Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Life Sciences Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 31 - 60 of 221

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Evaluation Of Standardized Ileal Digestible Tryptophan:Lysine Ratio On Growth Performance And Carcass Characteristics Of Finishing Pigs Fed With Or Without Ractopamine Hcl, J. Soto, M. D. Tokach, K. J. Touchette, S. S. Dritz, J. C. Woodworth, J. M. Derouchey, R. D. Goodband Jan 2017

Evaluation Of Standardized Ileal Digestible Tryptophan:Lysine Ratio On Growth Performance And Carcass Characteristics Of Finishing Pigs Fed With Or Without Ractopamine Hcl, J. Soto, M. D. Tokach, K. J. Touchette, S. S. Dritz, J. C. Woodworth, J. M. Derouchey, R. D. Goodband

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Previous research has shown that increasing the SID Trp:Lys ratio up to 24.5% in finishing pigs fed ractopamine HCl (RAC) improved ADG by 0.15 and 0.08 lb/d in comparison with ratios of 18 and 21%, respectively. The objective of the present experiment was to determine the effects of feeding higher SID Trp:Lys ratios with and without RAC on growth performance and carcass characteristics of finishing pigs. A total of 1,101 pigs (PIC 1050 × 327, initially 218.9 lb BW) was used in a 30-d experiment. Pens of 26 pigs were randomly assigned to ...


Effects Of Increasing Zinc, Using Zn Hydroxychloride, On Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics, And Economic Return Of Pigs Housed In A Commercial Environment, H. S. Cemin, J. C. Woodworth, M. D. Tokach, S. S. Dritz, J. M. Derouchey, R. D. Goodband Jan 2017

Effects Of Increasing Zinc, Using Zn Hydroxychloride, On Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics, And Economic Return Of Pigs Housed In A Commercial Environment, H. S. Cemin, J. C. Woodworth, M. D. Tokach, S. S. Dritz, J. M. Derouchey, R. D. Goodband

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

A total of 2,430 pigs (PIC 337 × 1050; initially 66.3 lb BW) were used in a 113-d growth trial to determine the effects of increasing Zn on growth performance and carcass characteristics of finishing pigs. Two barns were used for a total of 18 pens per treatment with 27 pigs per pen. Pigs were allotted by average initial BW and assigned to 1 of 5 dietary treatments consisting of 50, 87.5, 125, 162.5, or 200 ppm added Zn from Zn hydroxychloride (Intellibond Z, Micronutrients, Indianapolis, IN). Experimental diets were fed from d 0 to 113 in ...


Effect Of Chromium Propionate Level And Feeding Regimen On Finishing Pig Growth Performance And Carcass Characteristics, J. T. Gebhardt, J. C. Woodworth, M. D. Tokach, J. M. Derouchey, R. D. Goodband, H. S. Cemin, J. A. Loughmiller, S. S. Dritz Jan 2017

Effect Of Chromium Propionate Level And Feeding Regimen On Finishing Pig Growth Performance And Carcass Characteristics, J. T. Gebhardt, J. C. Woodworth, M. D. Tokach, J. M. Derouchey, R. D. Goodband, H. S. Cemin, J. A. Loughmiller, S. S. Dritz

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

A total of 1,206 pigs (PIC 359 × 1050; initial BW = 107.9 lb) were used in an 84-d study to evaluate the effects of added dietary chromium (Cr; KemTRACE chromium propionate, Kemin Industries Inc., Des Moines, IA) and feeding regimen on growth performance of finishing pigs housed under commercial conditions. Pigs were placed in mixed-gender pens (27 pigs per pen), blocked by BW, and randomly assigned to 1 of 3 dietary treatments (15 pens per treatment). Diets were corn-soybean meal-based with added dried distillers gains with solubles, and were fed in 4 phases. Treatments were: 1) control, no Cr ...


Effects Of Milk Feeding Strategies On Short- And Long-Term Productivity Of Holstein Cows, M. Garcia, S. R. Montgomery, L. Hulbert, B. Bradford Jan 2017

Effects Of Milk Feeding Strategies On Short- And Long-Term Productivity Of Holstein Cows, M. Garcia, S. R. Montgomery, L. Hulbert, B. Bradford

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

The objectives of this study were to determine the impacts of feeding preweaning heifers with a high protein milk replacer (MR) or a raw or pasteurized non-saleable milk (NSM) on preweaning and first lactation performance. Holstein heifers (n = 154) were blocked by birth date and weight (BW) and within block randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments: 1) MR (4% protein and 2.6% fat, liquid basis); 2) pasteurized NSM (PNSM, 3.6% protein and 4.1% fat, liquid basis); or 3) raw NSM (RNSM, 3.6% protein and 4.1% fat, liquid basis). Heifers in RNSM were fed raw ...


Acknowledgments Jan 2017

Acknowledgments

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Appreciation is expressed to the following organizations for their support of dairy teaching, research, and extension at Kansas State University during 2016-2017.


Full Report, B. Bradford Jan 2017

Full Report, B. Bradford

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Kansas State University is pleased to present the 2017 Dairy Research Report of Progress.


Steak Location Within The Semitendinosus Muscle Impacts Metmyoglobin Accumulation On Steaks During Retail Display, K. J. Phelps, T. G. O'Quinn, T. A. Houser, J. M. Gonzalez Jan 2017

Steak Location Within The Semitendinosus Muscle Impacts Metmyoglobin Accumulation On Steaks During Retail Display, K. J. Phelps, T. G. O'Quinn, T. A. Houser, J. M. Gonzalez

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Beef color is a major attribute consumers utilize to make purchasing decisions. It is estimated poor color shelf-life of beef steaks costs the meat industry more than $1 billion annually. Shelf-life color is influenced by a balance of two biochemical processes within steaks: metmyoglobin reducing ability and oxygen consumption. Steaks that exhibit a greater metmyoglobin reducing and a reduced oxygen consumption are typically characterized as more color stable. Characteristics of the muscle fiber or muscle cell are what determine the properties of a steak. Commonly, muscles with more oxidative fibers have an elevated oxygen consumption and reduced metmyoglobin reducing ability ...


Coarse Marbled Beef Is Juicier And More Flavorful Than Fine Or Medium Marbled Beef, K. R. Vierck, J. M. Gonzalez, T. A. Houser, E. A. Boyle, T. G. O'Quinn Jan 2017

Coarse Marbled Beef Is Juicier And More Flavorful Than Fine Or Medium Marbled Beef, K. R. Vierck, J. M. Gonzalez, T. A. Houser, E. A. Boyle, T. G. O'Quinn

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Beef palatability and eating experience is driven primarily by U.S. Department of Agriculture quality grade and marbling levels. Beef USDA quality grade consists of both marbling levels and maturity. Conventionally, marbling texture has not been a consideration of quality grades. Currently, only one study has assessed the effects of marbling texture on beef palatability. Despite this, preferences for fine or medium marbling exist with both packers and retailers, as approximately 75% of branded beef programs under the supervision of USDA-AMS require fine or medium textured marbling, which equates to losses of premiums for packers and producers (USDA, 2016). The ...


Liver Abscess Severity At Slaughter Does Not Affect Meat Tenderness And Sensory Attributes In Commercially Finished Beef Cattle Fed Without Tylosin Phosphate, E. J. Mccoy, T. G. O'Quinn, E. F. Schwandt, C. D. Reinhardt, D. U. Thomson Jan 2017

Liver Abscess Severity At Slaughter Does Not Affect Meat Tenderness And Sensory Attributes In Commercially Finished Beef Cattle Fed Without Tylosin Phosphate, E. J. Mccoy, T. G. O'Quinn, E. F. Schwandt, C. D. Reinhardt, D. U. Thomson

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Liver abscesses are a significant problem in the United States’ cattle feeding industry, costing the industry an estimated $15.9 million annually in liver condemnation, trim losses, and reduced carcass weights and quality grades. Recent reported incidence rates of liver abscesses at slaughter range from 10 to 20%. Liver abscess incidence may be influenced by a number of factors including: breed, gender, diet, days on feed, cattle type, season, and geographical location. Liver abscesses typically occur secondary to rumen insults caused by acidosis or rumenitis. It has been proposed that pathogens associated with liver abscess formation enter the blood stream ...


Comparison Of Two Organic Trace Mineral Supplements For Cows Grazing Tall Fescue, J. K. Farney Jan 2017

Comparison Of Two Organic Trace Mineral Supplements For Cows Grazing Tall Fescue, J. K. Farney

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of two sources of organic trace mineral and two sources of magnesium supplementation on cow performance of springcalving cows on K31 endophyte-infected fescue. The two treatments were organic trace minerals (zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), and manganese (Mn)) offered free choice as an amino-acid chelate with magnesium (Mg) as an amino acid chelate (CHEL) or organic trace mineral supplement with amino-acid complex with magnesium supplied as magnesium oxide (COMP). Mineral was offered free-choice beginning 30 days before breeding season on 4 ranches with 6 pastures per treatment (cows n = 203). Blood ...


Wheat Production, Gretchen Sassenrath, D. E. Shoup, R. Lollato Jan 2017

Wheat Production, Gretchen Sassenrath, D. E. Shoup, R. Lollato

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Wheat production in southeast Kansas is often limited due to high rainfall during the harvest. In some years, this high rainfall can exacerbate disease pressure, especially fungal infections. This study presents results from a test of fungicide applications to control Fusarium head blight (FHB) or scab in poor quality wheat.


Alternative Cropping Systems With Limited Irrigation, A. Schlegel Jan 2017

Alternative Cropping Systems With Limited Irrigation, A. Schlegel

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

A limited irrigation study involving four cropping systems and evaluating four crop rotations was initiated at the Southwest Research-Extension Center near Tribune, KS, in 2012. The cropping systems were two annual systems (continuous corn [C-C] and continuous grain sorghum [GS-GS]) and two 2-year systems (corn-grain sorghum [CGS]) and corn-winter wheat [C-W]). In 2016, corn yields were similar in all rotations, as were grain sorghum yields. This tended to agree with the 4-yr average yields, except for average grain sorghum yields being higher following corn than grain sorghum.


Palmer Amaranth (Amaranthus Palmeri) Suppression With Half Rates Of Dicamba And Atrazine With Increasing Sorghum (Sorghum Bicolor) Density And Nitrogen Rate, I. B. Cuvaca, R. Currie, A. J. Foster Jan 2017

Palmer Amaranth (Amaranthus Palmeri) Suppression With Half Rates Of Dicamba And Atrazine With Increasing Sorghum (Sorghum Bicolor) Density And Nitrogen Rate, I. B. Cuvaca, R. Currie, A. J. Foster

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Palmer amaranth (PA) competition can result in severe yield loss in grain sorghum. Increasing sorghum density and nutrient supply could promote early/rapid canopy closure and therefore reduce the amount of light that could otherwise penetrate the canopy and promote PA growth in sorghum. A study was conducted at the Southwest Research-Extension Center near Garden City, KS, to determine if PA could be suppressed with dicamba and atrazine applied as PRE at half rates combined with increasing sorghum density (60,000, 90,000, and 120,000 seeds/a), and nitrogen rate (0, 100, 200 lb/a). Preliminary results indicate that ...


Southwest Research-Extension Center, Kansas State University, Staff, Acknowledgments, R. Gillen Jan 2017

Southwest Research-Extension Center, Kansas State University, Staff, Acknowledgments, R. Gillen

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

2017 Southwest Research-Extension Center Faculty and Staff. Acknowledgments.


Cover Crop Effects On Corn In A Corn/Soybean Rotation, D. E. Shoup, I. A. Ciampitti, J. Kimball, Gretchen Sassenrath Jan 2017

Cover Crop Effects On Corn In A Corn/Soybean Rotation, D. E. Shoup, I. A. Ciampitti, J. Kimball, Gretchen Sassenrath

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

A research study was established in 2013 in a corn and soybean rotation with cover crops planted soon after each crop harvest. A variety of complex cover crop mixtures were evaluated ranging from single-specie to 7-specie mixtures. Cover crops were terminated in the spring prior to corn planting. Corn yield responded differently among the three years of the study. In general, 2014 and 2016 showed a similar trend of decreased corn yield as the complexity of cover crop specie mixtures increased. Significant corn yield losses ranged from 8.6 to 15.1 bu/a across all cover crop treatments in ...


Double Crop Soybean After Wheat, D. S. Hansel, J. Kimball, D. E. Shoup, I. A. Ciampitti Jan 2017

Double Crop Soybean After Wheat, D. S. Hansel, J. Kimball, D. E. Shoup, I. A. Ciampitti

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Two double crop (DC) soybean studies were conducted at Ottawa, KS, during the 2016 growing season. Soybean cultivar Asgrow 4232 (MG 4.2) was planted immediately after two different wheat harvest timings (Study 1: early-wheat harvest 18-20% seed moisture content, and Study 2: conventional-harvest, 13-14% seed moisture content). Seven treatments were evaluated in each of the soybean planting dates: 1) common practice, 2) no seed treatment (without seed fungicide + insecticide treatment), 3) non-stay green (without foliar fungicide + insecticide application), 4) high seeding rate (180,000 seeds per acre), 5) wide rows (30-inch row spacing), 6) nitrogen (N) fixation (without late ...


Winter Annual Grass Control In Winter Wheat, D. E. Peterson, C. Thompson, C. L. Minihan Jan 2017

Winter Annual Grass Control In Winter Wheat, D. E. Peterson, C. Thompson, C. L. Minihan

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Winter annual grasses can be difficult to manage in winter wheat. A field experiment was established near Manhattan, KS, in 2016 to evaluate various preemergence and postemergence herbicide treatments for control of downy brome, cheat, and feral rye. Most treatments were less effective for control of downy brome than cheat. Preemergence and fall postemergence treatments provided better downy brome control than spring postemergence treatments. All herbicide treatments evaluated provided excellent control of cheat, but postemergence treatments were slightly better than preemergence treatments. The only herbicide to control rye was Beyond, which provided better control when applied fall postemergence than spring ...


Kansas Field Research 2017, Kansas State University Jan 2017

Kansas Field Research 2017, Kansas State University

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports from research field locations.


Note About 50th Anniversary, R. D. Goodband Jan 2017

Note About 50th Anniversary, R. D. Goodband

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

This year marks the 50th Swine Industry Day and Report of Progress. We are deeply appreciative of the innovators who had the foresight to begin such a program of disseminating the latest swine research to the industry and the many people who have contributed along our 50-year history. K-State’s Swine Day is the oldest and longest-running swine day in the country. It provides us the opportunity to share the latest research with our K-State family, and could not have been done without the tremendous support of our producers, industry stakeholders, and students.


The Effects Of Feeding Benzoic Acid And Essential Oils On Sows And Litter Performance, M. T. Thayer, J. L. Nelssen, A. Langemeier, J. Morton, Z. Ou, J. R. Bergstrom Jan 2017

The Effects Of Feeding Benzoic Acid And Essential Oils On Sows And Litter Performance, M. T. Thayer, J. L. Nelssen, A. Langemeier, J. Morton, Z. Ou, J. R. Bergstrom

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

A total of 48 sows (DNA Line 200 × 400) and their progeny were used in this study to determine if feeding sows and/or piglets benzoic acid (VevoVitall, DSM Nutritional Products, Parsippany, NJ) paired with an essential oil blend (CRINA, DSM Nutritional Products, Parsippany, NJ) enhances sow and pig performance during lactation, piglet weight gain in the nursery, and survivability to market. For sow and preweaned piglet performance in the farrowing house, adding benzoic acid and an essential oil blend to the maternal diet did not affect (P > 0.05) litter performance or weaning weight of the piglets. Fecal swabbing ...


Irrigated Corn Response To Long-Term Nitrogen And Phosphorus Fertilization, A. Schlegel, H. D. Bond Jan 2017

Irrigated Corn Response To Long-Term Nitrogen And Phosphorus Fertilization, A. Schlegel, H. D. Bond

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Long-term research shows that phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) fertilizer must be applied to optimize the production of irrigated corn in western Kansas. In 2016, N applied alone increased yields by 85 bu/a, whereas P applied alone increased yields by only 12 bu/a. Nitrogen and P applied together increased yields up to 164 bu/a. This is 20 bu/a greater than the 10-year average, where N and P fertilization increased corn yields up to 144 bu/a. Application of 120 lb/a N (with the highest P rate) produced about 94% of maximum yield in 2016, which ...


Evaluation Of Trace Mineral Sources On Newly Arrived Stocker Cattle, C. S. Weibert, W. R. Hollenbeck, S. B. Laudert, J. D. Kubick, Dale Blasi Jan 2017

Evaluation Of Trace Mineral Sources On Newly Arrived Stocker Cattle, C. S. Weibert, W. R. Hollenbeck, S. B. Laudert, J. D. Kubick, Dale Blasi

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Light weight stocker calves experience variable degrees of physiological and psychological stressors as they are assembled from various marketing points and transported to their destination. Susceptibility to disease in young, long hauled calves is greatly enhanced and the consequence of sickness is a major cause for poor production outcomes. Enhanced nutritional trace mineral programs that contain zinc, copper, and manganese from organic or hydroxy sources may be more efficacious as a means of minimizing disease or realizing improved performance than the sulfate form of these respective trace minerals.


Rates Of Armezon Pro For Postemergence Weed Control In Fallow, R. Currie, P. Geier Jan 2017

Rates Of Armezon Pro For Postemergence Weed Control In Fallow, R. Currie, P. Geier

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

A study was initiated near Garden City, KS, in 2016, comparing the weed control of several tank mixes of Armezon in fallow. Control of kochia and Russian thistle generally increased as Armezon Pro (topramezone + dimethenamid) rates increased from 14 to 20 oz/a. Although these herbicides injured the weeds present, smaller weeds will need to be targeted for effective control. The population of kochia was too thick and the size of the weeds was too large to allow enough coverage for this product to work under the conditions of this trial. The level of tissue damage suggests that further testing ...


Route Of Mannheimia Haemolytica And Pasteurella Multocida Vaccine Administration Does Not Affect Health Or Performance Of Receiving Heifers, T. Spore, M. E. Corrigan, T. R. Parks, C. S. Weibert, M. L. Detray, W. R. Hollenbeck, R. N. Wahl, Dale Blasi Jan 2017

Route Of Mannheimia Haemolytica And Pasteurella Multocida Vaccine Administration Does Not Affect Health Or Performance Of Receiving Heifers, T. Spore, M. E. Corrigan, T. R. Parks, C. S. Weibert, M. L. Detray, W. R. Hollenbeck, R. N. Wahl, Dale Blasi

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Light weight stocker calves often experience health problems shortly after arrival to feeding facilities. Preventative health programs are routinely administered to calves upon arrival to reduce the incidence of Bovine Respiratory Disease. The major route of vaccine administration in cattle is via injection through either intramuscular or subcutaneous routes. Several products have been introduced that utilize the intranasal route of vaccine administration. There are several reasons why intranasal vaccine administration may be more beneficial: 1) Intranasal vaccine administration alleviates concerns that injections pose for Beef Quality Assurance programs. 2) Intranasal vaccine administration may be less stressful on the animal. 3 ...


Feeding Nucleotides With Corn Germ Meal Or Dried Corn Distillers Grains Does Not Promote Growth Performance Of Receiving And Growing Calves, M. L. Detray, S. P. Montgomery, E. Titgemeyer, A. E. Wertz-Lutz, Christopher Vahl, A. T. Schilling, W. R. Hollenbeck, Dale Blasi Jan 2017

Feeding Nucleotides With Corn Germ Meal Or Dried Corn Distillers Grains Does Not Promote Growth Performance Of Receiving And Growing Calves, M. L. Detray, S. P. Montgomery, E. Titgemeyer, A. E. Wertz-Lutz, Christopher Vahl, A. T. Schilling, W. R. Hollenbeck, Dale Blasi

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Corn germ meal is often used in swine and poultry diets, but very little information exists on the effects on beef cattle and on newly arrived stressed cattle. When formulating receiving and growing diets, calf health and stress are important factors to consider. Including nucleotides, an immune-boosting feed additive may aid in gastrointestinal health of an animal and furthermore improve growth performance. The objective of these experiments was to determine: 1) the effects of corn germ meal in comparison to dried corn distillers grains on growth performance and 2) the effects of nucleotides on growth performance, by receiving and growing ...


Supplemental Zinc Sulfate Interacts With Optaflexx In Feedlot Heifers, C. L. Van Bibber-Krueger, R. G. Amachawadi, H. M. Scott, J. M. Gonzalez, J. S. Drouillard Jan 2017

Supplemental Zinc Sulfate Interacts With Optaflexx In Feedlot Heifers, C. L. Van Bibber-Krueger, R. G. Amachawadi, H. M. Scott, J. M. Gonzalez, J. S. Drouillard

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Optaflexx is a beta-adrenergic agonist, and is fed to cattle during the final 28 to 42 days on feed to improve growth rate and feed efficiency. Beta-adrenergic agonists are repartitioning agents that stimulate muscle deposition at the expense of fat deposition. Zinc is a trace mineral element that functions as an important component of many enzyme systems, including those associated with nucleic acid synthesis and metabolism of proteins and carbohydrates, thus making it an essential nutrient for growth. The purpose of this study was to evaluate growth, carcass characteristics, and plasma urea nitrogen concentrations in finishing heifers supplemented with Optaflexx ...


Tenderness, Juiciness, And Flavor Contribute To The Overall Consumer Beef Eating Experience, L. N. Drey, T. G. O'Quinn Jan 2017

Tenderness, Juiciness, And Flavor Contribute To The Overall Consumer Beef Eating Experience, L. N. Drey, T. G. O'Quinn

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Overall beef palatability can be attributed to three primary traits, tenderness, juiciness, and flavor, as well as the interaction among these traits (Smith and Carpenter, 1974). Multiple authors have worked to identify which of these palatability traits contributes the most to overall eating satisfaction and have historically identified tenderness as the most important palatability trait (Savell et al., 1987; Miller et al., 1995a; Savell et al., 1999; Egan et al., 2001). Overall eating quality of beef steaks may excel at one or even two of these traits, yet fail to meet consumer eating expectations due to the unsatisfactory level of ...


Crop Production Summary, Southeast Kansas – 2016, Gretchen Sassenrath, L. Mengarelli, Jane Lingenfelser, X. Lin, D. E. Shoup Jan 2017

Crop Production Summary, Southeast Kansas – 2016, Gretchen Sassenrath, L. Mengarelli, Jane Lingenfelser, X. Lin, D. E. Shoup

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Crop production in southeast Kansas is summarized from variety trials and research plot experiments conducted at the Southeast Research and Extension Center fields in 2016.


Annual Summary Of Weather Data For Parsons, M. Knapp Jan 2017

Annual Summary Of Weather Data For Parsons, M. Knapp

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Annual Summary of Weather Data for Parsons, Kansas, 2016.


Searc Agricultural Research 2017, L. W. Lomas Jan 2017

Searc Agricultural Research 2017, L. W. Lomas

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Southeast Agricultural Research Center, Agricultural Research 2017. Topics include grazing and supplemental feed for beef cattle, forage, pasture, hay, grasses, legumes, tillage, fertilizer, corn, soybeans, wheat, and soil health and variability.