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Masters Theses

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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

14-3-3 Protein Rad24 And Its Effect On Mid1 Localization And Contractile Acto- Myosin Ring Assembly During Cytokinesis In S. Pombe, Anissa P. Grawe Aug 2018

14-3-3 Protein Rad24 And Its Effect On Mid1 Localization And Contractile Acto- Myosin Ring Assembly During Cytokinesis In S. Pombe, Anissa P. Grawe

Masters Theses

In animal and yeast cells, cell division (cytokinesis) is facilitated by the formation of a contractile acto-myosin ring (CAR). Proper CAR formation and constriction is heavily reliant on the temporal regulation, phosphorylation, and localization of key proteins. In the fission yeast S. pombe, Mid1 is an important dimeric CAR scaffolding protein that connects the contractile apparatus to the plasma membrane at the right place and time during cytokinesis. Mid1 is confined to both the nucleus and protein assemblies called nodes during interphase, and transitions to the cell cortex at mitotic entry as nodes mature and coalesce into the CAR. Rad24 ...


Effects Of Fire Season And Temperature On A Spotted Knapweed (Centaurea Stoebe) Infested Grassland, Zachery T. Pitman Aug 2018

Effects Of Fire Season And Temperature On A Spotted Knapweed (Centaurea Stoebe) Infested Grassland, Zachery T. Pitman

Masters Theses

Invasive species, including the non-native forb Centaurea stoebe (spotted knapweed), constitute an imminent threat to degraded and restored native prairies. Considering the major threat that C. stoebe poses to imperiled prairie ecosystems, I examined the effectiveness of fire as a control agent of C. stoebe and (±)-catechin. I conducted a 2-year experiment in part of a restored tallgrass prairie community at Pierce Cedar Creek Institute in Barry County, Michigan between May and August of 2016 and 2017. My experiment consisted of individually burning 60 1-m² plots with a propane torch to achieve high (316° C) and low (103° C) temperatures ...


The Effect Of Team Sports In Classical, Christian Education, Hannah Grey Jun 2018

The Effect Of Team Sports In Classical, Christian Education, Hannah Grey

Masters Theses

Antoine de Saint-Exupery once noted if you want to build a ship, don’t drum up the men to gather wood, divide the work, and give orders. Instead, teach them to yearn for the vast and endless sea (“A quote by Antoine de Saint-Exupery,” n.d.). This quote embodies the goal of classical education, but it also parallels the values taught in sport. There has been a resurgence of classical education in recent years, and these new schools are focusing on instilling in students a love for learning, a passion for truth and beauty, and a simultaneous prudent understanding of ...


Transcriptomic Analysis Of Salmonella Enterica Newport Adaptive Response To Oxidative Antimicrobials, Dara Melanie Smith May 2018

Transcriptomic Analysis Of Salmonella Enterica Newport Adaptive Response To Oxidative Antimicrobials, Dara Melanie Smith

Masters Theses

Agricultural water systems are a known potential source for contamination of fresh produce with foodborne pathogens including Listeria monocytogenes, pathogenic Escherichia coli, as well as Salmonella enterica strains. To reduce this associated risk, antimicrobials such as hypochlorite compounds and peroxyracetic acid (PAA) have been utilized as in-line irrigation disinfectants and as post-harvest treatments. These treatments are considered effective and commonly used; however, pathogenic microbes like Salmonella have the ability to adapt to many environmental conditions. Adaptive response to environmental factors like oxidative conditions, contributes to transfer, attachment, and resilience of Salmonella on surfaces. Through RNA sequencing and analysis of the ...


Chemotaxis Of Batrachochytrium Dendrobatidis Zoospores In Response To Live Amphibians, David Bartholow Jan 2018

Chemotaxis Of Batrachochytrium Dendrobatidis Zoospores In Response To Live Amphibians, David Bartholow

Masters Theses

Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) is one of the primary drivers of amphibian decline, and has spread rapidly on a global scale, but the mechanisms of Bd movement on small spatial scales are poorly understood and may play a role in transmission and infection. The flagellated zoospores of this fungus exhibit chemotaxis in response to single chemical cues, towards potential nutrient sources and away from metabolites of anti-fungal bacteria (AFB) present on amphibian skin. Levels of cutaneous AFB were manipulated on Eurycea bislineata hosts (either by bathing in a culture of the AFB Janthinobacterium lividum, or bathing in antibiotics) to test the ...


The Impact Of Intraspecific Density On Garlic Mustard Sinigrin Concentration, Mercedes Harris Jan 2018

The Impact Of Intraspecific Density On Garlic Mustard Sinigrin Concentration, Mercedes Harris

Masters Theses

Garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata, Brassicaceae) is a biennial herb that produces glucosinolates, a class of constituent secondary metabolites that defend against herbivores and pathogens allowing it to grow at high densities in invaded regions. The glucosinolate sinigrin is predominant in garlic mustard and aids in its competitiveness as an invasive species. In North America, garlic mustard can grow at high densities and form dense monocultures which may increase its apparency to herbivores and therefore increase its sinigrin production. I measured leaf sinigrin concentration in garlic mustard populations of different densities in the field and in greenhouse experiments to evaluate the ...


“Movers And Stayers” Movement Ecology Of Yellowtail Snapper Ocyurus Chrysurus And Horse-Eye Jack Caranx Latus Around Buck Island Reef National Monument, U.S. Virgin Islands, Ashleigh Novak Jan 2018

“Movers And Stayers” Movement Ecology Of Yellowtail Snapper Ocyurus Chrysurus And Horse-Eye Jack Caranx Latus Around Buck Island Reef National Monument, U.S. Virgin Islands, Ashleigh Novak

Masters Theses

When movement ecology of target species is coupled with spatial management approaches, such as marine protected areas (MPAs), the results can establish effective conservation outcomes. Nevertheless, a knowledge gap persists regarding how many marine organisms use specific environments over long, continuous periods of time. Acoustic telemetry arrays and fine-scale positioning systems are quickly pervading the marine environment as they can monitor animal movements on a near continuous basis, filling in many previous unknowns on spatial use patterns. Further, coupling fine-scale movement patterns and benthic habitat data provides a spatial framework foundation essential to understanding the intricacies of how habitats can ...


Caenorhabditis Elegans Model To Study Antimicrobial Treatment On E. Coli O157:H7, Parita Patel Jan 2018

Caenorhabditis Elegans Model To Study Antimicrobial Treatment On E. Coli O157:H7, Parita Patel

Masters Theses

An increase in antimicrobial resistance bacteria has endangered our ability to treat infectious diseases. Lack of good in-vivo model has made it difficult to study antimicrobial resistance. In this study, we have used an inexpensive and short life span in-vivo model namely, Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) to study antimicrobial treatment using pathogenic Escherichia coli O157:H7, a multidrug resistance bacterium that causes life threatening infection in humans.

We have investigated the influence of live vs. heat killed non-pathogenic E. coli OP50 (OP50) as a food source on the growth and survival of infected C. elegans mutant AU37 with E. coli ...


Nutrient Conservation Trait Responses Of Low Resource Adapted Chaparral Shrubs To Increased Resource Availability, Reina Lee Nielsen Jan 2018

Nutrient Conservation Trait Responses Of Low Resource Adapted Chaparral Shrubs To Increased Resource Availability, Reina Lee Nielsen

Masters Theses

Traits that increase mean nutrient retention times are essential to plant performance in low resource environments, where multiple stressors (low water and nutrients) are present. Although physiological responses to either water or nutrient stress are well understood, fewer studies have investigated the interaction of these stressors from a phylogenetically-controlled, whole-plant perspective. This research focused on three, phylogenetically-controlled pairs of shrubby evergreen species from the California chaparral that either grow on or off serpentine soils, which differ in nutrient availability. Using greenhouse and field studies, the responses of these plants to altered water and nutrient availability were evaluated. The greenhouse study ...


Potential Benefits Of Restored Riparian Zones In An Agricultural Matrix For Bat Communities, Matthew T. Harris Jan 2018

Potential Benefits Of Restored Riparian Zones In An Agricultural Matrix For Bat Communities, Matthew T. Harris

Masters Theses

Riparian buffers planted within agricultural matrices for wildlife conservation are expected to support numerous taxa, but a lack of empirical testing has limited evaluation of these practices. It is imperative that biologists and land managers understand how current conservation practices impact bats so that the ecosystem services provided by bats are maintained as farming practices continue to intensify in regions dominated by agriculture. This study evaluates the effects of planted riparian buffers along streams in an agricultural matrix by comparing acoustic bat activity along streams in active cattle pasture with activity at streams where riparian buffers have been planted. Forest ...


The Combined Effects Of Soil Fertility And Soil Amendments On The Growth And Mycorrhizal Associations Of American Ginseng (Panax Quinquefolius), Emily Ann Murray Jan 2018

The Combined Effects Of Soil Fertility And Soil Amendments On The Growth And Mycorrhizal Associations Of American Ginseng (Panax Quinquefolius), Emily Ann Murray

Masters Theses

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are fungi that form symbiotic associations with 70-90% of plant families. They are known to allow for the extension of the root system as well as an increase in plant size by assisting with the uptake of nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus. The role that AMF play in plant health and success has led to the development of commercial inoculum, which is used in agricultural settings. However, soil fertility, and soil amendments are known to affect AMF and plant associations. This study intends to look at how cultivated American Ginseng seedlings are affected by commercial ...


Impacts Of Educational Programming At Dolphins Plus On Visitor Knowledge, Attitude And Behavior, Carley Rice Jan 2018

Impacts Of Educational Programming At Dolphins Plus On Visitor Knowledge, Attitude And Behavior, Carley Rice

Masters Theses

Zoos, aquariums, and similar institutions have been transitioning for many years from venues of entertainment to institutions of informal environmental education. This transition has led to these institutions claiming missions of conservation and education. The conservation education impacts of zoos and aquariums are not well understood. The literature is limited and at times inconclusive. Claims of conservation and education should be formally evaluated through survey research projects to determine validity. These types of studies will shed light on these institutions and aid in improving educational programs to best benefit conservation of wildlife, habitats and the environment. The purpose of this ...


Competition And Predation: Interactions Between American Eels (Anguilla Rostrata) And Brook Trout (Salvelinus Fontinalis) In Virginia Mountain Streams, Jonathan Studio Jan 2018

Competition And Predation: Interactions Between American Eels (Anguilla Rostrata) And Brook Trout (Salvelinus Fontinalis) In Virginia Mountain Streams, Jonathan Studio

Masters Theses

Competition has played a large role in structuring natural communities, especially with regards to vulnerable organisms. Brook trout and American eel populations have declined in the Mid-Atlantic Region of the United States as a result of anthropogenic development around freshwater ecosystems, and thus, subsequent conservation efforts of both species have included habitat restoration. Conservation efforts have increased the co-occurrence of these predatory fish species that are known to require similar resources. The main objective of this research was to elucidate the potential for competition between brook trout and American eels through analysis of their preferred prey, diet overlap, and supplementary ...


Transposable Elements In Fusarium Oxysporum & Growth Inhibition Of Fusarium Oxysporum Using Pepper Extracts, Taylor Aguiar Jan 2018

Transposable Elements In Fusarium Oxysporum & Growth Inhibition Of Fusarium Oxysporum Using Pepper Extracts, Taylor Aguiar

Masters Theses

The following contains two projects focused on the fungal pathogen, Fusarium oxysporum. The first project was purely computational in the examination of transposable elements (TEs), which are mobile sequences with the ability to multiply and move in their host genome. In F. oxysporum, TEs such as miniature impala elements are associated with the secreted in xylem gene that are related to its virulence over its host. The F. oxysporum species complex can be utilized as a model system for the examination of TE content and TE expression during the infection cycle. To find whether TEs play a role in the ...


Impact Of Bodyweight On Tissue-Specific Folate Status, Genome Wide And Gene-Specific Dna Methylation In Normal Breast Tissues From Premenopausal Women, Armina-Lyn Frederick Jan 2018

Impact Of Bodyweight On Tissue-Specific Folate Status, Genome Wide And Gene-Specific Dna Methylation In Normal Breast Tissues From Premenopausal Women, Armina-Lyn Frederick

Masters Theses

Obesity has reached an epidemic level in the United States. A number of epidemiological studies have established obesity as a critical risk factor for postmenopausal breast cancer (post-BC), whereas a reverse association holds prior to menopause. A significant scientific gap exists in understanding the mechanism(s) underpinning this epidemiological phenomenon, particularly the reverse association between obesity and premenopausal breast cancer (pre-BC). This study aimed to understand how folate metabolism and DNA methylation informs the association between obesity and pre-BC. Fifty normal breast tissue samples were collected from premenopausal women who underwent reduction mammoplasty. We developed and measured the breast tissue ...


Development Of Methodology For Rapid Bacterial Detection In Complex Matrices Using Sers, Madeline Tucker Jan 2018

Development Of Methodology For Rapid Bacterial Detection In Complex Matrices Using Sers, Madeline Tucker

Masters Theses

Fresh foods, including meats and produce are the fastest growing market in the supermarket and the class of foods most likely to cause a bacterial foodborne illness. As the rate of consumption of perishable products increases, rapid detection of pathogens within the food supply becomes a critical issue. Current methods used for the detection of bacteria that cause food-borne illnesses are time consuming, expensive and often require selective enrichment. In this study we adapted a separation technique originally developed for PCR to extract bacteria from ground beef using β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and milk protein coated activated carbon (MP-CAC) as filtration agents ...


Tocopherol Regeneration By Phospholipids In Soybean Oil-In-Water Emulsions: Effect Of Tocopherol Homologue And Emulsifier Type, Gautam Samdani Jan 2018

Tocopherol Regeneration By Phospholipids In Soybean Oil-In-Water Emulsions: Effect Of Tocopherol Homologue And Emulsifier Type, Gautam Samdani

Masters Theses

Phospholipids can regenerate oxidized tocopherols and help delay lipid oxidation. The impact of emulsifier type, tocopherol homologue and phospholipid head group on tocopherol-phospholipid interaction was investigated in this study.

Three µmol tocopherol/kg emulsion and 15.0µmol/kg emulsion of PE or PS were dissolved in oil and emulsions were prepared. Tween 20 or bovine serum albumin(BSA) was used as emulsifier and the continuous phase contained 10mM imidazole/acetate buffer at pH 7. Lipid hydroperoxides and hexanal were measured as lipid oxidation products and the lag phase was determined. With Tween 20 as the emulsifier, α and δ-tocopherol had ...


In Vitro S-Glutathionylation Of S-Nitrosoglutathione Reductase From Arabidopsis Thaliana And Phenotype Determination Of Sensitive To Formaldehyde 1 Knockout Strains Of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Ian Truebridge Jan 2018

In Vitro S-Glutathionylation Of S-Nitrosoglutathione Reductase From Arabidopsis Thaliana And Phenotype Determination Of Sensitive To Formaldehyde 1 Knockout Strains Of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Ian Truebridge

Masters Theses

Cells are constantly exposed to different stresses – one being redox stress, which is induced by metal, reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species. S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR) helps modulate redox stress by two different mechanisms – either by reducing S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) to oxidized glutathione (GSSG) or by oxidizing hydroxymethyl glutathione (HMGSH), a biproduct of glutathione and formaldehyde, to formic acid. GSNO has the potential to posttranslational modify proteins in two different manners, either by S-nitrosation or by S-glutathionylation. Interestingly, GSNOR can be modified by its substrate GSNO, either by S-nitrosation, which has previously been reported, or, as discussed in this thesis, by ...


Impact Of Oyster Mushroom Mycelium On The Growth Of Kale And Forage Radish, Levi Lilly Jan 2018

Impact Of Oyster Mushroom Mycelium On The Growth Of Kale And Forage Radish, Levi Lilly

Masters Theses

Saprophytic fungi can be paired with companion crops in interplant systems to increase production efficiency. However, fungal species/strain, substrate, and inoculation rate can affect the growth of companion crops. This project investigated the viability of open-field mushroom production by interplanting three strains of Pleurotus ostreatus (Elm A, Elm B, and 8801) with kale (B. oleracea var. acephala) and forage radish (Raphanus raphanistrub sub. sativus), and measured the effect of interplanting on plant yield over two field seasons. In the field, Elm A showed an increase in plant yield at a low inoculation rate and decrease in plant yield at ...


Mapping Sandbars In The Connecticut River Watershed Through Aerial Images For Floodplain Conservation, Bogumila Backiel Jan 2018

Mapping Sandbars In The Connecticut River Watershed Through Aerial Images For Floodplain Conservation, Bogumila Backiel

Masters Theses

Active geomorphic features of rivers like sandbars provide habitat for endangered and threatened riparian plant and animal species. However, human development has altered flow and sediment regimes, thus impairing formation of sandbars and islands. Large scale mapping of the fluvial geomorphology in river ecosystems like the Connecticut River is are necessary to understand the dynamics of these features and preserve habitat. Orthophotographs from 2012 from United States Department of Agriculture's Farm Service Agency (FSA), National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP) were used to develop a model in ArcGIS Pro to identify fluvial geomorphic features in the Connecticut River and 12 ...


Optimization Of Vegetative Filter Strips For Mitigation Of Runoff From Golf Course Turf, Barbara Deflorio Jan 2018

Optimization Of Vegetative Filter Strips For Mitigation Of Runoff From Golf Course Turf, Barbara Deflorio

Masters Theses

ABSTRACT

OPTIMIZATION OF VEGETATIVE FILTER STRIPS FOR MITIGATION OF RUNOFF FROM GOLF TURF

SEPTEMBER 2017

BARBARA A. DEFLORIO, B.S., UNIVERSITY OF MASSACHUSETTS AMHERST

Directed by: Professor John M. Clark

Many pesticides are listed as possible or probable human carcinogens, leading to a public concern over their environmental impact. Vegetative filter strips (VFS) have been developed to intercept runoff water and prevent pesticides from contaminating surface and ground water.

The first half of this project identified five plants (big blue stem, blue flag iris, eastern gama grass, prairie cord grass and wool grass) that best removed pesticides from contaminated soil ...


Integrating Cover Crop Mixtures And No-Till For Sustainable Sweet Corn Production In The Northeast, Julie S. Fine Jan 2018

Integrating Cover Crop Mixtures And No-Till For Sustainable Sweet Corn Production In The Northeast, Julie S. Fine

Masters Theses

Fall-planted forage radish (Raphanus sativus L. longipinnatus) cover crops have shown successful weed suppression and recycling of fall-captured nutrients. This research evaluated the nutrient cycling and weed suppressive benefits of forage radish cover crop mixtures to develop an integrated system for no-till sweet corn (Zea mays L. var rugosa) production that improves crop yield and soil health. Treatments included forage radish (FR), oats (Avena sativa L.) and forage radish (OFR), a mixture of peas (Pisum sativum subsp arvense L.), oats and forage radish (POFR), and no cover crop control (NCC). Subplots were assigned to nitrogen fertilizer treatments to evaluate N ...


Reactive Carbonyl Compounds: Their Control And Consequences In Foods, Michael Freund Jan 2018

Reactive Carbonyl Compounds: Their Control And Consequences In Foods, Michael Freund

Masters Theses

Polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) have been suggested to reduce risk for multiple diseases but animal studies on the beneficial effects of n-3 PUFAs are conflicting, possibly due to the presence of toxic lipid oxidation products in the oils used in these studies. In order to provide guidance for future research in n-3 PUFA supplementation, this study researched lipid oxidation and its inhibition in an animal feed system enriched with fish oil. Different storage conditions were tested, and it was found that samples stored at room temperature or above were at significant risk for oxidation with lag phases of ...


Effects Of Solid Fat Content, Synthetic Antioxidants And Headspace Oxygen Reduction On The Rates Of Oxidation In Surface And Total Lipids Of Crackers, Collin Alexander Hayes Jan 2018

Effects Of Solid Fat Content, Synthetic Antioxidants And Headspace Oxygen Reduction On The Rates Of Oxidation In Surface And Total Lipids Of Crackers, Collin Alexander Hayes

Masters Theses

Unsaturated fats undergo a process known as oxidation by which they are degraded into undesirable compounds. Therefore it is important for food manufacturers to employ antioxidant strategies. Crackers were used as a model in these studies because of their dietary contribution to saturated, and because the properties of crackers are translatable to other low moisture foods.

The objective of this thesis was to determine if there was a significant variance in rates of oxidation between surface and total lipids in crackers and how solid fat content, synthetic antioxidants, and reduction of headspace oxygen affect those rates. It was hypothesized that ...


Effort-Related Motivational Dysfunctions: Behavioral And Neurochemical Studies Of The Wistar-Kyoto Rat Model Of Depression, Brendan Abbott Jan 2018

Effort-Related Motivational Dysfunctions: Behavioral And Neurochemical Studies Of The Wistar-Kyoto Rat Model Of Depression, Brendan Abbott

Masters Theses

Depression and related disorders are characterized by motivational dysfunctions, including deficits in behavioral activation and exertion of effort. Animal models of relevance to depression represent a critical starting point in elucidating the neurobiological mechanisms underlying motivational dysfunctions. The present study explored the use of the Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) animal model of depression to examine effort-related functions as measured by voluntary wheel running and performance on a mixed fixed ratio 5/progressive ratio (FR5/PR) operant task. Given the known link between activational aspects of motivation and the mesocorticolimbic dopamine (DA) system, the behavioral effects of d-amphetamine (0.5 and 1.0 ...


Performance Of Floristic Quality Assessment In Massachusetts Forested Wetlands, Carolyn Gorss Jan 2018

Performance Of Floristic Quality Assessment In Massachusetts Forested Wetlands, Carolyn Gorss

Masters Theses

In order to combat the loss of valuable wetland functions and services, federal, state and tribal governments must have the tools to accurately assess and monitor the condition of wetland ecosystems. One particular method of wetland assessment is Floristic Quality Assessment (FQA), which has been growing in popularity throughout the United States since its creation in the 1970s. FQA relies on vegetative indicators of human disturbance to assess the integrity of an ecosystem. FQA calculations are based on Coefficients of Conservatism (C-scores), professionally-assigned scores ranging from 0-10 that denote a local species' tolerance to anthropogenic disturbance. Despite increasing interest in ...


Biological Effects And Action Mechanisms Of Dietary Compounds, Elvira Sukamtoh Jan 2018

Biological Effects And Action Mechanisms Of Dietary Compounds, Elvira Sukamtoh

Masters Theses

The food that we consume contain many dietary compounds which are biologically active. In this thesis we will discuss the biological effects of dietary compounds and the mechanisms behind their activities.

First, we studied on the anti-metastatic effects of curcumin, a dietary compound derived from turmeric, through lymphangiogenesis inhibition. Curcumin inhibited vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C)-induced lymphangiogenesis in vivo and in vitro. Curcumin inhibited lymphangiogenesis, in part through suppression of proliferation, cell cycle progression and migration of lymphatic endothelial cells. Curcumin inhibited expressions of VEGF receptors (VEGFR2 and VEGFR3), as well as down-stream signaling such as phosphorylation of ERK ...


Utilization Of Modified Lecithin To Control Lipid Oxidation In Bulk Oils, Anuj Shanbhag Jan 2018

Utilization Of Modified Lecithin To Control Lipid Oxidation In Bulk Oils, Anuj Shanbhag

Masters Theses

Lipid oxidation is a major challenge faced by the food industry since it causes loss of quality in lipid containing foods which results in a decrease of shelf life. In order to delay the oxidation in lipids, food industries make use of antioxidants such as EDTA (ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid), BHA (tbutyl-4-hydroxyanisole), BHT (t-butyl-4-hydroxytoluene), and TBHQ (tert-butyl-hydroxyquinone). However, these antioxidants are chemically synthesized and consumers desire simpler and cleaner labels without artificially synthesized antioxidants. Also, artificially synthesized antioxidants such as t-butyl-4-hydroxyanisole (BHA) can cause cancer in humans. Previous studies have shown that phospholipids such as phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylcholine (PC ...


Adding Increased Value To Strawberry Puree By Adding Xylo-Oligosaccharides To Improve Health, Haochen Dai Jan 2018

Adding Increased Value To Strawberry Puree By Adding Xylo-Oligosaccharides To Improve Health, Haochen Dai

Masters Theses

Cancer is a global risk for human wellness and health. Dietary habits could profoundly affect the risk of certain cancer, such as colorectal cancer (CRC) (Platz, 2000). CRC has listed the third leading cancer among male and female in the United States (Stewart, 2014). Surprisingly, the consumption of dietary fiber has an inverse correlation with the mortality of CRC (Song, 2018). However, most Americans do not consume enough dietary fiber to meet the recommended level of dietary fiber intake (Clemens, 2012; Lee-Kwan, 2017). Hence, it is reasonable to increase the nutrient density, i.e., dietary fiber, of current food model ...


Mapping A Pup-Responsive Pathway From The Medial Preoptic Area To The Ventral Tegmental Area., Matias Andina Jan 2018

Mapping A Pup-Responsive Pathway From The Medial Preoptic Area To The Ventral Tegmental Area., Matias Andina

Masters Theses

Maternal behavior is the complex array of caregiving behaviors females display towards offspring. In rats, the transition to motherhood depends on the action of various hormones, especially estradiol near parturition, which primes the maternal circuitry to respond to pups upon first encounter at parturition with appropriate maternal behavior. Although virgin rats avoid pups, new mothers are highly motivated to interact with pups, and their maternal behavior depends on the functional interaction between the medial preoptic area (mPOA) and the ventral tegmental area (VTA). However, a precise mapping of the VTA-projecting mPOA neurons remains to be elucidated. To determine whether pup-responsive ...