the Navy Coastal Ocean Model (NCOM) with boundary conditions from the Navy Atmospheric Prediction System, the east Asian seas implementation of NCOM, and the OTIS Tidal Inversion System. Results show ...


Anatomy And Growth Of A Holocene Clinothem In The Gulf Of Papua, Rudy Slingerland, Neal W. Driscoll, John D. Milliman, Scott R. Miller, Elizabeth A. Johnstone Jan 2008

Anatomy And Growth Of A Holocene Clinothem In The Gulf Of Papua, Rudy Slingerland, Neal W. Driscoll, John D. Milliman, Scott R. Miller, Elizabeth A. Johnstone

VIMS Articles

High-resolution seismic profiles and sedimentological data from grab samples and long cores provide an unprecedented picture of the structure, sedimentology, and late Quaternary development of two Gulf of Papua ( GoP) clinothems, one probably Stage 3 and 4 in age and one Holocene in age. The older was partially eroded during Stage 2 and partially covered by the younger clinothem during Stage 1. The younger clinothem consists of three stratigraphic units separated by two surfaces of erosion, bypass, or correlative surfaces of lap. The surfaces were formed by changes in accommodation and sediment supply. The underlying physiography of the older clinothem ...


Effects Of Coastal Development On Nearshore Estuarine Nekton Communities, D. M. Bilkovic, Molly Mitchell Jan 2008

Effects Of Coastal Development On Nearshore Estuarine Nekton Communities, D. M. Bilkovic, Molly Mitchell

VIMS Articles

Coastal development affects estuarine resources by severing terrestrial-aquatic linkages, reducing shallow water habitats, and degrading ecosystem services, which is predicted to result in measurable declines in nekton community integrity. We assessed the effects of landscape features on nearshore habitats and biological communities, relating subtidal habitat, shoreline condition, upland land use and nearshore fish communities in a Chesapeake Bay tributary, the James River, Virginia. Both upland development and the placement of erosion control structures on the shoreline were associated with reduced fish community integrity, and shoreline alterations were linked with the amount of subtidal structural habitat in the nearshore. Ecological thresholds ...


Development, Biological Regulation, And Fate Of Ctenophore Blooms In The York River Estuary, Chesapeake Bay, Robert H. Condon, Deborah K. Steinberg Jan 2008

Development, Biological Regulation, And Fate Of Ctenophore Blooms In The York River Estuary, Chesapeake Bay, Robert H. Condon, Deborah K. Steinberg

VIMS Articles

Blooms of the lobate ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi proliferate in estuaries and coastal regions worldwide. However, their role in food web structure and carbon flow between trophic levels is not fully understood. During 2003-2006, we conducted field surveys along a salinity gradient in the lower York River, a sub-estuary of the Chesapeake Bay, to determine factors controlling the timing and magnitude of M leidyi blooms, and to evaluate effects of gelatinous zooplankton on carbon cycling. Samples for density, biovolume, and carbon content of ctenophores, scyphomedusae, and mesozooplankton were collected using surface net tows and quantified in the laboratory. Historical published records ...


Size-Selectivity Of The Northwest Atlantic Sea Scallop (Placopecten Magellanicus) Dredge, Noelle Yochum, William D. Dupaul Jan 2008

Size-Selectivity Of The Northwest Atlantic Sea Scallop (Placopecten Magellanicus) Dredge, Noelle Yochum, William D. Dupaul

VIMS Articles

A size-selectivity curve was constructed to characterize the performance of the New Bedford style Atlantic sea scallop (Placopecten magellanicus, Gmelin 1791) dredge when it is configured to meet the requirements of Amendment #10 to the Sea Scallop Fishery Management Plan. The curve was generated using the SELECT model on catch-at-length data, obtained by simultaneously towing a New Bedford style dredge and a nonselective National Marine Fisheries Service sea scallop survey dredge from commercial scallop vessels. Data were collected during three cruises in the Northwest Atlantic between 2005 and 2006. The resultant selectivity curve yielded a 50% retention length of 100 ...