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Articles 1 - 30 of 2340
Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences
Effects Of Fire Season And Temperature On A Spotted Knapweed (Centaurea Stoebe) Infested Grassland, Zachery T. Pitman
Invasive species, including the non-native forb Centaurea stoebe (spotted knapweed), constitute an imminent threat to degraded and restored native prairies. Considering the major threat that C. stoebe poses to imperiled prairie ecosystems, I examined the effectiveness of fire as a control agent of C. stoebe and (±)-catechin. I conducted a 2-year experiment in part of a restored tallgrass prairie community at Pierce Cedar Creek Institute in Barry County, Michigan between May and August of 2016 and 2017. My experiment consisted of individually burning 60 1-m² plots with a propane torch to achieve high (316° C) and low (103° C) temperatures ...
14-3-3 Protein Rad24 And Its Effect On Mid1 Localization And Contractile Acto- Myosin Ring Assembly During Cytokinesis In S. Pombe, Anissa P. Grawe
In animal and yeast cells, cell division (cytokinesis) is facilitated by the formation of a contractile acto-myosin ring (CAR). Proper CAR formation and constriction is heavily reliant on the temporal regulation, phosphorylation, and localization of key proteins. In the fission yeast S. pombe, Mid1 is an important dimeric CAR scaffolding protein that connects the contractile apparatus to the plasma membrane at the right place and time during cytokinesis. Mid1 is confined to both the nucleus and protein assemblies called nodes during interphase, and transitions to the cell cortex at mitotic entry as nodes mature and coalesce into the CAR. Rad24 ...
The Effect Of Team Sports In Classical, Christian Education, Hannah Grey
Antoine de Saint-Exupery once noted if you want to build a ship, don’t drum up the men to gather wood, divide the work, and give orders. Instead, teach them to yearn for the vast and endless sea (“A quote by Antoine de Saint-Exupery,” n.d.). This quote embodies the goal of classical education, but it also parallels the values taught in sport. There has been a resurgence of classical education in recent years, and these new schools are focusing on instilling in students a love for learning, a passion for truth and beauty, and a simultaneous prudent understanding of ...
Transcriptomic Analysis Of Salmonella Enterica Newport Adaptive Response To Oxidative Antimicrobials, Dara Melanie Smith
Agricultural water systems are a known potential source for contamination of fresh produce with foodborne pathogens including Listeria monocytogenes, pathogenic Escherichia coli, as well as Salmonella enterica strains. To reduce this associated risk, antimicrobials such as hypochlorite compounds and peroxyracetic acid (PAA) have been utilized as in-line irrigation disinfectants and as post-harvest treatments. These treatments are considered effective and commonly used; however, pathogenic microbes like Salmonella have the ability to adapt to many environmental conditions. Adaptive response to environmental factors like oxidative conditions, contributes to transfer, attachment, and resilience of Salmonella on surfaces. Through RNA sequencing and analysis of the ...
The Impact Of Intraspecific Density On Garlic Mustard Sinigrin Concentration, Mercedes Harris
Garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata, Brassicaceae) is a biennial herb that produces glucosinolates, a class of constituent secondary metabolites that defend against herbivores and pathogens allowing it to grow at high densities in invaded regions. The glucosinolate sinigrin is predominant in garlic mustard and aids in its competitiveness as an invasive species. In North America, garlic mustard can grow at high densities and form dense monocultures which may increase its apparency to herbivores and therefore increase its sinigrin production. I measured leaf sinigrin concentration in garlic mustard populations of different densities in the field and in greenhouse experiments to evaluate the ...
Nutrient Conservation Trait Responses Of Low Resource Adapted Chaparral Shrubs To Increased Resource Availability, Reina Lee Nielsen
Traits that increase mean nutrient retention times are essential to plant performance in low resource environments, where multiple stressors (low water and nutrients) are present. Although physiological responses to either water or nutrient stress are well understood, fewer studies have investigated the interaction of these stressors from a phylogenetically-controlled, whole-plant perspective. This research focused on three, phylogenetically-controlled pairs of shrubby evergreen species from the California chaparral that either grow on or off serpentine soils, which differ in nutrient availability. Using greenhouse and field studies, the responses of these plants to altered water and nutrient availability were evaluated. The greenhouse study ...
The Combined Effects Of Soil Fertility And Soil Amendments On The Growth And Mycorrhizal Associations Of American Ginseng (Panax Quinquefolius), Emily Ann Murray
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are fungi that form symbiotic associations with 70-90% of plant families. They are known to allow for the extension of the root system as well as an increase in plant size by assisting with the uptake of nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus. The role that AMF play in plant health and success has led to the development of commercial inoculum, which is used in agricultural settings. However, soil fertility, and soil amendments are known to affect AMF and plant associations. This study intends to look at how cultivated American Ginseng seedlings are affected by commercial ...
Transposable Elements In Fusarium Oxysporum & Growth Inhibition Of Fusarium Oxysporum Using Pepper Extracts, Taylor Aguiar
The following contains two projects focused on the fungal pathogen, Fusarium oxysporum. The first project was purely computational in the examination of transposable elements (TEs), which are mobile sequences with the ability to multiply and move in their host genome. In F. oxysporum, TEs such as miniature impala elements are associated with the secreted in xylem gene that are related to its virulence over its host. The F. oxysporum species complex can be utilized as a model system for the examination of TE content and TE expression during the infection cycle. To find whether TEs play a role in the ...
Impact Of Bodyweight On Tissue-Specific Folate Status, Genome Wide And Gene-Specific Dna Methylation In Normal Breast Tissues From Premenopausal Women, Armina-Lyn Frederick
Obesity has reached an epidemic level in the United States. A number of epidemiological studies have established obesity as a critical risk factor for postmenopausal breast cancer (post-BC), whereas a reverse association holds prior to menopause. A significant scientific gap exists in understanding the mechanism(s) underpinning this epidemiological phenomenon, particularly the reverse association between obesity and premenopausal breast cancer (pre-BC). This study aimed to understand how folate metabolism and DNA methylation informs the association between obesity and pre-BC. Fifty normal breast tissue samples were collected from premenopausal women who underwent reduction mammoplasty. We developed and measured the breast tissue ...
Development Of Methodology For Rapid Bacterial Detection In Complex Matrices Using Sers, Madeline Tucker
Fresh foods, including meats and produce are the fastest growing market in the supermarket and the class of foods most likely to cause a bacterial foodborne illness. As the rate of consumption of perishable products increases, rapid detection of pathogens within the food supply becomes a critical issue. Current methods used for the detection of bacteria that cause food-borne illnesses are time consuming, expensive and often require selective enrichment. In this study we adapted a separation technique originally developed for PCR to extract bacteria from ground beef using β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and milk protein coated activated carbon (MP-CAC) as filtration agents ...
Impact Of Oyster Mushroom Mycelium On The Growth Of Kale And Forage Radish, Levi Lilly
Saprophytic fungi can be paired with companion crops in interplant systems to increase production efficiency. However, fungal species/strain, substrate, and inoculation rate can affect the growth of companion crops. This project investigated the viability of open-field mushroom production by interplanting three strains of Pleurotus ostreatus (Elm A, Elm B, and 8801) with kale (B. oleracea var. acephala) and forage radish (Raphanus raphanistrub sub. sativus), and measured the effect of interplanting on plant yield over two field seasons. In the field, Elm A showed an increase in plant yield at a low inoculation rate and decrease in plant yield at ...
Optimization Of Vegetative Filter Strips For Mitigation Of Runoff From Golf Course Turf, Barbara Deflorio
OPTIMIZATION OF VEGETATIVE FILTER STRIPS FOR MITIGATION OF RUNOFF FROM GOLF TURF
BARBARA A. DEFLORIO, B.S., UNIVERSITY OF MASSACHUSETTS AMHERST
Directed by: Professor John M. Clark
Many pesticides are listed as possible or probable human carcinogens, leading to a public concern over their environmental impact. Vegetative filter strips (VFS) have been developed to intercept runoff water and prevent pesticides from contaminating surface and ground water.
The first half of this project identified five plants (big blue stem, blue flag iris, eastern gama grass, prairie cord grass and wool grass) that best removed pesticides from contaminated soil ...
Integrating Cover Crop Mixtures And No-Till For Sustainable Sweet Corn Production In The Northeast, Julie S. Fine
Fall-planted forage radish (Raphanus sativus L. longipinnatus) cover crops have shown successful weed suppression and recycling of fall-captured nutrients. This research evaluated the nutrient cycling and weed suppressive benefits of forage radish cover crop mixtures to develop an integrated system for no-till sweet corn (Zea mays L. var rugosa) production that improves crop yield and soil health. Treatments included forage radish (FR), oats (Avena sativa L.) and forage radish (OFR), a mixture of peas (Pisum sativum subsp arvense L.), oats and forage radish (POFR), and no cover crop control (NCC). Subplots were assigned to nitrogen fertilizer treatments to evaluate N ...
Reactive Carbonyl Compounds: Their Control And Consequences In Foods, Michael Freund
Polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) have been suggested to reduce risk for multiple diseases but animal studies on the beneficial effects of n-3 PUFAs are conflicting, possibly due to the presence of toxic lipid oxidation products in the oils used in these studies. In order to provide guidance for future research in n-3 PUFA supplementation, this study researched lipid oxidation and its inhibition in an animal feed system enriched with fish oil. Different storage conditions were tested, and it was found that samples stored at room temperature or above were at significant risk for oxidation with lag phases of ...
Effects Of Solid Fat Content, Synthetic Antioxidants And Headspace Oxygen Reduction On The Rates Of Oxidation In Surface And Total Lipids Of Crackers, Collin Alexander Hayes
Unsaturated fats undergo a process known as oxidation by which they are degraded into undesirable compounds. Therefore it is important for food manufacturers to employ antioxidant strategies. Crackers were used as a model in these studies because of their dietary contribution to saturated, and because the properties of crackers are translatable to other low moisture foods.
The objective of this thesis was to determine if there was a significant variance in rates of oxidation between surface and total lipids in crackers and how solid fat content, synthetic antioxidants, and reduction of headspace oxygen affect those rates. It was hypothesized that ...
Adding Increased Value To Strawberry Puree By Adding Xylo-Oligosaccharides To Improve Health, Haochen Dai
Cancer is a global risk for human wellness and health. Dietary habits could profoundly affect the risk of certain cancer, such as colorectal cancer (CRC) (Platz, 2000). CRC has listed the third leading cancer among male and female in the United States (Stewart, 2014). Surprisingly, the consumption of dietary fiber has an inverse correlation with the mortality of CRC (Song, 2018). However, most Americans do not consume enough dietary fiber to meet the recommended level of dietary fiber intake (Clemens, 2012; Lee-Kwan, 2017). Hence, it is reasonable to increase the nutrient density, i.e., dietary fiber, of current food model ...
Mapping A Pup-Responsive Pathway From The Medial Preoptic Area To The Ventral Tegmental Area., Matias Andina
Maternal behavior is the complex array of caregiving behaviors females display towards offspring. In rats, the transition to motherhood depends on the action of various hormones, especially estradiol near parturition, which primes the maternal circuitry to respond to pups upon first encounter at parturition with appropriate maternal behavior. Although virgin rats avoid pups, new mothers are highly motivated to interact with pups, and their maternal behavior depends on the functional interaction between the medial preoptic area (mPOA) and the ventral tegmental area (VTA). However, a precise mapping of the VTA-projecting mPOA neurons remains to be elucidated. To determine whether pup-responsive ...
Screening Of Commercially Available Chlorine Based Sanitizers And Their Efficacy In Reducing Microbial Load Levels Of E. Coli O157:H7 At High And Low Organic Load Environments, Paola Martinez-Ramos
The presence of postharvest sanitizers has shown to be an effective approach to reducing microbial cross contamination in agricultural washing operations. However, choosing an appropriate sanitizer can be challenging due to produce commodity, processing conditions and interference with organic load. Current research shows a wide variety of methods to mimic the organic load of vegetable processing conditions, with paddle mixing and blender as the most commonly used. Controlling and understanding the physiochemical properties of wash water is key in maintaining sanitizer efficacy. The effects of simulated wash water preparation method on the physiochemical properties were tested at 0 and 50 ...
Use Of Alamarblue As An Indicator Of Microbial Growth In Turbid Solutions For Antimicrobial Evaluation, Precious Henshaw
The use of antibiotics in animal feed is a large cause of concern due to bacterial resistance, which occurs when bacteria change after exposure to antibiotics and become less affected by the drug. Consequently, the desire to find a replacement for these antibiotics has garnered interest in both farmers and consumers. The ideal substance would display antimicrobial activity without promoting bacterial resistance and would still function as a growth promoter in animals. One antimicrobial that fits this criterion is carvacrol, a compound found in oregano extract. Carvacrol exhibits antimicrobial activity in a number of bacteria, including E.coli O157:H7 ...
Investigating The Role Of Rna-Binding Protein 5 In The Life Cycle Differentiation Of Trypanosoma Brucei, David Anaguano Pillajo
Trypanosomatid parasites such as Trypanosoma brucei have unusual mechanisms of gene expression including polycistronic transcription, mitochondrial RNA editing and trans-splicing. Additionally, these protists rely mainly on post-transcriptional regulation where RNA-binding proteins (RBP) have shown to play a major role. RBP6 and RBP10 are two examples of RBPs that play crucial roles in procyclic and bloodstream form parasites differentiation respectively, by post-transcriptional regulation. Over-expression of RBP6 is enough to promote differentiation into metacyclic trypomastigotes that are infective to mice. However, continuous expression is required, and this pattern does not reflect the natural expression in the tsetse fly or the influence of ...
Understanding The Thermal Stability And Environmental Sensitivity Of Phycocyanin Using Spectroscopic And Modelling Tools, Cally Toong
Phycocyanin (PC), a pigment-protein conjugate from Arthrospira platensis, is increasingly used in foods as a natural alternative to artificial blue dyes. Although PC has been classified as a color additive exempt from certification by the Food and Drug Administration, its limited stability has hindered its widespread application in food products. The objectives of this study were: a) to evaluate the photophysical properties of PC and their sensitivity to temperature, viscosity, and water activity, b) to monitor PC’s thermal degradation based on changes in the optical properties of its intrinsic fluorophores, namely its chromophores and aromatic amino acids, and c ...
Clpxp-Regulated Proteins Suppress Requirement For Reca In Dam Mutants Of Escherichia Coli K-12, Amie Savakis
Double strand breaks (DSB) are a common source of DNA damage in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. If they are not repaired or are repaired incorrectly, they can lead to cell death (bacteria) or cancer (humans). In Escherichia coli, repair of DSB are typically accomplished via homologous recombination and mediated by RecA. This repair pathway, among others, is associated with activation of the SOS response. DNA adenine methyltransferase (dam) mutants have an increased number of DSB and, therefore, are notorious for being RecA-dependent for viability. Here, we show that the synthetic lethality of Δdam/ΔrecA is suppressed when clpP is removed ...
Plants, Parasites, And Pollinators: The Effects Of Medicinal Pollens On A Common Gut Parasite In Bumble Bees, George Locascio
Declines in several pollinator species are due to a variety of factors, including pathogens. Incorporating pollinator-friendly plant species into wild and agricultural habitats could reduce the stress of pathogens if food sources act medicinally against pathogens. Previous research demonstrated one domesticated sunflower cultivar (Helianthus annuus) can dramatically reduce a gut pathogen (Crithidia bombi) of the common eastern bumble bee, Bombus impatiens. To ascertain the breadth of this medicinal trait, we tested whether pollen from several H. annuus cultivars and four relatives could also reduce C. bombi infections in B. impatiens. We also investigated whether timing of exposure to sunflower pollen ...
Chemotaxis Of Batrachochytrium Dendrobatidis Zoospores In Response To Live Amphibians, David Bartholow
Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) is one of the primary drivers of amphibian decline, and has spread rapidly on a global scale, but the mechanisms of Bd movement on small spatial scales are poorly understood and may play a role in transmission and infection. The flagellated zoospores of this fungus exhibit chemotaxis in response to single chemical cues, towards potential nutrient sources and away from metabolites of anti-fungal bacteria (AFB) present on amphibian skin. Levels of cutaneous AFB were manipulated on Eurycea bislineata hosts (either by bathing in a culture of the AFB Janthinobacterium lividum, or bathing in antibiotics) to test the ...
The Role Of Prrx1 And Snai2 As Master Regulators Of Fibroblast Identity, Huda A. Alzahrani
The Role Of Prrx1 And Snai2 As Master Regulators Of Fibroblast Identity, Huda A. Alzahrani
Mammalian development involves a complex system of regulatory signals and reactions, leading to the creation of distinct tissues with specific structures and functions controlled by various gene expression profiles. Tissue-specific gene expression is by controlled specific combinations of transcription factors and cofactors that dictate cell differentiation via activation and repression of genes in mammalian cells.
Whole genome microarray analyses of fibroblasts have revealed candidate genes that may serve as master regulators of fibroblast identity, such as Prrx1 and Snai2, that activate downstream genes such as Bmp3, Twist, Shox2, Cfos, Slug, Sema3A, Spp1, and Col1a1. A previous study showed that Prrx1 ...
Impacts Of Educational Programming At Dolphins Plus On Visitor Knowledge, Attitude And Behavior, Carley Rice
Zoos, aquariums, and similar institutions have been transitioning for many years from venues of entertainment to institutions of informal environmental education. This transition has led to these institutions claiming missions of conservation and education. The conservation education impacts of zoos and aquariums are not well understood. The literature is limited and at times inconclusive. Claims of conservation and education should be formally evaluated through survey research projects to determine validity. These types of studies will shed light on these institutions and aid in improving educational programs to best benefit conservation of wildlife, habitats and the environment. The purpose of this ...
Competition And Predation: Interactions Between American Eels (Anguilla Rostrata) And Brook Trout (Salvelinus Fontinalis) In Virginia Mountain Streams, Jonathan Studio
Competition has played a large role in structuring natural communities, especially with regards to vulnerable organisms. Brook trout and American eel populations have declined in the Mid-Atlantic Region of the United States as a result of anthropogenic development around freshwater ecosystems, and thus, subsequent conservation efforts of both species have included habitat restoration. Conservation efforts have increased the co-occurrence of these predatory fish species that are known to require similar resources. The main objective of this research was to elucidate the potential for competition between brook trout and American eels through analysis of their preferred prey, diet overlap, and supplementary ...
Potential Benefits Of Restored Riparian Zones In An Agricultural Matrix For Bat Communities, Matthew T. Harris
Riparian buffers planted within agricultural matrices for wildlife conservation are expected to support numerous taxa, but a lack of empirical testing has limited evaluation of these practices. It is imperative that biologists and land managers understand how current conservation practices impact bats so that the ecosystem services provided by bats are maintained as farming practices continue to intensify in regions dominated by agriculture. This study evaluates the effects of planted riparian buffers along streams in an agricultural matrix by comparing acoustic bat activity along streams in active cattle pasture with activity at streams where riparian buffers have been planted. Forest ...
Impact Of Giant Miscanthus (Miscanthus X Giganteus) Cultivation On Midwestern Farmland Birds, Matthew Craffey
Giant Miscanthus (Miscanthus x giganteus) is a promising bioenergy feedstock, newly introduced to North America. However, the qualities that make Giant Miscanthus an attractive bioenergy feedstock may pose challenges to local wildlife. To assess the impacts of Giant Miscanthus on Midwestern farmland birds, I conducted point count and vegetation surveys at three sites in east-central Illinois where Giant Miscanthus was being cultivated. I used occupancy modeling to assess the relative influence of Giant Miscanthus on five species relative to other habitat and landscape characteristics. Dickcissel (Spiza Americana), Eastern Meadowlark (Sturnella magna), and Red-Winged Blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus) occupancy was positively associated ...
Biotransformation Of Oxo-Bile Acids Derivatives By Human Gut Bacteria, Laina Sallam
Bile acids are one group of steroids that can be metabolically transformed by human gut anaerobes. One of these transformations is the conversion of primary bile acids to secondary bile acids by 7α-dehydroxylating gut bacteria such as Clostridium scindens, Clostridium hylemonae, and Clostridium hiranonis. These anaerobes metabolize bile acid derivatives via 3α- and 7α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (HSDH). Studies to date have not reported if these organisms are capable of converting 12-oxolithocholic acid (12-oxoLCA) to deoxycholic acid (DCA). The emphasis of this study was to determine the ability of C. scindens ATCC 35704, C. hiranonis DSM 13275, and C. hylemonae DSM 15053 ...