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Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Essays On Fall Fertilizer Application, Mira Nurmakhanova Jan 2008

Essays On Fall Fertilizer Application, Mira Nurmakhanova

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Increased use of nitrogen fertilizer in agricultural production has contributed to increased food production but also contributed to elevated concentration levels of nitrates in groundwater and surface water. High concentration levels of nitrates in drinking water supplied from groundwater and surface water have become a public concern because of their risks to human health.;One way to reduce nitrogen losses is to develop and apply technologies that enable farmers to more accurately match the amount and timing of fertilizer application to crop growth needs. It is best to apply nitrogen as close as possible to when crop needs it most ...


Mesoporous Silica Nanomaterials And Magnetic Nanoparticles Based Stimuli-Responsive Controlled-Release Delivery Systems, Supratim Giri Jan 2008

Mesoporous Silica Nanomaterials And Magnetic Nanoparticles Based Stimuli-Responsive Controlled-Release Delivery Systems, Supratim Giri

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The research presented and discussed within this dissertation involves the development of mesoporous silica nanomaterials and magnetic nanoparticles based stimuli-responsive controlled-release delivery systems.;A superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle-capped, MCM-41 type mesoporous silica nanorod-based controlled-release delivery system (Magnet-MSN) was synthesized. The stimuli-responsive release profiles of fluorescein-loaded Magnet-MSN delivery systems in the presence of external magnetic field was studied by using cell-produced antioxidants as triggers for releasing fluorescein molecules. The intracellular delivery efficiency of the Magnet-MSN system with human cervical cancer cells (HeLa) in vitro was demonstrated involving fluorescein molecules as model drug.;To take the advantage of the intracellular delivery capability ...


The Evaluation Of Maize Genotypes For Potential Use In Cellulosic Ethanol Production, Krystal Marie Kirkpatrick Jan 2008

The Evaluation Of Maize Genotypes For Potential Use In Cellulosic Ethanol Production, Krystal Marie Kirkpatrick

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Corn stover represents a potential lignocellulosic feedstock that may benefit the emerging cellulosic ethanol industry. This study was conducted to determine dry matter yield and quality characteristics of maize stover, cob, and husk plant fractions, and to make predictions of potential ethanol yields. Detergent fiber predictions were made for each plant fraction using near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS). Predicted values were used to determine ethanol potential using a modified version of the National Renewable Energy Lab (NREL) theoretical ethanol yield calculator. Although significant, not as much variation was present among genotypes and plant fractions for chemical composition as for dry ...


The Effects Of Farmer Attitudes And Farm Management Practices On Soil Quality: A Study In Cherokee County, Iowa, Amber D. Anderson Mba Jan 2008

The Effects Of Farmer Attitudes And Farm Management Practices On Soil Quality: A Study In Cherokee County, Iowa, Amber D. Anderson Mba

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study seeks to relate farmer attitudes, perceptions, and management characteristics to field soil quality and laboratory fertility indicators. Farmer interviews were conducted to document recent practices on the farm as well as farmer attitudes about farming. To obtain soil quality measures, both the Natural Resource Conservation Service's field soil quality kit and laboratory tests were employed. Sites from the eastern half of Cherokee County, Iowa, were selected.;Key considerations of this study included farmer practices of renting versus owning land and organic or synthetic nitrogen application. Additional farmer data, including attitudes about farming, are used in this analysis ...


Phylogenetic Relationships Among The Temperate Bamboos (Poaceae: Bambusoideae) With An Emphasis On Arundinaria And Allies, Jimmy K. Triplett Jan 2008

Phylogenetic Relationships Among The Temperate Bamboos (Poaceae: Bambusoideae) With An Emphasis On Arundinaria And Allies, Jimmy K. Triplett

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The temperate clade is a diverse but poorly understood major lineage of woody bamboos (Poaceae: Bambusoideae: Bambuseae). Ongoing work is needed to reconstruct evolutionary relationships and establish nomenclatural stability for this difficult but ecologically and economically important group. We present the first robust multilocus plastid phylogeny for the temperate bamboos, assess relationships among key genera with an emphasis on Arundinaria and its allies, and discuss evolutionary phenomena potentially responsible for the taxonomic complexity of this group. Utilizing a total of twelve cp DNA regions (1 coding, 10 intergenic spacers, 1 intron), the temperate bamboos were resolved to include six major ...


Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus: Understanding And Managing Persistent Infection, Ramón Miguel Molina Barrios Jan 2008

Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus: Understanding And Managing Persistent Infection, Ramón Miguel Molina Barrios

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This experiment was designed as a longitudinal study in which pigs were followed for up to 202 days post inoculation (DPI). On day 0, 109 3-week-old pigs were intramuscularly inoculated with PRRSV strain VR-2332. Negative control pigs (n = 56) were sham inoculated with MEM by the intramuscular route. Thereafter, at approximately 2-week intervals, samples were collected from all animals and a subset of randomly selected animals was euthanized and tissues collected. The presence and amount of virus was assessed using qRT-PCR, standard virus isolation, and bioassay. Detection of PRRSV in serum by qRT-PCR showed that most pigs cleared the viremia ...


Purification And Characterization Of Recombinant Collagens/Gelatins From Transgenic Corn Seeds, Cheng Zhang Jan 2008

Purification And Characterization Of Recombinant Collagens/Gelatins From Transgenic Corn Seeds, Cheng Zhang

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Corn offers a number of advantages as production host for low- and intermediate-value protein-based products that could be produced in large volume as co-products of corn based biorefining. We selected one such potential product, a recombinant human 100 kDa type I collagen alpha 1 (CIalpha1) and a 44 kDa single chain fragment (a gelatin). The equivalency to the intended product was established by characterizing the immunorecognition, molecular weight, amino acid composition and sequence, and post-translational modifications.;Purification for characterization of the recombinant proteins from transgenic corn grain began with protein extraction in 0.1M phosphoric acid buffer. The use of ...


Genetic Regulation Of The Healthfulness Of Beef Fatty Acid Composition, Shu Zhang Jan 2008

Genetic Regulation Of The Healthfulness Of Beef Fatty Acid Composition, Shu Zhang

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The effects of genetic factors, such as breed and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), on beef fatty acid composition were investigated in the current study. The first objective was to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the thioesterase (TE) domain of bovine fatty acid synthase (FASN) gene and evaluate the extent to which they were associated with beef fatty acid composition. The four exons in FASN that encode for TE were sequenced, and three SNPs, AF285607:g.17924A>G, g.18663T>C, and g.18727C>T, were identified. Purebred Angus bulls (n = 331) were classified into three genotype groups, AA (n ...


Swine Wastewater Treatment By The Static Granular Bed Reactor, Seung Joo Lim Jan 2008

Swine Wastewater Treatment By The Static Granular Bed Reactor, Seung Joo Lim

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Swine wastewater was successfully treated by the SGBR. Two types of swine wastewater samples were used, and the performance of the SGBR was excellent. COD removal efficiency of sample 1 was 84.7∼94.5%, while that of sample 2 was 58.4∼76.6%. The SGBR acted not only as a bioreactor but also as a filter system. The performance of suspended solids removal was excellent irrespective of the OLR. Additionally, the COD removal efficiency in the effluent after backwashing was not a function of the recovery time but that of the OLR.;The SGBR model was developed with ...


Studies On The Vector Competence Of A Mid-Western Strain Of Aedes Vexans (Meigen) (Diptera: Culicidae) For West Nile Virus, Jason Robert Kinley Jan 2008

Studies On The Vector Competence Of A Mid-Western Strain Of Aedes Vexans (Meigen) (Diptera: Culicidae) For West Nile Virus, Jason Robert Kinley

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Aedes vexans (Meigen) mosquitoes were given access to 2- to 4-day-old chickens inoculated with 103.0 CID50s/ml West Nile Virus (WNV) at 1 day old. Mosquitoes were given access to chickens at different intervals after inoculation to make certain that blood meals were of varying virus titers. No differences occurred in infection rates of Ae. vexans and Culex pipiens (L.) fed on the same WNV viremic chicken. Infection rates of Ae. vexans were higher when fed on chickens with viremias of 6.0 log10 WNV PFUs/ml or higher than they were in mosquitoes fed on chickens with viremias ...


Evolutionary Variance Of Gene Network Model Via Simulated Annealing, Kyoungmin Roh Jan 2008

Evolutionary Variance Of Gene Network Model Via Simulated Annealing, Kyoungmin Roh

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The traditional approach of molecular biology research was on examining and collecting data on a single gene or a single reaction. However, recently, there has been much interest on the dynamics of gene regulatory networks (Klipp et al., 2005). We applied mathematical approach for modeling of gene network. The models depict the reaction kinetics of the constituent parts and the functions are ultimately made from basic principle of simple expressions derived from Michaelis-Menten enzymatic kinetics, and the functional forms are usually chosen as Hill functions that serve as an approximation for the real molecular dynamics (Klipp et al., 2005). These ...


Functional Characterization Of Arabidopsis Sorting Nexin Atsnx2b, Nguyen Phan Jan 2008

Functional Characterization Of Arabidopsis Sorting Nexin Atsnx2b, Nguyen Phan

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Sorting nexins are conserved proteins that function in vesicular trafficking and are defined by the presence of a phox (PX) domain. Here we present the characterization of Arabidopsis thaliana sorting nexin AtSNX2b. The ubiquitously-expressed sorting nexin is a peripherally-associated membrane protein whose PX domain binds to phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate in vitro. AtSNX2b localizes to the trans-Golgi network (TGN), prevacuolar compartment and endosomes. Overexpression of GFP-tagged AtSNX2b produces enlarged GFP-labeled compartments that can be also labeled by the endocytic tracer FM4-64, while untagged AtSNX2b overexpression generates compartments which are not as large. Endocytic trafficking of FM4-64 is arrested in cells overexpressing AtSNX2b ...


Proteins Affecting Rod Photoreceptor Differentiation In The Murine Retina: A Proteomics Approach With Emphasis On Mtor, Alison Elizabeth Barnhill Jan 2008

Proteins Affecting Rod Photoreceptor Differentiation In The Murine Retina: A Proteomics Approach With Emphasis On Mtor, Alison Elizabeth Barnhill

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Retinal diseases involving degeneration of photoreceptors are an increasing cause of blindness in this country, particularly among the aging population. A solid understanding of retinal development is central to combating photoreceptor degeneration on several fronts. Defining developmental processes may have therapeutic relevance in 'rehabilitating' photoreceptor cells that can be rescued from degenerative processes by the application of exogenous trophic or survival factors. Further, advances in stem cell research may someday make replacement of photoreceptors a feasible therapy for the treatment of retinal degeneration. In this regard, it will be crucial that we have a clear understanding of the developing retinal ...


Functional Analysis Of Paralogous Genes In Acetyl Coenzyme A Metabolism, Joel D. Schmidt Jan 2008

Functional Analysis Of Paralogous Genes In Acetyl Coenzyme A Metabolism, Joel D. Schmidt

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.


Ecological Processes Responsible For Species Co-Occurrence Patterns In Two Species Of Plethodon Salamanders, Jennifer Deitloff Jan 2008

Ecological Processes Responsible For Species Co-Occurrence Patterns In Two Species Of Plethodon Salamanders, Jennifer Deitloff

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The competitive interactions of closely-related and ecologically similar species have long been considered an important topic in evolutionary ecology. These species interactions can have considerable effects on community composition and species distributions. Furthermore, ecological, behavioral, and morphological traits of species can be influenced by interactions with competitors. Throughout Ohio, two closely related and ecologically similar salamander species, Plethodon cinereus and P. electromorphus, occur in similar habitats and can be found in sympatry. Interestingly, the contact zone of these two species is much broader than has been observed in other pairs of Plethodon species that competitively interact. However, when these distributions ...


Nitrous Oxide And Methane Fluxes In Riparian Buffers And Adjacent Crop Fields, Dong-Gill Kim Jan 2008

Nitrous Oxide And Methane Fluxes In Riparian Buffers And Adjacent Crop Fields, Dong-Gill Kim

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Denitrification is recognized as the major mechanism for reducing nitrate (NO3-) in riparian buffers and thus diminishing non-point source pollution (NPS) of surface water bodies subject to high N loads. However, increasing denitrification rates in riparian buffers may be trading the problem of NPS pollution of surface waters for atmospheric deterioration and increased global warming potential because denitrification produces nitrous oxide (N2O), a greenhouse gas also involved in stratospheric ozone depletion. Also N2O produced in the denitrification process can be dissolved in groundwater and is eventually emitted into the air when groundwater flows into a stream or a river. Riparian ...


Alternative Approaches For Sharing Machinery, Labor, And Other Resources Among Small- And Medium-Sized Agricultural Producers, Greg Colson Jan 2008

Alternative Approaches For Sharing Machinery, Labor, And Other Resources Among Small- And Medium-Sized Agricultural Producers, Greg Colson

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

As the U.S. agriculture industry continues to become increasingly concentrated, the viability of small- and medium-sized farms faced with diminishing profit margins per unit of output hinges in part on their ability to expand operations. In this study, the solution to this problem of taking advantage of economies of scale through farm-level resource sharing arrangements is considered. Through a two phase data collection procedure, Midwestern farmer groups engaged in resource sharing arrangements were identified and investigated through a case study approach. Evidence from the case studies suggest that sharing of equipment and labor can yield not only financial benefits ...


Identification, Evaluation And Quantification Of Vocs As Biosecure Markers Of Swine Carcass Degradation, Neslihan Akdeniz Jan 2008

Identification, Evaluation And Quantification Of Vocs As Biosecure Markers Of Swine Carcass Degradation, Neslihan Akdeniz

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Swine carcasses were composted using passively-aerated composting system designed by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency during the 2004 Avian influenza outbreak in British Columbia. In this system, swine carcasses were fully covered by plastic sheets due to biosecurity concerns and visual inspection of the swine carcasses was impossible. Monitoring volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released from carcasses was a promising approach to assess progress and completion of the carcass degradation. In this study, VOCs were sampled using solid phase microextraction (SPME). Samples were analyzed using multidimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (MDGC-MS) (a) to develop a comprehensive chemical library of volatile organic compounds ...


Integrating Qtl Analysis Into Plant Breeding Practice Using Bayesian Statistics, Shengqiang Zhong Jan 2008

Integrating Qtl Analysis Into Plant Breeding Practice Using Bayesian Statistics, Shengqiang Zhong

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Plant breeders face the challenges to incorporate significant developments in Bayesian quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis into breeding practice. The overall objective of this dissertation is to integrate QTL analysis into marker-assisted selection (MAS) in plant breeding using Bayesian statistics. Three different perspectives were studied: identification of optimal designs to generate multiple families for QTL mapping, cross prediction using QTL analysis results, and genomic selection for cultivated barley. First, the impact of two mating designs was studied on QTL mapping in multiple families generated by crosses between multiple inbred lines, using within-family linkage disequilibrium (LD) with a Bayesian variable selection ...


Force Interaction Characterization Between Thrombin And Dna Aptamers, Janice Dionne Marquardt Jan 2008

Force Interaction Characterization Between Thrombin And Dna Aptamers, Janice Dionne Marquardt

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The first purpose of this study is to examine using AFM height measurements to detect changes in nucleic acid and protein interactions. This study used a thiolated adenine oligonucleotide (Poly A) and thymine DNA strand (Poly T) or 2 kDa poly(ethylene) glycol (PEG) as control, and the thrombin aptamer and thrombin for detection pair. The poly A and aptamer were printed using microcontact printing, then exposed to complementary species. There was a height change after binding to the target species, so it is feasible for height data to detect binding. The second purpose of this study is to use ...


Method Development For The Quantification Of Ferritin In Staple Food Crops, Rebecca Jane Lukac Jan 2008

Method Development For The Quantification Of Ferritin In Staple Food Crops, Rebecca Jane Lukac

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Biofortification is a strategy for combating iron deficiency that involves the selective breeding of food crops to increase total bioavailable iron. Evidence that ferritin is a good source of bioavailable iron has created interest for increasing ferritin concentrations in seeds. However the successful implementation of ferritin biofortification requires a method to rapidly measure ferritin in staple food crops. In this study, we developed an indirect ELISA to quantify ferritin in red beans, white beans, wheat, maize, and brown rice. This required the production of an anti-ferritin antibody that is immunoreactive with all seed ferritins, the development of a rapid method ...


Lc-Ms Techniques For Analytical Testing Of Recombinant Human Erythropoietin And Darbepoetin Alfa In Equine Plasma Samples For Anti-Doping Control, Kenneth Phung Jan 2008

Lc-Ms Techniques For Analytical Testing Of Recombinant Human Erythropoietin And Darbepoetin Alfa In Equine Plasma Samples For Anti-Doping Control, Kenneth Phung

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) and Darbepoetin alfa (Darbe) are erythropoietic drugs that must be monitored for possible abuse in horse racing sporting events. An improved detecton method modified from literature methods was developed for confirmative and semi-quantitative analysis of these erythropoietic drugs in equine plasma samples. Anti-rhEPO antibodies coated onto magnetic beads were used for immunoaffinity separation to extract any rhEPO and/or Darbe present in equine plasma samples. The rhEPO and/or Darbe bound onto the antibody coated magnetic beads were extracted with a 0.1% polyethylene glycol (PEG) pH 2.0 buffer solution. A buffer exchange procedure was ...


Diversity, Productivity, And Stability In Perennial Polycultures Used For Grain, Forage, And Biomass Production, Valentín Daniel Picasso Risso Jan 2008

Diversity, Productivity, And Stability In Perennial Polycultures Used For Grain, Forage, And Biomass Production, Valentín Daniel Picasso Risso

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The objective of this dissertation was to determine to what extent plant species diversity affects biomass and seed productivity, weed invasion, and stability in perennial herbaceous polycultures across three years, two harvest management regimes, and two locations in central Iowa, USA. Average biomass productivity consistently increased in polycultures with increasing species richness across all environment-years. In most situations, polycultures were more productive than the average of monocultures, but not more productive than the best adapted species in monoculture for each environment. Polyculture overyielding was due to complementarity among species in the community rather than to selection effects of individual species ...


Quantitative Studies On Airborne Transmission Of Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus, Joseph Ralph Hermann Jan 2008

Quantitative Studies On Airborne Transmission Of Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus, Joseph Ralph Hermann

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is an enveloped RNA virus in the family Arteriviridae within the order Nidovirales (Cavanagh, 1997).;The objective of the first study was to optimize sampling parameters for increased recovery and detection of airborne PRRSV and swine influenza virus (SIV). Collection media containing antifoams, activated carbons, protectants, and ethylene glycol were evaluated for direct effects on factors impacting the detection of PRRSV and SIV, including virus infectivity, viability of continuous cell lines used for the isolation of these viruses, and performance of reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays. The results showed that specific compounds ...


Three Essays On Agricultural Risk And Insurance, Li Zhang Jan 2008

Three Essays On Agricultural Risk And Insurance, Li Zhang

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The general theme of this dissertation is agricultural risk and insurance in the United States. Chapter 2 examines welfare effects of the 2002 farm bill programs and yield insurance as well as their impacts on acreage decision of a representative Iowa farmer. Instead of measuring welfare using expected utility to capture farmers' preferences over risky alternatives, we apply recent advances in decision theory and use prospect theory to measure welfare changes due to government programs. The results indicate that there is no policy distortion to farmers' acreage decisions and farmers' willingness to pay per dollar of program cost is greatest ...


Non-Target Effects Of Soybean Aphid, Aphis Glycinces Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), Management In Iowa, Wayne J. Ohnesorg Jan 2008

Non-Target Effects Of Soybean Aphid, Aphis Glycinces Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), Management In Iowa, Wayne J. Ohnesorg

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.


Evaluation Of Serbian Commercial Corn Hybrid Tolerance To Feeding By Larval Western Corn Rootworm (Diabrotica Virgifera Virgifera Leconte) Using The Novel Difference Approach, Stephanie Rose KadličKo Jan 2008

Evaluation Of Serbian Commercial Corn Hybrid Tolerance To Feeding By Larval Western Corn Rootworm (Diabrotica Virgifera Virgifera Leconte) Using The Novel Difference Approach, Stephanie Rose KadličKo

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Since the discovery of the pest in 1992, western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (WCR)) populations in Serbia have successfully been kept low with crop rotation. This has reduced the efficiency of screening for WCR resistance. A cooperative project between Iowa State University and the Maize Research Institute, Zemun Polje evaluated 13 Serbian commercial corn varieties in Ames, Iowa over a two-year period. Corn hybrids were planted on trap crops where high WCR populations were assumed. Hybrids were evaluated for WCR resistance using a randomized complete block design with four replications. Treatments were paired rows arranged in split plots ...


Post-Orbital Color Pattern Variation And The Evolution Of A Radiation Of Turtles (Graptemys), Erin M. Myers Jan 2008

Post-Orbital Color Pattern Variation And The Evolution Of A Radiation Of Turtles (Graptemys), Erin M. Myers

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

One of the most studied areas in the field of evolutionary biology is the formation and maintenance of new species, as well as variation in the rate and extent to which taxa radiate. A range of evolutionary processes, from ecological adaptation to sexual selection and reinforcement, can lead species formation. However, the generation of new species likely results from several isolating mechanisms acting in concert. The map turtle complex (genus: Graptemys) is an excellent model system for exploring the nature of speciation given its exceptional species richness and morphological diversity, particularly in facial coloration patterns. This research utilizes an integrative ...


Farmer Field Schools In Bungoma District Of Western Kenya: A Rapid Appraisal, Anthony Machacha Jan 2008

Farmer Field Schools In Bungoma District Of Western Kenya: A Rapid Appraisal, Anthony Machacha

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Africa has experienced the least socioeconomic progress in recent decades by many measures. Poverty, disease, drought, and conflict have combined to trap many nations in endless cycles of misery and plummeting quality of life. Agriculture, one potentially significant avenue out of these cycles and Africa's largest economic sector, is burdened with significant problems. Over the last five decades, various approaches to agricultural development have been introduced with some modest levels of success. The latest extension innovation in the fight against rural poverty is the Farmer Field School (FFS), introduced to Africa from South East Asia in the early 1990s ...


Mechanisms Of Bes1-Regulated Gene Expression Downstream Of Brassinosteroid Signaling In Arabidopsis Thaliana, Xiaofei Yu Jan 2008

Mechanisms Of Bes1-Regulated Gene Expression Downstream Of Brassinosteroid Signaling In Arabidopsis Thaliana, Xiaofei Yu

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Brassinosteroids (BRs), the plant steroid hormones, play an important role in mediating plant responses to developmental and environmental cues. BRs signal through a membrane receptor BRI1 and a GSK3 kinase BIN2 to control the activity of BES1/BZR1 family transcription factors. To understand how BES1 regulates gene expression, I looked into both trans-acting protein factors and cis-acting DNA elements that affect BES1 functions, by yeast genetic screen and chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with DNA microarray (ChIP-chip), respectively. We identified 1609 BES1 direct target genes and discovered conserved DNA motifs in BES1 binding regions. We also showed that BES1 target genes were ...