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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Seascape Connectivity Of Gulf Sturgeon Acipenser Oxyrinchus Desotoi Population Units Across The Northern Gulf Of Mexico, Page E. Vick, Mark S. Peterson, William T. Slack Oct 2018

Seascape Connectivity Of Gulf Sturgeon Acipenser Oxyrinchus Desotoi Population Units Across The Northern Gulf Of Mexico, Page E. Vick, Mark S. Peterson, William T. Slack

Faculty Publications

Critical habitat was designated in 2003 for federally threatened anadromous Gulf sturgeon to aid in population recovery. This study examined overwintering Gulf sturgeon spatial use and movement through critical habitat monitored by the Ship Island acoustic array from 2011 to 2015. Previous studies observed western population Gulf sturgeon (Pearl and Pascagoula rivers) overwintering near the ends and within the passes of the barrier islands of the Mississippi Sound, USA. Recent telemetry studies detected eastern population fish (Escambia, Blackwater, Yellow, and Choctawhatchee rivers) overwintering as far west as Mobile Bay, Alabama; however, this study is the first to observe eastern population ...


Effects Of Coumaphos And Imidacloprid On Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Lifespan And Antioxidant Gene Regulations In Laboratory Experiments, Ales Gregorc, Mohamed Alburaki, Nicholas Rinderer, Blair Sampson, Patricia R. Knight, Shahid Karim, John Adamczyk Oct 2018

Effects Of Coumaphos And Imidacloprid On Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Lifespan And Antioxidant Gene Regulations In Laboratory Experiments, Ales Gregorc, Mohamed Alburaki, Nicholas Rinderer, Blair Sampson, Patricia R. Knight, Shahid Karim, John Adamczyk

Faculty Publications

The main objective of this study was to test comparatively the effects of two common insecticides on honey bee Apis mellifera worker’s lifespan, food consumption, mortality, and expression of antioxidant genes. Newly emerged worker bees were exposed to organophosphate insecticide coumaphos, a neonicotinoid imidacloprid, and their mixtures. Toxicity tests were conducted along with bee midgut immunohistological TUNEL analyses. RT-qPCR assessed the regulation of 10 bee antioxidant genes linked to pesticide toxicity. We tested coumaphos at 92,600 ppb concentration, in combination with 5 and 20 ppb imidacloprid. Coumaphos induced significantly higher bee mortality, which was associated with down regulation ...


Lipopolysaccharide‐Induced Inflammation Does Not Alter Muscle Spindle Afferent Mechanosensation Or Sensory Integration In The Spinal Cord Of Adult Mice, Dasha Zaytseva, Anusha Allawala, Joy Franco, Shea Putnam, Adam Abtahie, Nina Bubalo, Connor Criddle, Tuan Nguyen, Peter Nguyen, Shreejit Padmanabhan, Puneet Sanghera, Martina Bremer, Tzvia Abramson, Katherine A. Wilkinson Sep 2018

Lipopolysaccharide‐Induced Inflammation Does Not Alter Muscle Spindle Afferent Mechanosensation Or Sensory Integration In The Spinal Cord Of Adult Mice, Dasha Zaytseva, Anusha Allawala, Joy Franco, Shea Putnam, Adam Abtahie, Nina Bubalo, Connor Criddle, Tuan Nguyen, Peter Nguyen, Shreejit Padmanabhan, Puneet Sanghera, Martina Bremer, Tzvia Abramson, Katherine A. Wilkinson

Faculty Publications

Inflammation is known to alter nervous system function, but its effect on muscle spindle afferent mechanosensation and sensory integration in the spinal cord has not been well studied. We tested the hypothesis that systemic inflammation induced by an intraperitoneal injection of the endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 7.5 × 105 endotoxin units/kg 18 h before experiment) would alter muscle spindle afferent mechanosensation and spinal cord excitability to Group Ia input in male and female adult C57Bl/6 mice. LPS injection caused a systemic immune response, evidenced by decreased white blood cell, monocyte, and lymphocyte concentrations in the blood, increased blood granulocyte ...


The Tick Endosymbiont Candidatus Midichloria Mitochondrii And Selenoproteins Are Essential For The Growth Of Rickettsia Parkeri In The Gulf Coast Tick Vector, Khemraj Budachetri, Deepak Kumar, Gary Crispell, Christine Beck, Gregory Dasch, Shahid Karim Aug 2018

The Tick Endosymbiont Candidatus Midichloria Mitochondrii And Selenoproteins Are Essential For The Growth Of Rickettsia Parkeri In The Gulf Coast Tick Vector, Khemraj Budachetri, Deepak Kumar, Gary Crispell, Christine Beck, Gregory Dasch, Shahid Karim

Faculty Publications

Background

Pathogen colonization inside tick tissues is a significant aspect of the overall competence of a vector. Amblyomma maculatum is a competent vector of the spotted fever group rickettsiae, Rickettsia parkeri. When R. parkeri colonizes its tick host, it has the opportunity to dynamically interact with not just its host but with the endosymbionts living within it, and this enables it to modulate the tick’s defenses by regulating tick gene expression. The microbiome in A. maculatum is dominated by two endosymbiont microbes: a Francisella-like endosymbiont (FLE) and CandidatusMidichloria mitochondrii (CMM). A range of selenium-containing proteins (selenoproteins) in ...


The Gut Microbiome And Aquatic Toxicology: An Emerging Concept For Environmental Health, Ondrej Adamovsky, Amanda Buerger, Alexis M. Wormington, Naomi Ector, Robert J. Griffitt, Joseph H. Bisesi Jr., Christopher J. Martyniuk Aug 2018

The Gut Microbiome And Aquatic Toxicology: An Emerging Concept For Environmental Health, Ondrej Adamovsky, Amanda Buerger, Alexis M. Wormington, Naomi Ector, Robert J. Griffitt, Joseph H. Bisesi Jr., Christopher J. Martyniuk

Faculty Publications

The microbiome plays an essential role in the health and onset of diseases in all animals, including humans. The microbiome has emerged as a central theme in environmental toxicology, as microbes interact with the host immune system in addition to its role in chemical detoxification. Pathophysiological changes in the gastrointestinal tissue caused by ingested chemicals, and metabolites generated from microbial biodegradation, can lead to systemic adverse effects. This critical review dissects what we know about the impacts of environmental contaminants on the microbiome of aquatic species, with special emphasis on the gut microbiome. We highlight some of the known major ...


Congenital Zika Virus Infection In Immunocompetent Mice Causes Postnatal Growth Impediment And Neurobehavioral Deficits, Fengwei Bai, Amber Paul, Dhiraj Acharya, Biswas Neupane, E.A. Thompson, Gabriel Gonzalez-Fernandez, Katherine Copeland, Melanae Garrett, Haibei Liu, Mariper Lopez, Matthew De Cruz, Alex S. Flynt, Jun Liao, Yan-Lin Guo, Federico Gonzalez-Fernandez, Parminder Vig Aug 2018

Congenital Zika Virus Infection In Immunocompetent Mice Causes Postnatal Growth Impediment And Neurobehavioral Deficits, Fengwei Bai, Amber Paul, Dhiraj Acharya, Biswas Neupane, E.A. Thompson, Gabriel Gonzalez-Fernandez, Katherine Copeland, Melanae Garrett, Haibei Liu, Mariper Lopez, Matthew De Cruz, Alex S. Flynt, Jun Liao, Yan-Lin Guo, Federico Gonzalez-Fernandez, Parminder Vig

Faculty Publications

A small percentage of babies born to Zika virus (ZIKV)-infected mothers manifest severe defects at birth, including microcephaly. Among those who appeared healthy at birth, there are increasing reports of postnatal growth or developmental defects. However, the impact of congenital ZIKV infection in postnatal development is poorly understood. Here, we report that a mild congenital ZIKV-infection in pups born to immunocompetent pregnant mice did not display apparent defects at birth, but manifested postnatal growth impediments and neurobehavioral deficits, which include reduced locomotor and cognitive deficits that persisted into adulthood. We found that the brains of these pups were smaller ...


Physiological Responses Of Species To Microclimate Help Explain Population Dynamics Along Succession In A Tropical Dry Forest Of Yucatan, Mexico, Paula C. Jackson, José Luis Andrade, Casandra Reyes-García, Olivia Hernández-González, Thomas C. Mcelroy, Roberth Us-Santamaría, José Luis Simá, Juan Manuel Dupuy Jul 2018

Physiological Responses Of Species To Microclimate Help Explain Population Dynamics Along Succession In A Tropical Dry Forest Of Yucatan, Mexico, Paula C. Jackson, José Luis Andrade, Casandra Reyes-García, Olivia Hernández-González, Thomas C. Mcelroy, Roberth Us-Santamaría, José Luis Simá, Juan Manuel Dupuy

Faculty Publications

We investigated relationships between population dynamics and microclimate, physiology, and the degree of mycorrhizal colonization, for three species (Piscidia piscipula L.(Sarg.)) (Fabaceae), Bunchosia swartzianaGriseb. (Malpighiaceae) and Psidium sartorianum (Bergius) Nied. (Myrtaceae)) of a tropical sub deciduous forest in Yucatan, Mexico that were growing in plots of different successional ages. We hypothesized that abundance and persistence were related to increased plasticity in CO2assimilation. We found that Piscidia piscipula had greater abundance in intermediate plots (18 to 21 years), presented higher levels of plasticity in CO2 assimilation (greater variability among individuals, plots, and seasons), presented the highest CO2 assimilation rates, and ...


Plasticity Of Foraging Behaviors In Response To Diverse Environmental Conditions, Morgan Gilmour, José Castillo‐Guerrero, Abram Fleishman, Salvador Hernández‐Vázquez, Hillary Young, Scott Shaffer Jul 2018

Plasticity Of Foraging Behaviors In Response To Diverse Environmental Conditions, Morgan Gilmour, José Castillo‐Guerrero, Abram Fleishman, Salvador Hernández‐Vázquez, Hillary Young, Scott Shaffer

Faculty Publications

Due to rapidly changing global environmental conditions, many animals are now experiencing concurrent changes in both resource availability and the foraging cues associated with finding those resources. By employing flexible, plastic foraging strategies that use different types of environmental foraging cues, animals could adapt to these novel future environments. To evaluate the extent to which such flexibility and plasticity exist, we analyzed a large dataset of a clade (Sulidae; the boobies) of widespread aerial tropical predators that feed in highly variable marine habitats. These surface foragers are typical of many ocean predators that face dynamic and patchy foraging environments and ...


Combined Effects Of Deepwater Horizon Crude Oil And Environmental Stressors On Fundulus Grandis Embryos, Maria L. Rodgers, Elizabeth R. Jones, Christopher Klinkhamer, Cecon T. Mahapatra, Jennifer Serafin, Thijs Bosker, Chris Perkins, Robert J. Griffitt, Sylvain De Guise, Maria S. Sepúlveda Jul 2018

Combined Effects Of Deepwater Horizon Crude Oil And Environmental Stressors On Fundulus Grandis Embryos, Maria L. Rodgers, Elizabeth R. Jones, Christopher Klinkhamer, Cecon T. Mahapatra, Jennifer Serafin, Thijs Bosker, Chris Perkins, Robert J. Griffitt, Sylvain De Guise, Maria S. Sepúlveda

Faculty Publications

In the present study, we examined how sensitivity to oil changes in combination with environmental stressors in Fundulus grandis embryos. We exposed embryos (fertilization) to a range of high‐energy water accommodated fraction (HEWAF) concentrations (0–50 parts per billion [ppb] total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons [PAHs]) made from Macondo crude oil in conjunction with various environmental conditions (temperature: 20 and 30 °C; salinity: 3, 7, and 30 practical salinity units [PSU]; and dissolved oxygen: 2 and 6 mg/L). Endpoints included mortality, hatching rates, and expression of cytochrome p450 1a and 1c (cyp1a, cyp1c) in hatched larvae. There was 100 ...


Seasonal Patterns In Phytoplankton Biomass Across The Northern And Deep Gulf Of Mexico: A Numerical Model Study, Fabian A. Gomez, Sang-Ki Lee, Yanyun Liu, Frank J. Hernandez Jr., Frank E. Muller-Karger, John T. Lamkin Jun 2018

Seasonal Patterns In Phytoplankton Biomass Across The Northern And Deep Gulf Of Mexico: A Numerical Model Study, Fabian A. Gomez, Sang-Ki Lee, Yanyun Liu, Frank J. Hernandez Jr., Frank E. Muller-Karger, John T. Lamkin

Faculty Publications

Biogeochemical models that simulate realistic lower-trophic-level dynamics, including the representation of main phytoplankton and zooplankton functional groups, are valuable tools for improving our understanding of natural and anthropogenic disturbances in marine ecosystems. Pre- vious three-dimensional biogeochemical modeling studies in the northern and deep Gulf of Mexico (GoM) have used only one phytoplankton and one zooplankton type. To advance our modeling capability of the GoM ecosystem and to investigate the dominant spatial and seasonal patterns of phytoplank- ton biomass, we configured a 13-component biogeochemical model that explicitly represents nanophytoplankton, diatoms, micro-, and mesozooplankton. Our model outputs compare reasonably well with observed ...


Stability, Persistence And Habitat Associations Of The Pearl Darter Percina Aurora In The Pascagoula River System, Southeastern Usa, Scott R. Clark, William T. Slack, Brian Kreiser, Jacob F. Schaefer, Mark A. Dugo Jun 2018

Stability, Persistence And Habitat Associations Of The Pearl Darter Percina Aurora In The Pascagoula River System, Southeastern Usa, Scott R. Clark, William T. Slack, Brian Kreiser, Jacob F. Schaefer, Mark A. Dugo

Faculty Publications

The southeastern United States represents one of the richest collections of aquatic biodiversity worldwide; however, many of these taxa are under an increasing threat of imperilment, local extirpation, or extinction. The pearl darter Percina aurora is a small-bodied freshwater fish endemic to the Pearl and Pascagoula river systems of Mississippi and Louisiana (USA). The last collected specimen from the Pearl River drainage was taken in 1973, and it now appears that populations in this system are likely extirpated. This reduced the historical range of this species by approximately 50%, ultimately resulting in federal protection under the US Endangered Species Act ...


Exposure To Crude Oil And Chemical Dispersant May Impact Marine Microbial Biofilm Composition And Steel Corrosion, Jennifer Salerno, Brenda Little, Jason Lee, Leila J. Hamdan Jun 2018

Exposure To Crude Oil And Chemical Dispersant May Impact Marine Microbial Biofilm Composition And Steel Corrosion, Jennifer Salerno, Brenda Little, Jason Lee, Leila J. Hamdan

Faculty Publications

The release of hydrocarbons and chemical dispersant in marine environments may disrupt benthic ecosystems, including artificial reefs, formed by historic steel shipwrecks, and their associated organisms. Experiments were performed to determine the impacts of crude oil, dispersed crude oil, and dispersant on the community structure and function of microorganisms in seawater (SW) and biofilms formed on carbon steel, a common ship hull construction material. Steel corrosion was also monitored to illustrate how oil spills may impact preservation of steel shipwrecks. Microcosms were filled with seawater (SW) and incubated at 4°C. Carbon steel disks (CSDs) were placed in each tank ...


Variation In Mating Dynamics Across Five Species Of Leiobunine Harvestmen (Arachnida: Opliones), Kasey D. Fowler-Finn, Sarah L. Boyer, Raine Ikagawa, Timothy Jeffries, Penelope C. Kahn, Eva M. Larsen, Daniel Lee, Morgan Smeester Jun 2018

Variation In Mating Dynamics Across Five Species Of Leiobunine Harvestmen (Arachnida: Opliones), Kasey D. Fowler-Finn, Sarah L. Boyer, Raine Ikagawa, Timothy Jeffries, Penelope C. Kahn, Eva M. Larsen, Daniel Lee, Morgan Smeester

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Nuptial Gift Chemistry Reveals Convergent Evolution Correlated With Antagonism In Mating Systems Of Harvestmen (Arachnida, Opiliones), Penelope C. Kahn, Dennis D. Cao, Mercedes Burns, Sarah L. Boyer Jun 2018

Nuptial Gift Chemistry Reveals Convergent Evolution Correlated With Antagonism In Mating Systems Of Harvestmen (Arachnida, Opiliones), Penelope C. Kahn, Dennis D. Cao, Mercedes Burns, Sarah L. Boyer

Faculty Publications

Nuptial gifts are material donations given from male to female before or during copulation and are subject to sexual selection in a wide variety of taxa. The harvestman genus Leiobunum has emerged as a model system for understanding the evolution of reproductive morphology and behavior, as transitions between solicitous and antagonistic modes of courtship have occurred multiple times within the lineage and are correlated with convergence in genital morphology. We analyzed the free amino acid content of nuptial gift secretions from five species of Leiobunum using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Multivariate analysis of the free amino acid profiles revealed that ...


The Receptor Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase Clr-1 Is Required For Synaptic Partner Recognition, Aruna Varshney, Kelli Benedetti, Katherine Watters, Raakhee Shankar, David Tatarakis, Doris Coto Villa, Khristina Magallanes, Venia Agenor, William Wung, Fatima Farah, Nebat Ali, Nghi Le, Jacqueline Pyle, Amber Farooqi, Zanett Kieu, Martina Bremer, Miri Vanhoven May 2018

The Receptor Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase Clr-1 Is Required For Synaptic Partner Recognition, Aruna Varshney, Kelli Benedetti, Katherine Watters, Raakhee Shankar, David Tatarakis, Doris Coto Villa, Khristina Magallanes, Venia Agenor, William Wung, Fatima Farah, Nebat Ali, Nghi Le, Jacqueline Pyle, Amber Farooqi, Zanett Kieu, Martina Bremer, Miri Vanhoven

Faculty Publications

During neural circuit formation, most axons are guided to complex environments, coming into contact with multiple potential synaptic partners. However, it is critical that they recognize specific neurons with which to form synapses. Here, we utilize the split GFP-based marker Neuroligin-1 GFP Reconstitution Across Synaptic Partners (NLG-1 GRASP) to visualize specific synapses in live animals, and a circuit-specific behavioral assay to probe circuit function. We demonstrate that the receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase (RPTP) clr-1 is necessary for synaptic partner recognition (SPR) between the PHB sensory neurons and the AVA interneurons in C. elegans. Mutations in clr-1/RPTP result in reduced ...


Physical Processes Dictate Early Biogeochemical Dynamics Of Soil Pyrogenic Organic Matter In A Subtropical Forest Ecosystem, Jason Stuart, Russell Anderson, Patrick Lazzarino, Kevin A. Kuehn, Omar R. Harvey May 2018

Physical Processes Dictate Early Biogeochemical Dynamics Of Soil Pyrogenic Organic Matter In A Subtropical Forest Ecosystem, Jason Stuart, Russell Anderson, Patrick Lazzarino, Kevin A. Kuehn, Omar R. Harvey

Faculty Publications

Quantifying links between pyOM dynamics, environmental factors and processes is central to predicting ecosystem function and response to future perturbations. In this study, changes in carbon (TC), nitrogen (TN), pH, and relative recalcitrance (R50) for pineand cordgrass-derived pyOM were measured at 3–6 weeks intervals throughout the first year of burial in the soil. Objectives were to (1) identify key environmental factors and processes driving early-stage pyOM dynamics, and (2) develop quantitative relationships between environmental factors and observed changes in pyOM properties. The study was conducted in sandy soils of a forested ecosystem within the Longleaf pine range of the ...


Diet Induced Obesity Alters Muscle Spindle Afferent Function In Adult Mice, Lubayna Elahi, Krystle Shamai, Adam Abtahie, Adam Cai, Shreejit Padmanabhan, Martina Bremer, Katherine A. Wilkinson May 2018

Diet Induced Obesity Alters Muscle Spindle Afferent Function In Adult Mice, Lubayna Elahi, Krystle Shamai, Adam Abtahie, Adam Cai, Shreejit Padmanabhan, Martina Bremer, Katherine A. Wilkinson

Faculty Publications

Populations with obesity are more likely to fall and exhibit balance instability. The reason for this is likely multifactorial, but there is some evidence that sensory function is impaired during obesity. We tested the hypothesis that muscle proprioceptor function is compromised in a mouse model of diet induced obesity. An in vitro muscle-nerve preparation was used to record muscle spindle afferent responses to physiological stretch and sinusoidal vibration. We compared the responses of C57/Bl6 male and female mice on a control diet (10% kcal fat) with those eating a high fat diet (HFD; 60% kcal fat) for 10 weeks ...


Transdisciplinary Graduate Training In Predictive Plant Phenomics, Carolyn J. Lawrence-Dill, Theodore J. Heindel, Patrick S. Schnable, Stephanie J. Strong, Jill Wittrock, Mary E. Losch, Julie A. Dickerson May 2018

Transdisciplinary Graduate Training In Predictive Plant Phenomics, Carolyn J. Lawrence-Dill, Theodore J. Heindel, Patrick S. Schnable, Stephanie J. Strong, Jill Wittrock, Mary E. Losch, Julie A. Dickerson

Faculty Publications

Novel methods to increase crop productivity are required to meet anticipated demands for food, feed, fiber, and fuel. It is becoming feasible to use modern sensors and data analysis techniques for predicting plant growth and productivity based on genomic, phenotypic, and environmental data. To design and construct crops that deliver desired traits requires trained personnel with scientific and engineering expertise as well as a variety of “soft” skills. To address these needs at Iowa State University, we developed a graduate specialization called “Predictive Plant Phenomics” (P3). Although some of our experiences may be unique, many of the specialization’s principles ...


Persistent Annual Migration Patterns Of A Specialist Seabird, Rachael Orben, Nobuo Kokubun, Abram Fleishman, Alexis Will, Takashi Yamamoto, Scott Shaffer, Rosana Paredes, Akinori Takahashi, Alexander Kitaysky Apr 2018

Persistent Annual Migration Patterns Of A Specialist Seabird, Rachael Orben, Nobuo Kokubun, Abram Fleishman, Alexis Will, Takashi Yamamoto, Scott Shaffer, Rosana Paredes, Akinori Takahashi, Alexander Kitaysky

Faculty Publications

Specialization can make animals vulnerable to rapid environmental changes. For long-lived seabirds, foraging specialization may make individuals especially sensitive, as climatic changes are currently occurring over the course of one lifetime. The Bering Sea is a dynamic subarctic and arctic ecosystem where windblown sea ice mediates annual productivity and subsequent pathways to upper trophic levels. Red-legged kittiwakes Rissa brevirostris are endemic surface foraging seabirds specializing on myctophid fishes during reproduction. Their degree of specialization outside the breeding season is less understood. We examined their non-breeding ecology (migration, distribution, isotopic niche) during 4 winters with varying sea ice extent. Although we ...


Fisheries Exploitation By Albatross Quantified With Lipid Analysis, Melinda Conners, Chandra Goetsch, Suzanne Budge, William Walker, Yoko Mitani, Daniel Costa, Scott Shaffer Apr 2018

Fisheries Exploitation By Albatross Quantified With Lipid Analysis, Melinda Conners, Chandra Goetsch, Suzanne Budge, William Walker, Yoko Mitani, Daniel Costa, Scott Shaffer

Faculty Publications

Mortality from incidental bycatch in longline fishery operations is a global threat to seabird populations, and especially so for the albatross family (Diomedeidae) in which fifteen out of twenty-two species are threatened by extinction. Despite the risks, fisheries remain attractive to many species of seabird by providing access to high-energy foods in the form of discarded fish and offal, target fish, and baited hooks. Current policy regarding fisheries management is increasingly aimed at discard reform, exemplified by a discard ban initiated in the European Union Common Fisheries Policy in 2014. While there is global agreement in the importance of minimizing ...


Effects Of Treatment-Associated Increases In Fruit And Vegetable Intake On The Consumption Of Other Food Groups And Weight Through Self-Regulatory Processes, James J. Annesi Mar 2018

Effects Of Treatment-Associated Increases In Fruit And Vegetable Intake On The Consumption Of Other Food Groups And Weight Through Self-Regulatory Processes, James J. Annesi

Faculty Publications

Context: Increased intake of fruits and vegetables (FV) may be useful for weight loss.

Objective: This study was designed to evaluate the effects of changes in FV intake on the overall diet and to determine if self-regulation affects the association between changes in FV intake and weight.

Methods: Women with obesity (N = 74, mean age = 47.7 years) participating in a year-long behavioral weight-loss treatment were assessed regarding changes in consumption of various food groups, physical activity, and eating self-regulation over 6, 12, and 24 months.

Results: FV intake change significantly predicted changes in weight and consumption of dairy and ...


Developmental Ethanol Exposure Causes Reduced Feeding And Reveals A Critical Role For Neuropeptide F In Survival, Amanda Guevara, Hillary Gates, Brianna Urbina, Rachael French Mar 2018

Developmental Ethanol Exposure Causes Reduced Feeding And Reveals A Critical Role For Neuropeptide F In Survival, Amanda Guevara, Hillary Gates, Brianna Urbina, Rachael French

Faculty Publications

Food intake is necessary for survival, and natural reward circuitry has evolved to help ensure that animals ingest sufficient food to maintain development, growth, and survival. Drugs of abuse, including alcohol, co-opt the natural reward circuitry in the brain, and this is a major factor in the reinforcement of drug behaviors leading to addiction. At the junction of these two aspects of reward are alterations in feeding behavior due to alcohol consumption. In particular, developmental alcohol exposure (DAE) results in a collection of physical and neurobehavioral disorders collectively referred to as Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD). The deleterious effects of ...


Long-Term Irrigation Affects The Dynamics And Activity Of The Wheat Rhizosphere Microbiome, Dmitri V. Mavrodi, Olga Mavrodi, Liam D.H. Elbourne, Sasha Tetu, Robert F. Bonsall, James Parejko, Mingming Yang, Ian T. Paulsen, David M. Weller, Linda S. Thomashow Mar 2018

Long-Term Irrigation Affects The Dynamics And Activity Of The Wheat Rhizosphere Microbiome, Dmitri V. Mavrodi, Olga Mavrodi, Liam D.H. Elbourne, Sasha Tetu, Robert F. Bonsall, James Parejko, Mingming Yang, Ian T. Paulsen, David M. Weller, Linda S. Thomashow

Faculty Publications

The Inland Pacific Northwest (IPNW) encompasses 1. 6 million cropland hectares and is a major wheat-producing area in the western United States. The climate throughout the region is semi-arid, making the availability of water a significant challenge for IPNW agriculture. Much attention has been given to uncovering the effects of water stress on the physiology of wheat and the dynamics of its soilborne diseases. In contrast, the impact of soil moisture on the establishment and activity of microbial communities in the rhizosphere of dryland wheat remains poorly understood. We addressed this gap by conducting a three-year field study involving wheat ...


Variable Utilization Of Shelf Break-Associated Habitats By Chick-Brooding Rhinoceros Auklets In The California Current System, Bradley Wilkinson, Jaime Jahncke, Pete Warzybok, Russell Bradley, Scott A. Shaffer Mar 2018

Variable Utilization Of Shelf Break-Associated Habitats By Chick-Brooding Rhinoceros Auklets In The California Current System, Bradley Wilkinson, Jaime Jahncke, Pete Warzybok, Russell Bradley, Scott A. Shaffer

Faculty Publications

Identifying frequently complex and dynamic spatial distributions of marine predators via the modeling of at-sea observations can be inherently challenging, especially when attempting to predict habitats of specific populations. Remotely-sensed tracking devices provide a viable alternative way to gather this information. We collected fine-scale spatiotemporal movement data for a small seabird, the rhinoceros auklet Cerorhinca monocerata, in the California Current System. Chick-brooding adults nesting on Southeast Farallon Island were outfitted with GPS loggers during the 2015 and 2016 breeding seasons (n = 15). Along with basic movement parameters, kernel density and residence time analyses were conducted to characterize at-sea distribution and ...


Changes In Frontoparietotemporal Connectivity Following Do-As-I-Do Imitation Training In Chimpanzees (Pan Troglodytes), Sarah M. Pope, Jared P. Taglialatela, Sara A. Skiba, William D. Hopkins Mar 2018

Changes In Frontoparietotemporal Connectivity Following Do-As-I-Do Imitation Training In Chimpanzees (Pan Troglodytes), Sarah M. Pope, Jared P. Taglialatela, Sara A. Skiba, William D. Hopkins

Faculty Publications

Human imitation is supported by an underlying ‘mirror system’ principally composed of inferior frontal (IF), inferior parietal (IP), and superior temporal (ST) cortical regions. Across primate species, differences in fronto-parieto-temporal connectivity have been hypothesized to explain phylogenetic variation in imitative abilities. However, if and to what extent these regions are involved in imitation in non-human primates is unknown. We hypothesized that ‘Do As I Do’ (DAID) imitation training would enhance white matter integrity within and between fronto-parieto temporal regions. To this end, four captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) were trained to reproduce 23 demonstrated actions, while four age/sex-matched controls were ...


Egg Turning Behavior And Incubation Temperature In Forster’S Terns In Relation To Mercury Contamination, Gregory Taylor, Joshua Ackerman, Scott A. Shaffer Feb 2018

Egg Turning Behavior And Incubation Temperature In Forster’S Terns In Relation To Mercury Contamination, Gregory Taylor, Joshua Ackerman, Scott A. Shaffer

Faculty Publications

Egg turning behavior is an important determinant of egg hatchability, but it remains relatively understudied. Here, we examined egg turning rates and egg temperatures in Forster’s terns (Sterna forsteri). We used artificial eggs containing a data logger with a 3-D accelerometer, a magnetometer, and a temperature thermistor to monitor parental incubation behavior of 131 tern nests. Overall, adults turned their eggs an average (±SD) of 3.8 ± 0.8 turns h-1, which is nearly two times higher than that of other seabirds. Egg turning rates increased with nest initiation date. We also examined egg turning rates and egg temperatures ...


Influence Of Acute Consumption Of Caffeine Vs. Placebo Over Bia-Derived Measurements Of Body Composition: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Crossover Design, Cassie M. Williamson, Brett S. Nickerson, Emily E. Bechke, Cherilyn N. Mclester, Brian Kliszczewicz Feb 2018

Influence Of Acute Consumption Of Caffeine Vs. Placebo Over Bia-Derived Measurements Of Body Composition: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Crossover Design, Cassie M. Williamson, Brett S. Nickerson, Emily E. Bechke, Cherilyn N. Mclester, Brian Kliszczewicz

Faculty Publications

Background Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is often used to estimate total body water (TBW), intracellular body water (ICW), extracellular body water (ECW), and body fat percentage (BF%). A common restriction for BIA analysis is abstinence from caffeine 12-h prior to testing. However, research has yet to determine whether the consumption of caffeine influences BIA testing results. The purpose of this study was to determine if the consumption of caffeine influences BIA-derived BF% and body water values in habitual caffeine users. Methods Twenty apparently healthy males (26.6 ± 4.1 years) identified as habitual caffeine consumers (≥ one 95 mg serving per ...


Rewired Rnai-Mediated Genome Surveillance In House Dust Mites, Mosharrof H. Mondal, Pavel Klimov, Alex S. Flynt Jan 2018

Rewired Rnai-Mediated Genome Surveillance In House Dust Mites, Mosharrof H. Mondal, Pavel Klimov, Alex S. Flynt

Faculty Publications

House dust mites are common pests with an unusual evolutionary history, being descendants of a parasitic ancestor. Transition to parasitism is frequently accompanied by genome rearrangements, possibly to accommodate the genetic change needed to access new ecology. Transposable element (TE) activity is a source of genomic instability that can trigger large-scale genomic alterations. Eukaryotes have multiple transposon control mechanisms, one of which is RNA interference (RNAi). Investigation of the dust mite genome failed to identify a major RNAi pathway: the Piwi-associated RNA (piRNA) pathway, which has been replaced by a novel small-interfering RNA (siRNA)-like pathway. Co-opting of piRNA function ...


Sumo Targeting Of A Stress-Tolerant Ulp1 Sumo Protease, Jennifer Peek, Catherine Harvey, Dreux Gray, Danny Rosenberg, Likhitha Kolla, Reuben Levy-Myers, Rui Yin, Oliver Kerscher, Jonathan L. Mcmurry Jan 2018

Sumo Targeting Of A Stress-Tolerant Ulp1 Sumo Protease, Jennifer Peek, Catherine Harvey, Dreux Gray, Danny Rosenberg, Likhitha Kolla, Reuben Levy-Myers, Rui Yin, Oliver Kerscher, Jonathan L. Mcmurry

Faculty Publications

SUMO proteases of the SENP/Ulp family are master regulators of both sumoylation and desumoylation and regulate SUMO homeostasis in eukaryotic cells. SUMO conjugates rapidly increase in response to cellular stress, including nutrient starvation, hypoxia, osmotic stress, DNA damage, heat shock, and other proteotoxic stressors. Nevertheless, little is known about the regulation and targeting of SUMO proteases during stress. To this end we have undertaken a detailed comparison of the SUMO-binding activity of the budding yeast protein Ulp1 (ScUlp1) and its ortholog in the thermotolerant yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus, KmUlp1. We find that the catalytic UD domains of both ScUlp1 and ...


Exosomes Serve As Novel Modes Of Tick-Borne Flavivirus Transmission From Arthropod To Human Cells And Facilitates Dissemination Of Viral Rna And Proteins To The Vertebrate Neuronal Cells, Wenshou Zhou, Michael Woodson, Biswas Neupane, Fengwei Bai, Michael B. Sherman, Kyung H. Choi, Girish Neelakanta, Hameeda Sultana Jan 2018

Exosomes Serve As Novel Modes Of Tick-Borne Flavivirus Transmission From Arthropod To Human Cells And Facilitates Dissemination Of Viral Rna And Proteins To The Vertebrate Neuronal Cells, Wenshou Zhou, Michael Woodson, Biswas Neupane, Fengwei Bai, Michael B. Sherman, Kyung H. Choi, Girish Neelakanta, Hameeda Sultana

Faculty Publications

Molecular determinants and mechanisms of arthropod-borne flavivirus transmission to the vertebrate host are poorly understood. In this study, we show for the first time that a cell line from medically important arthropods, such as ticks, secretes extracellular vesicles (EVs) including exosomes that mediate transmission of flavivirus RNA and proteins to the human cells. Our study shows that tick-borne Langat virus (LGTV), a model pathogen closely related to tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), profusely uses arthropod exosomes for transmission of viral RNA and proteins to the human- skin keratinocytes and blood endothelial cells. Cryo-electron microscopy showed the presence of purified arthropod/neuronal ...