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Masters Theses

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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

The Progress Of Power: A Narrative Review Of The Practical Progression Of Running Power Assessment And Application, Andrew David Fields May 2022

The Progress Of Power: A Narrative Review Of The Practical Progression Of Running Power Assessment And Application, Andrew David Fields

Masters Theses

Power has revolutionized endurance athletics. Power is a function of the amount of force produced in a certain amount of time. Utilized correctly, it can be an effective metric of effort during endurance activities. Cycling saw the first fruits of this metric in the 1980s and 1990s with Tour de France athletes and has continued to provide immense benefits to cyclists. Power when applied to running, however, has seen a much slower progression toward effective use. Various attempts in the 1970s and 80s to use calculations to express running power as a function of multiple different kinematic variables proved futile ...


"The Third Power": James A. Everitt And The American Society Of Equity, Mark Kristian Myrdal Apr 2022

"The Third Power": James A. Everitt And The American Society Of Equity, Mark Kristian Myrdal

Masters Theses

The late 19th century marked a golden age for farmers’ movements in the United States. Crushing debt, deflation, increased urbanization, and industrial acceleration generated much discontent in America’s agricultural communities, and unleashed “a Populist moment” of farmer protest and organization. While the early 20th century witnessed significant economic improvement, farm organizations continued to operate and, in some cases, even thrived. Established in 1902 by seed merchant and newspaper editor James A. Everitt of Indiana, the American Society of Equity was one of the first major farmer’s movements founded in the twentieth century and helped to spread the concept ...


Songbird-Mediated Insect Pest Control In Low Intensity New England Agriculture, Samuel J. Mayne Mar 2022

Songbird-Mediated Insect Pest Control In Low Intensity New England Agriculture, Samuel J. Mayne

Masters Theses

Global agricultural intensification has caused large-scale wildlife declines, but agricultural lands that maintain natural habitats can support healthy wildlife populations and receive significant ecosystem services from these natural communities. However, how on-farm biodiversity results in beneficial ecosystem services is highly variable and is reported to differ among taxa and guilds. One group that has attracted attention for their potential beneficial role in reducing pest abundance are birds. Understanding the role of bird communities and individual species in pest control could be important for managing farms under a low intensity agroecological framework. In New England, farmers are increasingly applying low intensity ...


Detection Of Benzoyl Peroxide In Flour Using Raman Spectroscopy, Yu Ho Mar 2022

Detection Of Benzoyl Peroxide In Flour Using Raman Spectroscopy, Yu Ho

Masters Theses

Benzoyl peroxide (BPO) is a common bleaching agent used in wheat flour. Due to its ability to damage existing nutrients in food and potential adverse effect to health, BPO have been strictly banned as a food additive in several countries and regions, such as China and Europe. However, the United States specifies that BPO is generally recognized as safe (GRAS). So, the WHO/FAO created a Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC) to regulate the international BPO usage standard. According to the CAC, it is restricted at 75 mg/kg or parts per million (ppm). BPO is very unstable and easily converts ...


Assessment Of The Economic And Ecosystem Service Contributions Of Usda Forest Service Landowner Assistance Programs In The Conterminous United States, Jacqueline S. Dias Mar 2022

Assessment Of The Economic And Ecosystem Service Contributions Of Usda Forest Service Landowner Assistance Programs In The Conterminous United States, Jacqueline S. Dias

Masters Theses

Forests provide immense goods and services to both local and regional communities. The USDA Forest Service’s, State and Private Forestry program administer multiple landowner assistance programs aimed at helping private forest owners while supporting the continued supply of ecosystem services (e.g., timber harvesting, recreation, carbon sequestration and storage). The two landowner assistance programs assessed in this study are the Forest Legacy Program (FLP) and the Forest Stewardship Program (FSP). A majority of the nation’s forests are privately owned, many of which are facing deleterious impacts like wildfires, invasive species, development pressures, and other adverse effects from climate ...


Analysis Of Plant And Animal Proteins Using Raman Spectroscopy, Noopur Bapardekar Mar 2022

Analysis Of Plant And Animal Proteins Using Raman Spectroscopy, Noopur Bapardekar

Masters Theses

There has been a notable rise in the alternative protein market in the recent years which promotes an interest in the research of both animal and plant proteins to establish better structure-function relationships. Over the years many analytical tools have been used to study proteins and compare them, however Raman Spectroscopy and Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) have not been as much used for this application. SERS consolidates Raman Spectroscopy that primarily measures molecular vibrations and nanostructures that enhance the weak Raman signals. The objective of this study is to explore the capability of the Raman instrumentation in combination with ...


An Abductive Argument From Depression And Anxiety To Christian Personal Holiness, Kelly Douglas Burchett Mar 2022

An Abductive Argument From Depression And Anxiety To Christian Personal Holiness, Kelly Douglas Burchett

Masters Theses

The science on pathological depression and anxiety (D&A) describes religion and spirituality's (R/S) insulating and immunizing effects in roughly 72 to 85 percent of all relevant articles. But the descriptivism of science cannot assign any normative value to a theological worldview. Deductive logic favors theism via Leibnizian contingency, Kalām cosmology, objective morality, fine-tuning of the universe, and abstract conceptualism. The information in DNA, the irreducible complexity of intracellular machinery, the improbability of folded proteins, and the support for common modular design over common ancestry establish a design inference for all of life. Unguided naturalistic simulations fail to ...


Development Of Phase Change Thermal Storage Medium: Cooking With More Power And Versatility, Martin Osei Jan 2022

Development Of Phase Change Thermal Storage Medium: Cooking With More Power And Versatility, Martin Osei

Masters Theses

With an Insulated Solar Electric Cooker (ISEC), a 100 W solar panel directly cooks food while providing 5W off-grid electricity access; but it cooks slowly. Storing the day’s energy with phase change thermal storage allows ISEC to cook more rapidly as well as cook after sunset. The ISEC is made by sticking a 3ohm resistive to an aluminum pot (inner phase change assembly PCA) where another cooking pot fits. The resistive heater is surrounded by a bigger pot (outer PCA) that contains the PCM and is tightly sealed. The solar panel is connected to the resistive heater with a ...


Low-Head Dam Removal Increases Functional Diversity Of Stream Fish Assemblages, Adam Christopher Jones Jan 2022

Low-Head Dam Removal Increases Functional Diversity Of Stream Fish Assemblages, Adam Christopher Jones

Masters Theses

Despite the growing number of dam removals to date, very few have been studied to understand their impacts on stream fish communities. Despite being the most common type of dam in the U.S., an even smaller proportion of studies focus on the impacts of low-head dam removals, instead, focusing on the impacts of removal of larger dams. In this study, two previously impounded Illinois rivers were monitored to assess the impacts of low-head dam removal on the functional assemblage of stream fishes. This was accomplished by aggregating fishes into habitat and reproductive guilds, relating community changes to habitat, environmental ...


Food Security Through Disaster Planning In Tanzania: How Agriculture-Based Disaster Preparedness Can Improve Food Security In Tanzania, Savannah A. Emerich Jan 2022

Food Security Through Disaster Planning In Tanzania: How Agriculture-Based Disaster Preparedness Can Improve Food Security In Tanzania, Savannah A. Emerich

Masters Theses

In Tanzania, half the population lives below the poverty line and suffers from food insecurity. Of the population, women and children primarily suffer from malnutrition due to food insecurity. For Tanzania, the problem is so severe that some women do not name their newborns for weeks or months due to their unlikely survival. This problem worsens for those who have a significant reliance on agriculture and live in the nation’s rural areas. These rural communities face more traumatic burdens when floods and droughts destroy crops, fields, and tools and ruin livelihoods. A solution has not been implemented thus far ...


Seasonality, Distribution, And Biological Control Of Crapemyrtle Bark Scale, A New Invasive Threat In Tennessee, Amira Cornish Dec 2021

Seasonality, Distribution, And Biological Control Of Crapemyrtle Bark Scale, A New Invasive Threat In Tennessee, Amira Cornish

Masters Theses

Crapemyrtle bark scale, Acanthococcus (= Eriococcus) lagerstroemiae (Kuwana), an invasive pest from Asia, is a threat in the United States. to crape myrtles grown in ornamental nurseries and in landscapes. Although mortality to crape myrtles is rare, its negative effects on aesthetics is considerable. It should affect the sale (valued at >$66 million wholesale) and use of crape myrtle in landscapes. This pest species has been found in numerous states, including Tennessee, where little is known about its state-wide distribution, lifecycle, biology, natural enemies, and impact on crape myrtles. The purpose of this two-year study is to gain additional knowledge to ...


Impacts Of Anthropogenic Change On Plant Reproduction And Fitness, Alexandra S. Faidiga Dec 2021

Impacts Of Anthropogenic Change On Plant Reproduction And Fitness, Alexandra S. Faidiga

Masters Theses

Humans are altering natural systems around the globe in myriad ways. For plant species, such anthropogenic changes have resulted in increasingly fragmented populations, desynchronized interactions with mutualists, and shifted geographic ranges, among other effects. However, despite numerous examples of human impacts on plant populations, the consequences of these changes on plant reproduction remain poorly understood. In my thesis, I investigate the impacts of two forms of anthropogenic change–habitat disturbance and climate warming–on plant reproduction and fitness. I take two distinct approaches to address questions posed at local and regional scales. In Chapter I, I ask how inbreeding depression ...


Feeding Behavior And Influence Of Hemp Varieties And Fertilization Rates On Damage Caused By Corn Earworm, Helicoverpa Zea, Julian Cosner Dec 2021

Feeding Behavior And Influence Of Hemp Varieties And Fertilization Rates On Damage Caused By Corn Earworm, Helicoverpa Zea, Julian Cosner

Masters Theses

Production of industrial hemp, Cannabis sativa L., has increased tremendously in the U.S. after its legalization through the Agricultural Improvement Act of 2018, known as the 2018 Farm Bill, which allowed commercial hemp production. By grower number, in 2020, Tennessee was the nation’s largest hemp program with over 1,800 producers licensed to grow up to 6,500 hectares (16,000 acres) according to the Tennessee Department of Agriculture. Though fiber and seed have a role in the industry, most growers (ca. 98%) concentrate on cannabidiol production because of the expected higher cash value potential per hectare. Introducing ...


The Flavoprotein Rcla Is A Hypothiocyanous Acid Reductase, Irina Chapman Dec 2021

The Flavoprotein Rcla Is A Hypothiocyanous Acid Reductase, Irina Chapman

Masters Theses

Reactive chlorine species (RCS) - hypochlorous acid (HOCl), hypothiocyanous acid (HOSCN), and chloramines - are powerful antimicrobial oxidants generated by the innate immune system. Bacteria developed defense mechanisms against RCS, which are highly toxic for invading pathogens. One such defense system involves RclA, an enzyme from the flavin disulfide reductase family, which is massively upregulated upon exposure of Escherichia coli to RCS. Recent research suggests that RclA functions as a Cu(II) reductase to provide resistance against RCS. However, the exact mechanism used by RclA was subject to debate. In this study, we demonstrate that RclA is unlikely to function as a ...


Relative Soybean Response To Aminocyclopyrachlor, 2,4-D, Dicamba, And Aminopyralid, Trey I. Clark Dec 2021

Relative Soybean Response To Aminocyclopyrachlor, 2,4-D, Dicamba, And Aminopyralid, Trey I. Clark

Masters Theses

This research compared the visual symptomology of four auxin herbicides applied at three rates to simulate tank contamination on non-auxin tolerant soybeans. The herbicides examined were aminocyclopyrachlor (ACP), 2,4-D, dicamba, and aminopyralid. The standard labeled rates (SLR) used to base the application rates were 0.12 kg ae ha-1 for ACP and aminopyralid while dicamba and 2,4-D used 1.12 kg ae ha-1. These four herbicides exhibit similar symptoms on soybeans which is problematic when diagnosing soybean response. One goal of this project was to obtain high-quality images of the four herbicide’s effect on soybeans ...


Pollinator Community Homogenization And Pollination Services In Agroecosystems, Devon S. Eldridge . Dec 2021

Pollinator Community Homogenization And Pollination Services In Agroecosystems, Devon S. Eldridge .

Masters Theses

Pollination, or the transfer of pollen to plant stigmas, is an essential part of plant reproduction. The term “pollination system” refers to the floral phenotype and pollinator of a given plant. Although angiosperms exhibit a variety of different pollination systems, most rely partially or completely on animals, particularly insects, to vector their pollen. In agricultural systems, understanding the pollination system of the crop species is necessary to produce an economically valuable yield. Moreover, agricultural management may affect pollination systems by altering the abundance, diversity, or function of the pollinator community. In natural ecosystems, there is a great diversity of pollinating ...


Growth, Browsing And Mortality In Mixed Oak And Pine Plantings, Heather Slayton Dec 2021

Growth, Browsing And Mortality In Mixed Oak And Pine Plantings, Heather Slayton

Masters Theses

The purpose of this project was to determine if different oak/pine arrangements elicited potential beneficial interactions that affected seedling growth, mortality and overall protection from deer browsing. Northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) and shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.) were planted together and alone in six different planting patterns and spacings, replicated over three blocks in recent clearcuts in east Tennessee, USA. Each block consisted of two monocultures planted at a 3.0 by 3.0 meter (m) spacing and four multi-cropped treatments planted at varying spatial arrangements (0.3 m, 1.0 m, 1.5 m, and 3 ...


The Factors Influencing The Leader’S Perceptions Of Success Of Dairy Cooperatives: The Case Of Cumbal Nariño’S Dairy Associations, Omar Efren Aza Fuelantala Dec 2021

The Factors Influencing The Leader’S Perceptions Of Success Of Dairy Cooperatives: The Case Of Cumbal Nariño’S Dairy Associations, Omar Efren Aza Fuelantala

Masters Theses

During the last few decades, Colombia’s dairy sector has been affected by economic, social, and political conditions, not only endangering it but also putting at risk the long-term sustainability of the dairy industry. To mitigate these conditions, the dairy farmers have joined cooperatives, which enabled them to gain some strategic advantages and reduce the adverse effects of the economic, political, and social conditions. This study evaluates the influence of economic, financial, membership, management and operational characteristics on the presidents’ perceptions of success of the dairy associations in Cumbal-Nariño. To accomplish this objective, we surveyed the presidents of dairy associations ...


Influence Of Physical Variability Of Highly Weathered Sedimentary Rock On Nitrate In Area 3 Of The Enigma Field Research Site At Y-12, Erin Kelly Dec 2021

Influence Of Physical Variability Of Highly Weathered Sedimentary Rock On Nitrate In Area 3 Of The Enigma Field Research Site At Y-12, Erin Kelly

Masters Theses

Uranium processing and waste storage in unlined waste ponds leached contaminants into the groundwater at Y-12, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, from the 1950s to 1980s. Groundwater wells near the S-3 ponds have had the highest nitrate concentrations of groundwater anywhere in the world (>10,000 mg/L). For reference, the maximum contaminant level for nitrate in drinking water set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is 10 mg/L. Since 2012, the ENIGMA (Ecosystems and Networks Integrated with Genes and Molecular Assemblies) group has been characterizing, monitoring, and conducting field experiments to understand the interactions between contaminants, microbes, and the ...


Metabolic Modeling Of Cystic Fibrosis Airway Microbiota From Patient Samples, Arsh Vyas Oct 2021

Metabolic Modeling Of Cystic Fibrosis Airway Microbiota From Patient Samples, Arsh Vyas

Masters Theses

Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disorder, found with higher prevalence in the Caucasian population, affecting > 30,000 individuals in the United States and > 70,000 worldwide. Due to the astoundingly high rate of mortality among CF patients being attributed to respiratory failure brought on by chronic bacterial infections and subsequent airway inflammation, there has been a lot of focus on systematically analyzing CF lung airway communities. While it is observed traditionally that Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the most threatening and persistent CF colonizer due to high antibiotic resistance, recent studies have elicited the roles of other pathogens and it has ...


Statistical Improvements For Ecological Learning About Spatial Processes, Gaetan L. Dupont Oct 2021

Statistical Improvements For Ecological Learning About Spatial Processes, Gaetan L. Dupont

Masters Theses

Ecological inquiry is rooted fundamentally in understanding population abundance, both to develop theory and improve conservation outcomes. Despite this importance, estimating abundance is difficult due to the imperfect detection of individuals in a sample population. Further, accounting for space can provide more biologically realistic inference, shifting the focus from abundance to density and encouraging the exploration of spatial processes. To address these challenges, Spatial Capture-Recapture (“SCR”) has emerged as the most prominent method for estimating density reliably. The SCR model is conceptually straightforward: it combines a spatial model of detection with a point process model of the spatial distribution of ...


The Time Course And Neuroanatomy Of Rhinophore Regeneration In The Nudibranch Berghia Stephanieae, Ani Maroyan Oct 2021

The Time Course And Neuroanatomy Of Rhinophore Regeneration In The Nudibranch Berghia Stephanieae, Ani Maroyan

Masters Theses

Within five weeks, the nudibranch, Berghia stephanieae (Gastropoda, Mollusca) can regenerate a severed rhinophore, the main olfactory appendage, such that it is indistinguishable from a non-lesioned rhinophore. The rhinophore is a 2 mm long stalk with lateral sides covered in ridges and the distal third covered in fluorescent pigmentation. Its internal morphology is dominated by longitudinal musculature, overlaid by a complex neuronal plexus, which contains neurons that express various neuroactive substances including serotonin and small cardioactive peptide (SCP). Two large nerves originate in the rhinophore ganglion at the base of the rhinophore and run the length of the rhinophore. To ...


Development Of A New Behavioral Assay For Juvenile Berghia Stephanieae, Kelly E. Fischer Oct 2021

Development Of A New Behavioral Assay For Juvenile Berghia Stephanieae, Kelly E. Fischer

Masters Theses

Developing robust behavioral assays to study olfactory-driven behaviors allows for greater insight into the neural mechanisms behind them. Oftentimes, olfactory behavioral assays require a two-choice design, consistent variables, and controlled stimulus application. This can be challenging when working with marine dwelling organisms such as nudibranchs. Extensive work shows the importance of olfaction in both pre-metamorphic larval development and adult stage nudibranchs (Gastropoda, Mollusca). However, there is little research investigating how olfaction plays a role in rapidly developing, post-metamorphic juvenile nudibranchs such as Berghia stephanieae. To study olfactory-associated behaviors in juvenile Berghia, a novel behavioral microfluidic chip was designed which met ...


The Role Of Low-Molecular Weight Fungal Metabolites In Eutypa Dieback Grapevine Trunk Disease, Dana Sebestyen Oct 2021

The Role Of Low-Molecular Weight Fungal Metabolites In Eutypa Dieback Grapevine Trunk Disease, Dana Sebestyen

Masters Theses

Eutypa dieback, one of several grapevine trunk diseases (GTDs), is of serious concern to the grape industry globally. This disease is caused by the fungus Eutypa lata but it is often seen in consortia growth with Phaeoacremonium minimum and Phaeomoniella chlamydospora. It is vital to understand the mechanisms for how this disease functions to develop control measures to combat it. Brown rot fungi are able to use a complex of low molecular weight (LMW) metabolites to induce a Fenton reaction to deconstruct woody tissue. These metabolites are part of a chelator mediated Fenton (CMF) chemistry that produces reactive oxygen species ...


Structure-Function Studies Of The Trypanosome Mitochondrial Replication Protein Polib, Raveen Armstrong Oct 2021

Structure-Function Studies Of The Trypanosome Mitochondrial Replication Protein Polib, Raveen Armstrong

Masters Theses

Trypanosoma brucei and related protists are distinguished from all other eukaryotes by an unusual mitochondrial genome known as kinetoplast DNA (kDNA) that is a catenated network composed of minicircles and maxicircles. Replication of this single nucleoid involves a release, replicate, and reattach mechanism for the thousands of catenated minicircles and requires at least three DNA polymerase (POLIB, POLIC and POLID) with similarity to E. coli DNA polymerase I. Like other proofreading replicative DNA polymerases, POLIB has both an annotated polymerase domain and an exonuclease domain. Predictive modelling of POLIB indicates that it has the canonical right hand polymerase structure with ...


Utilizing Fluorescence Microscopy To Characterize The Subcellular Distribution Of The Novel Protein Acheron, Varun Sheel Oct 2021

Utilizing Fluorescence Microscopy To Characterize The Subcellular Distribution Of The Novel Protein Acheron, Varun Sheel

Masters Theses

All cells carry the genetic machinery required to commit cell suicide; a process known as programmed cell death (PCD). While the ability to initiate PCD serves a number of useful purposes during development and homeostasis, misregulation of PCD is the underlying basis of most human diseases, including cancer, autoimmunity disorders and neurodegeneration. Using the tobacco hawkmoth Manduca sexta as a model organism, the Schwartz lab at UMass has demonstrated that PCD requires de novo gene expression and has cloned many death-associated genes. One of these genes encodes a novel protein that was named Acheron after one of the rivers of ...


Activation Of Nrf2 At Critical Windows Of Development Alters Protein S-Glutathionylation In The Zebrafish Embryo (Danio Rerio), Emily G. Severance Oct 2021

Activation Of Nrf2 At Critical Windows Of Development Alters Protein S-Glutathionylation In The Zebrafish Embryo (Danio Rerio), Emily G. Severance

Masters Theses

Perturbation of cellular redox homeostasis to a more oxidized state has been linked to adverse human health effects such as diabetes and cancer. However, the impact of altering the regulation of redox homeostasis during development is not fully understood. Specifically, this project investigates the role of the Nrf2 antioxidant response pathway and its effect on glutathione (GSH; cellular redox buffer) at critical windows of development. To explore this, we used zebrafish embryos (Danio rerio) as a model due to the function of GSH and the Nrf2 being conserved among vertebrates. We exposed zebrafish embryos to three Nrf2 activators: two antioxidant ...


Hsp70 Phosphorylation: A Case Study Of Serine Residues 385 And 400, Sashrika Saini Oct 2021

Hsp70 Phosphorylation: A Case Study Of Serine Residues 385 And 400, Sashrika Saini

Masters Theses

Molecular chaperones play a key role in maintaining a healthy cellular proteome by performing protein quality control. Heat shock protein 70s (Hsp70s) are a diverse class of evolutionarily conserved chaperones that interact with short hydrophobic sequences presented in unfolded proteins, promoting productive folding, and preventing proteins from aggregation. Most of the extensive research on chaperone examines mechanism, substrate promiscuity, and engagement with many co-chaperones. Only recently were chaperones recognized to be frequent targets of post-translational modifications (PTMs). Despite the recent rise in PTMs identified, the impact of these modifications on chaperone function, whether singular or in concert with other modifications ...


Exploring Knockdown Phenotypes And Interactions Between Atad3 Proteins In Arabidopsis Thaliana, Eli S. Gordon Oct 2021

Exploring Knockdown Phenotypes And Interactions Between Atad3 Proteins In Arabidopsis Thaliana, Eli S. Gordon

Masters Theses

Mitochondria are required for a diverse array of cellular functions and processes. ATAD3 (ATPase family AAA domain containing protein 3) proteins are newly discovered mitochondrial membrane proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana. Homologous to ATAD3A in metazoans, Co-Immunoprecipitation/Mass spectrometry and genomic analysis identified a four ATAD3A homologues in A. thaliana. The four A. thaliana proteins are referred to as ATAD3A1 (At3g03060), ATAD3A2 (At5g16930), ATAD3B1 (At2g18330), and ATAD3B2 (At4g36580). Studies in metazoans indicate that ATAD3A localizes to Mitochondria-ER contact sites and is involved in a variety of processes required for proper mitochondrial function, but ATAD3A proteins are poorly defined in plants. ATAD3A ...


Reproducibility Of Alkaline Inorganic Phosphate Quantification Using 31p-Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy At 3t, Alexs A. Matias Oct 2021

Reproducibility Of Alkaline Inorganic Phosphate Quantification Using 31p-Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy At 3t, Alexs A. Matias

Masters Theses

INTRODUCTION: The detection of a second inorganic phosphate (Pi) resonance, a possible marker of mitochondrial content in vivo, using phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P- MRS) at 3T is technically challenging, which may prevent its reproducible quantification. PURPOSE: To determine the reproducibility of resting alkaline inorganic phosphate (Pialk) measurement using 31P-MRS in human skeletal muscle at 3 tesla (T). METHODS: Resting 31P- MRS of the quadriceps muscles was acquired on two separate visits, within seven days, in 13 healthy, sedentary to moderately active young adults using a whole-body 3T MR system. Measurement variability related to coil position, shimming procedure, and spectral ...