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Bark- And Wood-Infesting Coleoptera And Associated Parasitoids Reared From Shagbark Hickory (Carya Ovata) And Slippery Elm (Ulmus Rubra) In Ingham County, Michigan, Robert A. Haack Feb 2021

Bark- And Wood-Infesting Coleoptera And Associated Parasitoids Reared From Shagbark Hickory (Carya Ovata) And Slippery Elm (Ulmus Rubra) In Ingham County, Michigan, Robert A. Haack

The Great Lakes Entomologist

Ten species of bark- and wood-infesting Coleoptera (borers) and five parasitoid species (Hymenoptera) were reared from shagbark hickory (Carya ovata) branches 1-2 years after tree death, and similarly, seven borers and eight parasitoids were reared from slippery elm (Ulmus rubra) branches one year after tree death in Ingham County, Michigan, in 1986-87. The borers were species of bostrichids, buprestids, cerambycids, and curculionids (including Scolytinae). The parasitoids were braconids, chalcidids, eurytomids, ichneumonids, and pteromalids. One new larval host record was recorded: the cerambycid Urgleptes querci (Fitch), being reared from U. rubra. This paper presents new Michigan state records for the eurytomids ...


First Report Of Enoclerus Spinolae (Leconte) (Coleoptera: Cleridae) From Missouri And Nebraska, Ed Freese Feb 2021

First Report Of Enoclerus Spinolae (Leconte) (Coleoptera: Cleridae) From Missouri And Nebraska, Ed Freese

The Great Lakes Entomologist

New state records are presented for Enoclerus spinolae (LeConte) (Coleoptera: Cleridae) specimens from Missouri and Nebraska.


Sirex Nigricornis (Hymenoptera: Siricidae) Larval Development Correlated With Tree Characteristics And Ophiostomoid Fungal Infection, Jess Hartshorn, Larry D. Galligan, Fred Stephen Feb 2021

Sirex Nigricornis (Hymenoptera: Siricidae) Larval Development Correlated With Tree Characteristics And Ophiostomoid Fungal Infection, Jess Hartshorn, Larry D. Galligan, Fred Stephen

The Great Lakes Entomologist

The native North American wood wasp, Sirex nigricornis F., has received significant attention over the last several years due to the introduction and successful establishment of the European wood wasp, S. noctilio L. in eastern North America. Larval size and development of S. nigricornis are important variables that can help to compare demography of the two species and predict future interactions. We measured head capsule width, body length, and weight of S. nigricornis larvae removed from 14 pine trees, felled across the Ozark and Ouachita National Forests of Arkansas in 2012. We also recorded the height at which larvae were ...


The Probability Of Spotted Lanternfly, Lycorma Delicatula (Hemiptera: Fulgoridae), Escape Differs Among Life Stages And Between Two Trapping Techniques Commonly Used By Landowners, Sticky Bands And Duct Tape., Matthew Desko, Carolyne Schiebel, Samantha Silverman, Jessica Bickel, Karen Felton, Jennifer L. Chandler Feb 2021

The Probability Of Spotted Lanternfly, Lycorma Delicatula (Hemiptera: Fulgoridae), Escape Differs Among Life Stages And Between Two Trapping Techniques Commonly Used By Landowners, Sticky Bands And Duct Tape., Matthew Desko, Carolyne Schiebel, Samantha Silverman, Jessica Bickel, Karen Felton, Jennifer L. Chandler

The Great Lakes Entomologist

The invasive Lycorma delicatula (White) was first identified in Pennsylvania, U.S.A. in 2014, and has since increased its range to several Eastern states. Lycorma delicatula pose a serious threat to many native species, including hardwoods and grapes, and land owners are continually seeking effective traps to control populations. Both commercially-produced Web-Cote brand sticky bands and less expensive duct tape are often used by land owners to trap L. delicatula. However, the probability of escape from these adhesives has not been formally assessed, and almost certainly differs as a function of life stage and type of adhesive used. The ...


Coleoptera Collected Using Three Trapping Methods At Grass River Natural Area, Antrim County, Michigan, Robert A. Haack, Bill Ruesink Feb 2021

Coleoptera Collected Using Three Trapping Methods At Grass River Natural Area, Antrim County, Michigan, Robert A. Haack, Bill Ruesink

The Great Lakes Entomologist

Abstract. Overall, 409 Coleoptera species (369 identified to species, 24 to genus only, and 16 to subfamily only), representing 275 genera and 58 beetle families, were collected from late May through late September 2017 at the Grass River Natural Area (GRNA), Antrim County, Michigan, using baited multi-funnel traps (210 species), pitfall traps (104 species), and sweep nets (168 species). All three collecting methods were used in three distinct habitats: a rich conifer swamp (cedar), near the edge of a red pine plantation (pine), and within a mesic northern hardwood forest (hardwoods). Additional collections were made along two trails and in ...


Occurrence Of Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) On Birds In Northwestern Lower Michigan, 2011-2019, William C. Scharf, Lisa Aukland, Gary W. Shugart, Sarah A. Hamer Feb 2021

Occurrence Of Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) On Birds In Northwestern Lower Michigan, 2011-2019, William C. Scharf, Lisa Aukland, Gary W. Shugart, Sarah A. Hamer

The Great Lakes Entomologist

Abstract

Monitoring tick infestation of wildlife provides baseline tick

occurrence data that may have human or animal health implications. We collected 312 ticks of four species from 5,122 birds of 93 species while monitoring bird migration during 15 fall and spring seasons between 2011 and 2019 in the northern Lower Peninsula of Michigan. Twenty-seven of 93 bird species hosted ticks with an overall prevalence (=at least one tick) of 3.6% (185/5,122). Median burden was one tick/per infested bird with a range of 1-16 ticks per infested bird. Tick species collected were primarily Haemaphysalis leporispalustris (Packard ...


Multi-Year Biological Control Of Black Vine Weevil, Otiorhynchus Sulcatus, With Persistent Entomopathogenic Nematodes, Elson J. Shields, Antonio M. Testa Feb 2021

Multi-Year Biological Control Of Black Vine Weevil, Otiorhynchus Sulcatus, With Persistent Entomopathogenic Nematodes, Elson J. Shields, Antonio M. Testa

The Great Lakes Entomologist

Abstract:

The black vine weevil (BVW), Otiorhynchus sulcatus Fabricius (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), has a worldwide distribution and is a serious pest of many agricultural crops with a host plant species range of 140 plants. Common economic losses occur in small fruits, including strawberries, ornamental and nursery plants, caused primarily by the root feeding larvae resulting in reduced vigor and plant death.

The susceptibility of BVW to entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) is well established with numerous authors publishing papers using a wide array of EPN species from commercial sources and very high application rates for use as a biopesticide. The concept of using ...


Minnesota State Records For Osmia Georgica, Megachile Inimica, And Megachile Frugalis (Hymenoptera, Megachilidae), Including A New Nest Description For Megachile Frugalis Compared With Other Species In The Subgenus Sayapis, Colleen D. Satyshur, Thea A. Evans, Britt M. Forsberg, Robert B. Blair Feb 2021

Minnesota State Records For Osmia Georgica, Megachile Inimica, And Megachile Frugalis (Hymenoptera, Megachilidae), Including A New Nest Description For Megachile Frugalis Compared With Other Species In The Subgenus Sayapis, Colleen D. Satyshur, Thea A. Evans, Britt M. Forsberg, Robert B. Blair

The Great Lakes Entomologist

In this note, we report the first Minnesota state records of Osmia (Helicosmia) georgica Cresson 1878,Megachile (Sayapis) inimica Cresson 1872, and Megachile (Sayapis) frugalis Cresson 1872, which were collected in 2018. We also provide the first description of the nest structure of M. frugalis. All three species typically have more southern distributions. The nest of M. frugalis shows similar structure to other species in the subgenus Sayapis Titus, such as M. inimica and M. pugnata, particularly in that the longitudinal nest cell walls lack a lining of leaf pieces, and the cell partitions are made from a layer of ...


New State Records For Some Flat Bugs (Heteroptera: Aradidae) Of The United States, Daniel R. Swanson Feb 2021

New State Records For Some Flat Bugs (Heteroptera: Aradidae) Of The United States, Daniel R. Swanson

The Great Lakes Entomologist

Twelve new state records are reported for eleven previously described species in six genera of Aradidae found in the United States.


A Synopsis Of The Flat Bugs (Heteroptera: Aradidae) Of Michigan, Daniel R. Swanson Feb 2021

A Synopsis Of The Flat Bugs (Heteroptera: Aradidae) Of Michigan, Daniel R. Swanson

The Great Lakes Entomologist

An overview of the 28 species of Aradidae found in Michigan is presented, along with an identification key, distribution maps, and relevant literature. Eleven new state records are presented for the following species: Aradus approximatus Parshley, Aradus duzeei Bergroth, Aradus falleni Stål, Aradus insolitus Van Duzee, Aradus intectus Parshley, Aradus montanus Bergroth, Aradus proboscideus Walker, Aradus shermani Heidemann, Aradus uniformis Heidemann, Quilnus niger (Stål) (all Aradinae), and Neuroctenus simplex (Uhler) (Mezirinae).


Cover Art For Tgle Vol. 53 Nos. 3 & 4 Feb 2021

Cover Art For Tgle Vol. 53 Nos. 3 & 4

The Great Lakes Entomologist

Cover Art for TGLE Vol. 53 Nos. 3 & 4


Cover Pages For Tgle Vol. 53 Nos. 3 & 4 Feb 2021

Cover Pages For Tgle Vol. 53 Nos. 3 & 4

The Great Lakes Entomologist

Cover Pages for TGLE Vol. 53 Nos. 3 & 4


Full Issue For Tgle Vol. 53 Nos. 3 & 4 Feb 2021

Full Issue For Tgle Vol. 53 Nos. 3 & 4

The Great Lakes Entomologist

Full issue for TGLE Vol. 53 Nos. 3 & 4


Buprestidae, Cerambycidae, And Siricidae Collected In Baited Funnel Traps On Drummond Island, Chippewa County, Michigan, Robert Haack Sep 2020

Buprestidae, Cerambycidae, And Siricidae Collected In Baited Funnel Traps On Drummond Island, Chippewa County, Michigan, Robert Haack

The Great Lakes Entomologist

Trapping of bark- and wood-infesting insects in 2015 and 2016 at multiple locations on Drummond Island in northern Lake Huron, using baited multi-funnel traps, yielded 4 species of Buprestidae, 24 Cerambycidae, and 4 Siricidae. In 2015, all funnel traps were baited with the plant volatiles α-pinene, ethanol, and cis-3-hexenol, and were either black or green in color, and placed either at heights similar to the lower canopy of nearby trees (4-5 m) or at 1-2 m above groundline. In 2016, all traps were green, hung at 1-2 m above groundline, and baited with the cerambycid pheromones fuscumol acetate, monochamol, and ...


Ailanthus Altissima Aqueous Extract Deters Spodoptera Frugiperda Oviposition, Ryan L. Wagner, Jordan A. Card Sep 2020

Ailanthus Altissima Aqueous Extract Deters Spodoptera Frugiperda Oviposition, Ryan L. Wagner, Jordan A. Card

The Great Lakes Entomologist

Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle (Simaroubaceae), the tree of heaven, is a highly invasive tree species containing phytochemicals with a range of biological activities. Exposure to novel chemistry from invasive plant species may result in changes to established Lepidopteran behaviors, including feeding or oviposition. However, the impact of A. altissima chemistry on insect behavior has not been extensively explored. Therefore, A. altissima extract was tested for oviposition deterrence effects against Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith) (Noctuidae). Oviposition substrates were treated with water-soluble extractions of Zea mays (L), A. altissima, or a combination of both. Moths were then placed in chambers containing different substrate ...


First Record Of The Hairy Maggot Blow Fly, Chrysomya Rufifacies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) In Indiana, Kristi Bugajski, Raenah Bailey Sep 2020

First Record Of The Hairy Maggot Blow Fly, Chrysomya Rufifacies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) In Indiana, Kristi Bugajski, Raenah Bailey

The Great Lakes Entomologist

The hairy maggot blow fly, Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) is native to Australia but has been spreading to a worldwide distribution and is becoming established in the United States. This paper presents the first documentation of the species in Indiana, specifically Valparaiso, Indiana. The species was found in September 2017 and again in October 2019. Its presence is variable in Northwest Indiana, but seems to be found in the fall when the temperatures are at least 30°C prior to collection.


Karshomyia Caulicola (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) Associated With Sclerotinia-Infected Soybean In The United States And Canada, Robert L. Koch, Bruce D. Potter, Joseph Moisan-De Serres, Janet Knodel, Veronica Calles-Torrez, John Gavloski, Theresa Cira, Mads Bartz, Raymond Gagne Sep 2020

Karshomyia Caulicola (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) Associated With Sclerotinia-Infected Soybean In The United States And Canada, Robert L. Koch, Bruce D. Potter, Joseph Moisan-De Serres, Janet Knodel, Veronica Calles-Torrez, John Gavloski, Theresa Cira, Mads Bartz, Raymond Gagne

The Great Lakes Entomologist

The white-mold gall midge, Karshomyia caulicola Coquillett, was documented in association with soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr., infected with the fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary. This mycetophagous cecidomyiid appears widespread in the northern soybean producing region, with confirmed detections from Minnesota, North Dakota and Québec. Though likely not a pest of soybean plants, the presence of K. caulicola in soybean fields may complicate identification, population assessment and decision making for soybean gall midge, Resseliella maxima Gagné, which is a recently described pest of soybean. Here, we provide an overview of the known biology and distribution of K. caulicola and ...


Hunting Billbug Sphenophorus Venatus (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae) Adult Feeding And Attraction To Warm- And Cool-Season Turfgrasses, Alexandra Grace Duffy, Douglas S. Richmond Sep 2020

Hunting Billbug Sphenophorus Venatus (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae) Adult Feeding And Attraction To Warm- And Cool-Season Turfgrasses, Alexandra Grace Duffy, Douglas S. Richmond

The Great Lakes Entomologist

The hunting billbug Sphenophorus venatus Say (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Dryophothorinae) is a generalist stem-boring pest on warm- and cool-season grasses. The objectives of this work were to (1) investigate adult feeding preference for four common turfgrass host species and (2) explore whether adults are attracted to the volatile odors emitted by these grasses. In laboratory feeding assays, S. venatus adults preferred zoysiagrass Zoysia japonica Steud ‘Meyer’ over all other species tested: Bermudagrass Cynodon dactylon ‘Patriot’, Kentucky bluegrass Poa pratensis ‘Barron’, and creeping bentgrass Agrostis stolonifera ‘Penncross’. In y-tube olfactometry assays, only males were attracted to bermudagrass. Our findings suggest that although ...


New State Species Records And Noteworthy Re-Captures Of Michigan (Usa) Trichoptera, David Houghton Sep 2020

New State Species Records And Noteworthy Re-Captures Of Michigan (Usa) Trichoptera, David Houghton

The Great Lakes Entomologist

Ten caddisfly species are reported from Michigan for the first time, including 5 in the family Limnephilidae (Limnephilus femoralis, L. thorus, Pycnopsyche aglona, P. circularis, and P. limbata), 2 in the Polycentropodidae (Cernotina pallida and Holocentropus glacialis), 1 in the Hydroptilidae (Hydroptila fiskei), 1 in the Leptoceridae (Triaenodes perna), and 1 in the Rhyacophilidae (Rhyacophila angelita). An additional 5 unique species, including several not seen in Michigan for over 70 years, are confirmed to be extant in the state, most notably Plectrocnemia sabulosa, Michigan’s only known endemic caddisfly. The state is now known to contain 305 caddisfly species.


First Records Of Megachile Apicalis (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) For Illinois Found In Heavily Urbanized Areas Within The City Of Chicago, Andrea M. Gruver, Paul J. Caradonna Sep 2020

First Records Of Megachile Apicalis (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) For Illinois Found In Heavily Urbanized Areas Within The City Of Chicago, Andrea M. Gruver, Paul J. Caradonna

The Great Lakes Entomologist

We provide the first record of the non-native Megachile apicalis Spinola (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) in Illinois. Thirty Megachile apicalis specimens were collected in the summer of 2018 in a highly urban area of Chicago, IL, USA. Our findings suggest that the range of Megachile apicalis appears to be rapidly expanding across North America, inward from both the East and Western Coasts. Megachile apicalis in Chicago has a broad activity period, can take advantage of abundant non-native floral food resources, and has competitive nesting behavior, all of which may facilitate its successful establishment in disturbed urban environments, as well as its continued ...


Reinstatement Of Andrena Vernalis Mitchell (Hymenoptera: Andrenidae) From Synonymy With A. Ziziae Robertson, Zachary M. Portman, Ian G. Lane, Gabriella L. Pardee, Daniel P. Cariveau Sep 2020

Reinstatement Of Andrena Vernalis Mitchell (Hymenoptera: Andrenidae) From Synonymy With A. Ziziae Robertson, Zachary M. Portman, Ian G. Lane, Gabriella L. Pardee, Daniel P. Cariveau

The Great Lakes Entomologist

Andrena (Micrandrena) ziziae Robertson, 1891 (Andrenidae) is a well-known species found in a variety of habitats in the eastern and central United States and adjacent southern Canada. Andrena (Micrandrena) vernalis Mitchell, 1960 was described from five female specimens in the eastern United States and was synonymized with A. ziziae by Ribble in 1968. Recently collected specimens from throughout Minnesota have revealed that A. ziziae sensu Ribble is actually two species, one of which matches A. vernalis. Here, we reinstate A. vernalis as a valid species and describe the previously unknown male. We provide diagnostic characters that separate A. ziziae and ...


Protection Of Ash Trees Under Extended Emerald Ash Borer Pressure, Fredric Miller, Dan Mueller Sep 2020

Protection Of Ash Trees Under Extended Emerald Ash Borer Pressure, Fredric Miller, Dan Mueller

The Great Lakes Entomologist

Ten studies were conducted in northeastern Illinois from 2007 to 2015 to evaluate treatment formulations, rates, and application timing and methods for protection of green (Fraxinus pennsylvanica), white (F. americana) and blue ash (F. quadrangulata) trees from the emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis. Annual mid-May, June, July, and September basal soil drenches, basal broadcast applications, and basal trunk spray applications of imidacloprid, clothianidin, dinotefuran used alone, imidacloprid + clothianidin, dinotefuran + clothiandin, and trunk injections of emamectin benzoate were evaluated. Imidacloprid applied alone at 0.57 g a.i./2.54 cm dbh or greater, clothianidin and dinotefuran alone at 0 ...


Cover Pages For Tgle Vol. 53 Nos. 1 & 2 Sep 2020

Cover Pages For Tgle Vol. 53 Nos. 1 & 2

The Great Lakes Entomologist

Cover pages for TGLE Vol. 53 Nos. 1 & 2


Full Issue For Tgle Vol. 53 Nos. 1 & 2 Sep 2020

Full Issue For Tgle Vol. 53 Nos. 1 & 2

The Great Lakes Entomologist

Full issue for TGLE Vol. 53 Nos. 1 & 2


New State Record And Range Extension For Mycterus Youngi Pollock (Coleoptera: Mycteridae) – But Is It Really Rare?, Daniel K. Young Feb 2020

New State Record And Range Extension For Mycterus Youngi Pollock (Coleoptera: Mycteridae) – But Is It Really Rare?, Daniel K. Young

The Great Lakes Entomologist

Mycterus youngi was described from Wisconsin and “L.S” (presumed to indicate along Lake Superior). All but one of the specimens in the type series were collected between 1947 and 1949. Herein, three females of M. youngi are reported from Michigan, between 1910 and 1940. A discussion of possible implications of the few, and largely old collection dates is provided.


Further New Records Of Coleoptera And Other Insects From Wisconsin, Jordan D. Marche Ii Feb 2020

Further New Records Of Coleoptera And Other Insects From Wisconsin, Jordan D. Marche Ii

The Great Lakes Entomologist

Specimens of eleven different species of insects, representing seven separate families of Coleoptera, and one family each of Hemiptera, Lepidoptera, Diptera, and Hymenoptera, are herein reported as new to Wisconsin. These genera or species occur respectively within the following families: Leiodidae, Monotomidae, Cucujidae, Cryptophagidae, Ciidae, Tetratomidae, Curculionidae, Pentatomidae, Glyphipterigidae, Phoridae, and Pteromalidae. All but one of these insects were collected at or near the author’s residence (Dane County); the pentatomid was taken in northern Wisconsin (Oconto County). Three of the four non-coleopteran fauna are introduced species.


Parasitism Of Female Neotibicen Linnei (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) By Larvae Of The Sarcophagid Fly Emblemasoma Erro In Wisconsin, Allen M. Young Feb 2020

Parasitism Of Female Neotibicen Linnei (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) By Larvae Of The Sarcophagid Fly Emblemasoma Erro In Wisconsin, Allen M. Young

The Great Lakes Entomologist

Herein it is reported an unusual case of parasitism of a female Neotibicen linnei (Smith and Grossbeck) by the sarcophagid Emblemasoma erro (Aldrich) in western Wisconsin. Sarcophagids typically attack male cicadas, locating them by the latter’s acoustical behavior.

Some members of the dipteran family Sarcophagidae are parasitic on male cicadas (e.g. Soper et. al. 1976, Lakes-Harlan et. al. 2000, Faris et. al. 2008, Stucky 2015). Parasitoids such as Emblemasoma species are attracted to larviposit on male cicadas by responding to the latter’s acoustical signals (Tron et. al. 2016). Sarcophagids, therefore, are generally not attracted to mute female ...


Ciidae Of Michigan (Insecta: Coleoptera), Luna Grey, Anthony I. Cognato Feb 2020

Ciidae Of Michigan (Insecta: Coleoptera), Luna Grey, Anthony I. Cognato

The Great Lakes Entomologist

The family Ciidae Leach, 1819, occurs worldwide with approximately 720 species. In the United States there are 84 species in 13 genera. Given their relatively small size (~0.5 to 6 mm) and cryptic habitats, feeding in decaying fungi, recent regional fauna studies are lacking including the northeastern United States. To alleviate this gap in knowledge, in part, we review and identify 2,123 undetermined specimens collected in Michigan. We provide new state records for four species: Ceracis pecki Lawrence 1971, Cis americanus Mannerheim, 1852, Cis submicans Abeille de Perrin, 1874, Dolicocis manitoba Dury, 1919 which increases the total for ...


Leaf Mining Insects And Their Parasitoids In The Old-Growth Forest Of The Huron Mountains, Ronald J. Priest, Robert R. Kula, Michael W. Gates Feb 2020

Leaf Mining Insects And Their Parasitoids In The Old-Growth Forest Of The Huron Mountains, Ronald J. Priest, Robert R. Kula, Michael W. Gates

The Great Lakes Entomologist

Leaf mining insects in an old-growth forest along the south central shore of Lake Superior in Michigan are documented. We present the results of a 13-year survey of leaf mining species, larval hosts, seasonal occurrence, and parasitoids, as well as report biological observations. Representative larvae, mines, adults, and parasitoids were preserved. Among the larval host associations, 15 are reported as new. Additionally, 42 parasitoid taxa were identified resulting in six first reports from the New World and 32 new host associations. Two undescribed species (Gelechiidae and Figitidae) discovered through this research were described in earlier publications.


Effect Of Laboratory Heat Stress On Mortality And Web Mass Of The Common House Spider, Parasteatoda Tepidariorum (Koch 1841) (Araneae: Theridiidae), Aubrey J. Brown, David Houghton Feb 2020

Effect Of Laboratory Heat Stress On Mortality And Web Mass Of The Common House Spider, Parasteatoda Tepidariorum (Koch 1841) (Araneae: Theridiidae), Aubrey J. Brown, David Houghton

The Great Lakes Entomologist

We determined the effects of chronic heat stress on web construction of Parasteatoda tepidariorum (Araneae: Theridiidae) by measuring the survival and web mass of specimens after a 48-h period within a temperature chamber at 21, 30, 35, 40, or 50°C. The 21, 30 and 35°C treatments had the highest mean survival rate (100%), the 50°C treatment had the lowest (0%), and the 40°C treatment was intermediate (58%). The 21, 30, and 35°C treatments had the highest mean web mass, and the 40 and 50°C treatments had the lowest. Web mass did not correlate with ...