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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Tolerance Of Bearded Vultures To Human Activities: Response To Comor Et Al. (2019), Olivier Duriez, Antoni Margalida, Luc Albert, Beatriz Arroyo, Virginie Couanon, Hélène Loustau, Martine Razin, Jean-Baptiste Mihoub Dec 2020

Tolerance Of Bearded Vultures To Human Activities: Response To Comor Et Al. (2019), Olivier Duriez, Antoni Margalida, Luc Albert, Beatriz Arroyo, Virginie Couanon, Hélène Loustau, Martine Razin, Jean-Baptiste Mihoub

Human–Wildlife Interactions

The bearded vulture (Gypaetus barbatus) is listed as vulnerable in Europe on the International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List because of population declines over multiple generations. Vulture population declines have been attributed to shooting, use of toxicants, and changes in land use, which have resulted in habitat degradation and increased anthropogenic disturbances. Concomitantly, conservation authorities have restricted practices deemed harmful to the species and have established protection buffers around occupied vulture breeding sites to mitigate the impacts of anthropogenic disturbances on breeding success. Comor et al. (2019) compared bearded vulture breeding success over 6 years within and outside ...


Modeling Migratory Nongame Birds: A Plea For Data, George M. Linz Dec 2020

Modeling Migratory Nongame Birds: A Plea For Data, George M. Linz

Human–Wildlife Interactions

The Bird Damage Management Conference held February 10–13, 2020 in Salt Lake City, Utah, USA provided a forum for professionals from across the United States to discuss and share management approaches, research strategies, policy, and messaging regarding the management of blackbirds (Icteridae), starlings (Sturnus vulgaris), corvids (Corvidae), and vultures (Cathartidae). Mathematical models were presented at the conference and subsequently discussed in a special issue of Human–Wildlife Interactions. Rapidly changing landscape variables point to the need for detailed systematic population monitoring programs with specific objectives. Nationwide periodic monitoring would provide data about changes not only in bird populations due ...


Nd2 As An Additional Genetic Marker To Improve Identification Of Diving Ducks Involved In Bird Strikes, Sarah A. M. Luttrell, Sergei Drovetski, Nor Faridah Dahlan, Damani Eubanks, Carla J. Dove Dec 2020

Nd2 As An Additional Genetic Marker To Improve Identification Of Diving Ducks Involved In Bird Strikes, Sarah A. M. Luttrell, Sergei Drovetski, Nor Faridah Dahlan, Damani Eubanks, Carla J. Dove

Human–Wildlife Interactions

Knowing the exact species of birds involved in damaging collisions with aircraft (bird strikes) is paramount to managing and preventing these types of human–wildlife conflicts. While a standard genetic marker, or DNA barcode (mitochondrial DNA gene cytochrome-c oxidase 1, or CO1), can reliably identify most avian species, this marker cannot distinguish among some closely related species. Diving ducks within the genus Aythya are an example of congeneric waterfowl involved in bird strikes where several species pairs cannot be reliably identified with the standard DNA barcode. Here, we describe methods for using an additional genetic marker (mitochondrial DNA gene ...


Black Vulture Conflict And Management In The United States: Damage Trends, Management Overview, And Research Needs, Bryan M. Kluever, Morgan B. Pfeiffer, Scott C. Barras, Brett G. Dunlap, Lee A. Humberg Dec 2020

Black Vulture Conflict And Management In The United States: Damage Trends, Management Overview, And Research Needs, Bryan M. Kluever, Morgan B. Pfeiffer, Scott C. Barras, Brett G. Dunlap, Lee A. Humberg

Human–Wildlife Interactions

Contrary to rapid declines of many vulture (Accipitridae, Cathartidea) species worldwide, black vulture (Coragyps atratus) populations are increasing and expanding their range in North America. Vultures exhibit complex behaviors and can adapt to any human-dominated landscape or land use. These traits, combined with population growth and range expansion, have contributed to increased human–vulture conflicts. Our goal was to summarize the current status and trends in human–black vulture conflicts (hereafter human–vulture conflicts), review available management strategies, identify knowledge gaps, and provide recommendations to enhance management and understanding of this species and the associated conflicts. We found human–vulture ...


One Step Closer To A Better Starling Trap, James R. Thiele Dec 2020

One Step Closer To A Better Starling Trap, James R. Thiele

Human–Wildlife Interactions

European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) are an invasive species in the United States that damage agriculture, personal property, and threaten human health and safety. The U.S. Department of Agriculture Wildlife Services provides technical support to mitigate damage by controlling starling populations at concentrated animal feeding operations, landfills, utilities, and urban areas. Wildlife Services uses DRC-1339, a registered toxicant, to reduce starling populations. Trapping can also be an effective tool but requires more time at a higher cost than DRC-1339. Trapping starlings, however, may be needed to provide a viable alternative to mitigate damage in areas where toxicant use may be ...


Movement Behavior Of Radio-Tagged European Starlings In Urban, Rural, And Exurban Landscapes, Page E. Klug, H. Jeffrey Homan Dec 2020

Movement Behavior Of Radio-Tagged European Starlings In Urban, Rural, And Exurban Landscapes, Page E. Klug, H. Jeffrey Homan

Human–Wildlife Interactions

Since their intentional introduction into the United States in the 1800s, European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) have become the fourth most common bird species and a nuisance bird pest in both urban and rural areas. Managers require better information about starling movement and habit-use patterns to effectively manage starling populations and the damage they cause. Thus, we revisited 6 radio-telemetry studies conducted during fall or winter between 2005 and 2010 to compare starling movements (n = 63 birds) and habitat use in 3 landscapes. Switching of roosting and foraging sites in habitat-sparse rural landscapes caused daytime (0900–1500 hours) radio fixes to ...


State Of Bird Damage Management, George M. Linz Dec 2020

State Of Bird Damage Management, George M. Linz

Human–Wildlife Interactions

This is the letter from George M. Linz, associate editor for the special issue on bird damage management in Human–Wildlife Interactions.


The Emerging Conflict Of Common Ravens Roosting On Electric Power Transmission Line Towers In Montana, Usa, Marco Restani, James S. Lueck Dec 2020

The Emerging Conflict Of Common Ravens Roosting On Electric Power Transmission Line Towers In Montana, Usa, Marco Restani, James S. Lueck

Human–Wildlife Interactions

Bird interactions with electric power lines can cause faults (e.g., disruption of electrical service). Faults on 500kV transmission lines in Montana, USA, which are integral to the Northwest USA power grid, became concerning during winter 2016–2017. In 2017 we found insulators contaminated with bird droppings and discovered a large nocturnal roost of common ravens (Corvus corax). To assess the potential magnitude of the impact of raven roosts on electric power transmission, we summarized fault data obtained from the Energy Management System and raven abundance data obtained from the Christmas Bird Count in central Montana from 2005 to 2020 ...


Special Topic: Raven Management, Peter S. Coates Dec 2020

Special Topic: Raven Management, Peter S. Coates

Human–Wildlife Interactions

This is the call for papers for the special issue on raven management.


Line Of Sight: Simulated Aerial Avian Predators Can Reduce Problematic Bird Flyovers Of Airfields, William O'Shea, Neil E. Coughlan, Thomas C. Kelly, Neil Mitham, Jeremy Nicholson Dec 2020

Line Of Sight: Simulated Aerial Avian Predators Can Reduce Problematic Bird Flyovers Of Airfields, William O'Shea, Neil E. Coughlan, Thomas C. Kelly, Neil Mitham, Jeremy Nicholson

Human–Wildlife Interactions

Collisions between birds and aircraft (bird strikes) are a serious threat to air safety and represent a substantial economic cost to the global aviation industry. In recent years, the frequency of wood pigeons (Columba palumbus) flying over active runways has increased at airports in Ireland. Here, we examine the effectiveness of imitation hawk-kites as a means of excluding wood pigeons from sensitive airfield locations. Over 2 years, during August and September, we conducted control (no kites deployed) and treatment trials (kites deployed) at Casement Aerodrome, an active airfield of approximately 320 ha in County Dublin, Ireland and on agricultural farmland ...


Supporting Farmer Adoption Of Sustainable Bird Management Strategies, Catherine A. Lindell Dec 2020

Supporting Farmer Adoption Of Sustainable Bird Management Strategies, Catherine A. Lindell

Human–Wildlife Interactions

Pest birds cause substantial and costly damage to crops. Managing birds is complex because (1) they are highly mobile, (2) they habituate quickly to many deterrents, (3) some species provide benefits to farmers by deterring and consuming pest insects, rodents, and other birds, and (4) birds are highly valued by many people. Thus, farmers have many issues to consider when developing bird management strategies. Here I discuss recent work indicating that farmer adoption of sustainable agricultural practices is more likely when practices are effective, clear guidelines for implementation are available, implementation is relatively easy, and when practices are linked, in ...


Cover, Editorial Staff, Journal Information Oct 2020

Cover, Editorial Staff, Journal Information

Human–Wildlife Interactions

This includes the cover, editorial staff, and journal information.


Table Of Contents Oct 2020

Table Of Contents

Human–Wildlife Interactions

This is the table of contents.


Intake Of Supplemental Deer Pellets Containing Ground Blueberry Juniper By Wild Pigs, Jessica L. Glasscock, Travis R. Whitney, David G. Hewitt, Susan M. Cooper, Fred C. Bryant, Christina M. Toenjes Oct 2020

Intake Of Supplemental Deer Pellets Containing Ground Blueberry Juniper By Wild Pigs, Jessica L. Glasscock, Travis R. Whitney, David G. Hewitt, Susan M. Cooper, Fred C. Bryant, Christina M. Toenjes

Human–Wildlife Interactions

Supplemental feeding of cervid species such as white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus; deer) is now a common management practice in the United States. Supplemental feeding can be costly and more expensive when supplements are consumed by non-target species such as wild pigs (Sus scrofa; pigs). From May 13 to June 17, 2015, we evaluated the effects of using ground blueberry juniper (Juniperus ashei) or cottonseed (Gossypium spp.) hulls as a roughage ingredient in a supplemental deer pellet to deter pig consumption at the Texas A&M AgriLife Research Center in San Angelo, Texas, USA. We analyzed dry matter intake, growth performance, in vitro digestibility and fermentation, and blood serum chemistry of pigs using a 2 × 2 factorial study design that included 3 feeding periods. Pigs were assigned to 1 of 4 supplement diets (n = 5 pigs/supplement) or to a commercially available swine diet (BASAL; n = 4 pigs). Animals assigned to supplement diets were also offered BASAL based on percentage of ...


When Pigs Virtually Fly, Jessica L. Tegt Oct 2020

When Pigs Virtually Fly, Jessica L. Tegt

Human–Wildlife Interactions

Planning for the 2020 Wild Pig Conference was well underway until March 10, 2020, when word was received that federal travel was placed on indefinite hiatus due to COVID-19. The National Wild Pig Task Force leadership and conference organizers took immediate action to cancel the conference and then later announced they would host the first totally virtual wildlife management conference. This Back Page article describes the shift to a fully virtual conference.


Monograph Reduced Box Price: Managing Human–Deer Conflicts Oct 2020

Monograph Reduced Box Price: Managing Human–Deer Conflicts

Human–Wildlife Interactions

Order form for HWI monograph, Methods for Managing Human–Deer Conflicts in Urban, Suburban, and Exurban Areas.


How Close Is Too Close To Wildlife?, Terry A. Messmer Oct 2020

How Close Is Too Close To Wildlife?, Terry A. Messmer

Human–Wildlife Interactions

This is the Letter from the Editor.


Spatial And Temporal Dynamics Of Human–Wildlife Conflicts In The Kenya Greater Tsavo Ecosystem, Joseph M. Mukeka, Joseph O. Ogutu, Erustus Kanga, Eivin Røskaft Oct 2020

Spatial And Temporal Dynamics Of Human–Wildlife Conflicts In The Kenya Greater Tsavo Ecosystem, Joseph M. Mukeka, Joseph O. Ogutu, Erustus Kanga, Eivin Røskaft

Human–Wildlife Interactions

Biodiversity conservation in developing countries is faced with many and mounting challenges, including increasing human–wildlife conflicts (HWCs). In Africa and other developing countries, increasing HWCs, particularly those adjacent to protected areas, can adversely affect local stakeholder perceptions and support for conservation. We analyzed HWC reports for multiple wildlife species compiled >23 years (1995–2017) from the Greater Tsavo Ecosystem (GTE) in Kenya to determine HWC trends. The GTE is the largest protected area in Kenya, covering 22,681 km2. Overall, 39,022 HWC incidents were reported in 6 GTE regions (i.e., Taveta, Mutomo, Kibwezi, Rombo, Galana, Bachuma ...


Follow Us On Social Media Oct 2020

Follow Us On Social Media

Human–Wildlife Interactions

How to follow HWI on social media.


Ecological Factors Influencing Wild Pig Damage To Planted Pine And Hardwood Seedlings, Micah P. Fern, James B. Armstrong, Rebecca J. Barlow, John S. Kush Sep 2020

Ecological Factors Influencing Wild Pig Damage To Planted Pine And Hardwood Seedlings, Micah P. Fern, James B. Armstrong, Rebecca J. Barlow, John S. Kush

Human–Wildlife Interactions

Expanding wild pig (Sus scrofa) populations across the southern United States has the potential to impact longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) restoration efforts. The depredation of planted pine seedlings is the most widespread and economically costly damage caused by wild pigs in forest plantations. A better understanding of the ecological factors affecting depredation rates will allow managers to implement best management practices to reduce seedling mortality from wild pigs at their most vulnerable stage of growth. From March 2016 to March 2017, we evaluated wild pig preferences for planted pine and hardwood species at a 34.4-ha cutover site and 4 ...


Assessing Vulture Translocation As A Management Tool To Mitigate Airport Bird Strikes, Weber Galvão Novaes, Tarcísio Lyra Dos Santos Abreu, Rafael Soave Guerta Sep 2020

Assessing Vulture Translocation As A Management Tool To Mitigate Airport Bird Strikes, Weber Galvão Novaes, Tarcísio Lyra Dos Santos Abreu, Rafael Soave Guerta

Human–Wildlife Interactions

Collisions between wildlife and aircraft are a major safety concern for international aviation. In the Americas, vultures (Cathartidae) are considered to be one of the most hazardous bird species to airport operations. In this study, we evaluated the use of translocations as a management technique to reduce vulture abundance near the Manaus International Airport (MAO), Manaus, Brazil. The MAO is one of the busiest and most strategically important airports in South America, often referred to as the gateway to the Brazilian Amazon. We captured, wing-tagged, and translocated 98 vultures between August and October 2013 and between January and April 2014 ...


Resource Use By American Black Bears In Suburbia: A Landholder Step Selection Approach, Farshid S. Ahrestani, Mark A. Ternent, Matthew J. Lovallo, W. David Walter Sep 2020

Resource Use By American Black Bears In Suburbia: A Landholder Step Selection Approach, Farshid S. Ahrestani, Mark A. Ternent, Matthew J. Lovallo, W. David Walter

Human–Wildlife Interactions

Range expansion of American black bears (Ursus americanus; bear) and residential development have increased the bear presence in suburbia. Suburban landscapes exhibiting patchworks of variable-sized parcels and habitats and owned by landowners with diverse values can create large areas of suitable habitats with limited public access. These landscapes may limit the effectiveness of hunting as a traditional bear population management tool. Managers require better information regarding landowner attitudes about hunting before implementing harvest regulations intended to mitigate conflicts in suburban areas. To address this need, in 2013, we surveyed landowners to identify properties that allowed bear hunting in 3 suburban ...


Distribution And Activity Patterns Of Large Carnivores And Their Implications For Human–Carnivore Conflict Management In Namibia, Summer Fink, Richard Chandler, Michael Chamberlain, Steven Castleberry, Shannon Glosenger-Thrasher Sep 2020

Distribution And Activity Patterns Of Large Carnivores And Their Implications For Human–Carnivore Conflict Management In Namibia, Summer Fink, Richard Chandler, Michael Chamberlain, Steven Castleberry, Shannon Glosenger-Thrasher

Human–Wildlife Interactions

Human–wildlife conflicts (HWCs) are increasing globally and contributing to the decline of wildlife species. In sub-Saharan African countries such as Namibia, most of the suitable land has been or is currently being converted to crop and livestock production to support income or subsistence agriculture. These changes in land use often incur increased levels of HWCs because of crop and livestock depredation by native species. To quantify livestock predation risks posed by carnivores in Namibia, we deployed 30 trail cameras on a 6,500-ha farm in the Khomas region of Namibia from May to July 2018. We developed occupancy models ...


Do Urban Red Foxes Attack People? An Exploratory Study And Review Of Incidents In Britain, Bethany Bridge, Stephen Harris Sep 2020

Do Urban Red Foxes Attack People? An Exploratory Study And Review Of Incidents In Britain, Bethany Bridge, Stephen Harris

Human–Wildlife Interactions

Human–wildlife interactions are believed to be increasing worldwide, and a number of studies have analyzed the risks posed by larger carnivores. However, people can also perceive smaller species of carnivores as threatening, particularly in urban areas. Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) started to colonize British cities in the 1930s, and there is growing public concern about foxes biting people, particularly babies. These events are generally described in the press as attacks and generate intense media coverage and speculation that foxes view human infants as potential prey. Because foxes rely primarily on auditory cues for hunting, we conducted acoustic playback experiments ...


Can Farmers And Bats Co-Exist? Farmer Attitudes, Knowledge, And Experiences With Bats In Belize, Hannah G. Shapiro, Adam S. Willcox, Mallory Tate, Emma V. Willcox Jan 2020

Can Farmers And Bats Co-Exist? Farmer Attitudes, Knowledge, And Experiences With Bats In Belize, Hannah G. Shapiro, Adam S. Willcox, Mallory Tate, Emma V. Willcox

Human–Wildlife Interactions

Bats (Chiroptera) are often viewed negatively by the public. Negative public perceptions of bats may hinder efforts to conserve declining populations. In Belize, the presence of vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus and Diphylla ecaudata) exacerbates the potential for conflicts with humans because of the increased rabies transmission risks. To mitigate these risks, the Belize government provides farmers with assistance to trap and remove vampire bats. In June 2018, we surveyed farmers (n = 44) in and adjacent to the Vaca Forest Reserve in Belize to learn more about their attitudes, knowledge, and experiences with bats. This information may provide new insights and ...


Cover, Editorial Staff, Journal Information Jan 2020

Cover, Editorial Staff, Journal Information

Human–Wildlife Interactions

This includes the cover, editorial staff, and journal information.


In The News, Jason Matthews, Joe N. Caudell Jan 2020

In The News, Jason Matthews, Joe N. Caudell

Human–Wildlife Interactions

Items in the news.


Remote Sensing Applications For Abating Aircraft–Bird Strike Risks In Southeast Brazil, Natalia S. Novoselova, Alexey A. Novoselov, Arthur Macarrão, Guilherme Gallo-Ortiz, Wesley Rodrigues Silva Jan 2020

Remote Sensing Applications For Abating Aircraft–Bird Strike Risks In Southeast Brazil, Natalia S. Novoselova, Alexey A. Novoselov, Arthur Macarrão, Guilherme Gallo-Ortiz, Wesley Rodrigues Silva

Human–Wildlife Interactions

The rising number of aircraft collisions with birds requires the development of appropriate mitigation measures to control their populations in the vicinity of airports. The black vulture (Coragyps atratus; vultures) is considered one of the most dangerous species for aviation in Brazil. To better understand the spatial distribution patterns of flying vultures and the risks they may pose to aviation, we studied natural and anthropogenic superficial factors and then numerically estimated and mapped the risk of collision with birds over the Airport Safety Area (ASA) for the Amarais Airport and Presidente Prudente Airport in the southeast part of Brazil. To ...


Talking Trash In The Big Apple: Mitigating Bird Strikes Near The North Shore Marine Transfer Station, Stephan J. Beffre, Brian E. Washburn Jan 2020

Talking Trash In The Big Apple: Mitigating Bird Strikes Near The North Shore Marine Transfer Station, Stephan J. Beffre, Brian E. Washburn

Human–Wildlife Interactions

Anthropogenic activities that concentrate wildlife near airports increases the risk of wildlife–aircraft collisions. Placing waste management facilities, natural areas, golf courses, and other landscape features near airports have the potential to attract wildlife hazardous to aviation. We conducted a 3-year study (March 2013–February 2016) to determine if the implementation of a Wildlife Hazard Mitigation Program (WHMP) would influence the bird use of a waste transfer station located near LaGuardia Airport, New York City, New York, USA. We conducted wildlife surveys during 3 phases: (1) no mitigation program and no waste transfer station, (2) active mitigation and no waste ...


Using Environmental Dna To Detect Estuarine Crocodiles, A Cryptic-Ambush Predator Of Humans, Alea Rose, Yusuke Fukuda, Hamish A. Campbell Jan 2020

Using Environmental Dna To Detect Estuarine Crocodiles, A Cryptic-Ambush Predator Of Humans, Alea Rose, Yusuke Fukuda, Hamish A. Campbell

Human–Wildlife Interactions

Negative human–wildlife interactions can be better managed by early detection of the wildlife species involved. However, many animals that pose a threat to humans are highly cryptic, and detecting their presence before the interaction occurs can be challenging. We describe a method whereby the presence of the estuarine crocodile (Crocodylus porosus), a cryptic and potentially dangerous predator of humans, was detected using traces of DNA shed into the water, known as environmental DNA (eDNA). The estuarine crocodile is present in waterways throughout southeast Asia and Oceania and has been responsible for >1,000 attacks upon humans in the past ...