Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Life Sciences Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Journal of the Arkansas Academy of Science

Discipline
Keyword
Publication Year

Articles 1 - 30 of 1213

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Vertebrate Natural History Notes From Arkansas, 2017, R. Tumlison, C. T. Mcallister, H. W. Robison, M. B. Connior, D. B. Sasse, D. G. Cloutman, L. A. Durden, C. R. Bursey, T. J. Fayton, S. Schratz, M. Buckley Jan 2017

Vertebrate Natural History Notes From Arkansas, 2017, R. Tumlison, C. T. Mcallister, H. W. Robison, M. B. Connior, D. B. Sasse, D. G. Cloutman, L. A. Durden, C. R. Bursey, T. J. Fayton, S. Schratz, M. Buckley

Journal of the Arkansas Academy of Science

Because meaningful observations of natural history are not always part of larger studies, important pieces of information often are unreported. Small details, however, can fills gaps in understanding and also lead to interesting questions about ecological relationships or environmental change. We have compiled recent observations of foods, reproduction, record size, parasites, and distribution of 30 species of fishes, new records of distribution and parasites of 2 species of amphibians, and new records of distribution, parasites, reproduction and anomalies of 11 species of mammals.


An Annotated Checklist Of The Crayfishes (Decapoda: Cambaridae) Of Arkansas, Henry W. Robison, Keith A. Crandall, Chris T. Mcallister Jan 2017

An Annotated Checklist Of The Crayfishes (Decapoda: Cambaridae) Of Arkansas, Henry W. Robison, Keith A. Crandall, Chris T. Mcallister

Journal of the Arkansas Academy of Science

Prior to the present study, 56 species with 3 additional subspecies for a total of 59 different taxa of crayfishes were recognized from Arkansas. We add a single species (Carmel Crayfish, Fallicambarus schusteri) to that list, subtract a documented synonym (Procambarus ferrugenius = Procambarus liberorum), update the classification to better reflect recent phylogenetic insights, and provide an updated annotated checklist of the 59 crayfish taxa of presently known from the state. There are 8 endemic species in Arkansas, including the Bayou Bodcau Crayfish (Bouchardina robisoni), Boston Mountains Crayfish (Cambarus causeyi), Hell Creek Cave Crayfish (C. zophonastes), Jefferson County Crayfish (Creaserinus gilpini ...


Geographic Distribution Records Of Macracanthorhynchus Ingens (Archiacanthocephala: Oligacanthorhynchidae) From The Raccoon, Procyon Lotor In North America, Dennis J. Richardson, A. Leveille, A. V. Belsare, H. S. Al-Warid, M. E. Gompper Jan 2017

Geographic Distribution Records Of Macracanthorhynchus Ingens (Archiacanthocephala: Oligacanthorhynchidae) From The Raccoon, Procyon Lotor In North America, Dennis J. Richardson, A. Leveille, A. V. Belsare, H. S. Al-Warid, M. E. Gompper

Journal of the Arkansas Academy of Science

No abstract provided.


Distribution Of The Eastern Spotted Skunk, Spilogale Putorius, In The Early Twentieth Century, D. Blake Sasse Jan 2017

Distribution Of The Eastern Spotted Skunk, Spilogale Putorius, In The Early Twentieth Century, D. Blake Sasse

Journal of the Arkansas Academy of Science

No abstract provided.


Distribution, Habitat, And Life History Aspects Of The Shrimp Crayfish, Faxonius Lancifer (Hagen) (Decapoda: Cambaridae) In Arkansas, Henry W. Robison, Chris T. Mcallister, Renn Tumlison Jan 2017

Distribution, Habitat, And Life History Aspects Of The Shrimp Crayfish, Faxonius Lancifer (Hagen) (Decapoda: Cambaridae) In Arkansas, Henry W. Robison, Chris T. Mcallister, Renn Tumlison

Journal of the Arkansas Academy of Science

The Shrimp Crayfish, Faxonius (formerly Orconectes) lancifer (Hagen) is an uncommon, although widespread, crayfish in Arkansas. This species is herein documented from 19 counties of the Gulf Coastal Plain physiographic region. Between 1974 and 2017, we made 344 collections throughout the 75 counties of Arkansas, of which 22 (6%) yielded 163 specimens of F. lancifer. Thus, from these collections, plus 10 unpublished collections of Reimer (1963), and one collection from G.L. Harp, a total of 34 collections of F. lancifer are now known from the state. Faxonius lancifer ranged from uncommon (1 specimen) to locally abundant (39 specimens) at ...


Histology Of Rathke’S Glands In The Razor-Backed Musk Turtle, Sternotherus Carinatus (Chelonia: Kinosternidae), With Comments On Lamellar Bodies, S. E. Trauth Jan 2017

Histology Of Rathke’S Glands In The Razor-Backed Musk Turtle, Sternotherus Carinatus (Chelonia: Kinosternidae), With Comments On Lamellar Bodies, S. E. Trauth

Journal of the Arkansas Academy of Science

I examined the histology and ultrastructure of Rathke’s glands in two adult male razor-backed musk turtles (Sternotherus carinatus) collected in northeastern Arkansas. This species possesses two pairs of Rathke’s glands that are embedded beneath marginal bones and are named according to their anatomical location (i.e., axillary and inguinal). These integumentary glands are similar anatomically to one another. Each gland is comprised of a single, highly vascularized secretory lobule, which is surrounded by a thin tunic of asymmetrically arranged, striated muscle. Two types of large secretory vacuoles characterize most of the holocrine cells produced by a relatively thin ...


A Description Of Variation In Fecundity Between Two Populations Of Wolf Spider Rabidosa Rabida In Searcy Arkansas Using Brood Size Measurements, Brandon Hogland, Ryan Stork, Amber Hug Jan 2017

A Description Of Variation In Fecundity Between Two Populations Of Wolf Spider Rabidosa Rabida In Searcy Arkansas Using Brood Size Measurements, Brandon Hogland, Ryan Stork, Amber Hug

Journal of the Arkansas Academy of Science

Fecundity, a very important population variable, can be estimated by measuring the number of juveniles hatching out of individual egg sacs. Rabidosa rabida is a large wolf spider that is common in Arkansas and much of the eastern portion of North America. This study attempts to expand previous estimates of variation in fecundity made for this species by Reed and Nicholas in Mississippi. We hypothesized that a significant variation would be found in fecundity estimates between two populations in Arkansas. We also hypothesized that this variation would be similar to the variation reported in Mississippi. Two populations of R. rabida ...


A First Look At The Microbial Community Of Rabidosa Rabida, A Wolf Spider In Searcy, Arkansas, Patricia Rivera, Ryan Stork, Amber Hug Jan 2017

A First Look At The Microbial Community Of Rabidosa Rabida, A Wolf Spider In Searcy, Arkansas, Patricia Rivera, Ryan Stork, Amber Hug

Journal of the Arkansas Academy of Science

Many diverse animal models have been used to explore the interactions between host organisms and their microbiota. Increased understanding of microbe-host interactions could lead to improved healthcare and drug development. Spiders have venom, digestive fluid, and body fluid components that have been suggested to possess antimicrobial properties that could lead to new and interesting host-microbe interactions. While studies have been published on interactions between bacteria affecting the immune function and behavior of spiders, the spider microbiome has not been established to date. Excreta and body swabs were collected from Rabidosa rabida, a wolf spider typically found on tall grass or ...


Simulating Foodborne Pathogens In Poultry Production And Processing To Defend Against Intentional Contamination, S. Lankford, D. R. Thompson, S. C. Ricke Jan 2017

Simulating Foodborne Pathogens In Poultry Production And Processing To Defend Against Intentional Contamination, S. Lankford, D. R. Thompson, S. C. Ricke

Journal of the Arkansas Academy of Science

There is a lack of data in recent history of food terrorism attacks, and as such, it is difficult to predict its impact. The food supply industry is one of the most vulnerable industries for terrorist threats while the poultry industry is one of the largest food industries in the United States. A small food terrorism attack against a single poultry processing center has the potential to affect a much larger human population than its immediate consumers. In this work, the spread of foodborne pathogens is simulated in a poultry production and processing system to defend against intentional contamination. An ...


Long-Term Aquatic Invertebrate Monitoring At Buffalo National River, Arkansas, David E. Bowles, Janice A. Hinsey, Tyler Cribbs, Faron D. Usrey, Lloyd W. Morrison Jan 2017

Long-Term Aquatic Invertebrate Monitoring At Buffalo National River, Arkansas, David E. Bowles, Janice A. Hinsey, Tyler Cribbs, Faron D. Usrey, Lloyd W. Morrison

Journal of the Arkansas Academy of Science

Aquatic invertebrate community structure was used to assess long-term water quality integrity in the mainstem of the Buffalo National River, Arkansas from 2005 to 2013. Nine benthic invertebrate samples were collected from each of six sampling sites using a Slack-Surber sampler. The Stream Condition Index (SCI) developed for Ozark streams was used to assess integrity of the invertebrate communities. This index is calculated using taxa richness, EPT (Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera) Richness, Shannon’s Diversity Index, and Hilsenhoff Biotic Index (HBI). Sørensen’s similarity index was used to assess community similarity among sites, and scores were then analyzed using ascendant hierarchical ...


Bat Occupancy Estimates And Species Richness At Cache River National Wildlife Refuge, Samuel Schratz, Virginie Rolland, Jason Phillips, Richard Crossett, David Richardson, Thomas S. Risch Jan 2017

Bat Occupancy Estimates And Species Richness At Cache River National Wildlife Refuge, Samuel Schratz, Virginie Rolland, Jason Phillips, Richard Crossett, David Richardson, Thomas S. Risch

Journal of the Arkansas Academy of Science

Six bat species of special concern, threatened or endangered, may occur in one of Arkansas’ largest bottomland hardwood forests, the Cache River National Wildlife Refuge (CRNWR). However, inventory of bat species throughout the refuge has been lacking and management plans may not be adequate in promoting bat conservation. The objectives of this study were to inventory bat species in the CRNWR, and determine bat-habitat associations via occupancy estimates. From May–August 2014 and 2015, we mist-netted from sunset for 5 hours. We also deployed bioacoustic devices throughout 5 habitat types (cypress-tupelo [dominantly Taxodium distichum and Nyssa aquatica], emergent wetland, mature ...


Leech Parasitism Of The Gulf Coast Box Turtle, Terrapene Carolina Major (Testudines:Emydidae) In Mississippi, Usa, Dennis J. Richardson, C. I. Hammond, W. E. Moser, A. J. Heaton, C. T. Mcallister Jan 2017

Leech Parasitism Of The Gulf Coast Box Turtle, Terrapene Carolina Major (Testudines:Emydidae) In Mississippi, Usa, Dennis J. Richardson, C. I. Hammond, W. E. Moser, A. J. Heaton, C. T. Mcallister

Journal of the Arkansas Academy of Science

Ten leeches were collected from a Gulf Coast box turtle, Terrapene carolina major, found crossing a road in Gulfport, Harrison County, Mississippi, USA. Eight of the leeches were identified as Placobdella multilineata and 2 were identified as Helobdella europaea. This represents the second vouchered report of leeches from a box turtle. Helobdella europaea is reported for the first time associated with a turtle and for the second time from the New World.


Persistence Of Urban Stream Syndrome Effects From Point Source And Non-Point Source Pollutants, T. S. Wakefield Jan 2017

Persistence Of Urban Stream Syndrome Effects From Point Source And Non-Point Source Pollutants, T. S. Wakefield

Journal of the Arkansas Academy of Science

In a previous study, Sager Creek, a small 1st-3rd order stream in northwest Arkansas was shown to be negatively impacted by urban land usage within the watershed, producing a stream that exhibited several indicators of urban stream syndrome. This included (1) physical disturbances: increases in impervious surfaces in the watershed, dams built across the stream, and alteration of the natural stream flow through the construction of retaining walls, (2) chemical disturbances: increases in electrical conductivity (EC) and total dissolved solids (TDS) as well as elevated PO4 levels (3) and biological disturbances: low populations of pollution intolerant ...


Ecology Of Blanchard Springs Caverns, Ozark National Forest, Arkansas: 42 Years Later, C. J. Midden, S. K. Sasser, J. L. Grove Jan 2017

Ecology Of Blanchard Springs Caverns, Ozark National Forest, Arkansas: 42 Years Later, C. J. Midden, S. K. Sasser, J. L. Grove

Journal of the Arkansas Academy of Science

Interrelationships between subterranean and epigean environments affect dispersion and distribution of cave organisms among the macro and microhabitats. This study examined the environmental impact of 42 years of tourism and development in the two lower sections of Blanchard Springs Caverns found in Stone County, Arkansas; and contributes to a better understanding of the seasonal fluctuations of the abiotic and biotic parameters.

Temperature, water quality, and fauna data were collected. A new entrance, lighting, and approximately 12,500 visitors during the 12-month study had no observable effect on cavern temperatures. Stream water quality measurements were comparable to Grove’s 1974 study ...


Journal Of The Arkansas Academy Of Science- Volume 71 2017, Academy Editors Jan 2017

Journal Of The Arkansas Academy Of Science- Volume 71 2017, Academy Editors

Journal of the Arkansas Academy of Science

No abstract provided.


Local Scale Comparisons Of Avian And Woody Vegetation Communities Within Four Arkansas State Parks, Bennett P. Grooms, Rachael E. Urbanek Jan 2017

Local Scale Comparisons Of Avian And Woody Vegetation Communities Within Four Arkansas State Parks, Bennett P. Grooms, Rachael E. Urbanek

Journal of the Arkansas Academy of Science

Measuring the spatial distribution of biotic communities can provide useful data to wildlife managers on how and why species assemblages differ across a landscape. During 18 May – 7 August 2015, we conducted avian point counts and collected vegetation data in nested subplots at 4 Arkansas state parks. We then used a series of one-way ANOVAs and Kruskal-Wallis tests to examine differences in species richness, Simpson’s evenness, Simpson’s diversity, and Bray-Curtis similarity across the 4 parks. Mount Magazine State Park had the lowest avian evenness (F3,22 = 9.57 P = 0.003) and diversity (F3,22 = 17 ...


Phylogeography And Vicariant Separation Of Two River Darters, Percina Uranidea And Percina Vigil, From Rivers That Drain The North American Interior Highlands, T. Yamashita, J. M. Rigsby, J. Stoeckel Jan 2017

Phylogeography And Vicariant Separation Of Two River Darters, Percina Uranidea And Percina Vigil, From Rivers That Drain The North American Interior Highlands, T. Yamashita, J. M. Rigsby, J. Stoeckel

Journal of the Arkansas Academy of Science

The phylogeography and separation of two river darters, Percina uranidea and P. vigil were investigated through sequencing of the mitochondrial Cytochrome B and Cytochrome Oxidase genes. These molecular markers revealed the darters exhibit moderate genetic divergence between two large river drainage systems within the Mississippi River basin associated with the Interior Highlands of midwestern North America. An additional haplotype network analysis also supported these trends. Phylogenetic divergence dating indicated that population separation between the river systems occurred after recent Pleistocene glacial events rather than an early Pleistocene separation.


Coccidian Parasites (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) Of Arkansas Herpetofauna: A Summary With Two New State Records, Chris T. Mcallister, Dagmara Motriuk-Smith, Robert S. Seville, Matthew B. Connior, Stanley E. Trauth, Henry W. Robison Jan 2017

Coccidian Parasites (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) Of Arkansas Herpetofauna: A Summary With Two New State Records, Chris T. Mcallister, Dagmara Motriuk-Smith, Robert S. Seville, Matthew B. Connior, Stanley E. Trauth, Henry W. Robison

Journal of the Arkansas Academy of Science

Coccidian parasites (Protista: Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) commonly infect reptiles, and to a lesser degree, amphibians. The family Eimeriidae includes at least 18 genera and 3 of them, Caryospora, Eimeria, and Isospora have been reported previously from various Arkansas herpetofauna. Over the past 3 decades, our community collaborative effort has provided a great deal of information on these parasites found in amphibians and reptiles of Arkansas. Here, we provide a summary of all coccidians reported from herptiles of the state as well as provide 2 new state records for coccidians from non-native Mediterranean geckos, Hemidactylus turcicus.


Longitudinal Patterns In An Arkansas River Valley Stream: An Application Of The River Continuum Concept, A. A. Burgad, S. T. Clark, M. E. Furr, A. N. Lenard, M. E. Polett, C. D. Robinson, C. R. Sherwood, G. L. Spooner, S. J. Stoughton, S. R. Adams Jan 2017

Longitudinal Patterns In An Arkansas River Valley Stream: An Application Of The River Continuum Concept, A. A. Burgad, S. T. Clark, M. E. Furr, A. N. Lenard, M. E. Polett, C. D. Robinson, C. R. Sherwood, G. L. Spooner, S. J. Stoughton, S. R. Adams

Journal of the Arkansas Academy of Science

The River Continuum Concept (RCC) provides the framework for studying how lotic ecosystems vary from headwater streams to large rivers. The RCC was developed in streams in eastern deciduous forests of North America, but watershed characteristics and land uses differ across ecoregions, presenting unique opportunities to study how predictions of the RCC may differ across regions. Additionally, RCC predictions may vary due to the influence of fishes, but few studies have used fish taxa as a metric for evaluating predictions of the RCC. Our goal was to determine if RCC predictions for stream orders 1 through 5 were supported by ...


The Fishes Of Chadron Creek, Dawes County, Nebraska, Chris T. Mcallister, Michael B. Leite, Renn Tumlison Jan 2017

The Fishes Of Chadron Creek, Dawes County, Nebraska, Chris T. Mcallister, Michael B. Leite, Renn Tumlison

Journal of the Arkansas Academy of Science

This first modern comprehensive survey of fishes collected from Chadron Creek, Dawes County, Nebraska, documents collections made with a small seine and backpack electrofisher during November 2007 and February and March 2008. Chadron Creek’s fish community is of low diversity. The total of 3 collections at each of 9 stations along the length of Chadron Creek resulted in 254 individual fishes, which represented only 7 species within 4 families. Water quality parameters, including dissolved oxygen, pH, conductivity, total dissolved solids, temperature and fecal coliform counts indicate that Chadron Creek is a healthy stream capable of supporting a greater diversity ...


Bioassessment Of Four Karst Springs At Hobbs State Park – Conservation Area With A Focus On Diving Beetle (Dytiscidae: Hydroporinae) Species Of Concern, Scott Longing, L. A. Mack, Brian E. Haggard Jan 2017

Bioassessment Of Four Karst Springs At Hobbs State Park – Conservation Area With A Focus On Diving Beetle (Dytiscidae: Hydroporinae) Species Of Concern, Scott Longing, L. A. Mack, Brian E. Haggard

Journal of the Arkansas Academy of Science

Four springs were surveyed at Hobbs State Park-Conservation Area to provide an initial bioassessment and to determine occurrences of two endemic predaceous diving beetles of concern, Heterosternuta sulphuria and Sanfilippodytes sp. Habitat in the four spring runs were dominated by bedrock and gravel substrate with heavy accumulations of leaf litter. Thirty-three taxa representing 11 orders were collected from the four springs. Non-insect taxa included Oligochaeta, Physidae, and Isopoda, and predominant insect orders included Ephemeroptera, Coleoptera, Diptera, and Trichoptera. The total number of taxa across springs ranged from seven to 19, with total abundances ranging from 39 to 86 individuals. No ...


Central Nests Are Heavier And Have Larger Clutches Than Peripheral Nests In Cliff Swallow (Petrochelidon Pyrrohonota) Colonies, S. Osborne, D. R. Leasure, S. Huang, Ragupathy Kannan Jan 2017

Central Nests Are Heavier And Have Larger Clutches Than Peripheral Nests In Cliff Swallow (Petrochelidon Pyrrohonota) Colonies, S. Osborne, D. R. Leasure, S. Huang, Ragupathy Kannan

Journal of the Arkansas Academy of Science

No abstract provided.


Sun-Bathing By Greater Roadrunners – A Neglected Aspect Of Their Range Extension, Kimberly G. Smith, Joseph C. Neal, J. C. Reynolds Jan 2017

Sun-Bathing By Greater Roadrunners – A Neglected Aspect Of Their Range Extension, Kimberly G. Smith, Joseph C. Neal, J. C. Reynolds

Journal of the Arkansas Academy of Science

No abstract provided.


New Records Of Parasites (Apicomplexa, Nematoda, Acari, Anoplura) From Rodents In Arkansas, M. B. Connior, L. A. Durden, Chris T. Mcallister, R. S. Seville, C. R. Bursey, Henry W. Robison Jan 2017

New Records Of Parasites (Apicomplexa, Nematoda, Acari, Anoplura) From Rodents In Arkansas, M. B. Connior, L. A. Durden, Chris T. Mcallister, R. S. Seville, C. R. Bursey, Henry W. Robison

Journal of the Arkansas Academy of Science

No abstract provided.


Sex-Ratio Of Miridae (Hemiptera) Taken Via Uv Light-Traps In Arkansas, Usa., Stephen W. Chordas Iii, Renn Tumlison Jan 2017

Sex-Ratio Of Miridae (Hemiptera) Taken Via Uv Light-Traps In Arkansas, Usa., Stephen W. Chordas Iii, Renn Tumlison

Journal of the Arkansas Academy of Science

We determined the sex-ratio of 1,095 plant bugs (Hemiptera: Miridae) taken from 60 individual UV light-trap samples in Clark County, Arkansas over a two year period. We found that of the 21 taxa in which a sex-ratio determination could be made, 61.9% of them (13 of 21) contained a majority (over 50%) of males. Three taxa were exclusively represented by males, while two taxa were exclusively represented by females. Although taxa dependent, our data indicate that male mirids are, in general, more frequently encountered in UV light-traps. However, contrary to the notion that sparked this study (see herein ...


Anatomical Distribution Of Clinostomum Metacercariae In The Tissues Of Pond-Raised Channel Catfish (Ictaluris Puctatus), J. Singleton, James J. Daly Sr., K. Wagner Jan 2017

Anatomical Distribution Of Clinostomum Metacercariae In The Tissues Of Pond-Raised Channel Catfish (Ictaluris Puctatus), J. Singleton, James J. Daly Sr., K. Wagner

Journal of the Arkansas Academy of Science

No abstract provided.


Literature Record Checklist Of True Bugs (Hemiptera) For Arkansas, U.S.A., As Of 2018., Stephen W. Chordas Iii Jan 2017

Literature Record Checklist Of True Bugs (Hemiptera) For Arkansas, U.S.A., As Of 2018., Stephen W. Chordas Iii

Journal of the Arkansas Academy of Science

No abstract provided.


The Fleas (Arthropoda: Insecta: Siphonaptera) Of Arkansas, Chris T. Mcallister, Lance A. Durden, Henry W. Robison, Matthew B. Connior Jan 2017

The Fleas (Arthropoda: Insecta: Siphonaptera) Of Arkansas, Chris T. Mcallister, Lance A. Durden, Henry W. Robison, Matthew B. Connior

Journal of the Arkansas Academy of Science

Fleas (Insecta: Siphonaptera) are important ectoparasites of cats, dogs, other mammals (including humans), and birds, and are an important component of the biota of North America. In addition, they can be nuisance biters and serve as vectors or intermediate hosts of several flea-borne disease agents and parasites that negatively affect mammals and birds. In Arkansas, there have been no recent comprehensive summaries of fleas in the last 45+ years. Here, we provide a summary of the 29 species of fleas within 7 families that have been recorded from the state, update their taxonomy, and note their medical and veterinary importance.


Survey Of Rodents Within Arkansas Game And Fish Commission Wildlife Management Areas, M. B. Connior, C. Renn Tumlison, D. P. Holland, J. L. Hunt, L. A. Durden, D. Blake Sasse Jan 2017

Survey Of Rodents Within Arkansas Game And Fish Commission Wildlife Management Areas, M. B. Connior, C. Renn Tumlison, D. P. Holland, J. L. Hunt, L. A. Durden, D. Blake Sasse

Journal of the Arkansas Academy of Science

No abstract provided.


First Record Of The Opossum Shrimp, Mysis Diluviana (Crustacea: Mysida) From Arkansas, K. Schanke, H. W. Robison, N. J. Wentz, C. T. Mcallister Jan 2016

First Record Of The Opossum Shrimp, Mysis Diluviana (Crustacea: Mysida) From Arkansas, K. Schanke, H. W. Robison, N. J. Wentz, C. T. Mcallister

Journal of the Arkansas Academy of Science

No abstract provided.