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A Screening Tool For The Direct Analysis Of Marine And Freshwater Phycotoxins In Organic Spatt Extracts From The Chesapeake Bay, Michelle D. Onofiro, Claude R. Mallette, Allen R. Place, Juliette L. Smith May 2020

A Screening Tool For The Direct Analysis Of Marine And Freshwater Phycotoxins In Organic Spatt Extracts From The Chesapeake Bay, Michelle D. Onofiro, Claude R. Mallette, Allen R. Place, Juliette L. Smith

VIMS Articles

Many detection methods for phycotoxins, bioactive compounds produced by harmful algae, focus on one compound or a class of related compounds. Multiple harmful algal species often co-occur in the environment, however, emphasizing the need to analyze for the presence of multiple groups of marine and freshwater phycotoxins in environmental samples, e.g., extracts from solid phase adsorption toxin tracking (SPATT). Two methods were developed to screen for 13 phycotoxins (microcystin-RR, -LR, -YR, azaspiracid-1, -2, karlotoxin 3, goniodomin A, brevetoxin-2, yessotoxin, pectenotoxin-2, dinophysistoxin-1, -2, and okadaic acid) in organic SPATT extracts using ultra-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) equipped ...


Providential Tides: The Double Low Water Of Narragansett Bay, D. G. Bowers, J. M. Brubaker May 2020

Providential Tides: The Double Low Water Of Narragansett Bay, D. G. Bowers, J. M. Brubaker

VIMS Articles

We investigate a mechanism for producing double-lows and double-highs in the semi-diurnal tide by selective amplification of higher harmonics in a resonant gulf. A double low water is observed at Providence, RI, near the head of Narragansett Bay on days when there is a flattening of the low water tidal curve at Newport, at the mouth of the bay. The flattening is caused by an unusually large quarter-diurnal component to the tide at Newport. The quarter diurnal component has the right phase (a maximum close to the time of the minimum in the semi-diurnal tide) to produce a prolonged flattening ...


Fish Biodiversity Patterns Of A Mesophotic-To-Subphotic Artificial Reef Complex And Comparisons With Natural Substrates, St Jones, Jm Asher, Rc Boland, Bk Kanenaka, Kevin C. Weng Apr 2020

Fish Biodiversity Patterns Of A Mesophotic-To-Subphotic Artificial Reef Complex And Comparisons With Natural Substrates, St Jones, Jm Asher, Rc Boland, Bk Kanenaka, Kevin C. Weng

VIMS Articles

Artificial reefs act as high-rugosity habitats and are often deployed to enhance fishing; however, the effects of man-made features on fish communities can be unpredictable and are poorly understood in deeper waters. In this study, we used a submersible to describe a deep-water artificial reef complex (93-245 m) off of Ewa Beach, Oahu, Hawaii, USA, and evaluated possible conservation and/or fisheries-related contributions. Sixty-eight species were recorded, with larger features supporting greater diversity of species. Species composition changed strongly with depth and a faunal break was detected from 113-137 m. While the features supported diverse fish communities, they were not ...


In The Face Of Climate Change And Exhaustive Exercise: The Physiological Response Of An Important Recreational Fish Species, Daniel P. Crear, Richard Brill, Lauren M.L. Averilla, Sara C. Meakem, Kevin C. Weng Mar 2020

In The Face Of Climate Change And Exhaustive Exercise: The Physiological Response Of An Important Recreational Fish Species, Daniel P. Crear, Richard Brill, Lauren M.L. Averilla, Sara C. Meakem, Kevin C. Weng

VIMS Articles

Cobia (Rachycentron canadum) support recreational fisheries along the US mid- and south-Atlantic states and have been recently subjected to increased fishing effort, primarily during their spawning season in coastal habitats where increasing temperatures and expanding hypoxic zones are occurring due to climate change. We therefore undertook a study to quantify the physiological abilities of cobia to withstand increases in temperature and hypoxia, including their ability to recover from exhaustive exercise. Respirometry was conducted on cobia from Chesapeake Bay to determine aerobic scope, critical oxygen saturation, ventilation volume and the time to recover from exhaustive exercise under temperature and oxygen conditions ...


The Role Of Sexual Reproduction In The Maintenance Of Established Zostera Marina Meadows, Andrew J. Johnson, R J. Orth, Ken Moore Mar 2020

The Role Of Sexual Reproduction In The Maintenance Of Established Zostera Marina Meadows, Andrew J. Johnson, R J. Orth, Ken Moore

VIMS Articles

For clonal plants, the role of sexual reproduction in the maintenance of populations can vary widely. Some species are dependent on repeated seedling recruitment. For other species, interactions between adults and seedlings within existing populations can affect seedling survival and limit sexual reproduction in existing populations. Genetic studies of seagrass populations increasingly suggest sexual reproduction is important for the resilience and stability of their populations, but as of yet little observational data support these findings. Because seagrass populations provide important ecosystem services and are threatened with increasing anthropogenic impacts, understanding their reliance on sexual reproduction is evolutionarily and ecologically important ...


Positive Ecological Interactions And The Success Of Seagrass Restoration, Stephanie R. Valdez, Y. Stacy Zhang, Tjisse Van Der Heide, Mathew A. Vanderklift, Flavia Tarquinio, R J. Orth, Brian R. Silliman Feb 2020

Positive Ecological Interactions And The Success Of Seagrass Restoration, Stephanie R. Valdez, Y. Stacy Zhang, Tjisse Van Der Heide, Mathew A. Vanderklift, Flavia Tarquinio, R J. Orth, Brian R. Silliman

VIMS Articles

Seagrasses provide multiple ecosystem services including nursery habitat, improved water quality, coastal protection, and carbon sequestration. However, seagrasses are in crisis as global coverage is declining at an accelerating rate. With increased focus on ecological restoration as a conservation strategy, methods that enhance restoration success need to be explored. Decades of work in coastal plant ecosystems, including seagrasses, has shown that positive species relationships and feedbacks are critical for ecosystem stability, expansion, and recovery from disturbance. We reviewed the restoration literature on seagrasses and found few studies have tested for the beneficial effects of including positive species interactions in seagrass ...


Timing Of The Reproductive Cycle Of Waved Whelk, Buccinum Undatum, On The Us Mid-Atlantic Bight, Sarah Borsetti, Daphne Munroe, David Rudders, Jul-Han Chang Feb 2020

Timing Of The Reproductive Cycle Of Waved Whelk, Buccinum Undatum, On The Us Mid-Atlantic Bight, Sarah Borsetti, Daphne Munroe, David Rudders, Jul-Han Chang

VIMS Articles

Development of the unmanaged waved whelk (Buccinum undatum) fishery on the Mid-Atlantic continental shelf of the United States has initiated investigation into fisheries-related biological and population attributes of the species in this region. Maturation and reproduction timing vary by location for this species and are likely linked to bottom water temperature. This study examined the seasonal fluctuations in relevant body metrics and gonadosomatic index in relation to bottom temperature to assess the timing of the reproductive cycle of the B. undatum population in the southern-most extent of this species' range in the Atlantic. To characterize variation over the maturation schedule ...


Using Long-Term Data From Antarctica To Teach Ocean Acidification, Patrica S. Thibodeau Jan 2020

Using Long-Term Data From Antarctica To Teach Ocean Acidification, Patrica S. Thibodeau

VIMS Articles

There is a mystery to be solved! This lesson plan asks students to identify the Who, What, When, Where, Why, and How of ocean acidification (OA). Global oceans have absorbed approximately a third of the CO2 produced by human activities, such as burning of fossil fuels, over the past decade (Sabine et al. 2004). This accumulation of CO2 in the ocean has lowered average global ocean pH and decreased the concentration of carbonate ions (CO/ ) (Fabry et al. 2008). As a result of this OA, the carbonate chemistry of the global ocean is rapidly changing and affecting marine organisms (Orr ...


Alternative Substrates Used For Oyster Reef Restoration: A Review, Taylor Goelz, Bruce Vogt, Troy Hartley Jan 2020

Alternative Substrates Used For Oyster Reef Restoration: A Review, Taylor Goelz, Bruce Vogt, Troy Hartley

VIMS Articles

Oyster populations and reef habitats have notably declined in the last century around the world. The ecological, economic, and cultural values of oysters have led to a variety of restoration efforts seeking to recover these lost benefits. Limitations of the native oyster shell substrate and the large-scale nature of many restoration projects have resulted in the increased use of a variety of alternative, or artificial, substrates to create reef structures. A text mining package was used to conduct a review of alternative substrates used for oyster restoration. Specifically, the review (1) assessed commonly used alternative substrates, (2) locations where alternative ...


Seabed Resuspension In The Chesapeake Bay: Implications For Biogeochemical Cycling And Hypoxia, Julia M. Moriarty, Marjorie A.M. Friedrichs, Courtney K. Harris Jan 2020

Seabed Resuspension In The Chesapeake Bay: Implications For Biogeochemical Cycling And Hypoxia, Julia M. Moriarty, Marjorie A.M. Friedrichs, Courtney K. Harris

VIMS Articles

Sediment processes, including resuspension and transport, affect water quality in estuaries by altering light attenuation, primary productivity, and organic matter remineralization, which then influence oxygen and nitrogen dynamics. The relative importance of these processes on oxygen and nitrogen dynamics varies in space and time due to multiple factors and is difficult to measure, however, motivating a modeling approach to quantify how sediment resuspension and transport affect estuarine biogeochemistry. Results from a coupled hydrodynamic-sediment transport-biogeochemical model of the Chesapeake Bay for the summers of 2002 and 2003 showed that resuspension increased light attenuation, especially in the northernmost portion of the Bay ...


First Comparison Of French And Australian Oshv-1 Μvars By Bath Exposure, Ca Burge, Kimberly S. Reece, Ak Dhar, P Kirkland, B Morga, L Dégremont, N Faury, B Whipple, A Macintyre, C Friedman Jan 2020

First Comparison Of French And Australian Oshv-1 Μvars By Bath Exposure, Ca Burge, Kimberly S. Reece, Ak Dhar, P Kirkland, B Morga, L Dégremont, N Faury, B Whipple, A Macintyre, C Friedman

VIMS Articles

Economically devastating mortality events of farmed and wild shellfish due to infectious disease have been reported globally. Currently, one of the most significant disease threats to Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas culture is the ostreid herpesvirus 1 (OsHV-1), in particular the emerging OsHV-1 microvariant genotypes. OsHV-1 microvariants (OsHV-1 μvars) are spreading globally, and concern is high among growers in areas unaffected by OsHV-1. No study to date has compared the relative virulence among variants. We provide the first challenge study comparing survival of naïve juvenile Pacific oysters exposed to OsHV-1 μvars from Australia (AUS μvar) and France (FRA μvar). Oysters challenged ...


Microplastics Affect Sedimentary Microbial Communities And Nitrogen Cycling, Meredith E. Seeley, Bk Song, Renia Passie, Robert C. Hale Jan 2020

Microplastics Affect Sedimentary Microbial Communities And Nitrogen Cycling, Meredith E. Seeley, Bk Song, Renia Passie, Robert C. Hale

VIMS Articles

Microplastics are ubiquitous in estuarine, coastal, and deep sea sediments. The impacts of microplastics on sedimentary microbial ecosystems and biogeochemical carbon and nitrogen cycles, however, have not been well reported. To evaluate if microplastics influence the composition and function of sedimentary microbial communities, we conducted a microcosm experiment using salt marsh sediment amended with polyethylene (PE), polyvinyl chloride(PVC), polyurethane foam (PUF) or polylactic acid (PLA) microplastics. We report that the presence of microplastics alters sediment microbial community composition and nitrogen cycling processes. Compared to control sediments without microplastic, PUF- and PLA-amended sediments promote nitrification and denitrification, while PVC amendment ...


Multidisciplinary Observing In The World Ocean's Oxygen Minimum Zone Regions: From Climate To Fish - The Voice Initiative, V Garcon, J Karstensen, A Palacz, Et Al, Kevin C. Weng Dec 2019

Multidisciplinary Observing In The World Ocean's Oxygen Minimum Zone Regions: From Climate To Fish - The Voice Initiative, V Garcon, J Karstensen, A Palacz, Et Al, Kevin C. Weng

VIMS Articles

Multidisciplinary ocean observing activities provide critical ocean information to satisfy ever-changing socioeconomic needs and require coordinated implementation. The upper oxycline (transition between high and low oxygen waters) is fundamentally important for the ecosystem structure and can be a useful proxy for multiple observing objectives connected to eastern boundary systems (EBSs) that neighbor oxygen minimum zones (OMZs). The variability of the oxycline and its impact on the ecosystem (VOICE) initiative demonstrates how societal benefits drive the need for integration and optimization of biological, biogeochemical, and physical components of regional ocean observing related to EBS. In liaison with the Global Ocean Oxygen ...


Analysing Tropical Elasmobranch Blood Samples In The Field: Blood Stability During Storage And Validation Of The Hemocue® Haemoglobin Analyser, Gail D. Schwieterman, Ian A. Bouyoucos, Kristy Potgieter, Colin A. Simpfendorfer, Richard Brill, Jody L. Rummer Nov 2019

Analysing Tropical Elasmobranch Blood Samples In The Field: Blood Stability During Storage And Validation Of The Hemocue® Haemoglobin Analyser, Gail D. Schwieterman, Ian A. Bouyoucos, Kristy Potgieter, Colin A. Simpfendorfer, Richard Brill, Jody L. Rummer

VIMS Articles

Blood samples collected from wild-caught fishes can provide important information regarding the effects of capture (and thus post-release survival) as well as other stressors. Unfortunately, blood samples often cannot be analysed immediately upon sampling, and blood parameters (e.g. blood oxygen levels and acid–base parameters) are known to change with storage duration due to the metabolic activity of the red blood cells. We obtained blood samples from both untreated and stressed individuals of both blacktip reef shark (Carcharhinus melanopterus) and sicklefin lemon shark (Negaprion acutidens) to determine the effects of storage duration on blood pH, haematocrit and haemoglobin concentration ...


The Importance Of Antarctic Krill In Biogeochemical Cycles, El Cavan, A Belcher, Sl Hill, S Kawaguchi, S Mccormack, B Meyer, S Nicol, K Schmidt, Deborah K. Steinberg, Ga Tarling, Pw Boyd Oct 2019

The Importance Of Antarctic Krill In Biogeochemical Cycles, El Cavan, A Belcher, Sl Hill, S Kawaguchi, S Mccormack, B Meyer, S Nicol, K Schmidt, Deborah K. Steinberg, Ga Tarling, Pw Boyd

VIMS Articles

Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) are swarming, oceanic crustaceans, up to two inches long, and best known as prey for whales and penguins – but they have another important role. With their large size, high biomass and daily vertical migrations they transport and transform essential nutrients, stimulate primary productivity and influence the carbon sink. Antarctic krill are also fished by the Southern Ocean’s largest fishery. Yet how krill fishing impacts nutrient fertilisation and the carbon sink in the Southern Ocean is poorly understood. Our synthesis shows fishery management should consider the influential biogeochemical role of both adult and larval Antarctic krill.


Temporal, Spatial, And Biological Variation Of Nematode Epidemiology In American Eels, Zt Warshafsky, Troy D. Tuckey, Wk Vogelbein, Rj Latour, Ar Wargo Oct 2019

Temporal, Spatial, And Biological Variation Of Nematode Epidemiology In American Eels, Zt Warshafsky, Troy D. Tuckey, Wk Vogelbein, Rj Latour, Ar Wargo

VIMS Articles

This is the accepted manuscript version of the article.

American eels (Anguilla rostrata) are infected by the non-native parasitic nematode Anguillicoloides crassus, which can cause severe swim bladder damage. We investigated epidemiology of A. crassus to better understand its population-level effects on American eels. Nematode prevalence, abundance, and intensity and swim bladder damage were quantified in glass eels, elvers, and yellow eels from the lower Chesapeake Bay and related to season of capture, river system, and total length. Age-variant force-of-infection and disease-associated mortality were estimated using a three-state irreversible disease model, which assumes recovery is not possible. Results showed glass ...


Scientific Considerations For Acidification Monitoring In The Us Mid-Atlantic Region, Ka Goldsmith, S Lau, Et Al, Eh Shadwick, Et Al Sep 2019

Scientific Considerations For Acidification Monitoring In The Us Mid-Atlantic Region, Ka Goldsmith, S Lau, Et Al, Eh Shadwick, Et Al

VIMS Articles

Coastal and ocean acidification has the potential to cause significant environmental and societal impacts. Monitoring carbonate chemistry parameters over spatial and temporal scales is challenging, especially with limited resources. A lack of monitoring data can lead to a limited understanding of real-world conditions. Without such data, robust experimental and model design is challenging, and the identification and understanding of episodic acidification events is nearly impossible. We present considerations for resource managers, academia, and industry professionals who are currently developing acidification monitoring programs in the Mid-Atlantic region. We highlight the following considerations for deliberation: 1) leverage existing infrastructure to include multiple ...


Bacterial And Archaeal Specific-Predation In The North Atlantic Basin, Lm Seyler, S Tuorto, Lr Mcguinness, Dl Gong, Lj Kerkof Sep 2019

Bacterial And Archaeal Specific-Predation In The North Atlantic Basin, Lm Seyler, S Tuorto, Lr Mcguinness, Dl Gong, Lj Kerkof

VIMS Articles

Stable isotope probing (SIP) was used to track prokaryotic and eukaryotic carbon uptake along a meridional transect (Long. 52°W) in the North Atlantic to assess if 13C-resource partitioning between bacteria and archaea and 13C-labeled eukaryotic predators could be detected. One-liter SIP microcosms were amended with 13C-acetate or 13C-urea and incubated for 48 h. Our data indicated archaea often outcompeted bacteria for 13C-urea while both archaea and bacteria could incorporate 13C-acetate. This 13C label could also be tracked into eukaryotic microbes. The largest number of 13C-labeled eukaryotic OTUs, and the greatest percentage ...


Toward A Coordinated Global Observing System For Seagrasses And Marine Macroalgae, J. Emmett Duffy, L. Benedetti-Cecchi, Et Al, Robert J. Orth, Et Al Jul 2019

Toward A Coordinated Global Observing System For Seagrasses And Marine Macroalgae, J. Emmett Duffy, L. Benedetti-Cecchi, Et Al, Robert J. Orth, Et Al

VIMS Articles

In coastal waters around the world, the dominant primary producers are benthic macrophytes, including seagrasses and macroalgae, that provide habitat structure and food for diverse and abundant biological communities and drive ecosystem processes. Seagrass meadows and macroalgal forests play key roles for coastal societies, contributing to fishery yields, storm protection, biogeochemical cycling and storage, and important cultural values. These socio-economically valuable services are threatened worldwide by human activities, with substantial areas of seagrass and macroalgal forests lost over the last half-century. Tracking the status and trends in marine macrophyte cover and quality is an emerging priority for ocean and coastal ...


Mechanisms Involving Sensory Pathway Steps Inform Impacts Of Global Climate Change On Ecological Processes, Emily B. Rivest, Brittany Jellison, Gabriel Ng, Et Al Jul 2019

Mechanisms Involving Sensory Pathway Steps Inform Impacts Of Global Climate Change On Ecological Processes, Emily B. Rivest, Brittany Jellison, Gabriel Ng, Et Al

VIMS Articles

Human-caused environmental change will have significant non-lethal and indirect impacts on organisms due to altered sensory pathways, with consequences for ecological interactions. While a growing body of work addresses how global ocean change can impair the way organisms obtain and use information to direct their behavior, these efforts have typically focused on one step of the pathway (e.g., reception of a cue/signal), one sensory modality (e.g., visual), or one environmental factor (e.g., temperature). An integrated view of how aspects of environmental change will impact multiple sensory pathways and related ecological processes is needed to better anticipate ...


Treading Water: Tools To Help Us Coastal Communities Plan For Sea Level Rise Impacts, E A. Smith, W Sweet, Molly Mitchell, R Domingues, C P. Weaver, M Baringer, G Goni, J Haines, Jon Derek Loftis, John D. Boon, David M. Malmquist Jun 2019

Treading Water: Tools To Help Us Coastal Communities Plan For Sea Level Rise Impacts, E A. Smith, W Sweet, Molly Mitchell, R Domingues, C P. Weaver, M Baringer, G Goni, J Haines, Jon Derek Loftis, John D. Boon, David M. Malmquist

VIMS Articles

As communities grapple with rising seas and more frequent flooding events, they need improved projections of future rising and flooding over multiple time horizons, to assist in a multitude of planning efforts. There are currently a few different tools available that communities can use to plan, including the Sea Level Report Card and products generated by a United States. Federal interagency task force on sea level rise. These tools are a start, but it is recognized that they are not necessarily enough at present to provide communities with the type of information needed to support decisions that range from seasonal ...


Parasitic Dinoflagellate Hematodinium Perezi Prevalence In Larval And Juvenile Blue Crabs Callinectes Sapidus From Coastal Bays Of Virginia, Hj Small, Jp Huchin-Mian, Ks Reece, Km Pagenkopp Lohan, Mj Butler Iv, Jd Shields Jun 2019

Parasitic Dinoflagellate Hematodinium Perezi Prevalence In Larval And Juvenile Blue Crabs Callinectes Sapidus From Coastal Bays Of Virginia, Hj Small, Jp Huchin-Mian, Ks Reece, Km Pagenkopp Lohan, Mj Butler Iv, Jd Shields

VIMS Articles

The parasitic dinoflagellate Hematodinium perezi infects the American blue crab Callinectes sapidus and other decapods along the Eastern seaboard and Gulf of Mexico coast of the USA. Large juvenile and adult blue crabs experience high mortality during seasonal outbreaks of H. perezi, but less is known about its presence in the early life history stages of this host. We determined the prevalence of H. perezi in megalopae and early benthic juvenile crabs from multiple locations along the Virginia portion of the Delmarva Peninsula. The DNA of H. perezi was not detected in any megalopae collected from several locations within the ...


Change Detection In A Marine Protected Area (Mpa) Over Three Decades On Bonaire, Dutch Caribbean, N. J. Relles, M. R. Patterson, D. O.B. Jones Jun 2019

Change Detection In A Marine Protected Area (Mpa) Over Three Decades On Bonaire, Dutch Caribbean, N. J. Relles, M. R. Patterson, D. O.B. Jones

VIMS Articles

The island of Bonaire is a long-established Marine Protected Area (MPA), the reefs of which were extensively mapped in the early 1980s. Satellite remote sensing techniques were used to construct reef maps for 2008-2009. Metrics describing the spatial structure of coral habitat at the landscape scale - including coral cover, fragmentation, patch size and connectivity between patches - were calculated and compared between these two time periods. Changes were evaluated in and out of the MPAs and in areas exposed and sheltered from storm damage. Overall, coral cover has declined during the past three decades, being replaced by sand, but the decline ...


Quantifying Habitat Selection And Variability In Habitat Suitability For Juvenile White Sharks, Cf White, K Lyons, Sj Jorgensen, J O'Sullivan, C Winkler, Kevin C. Weng, Cg Lowe May 2019

Quantifying Habitat Selection And Variability In Habitat Suitability For Juvenile White Sharks, Cf White, K Lyons, Sj Jorgensen, J O'Sullivan, C Winkler, Kevin C. Weng, Cg Lowe

VIMS Articles

While adult white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) are apex predators with a circumglobal distribution, juvenile white sharks (JWS) feed primarily on bottom dwelling fishes and tend to be coastally associated. Despite the assumedly easier access to juveniles compared to large, migratory adults, limited information is available on the movements, environments, and distributions of individuals during this life stage. To quantify movement and understand their distribution in the southern California Bight, JWS were captured and fitted with dorsal fin-mounted satellite transmitters (SPOT tags; n = 18). Nine individuals crossed the U.S. border into Baja California, Mexico. Individuals used shallow habitats (134.96 ...


A Data-Driven Modeling Approach For Simulating Algal Blooms In The Tidal Freshwater Of James River In Response To Riverine Nutrient Loading, Jian Shen, Qubin Qin, Ya Wang, Mac Sisson Apr 2019

A Data-Driven Modeling Approach For Simulating Algal Blooms In The Tidal Freshwater Of James River In Response To Riverine Nutrient Loading, Jian Shen, Qubin Qin, Ya Wang, Mac Sisson

VIMS Articles

Algal blooms often occur in the tidal freshwater (TF) of the James River estuary, a tributary of the Chesapeake Bay. The timing of algal blooms correlates highly to a summer low-flow period when residence time is long and nutrients are available. Because of complex interactions between physical transport and algal dynamics, it is challenging to predict interannual variations of bloom correctly using a complex eutrophication model without having ahigh-resolution model gridto resolve complexgeometryand anaccurate estimate of nutrientloading to drive the model. In this study, an approach using long-term observational data (from 1990 to 2013) and the Support vector machine (LS-SVM ...


Advancing Marine Biogeochemical And Ecosystem Reanalyses And Forecasts As Tools For Monitoring And Managing Ecosystem Health, K Fennel, M Gehlen, P Brasseur, Cw Brown, C Ciavatta, G Cossarini, A Crise, Ca Edwards, D Ford, Marjorie A.M. Friedrichs, Et Al Mar 2019

Advancing Marine Biogeochemical And Ecosystem Reanalyses And Forecasts As Tools For Monitoring And Managing Ecosystem Health, K Fennel, M Gehlen, P Brasseur, Cw Brown, C Ciavatta, G Cossarini, A Crise, Ca Edwards, D Ford, Marjorie A.M. Friedrichs, Et Al

VIMS Articles

Ocean ecosystems are subject to a multitude of stressors, including changes in ocean physics and biogeochemistry, and direct anthropogenic influences. Implementation of protective and adaptive measures for ocean ecosystems requires a combination of ocean observations with analysis and prediction tools. These can guide assessments of the current state of ocean ecosystems, elucidate ongoing trends and shifts, and anticipate impacts of climate change and management policies. Analysis and prediction tools are defined here as ocean circulation models that are coupled to biogeochemical or ecological models. The range of potential applications for these systems is broad, ranging from reanalyses for the assessment ...


Ocean Change Within Shoreline Communities: From Biomechanics To Behaviour And Beyond, Brian Gaylord, Kristina M. Barclay, Brittany M. Jellison, Laura L. Jurgens, Aaron T. Ninokawa, Emily B. Rivest, Lindsey R. Leighton Jan 2019

Ocean Change Within Shoreline Communities: From Biomechanics To Behaviour And Beyond, Brian Gaylord, Kristina M. Barclay, Brittany M. Jellison, Laura L. Jurgens, Aaron T. Ninokawa, Emily B. Rivest, Lindsey R. Leighton

VIMS Articles

Humans are changing the physical properties of Earth. In marine systems, elevated carbon dioxide concentrations are driving notable shifts in temperature and seawater chemistry. Here, we consider consequences of such perturbations for organism biomechanics and linkages amongst species within communities.In particular,we examine case examples of altered morphologies and material properties, disrupted consumer–prey behaviours, and the potential for modulated positive (i.e. facilitative) interactions amongst taxa, as incurred through increasing ocean acidity and rising temperatures. We focus on intertidal rocky shores of temperate seas as model systems, acknowledging the longstanding role of these communities in deciphering ecological principles ...


Environmental Controls On Pteropod Biogeography Along The Western Antarctic Peninsula, Ps Thibodeau, Deborah K. Steinberg, Se Stammerjohn, C Hauri Jan 2019

Environmental Controls On Pteropod Biogeography Along The Western Antarctic Peninsula, Ps Thibodeau, Deborah K. Steinberg, Se Stammerjohn, C Hauri

VIMS Articles

Pteropods are abundant zooplankton in the Western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) and important grazers of phytoplankton and prey for higher trophic levels. We analyzed long-term (1993-2017) trends in summer (January-February) abundance of WAP pteropods in relation to environmental controls (sea ice, sea surface temperature, climate indices, phytoplankton biomass and productivity, and carbonate chemistry) and interspecies dynamics using general linear models. There was no overall directional trend in abundance of thecosomes, Limacina helicina antarctica and Clio pyramidata, throughout the entire WAP, although L. antarctica abundance increased in the slope region and C. pyramidata abundance increased in the South. High L. antarctica abundance ...


The Effect Of A Small Vegetation Dieback Event On Salt Marsh Sediment Transport, Daniel J. Coleman, Matthew L. Kirwan Jan 2019

The Effect Of A Small Vegetation Dieback Event On Salt Marsh Sediment Transport, Daniel J. Coleman, Matthew L. Kirwan

VIMS Articles

Vegetation is a critical component of the ecogeomorphic feedbacks that allow a salt marsh to build soil and accrete vertically. Vegetation dieback can therefore have detrimental effects on marsh stability, especially under conditions of rising sea levels. Here, we report a variety of sediment transport measurements associated with an unexpected, natural dieback in a rapidly prograding marsh in the Altamaha River Estuary, Georgia. We find that vegetation mortality led to a significant loss in elevation at the dieback site as evidenced by measurements of vertical accretion, erosion, and surface topography compared to vegetated refer- ence areas. Below-ground vegetation mortality led ...


Climate Change Enhances Disease Processes In Crustaceans: Case Studies In Lobsters, Crabs, And Shrimps, Jeffrey D. Shields Jan 2019

Climate Change Enhances Disease Processes In Crustaceans: Case Studies In Lobsters, Crabs, And Shrimps, Jeffrey D. Shields

VIMS Articles

Climate change has resulted in increasing temperature and acidification in marine systems. Rising temperature and acidification act as stressors that negatively affect host barriers to infection, thus enhancing disease processes and influencing the emergence of pathogens in ecologically and commercially important species. Given that crustaceans are ectotherms, changes in temperature dominate their physiological and immunological responses to microbial pathogens and parasites. Because of this, the thermal ranges of several crustacean hosts and their pathogens can be used to project the outcomes of infections. Host factors such as molting, maturation, respiration, and immune function are strongly influenced by temperature, which in ...