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Impacts Of Atmospheric Nitrogen Deposition And Coastal Nitrogen Fluxes On Chesapeake Bay Hypoxia, Fei Da Mar 2018

Impacts Of Atmospheric Nitrogen Deposition And Coastal Nitrogen Fluxes On Chesapeake Bay Hypoxia, Fei Da

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

Although rivers are the primary source of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) inputs to the Chesapeake Bay, direct atmospheric DIN deposition and DIN fluxes from the continental shelf can also significantly impact Chesapeake Bay hypoxia. The relative role of these additional sources of DIN has not previously been thoroughly quantified. In this study, the three-dimensional Estuarine-Carbon-Biogeochemistry model embedded in the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ChesROMS-ECB) is used to examine the relative impact of these three DIN sources. Model simulations highlight that DIN inputs from the atmosphere have roughly the same impact on hypoxia as the same gram for gram change in ...


Predicting The Impact Of Sea Level Rise On The Distribution Of Phragmites Australis And Spartina Alterniflora And Changes In Community Compositions In Tidal Freshwater Marshes Of James City County, Va, Abbey Humphreys Jun 2017

Predicting The Impact Of Sea Level Rise On The Distribution Of Phragmites Australis And Spartina Alterniflora And Changes In Community Compositions In Tidal Freshwater Marshes Of James City County, Va, Abbey Humphreys

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

With ongoing sea level rise (SLR), tidal freshwater marshes (TFMs) eventually will be flooded with more brackish water. The impact of more water and salt on the plant community of TFMs, however, is unknown. With SLR, both the invasive reed Phragmites australis and the native salt marsh grass Spartina alterniflora could become dominant species in TFMs. I am looking at determining how increases in salinity and inundation caused by sea level rise will impact the relative distribution of Phragmites and Spartina in tidal freshwater marshes in Southeastern Virginia. Using GIS, I summarized past expansion patterns by mapping the current and ...


The Effects Of Timing Of Mercury-Induced Developmental Stress On Songbird Reproductive Success, Ohad Jonathan Paris Jun 2017

The Effects Of Timing Of Mercury-Induced Developmental Stress On Songbird Reproductive Success, Ohad Jonathan Paris

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

This thesis explored two questions – Does developmental exposure to methyl-mercury affect the later reproductive success of songbirds? Does the timing of such developmental exposure affect the severity of any effects on reproductive success? The second question was formulated to test the Developmental Stress Hypothesis (DSH), which states that early developmental conditions incur later-life fitness consequences. Methyl-mercury (MeHg), a potent environmental toxicant, may induce stress in developing organisms, and have far-reaching negative effects on adult fitness. I tested the DSH by investigating whether the timing of MeHg-induced stress, early vs. late in development, affected later-life reproductive success (a strong measure of ...


Misregulation Of Genomic Imprinting Drives Abnormal Seed Development In Hybrid Monkeyflowers (Mimulus), Taliesin Kinser May 2017

Misregulation Of Genomic Imprinting Drives Abnormal Seed Development In Hybrid Monkeyflowers (Mimulus), Taliesin Kinser

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

Genomic imprinting is the preferential expression of one allele over the other. It is an epigenetic phenomenon that occurs in the placentas of mammals and the endosperm of angiosperms. Endosperm, like placentas, is a nutrient rich tissue that supports the growing embryo within the seed. All grains are predominantly composed of this tissue. It is the product of a second fertilization event, resulting in both maternal and paternal alleles. Some alleles are regulated differentially, resulting in imprinted genes. There are both paternally expressed imprinted genes (PEGs) and maternally expressed imprinted genes (MEGs) in the endosperm. In general PEGs tend to ...


Superoxide Dismutase In Songbirds: Effects Of Mercury, Exercise, And Sex On An Enzymatic Antioxidant, Juan Mateo Botero May 2017

Superoxide Dismutase In Songbirds: Effects Of Mercury, Exercise, And Sex On An Enzymatic Antioxidant, Juan Mateo Botero

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

Anthropogenic activities such as burning of fossil fuels, mining, and industrial processes continue to increase the levels of mercury circulating in the environment. Once methylated, mercury can be incorporated into animal tissues, causing it to biomagnify up the food web. Deleterious fitness impacts are commonly associated with increased mercury content in birds. The mechanistic pathway to those effects on fitness needs further research in order to develop appropriate remediation efforts and predict future harm on bird populations. Oxidative stress is proposed as one of the primary ways though which mercury causes accumulation of cellular damage. Well-documented cases of mercury induced ...


Reconstructing Coastal Forest Retreat And Marsh Migration Response To Historical Sea Level Rise, Nathalie Schieder Jan 2017

Reconstructing Coastal Forest Retreat And Marsh Migration Response To Historical Sea Level Rise, Nathalie Schieder

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

Climate change assessments predict that rates of relative sea level rise will increase in the future, leading to enhanced inundation of low-lying coastal regions and a 20 – 50 % decline in salt marsh area by 2100. Global sea level rise began accelerating in the late 19th to early 20th century, and local rates along the U.S. mid-Atlantic coast are twice as fast as global estimates. Frequent flooding and salt stress associated with sea level rise lead to coastal transgression, and the survival of ecosystems depends on their ability to migrate inland faster than they erode and submerge. Here, I compared ...


Extensions And Applications Of Mean Length Mortality Estimators For Assessment Of Data-Limited Fisheries, Quang C. Huynh Jan 2017

Extensions And Applications Of Mean Length Mortality Estimators For Assessment Of Data-Limited Fisheries, Quang C. Huynh

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

For data-limited fisheries, length-based mortality estimators are attractive as alternatives to age-structured models due to the simpler data requirements and ease of use of the former. This dissertation develops new extensions of mean length-based mortality estimators and applies them to federally-managed stocks in the southeastern U.S. and U.S. Caribbean.

Chapter 1 presents a review of length-based methods from the literature. Common themes regarding the methodology, assumptions, and diagnostics in these length-based methods are discussed. In Chapter 2, a simulation study evaluates the performance of the length-converted catch curve (LCCC), Beverton-Holt equation (BHE), and Length Based-Spawner Potential Ratio (LB-SPR ...


Impact Of The Parasitic Nematode Anguillicoloides Crassus On American Eels (Anguilla Rostrata) In Chesapeake Bay, Zoemma Taudel Warshafsky Jan 2017

Impact Of The Parasitic Nematode Anguillicoloides Crassus On American Eels (Anguilla Rostrata) In Chesapeake Bay, Zoemma Taudel Warshafsky

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

American eels are infected by the introduced parasitic nematode, Anguillicoloides crassus, which can cause significant damage to their swimbladders. Despite the high prevalence and severe damage caused by A. crassus, the population level effects on American eels are not well understood. The prevalence and swimbladder damage in young glass eels and elvers are relatively unstudied, despite the potential for this parasite to cause tissue damage. Additionally, the effects of environmental, temporal, and spatial variables have been debated in previous studies without consensus. Also, the potential for eels to recover from infection and tissue damage has been speculated but not definitively ...


Spatiotemporal Abundance Patterns And Ecological Drivers Of A Nearshore U.S. Atlantic Fish And Invertebrate Assemblage, Mark A. Stratton Jan 2017

Spatiotemporal Abundance Patterns And Ecological Drivers Of A Nearshore U.S. Atlantic Fish And Invertebrate Assemblage, Mark A. Stratton

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

Taking an ecosystem approach to fisheries requires the consideration of relevant ecological processes within research and assessment frameworks. Processes affecting ecosystem productivity can be categorized as biophysical (climate variability, primary production), exploitative (fishing), or trophodynamic (food web interactions). This dissertation incorporates these three governing processes to characterize spatiotemporal diversity and population abundance trends for multiple demersal fish and invertebrate species that inhabit the nearshore zone (15-30 ft. depth) along portions of the U.S. Atlantic east coast.

Two large marine ecosystems (LMEs) encompass the U.S. East coast – the Southeast and Northeast U.S. Continental Shelf LMEs. The level of ...


Ecosystem Services Of Restored Oyster Reefs In A Chesapeake Bay Tributary: Abundance And Foraging Of Estuarine Fishes, Bruce William Pfirrmann Jan 2017

Ecosystem Services Of Restored Oyster Reefs In A Chesapeake Bay Tributary: Abundance And Foraging Of Estuarine Fishes, Bruce William Pfirrmann

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

Oyster reef restoration may enhance the production of ecologically or economically important fish species, an ecosystem service, by providing refuge and foraging habitat. Predicting the effects of oyster habitat restoration on fisheries production in Chesapeake Bay requires a better understanding of fish habitat use, trophic dynamics, and the processes leading to production on a habitat-scale. The objective of this thesis was to evaluate the influence of restored subtidal oyster reefs on the abundance and foraging patterns of mobile estuarine fishes. Specifically, I compared the 1) abundance, 2) stomach fullness, 3) diet composition, and 4) daily consumption rate of fishes collected ...


Juvenile Blue Crab Survival In Nursery Habitats: Predator Identification And Predation Impacts In Chesapeake Bay, Amanda Marie Bromilow Jan 2017

Juvenile Blue Crab Survival In Nursery Habitats: Predator Identification And Predation Impacts In Chesapeake Bay, Amanda Marie Bromilow

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

Predator populations can have significant impacts on prey recruitment success and prey population dynamics through consumption. Young, inexperienced prey are often most vulnerable to predation due to their small size and limited evasion capabilities. to reduce the risk of predation, new recruits and young juveniles typically settle in structured nursery habitats, such as seagrass beds, which promote higher survival by acting as refuges from predators. Thus, successful recruitment to the adult portion of the population is often dependent on the availability of suitable nursery habitat. In this thesis, I used field tethering experiments and gut content analyses to assess the ...


Integrating Empirical Data And Ocean Drift Models To Better Understand Sea Turtle Strandings In Virginia, Bianca Silva Santos Jan 2017

Integrating Empirical Data And Ocean Drift Models To Better Understand Sea Turtle Strandings In Virginia, Bianca Silva Santos

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

Hundreds of stranded turtles wash up deceased on Virginia’s coastline each year, yet the causes of most stranding events are poorly understood. In this thesis, a carcass drift model was developed for the Chesapeake Bay, Virginia, to predict likely locations of mortality from coastal sea turtle stranding records. First, field studies were carried out to better parameterize the drift characteristics of buoyant sea turtle carcasses, namely, probable oceanic drift times and the impact of direct wind forcing on carcass drift. Based on the duration that tethered, free-floating turtle carcasses were buoyant, we determined that oceanic drift duration of turtle ...


Age, Growth And Reproduction Of Western North Atlantic Butterfly Rays (Myliobatiformes: Gymnuridae), With The Description Of Two New Species, Kristene Teal Parsons Jan 2017

Age, Growth And Reproduction Of Western North Atlantic Butterfly Rays (Myliobatiformes: Gymnuridae), With The Description Of Two New Species, Kristene Teal Parsons

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

Batoid fishes are among the most threatened and least understood chondrichthyan species worldwide due to their large body size, conservative life-history characteristics, and predominantly coastal distributions where fishing and habitat degradation threaten the stability of populations. A lack of empirical life history data is widespread across batoid taxa — nearly half of all species are considered data deficient, thus hindering species assessments and the development of effective management strategies. Furthermore, many batoid taxa are in need of taxonomic re-examination. Increasing our understanding of life history traits that determine population productivity, such as age and size at maturity, growth rate, and fecundity ...


Nitrogen Isotope Fractionation And Toxin Production During The Uptake Of Micromolar Concentrations Of Nitrate, Ammonium, And Urea By A Marine Dinoflagellate, Christen Taylor Armstrong Jan 2017

Nitrogen Isotope Fractionation And Toxin Production During The Uptake Of Micromolar Concentrations Of Nitrate, Ammonium, And Urea By A Marine Dinoflagellate, Christen Taylor Armstrong

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

Despite an increased global interest in harmful algal bloom (HAB) species and eutrophication, the relationship between nutrient sources and changes in species composition or toxicity remains unclear. Stable isotopes are routinely used to identify and track nitrogen (N) sources to water bodies, as sources can be differentiated based on stable isotope values. While literature is available describing N fractionation by diatoms and coccolithophores, data are greatly lacking regarding isotope fractionation by dinoflagellates. Here we investigate the fractionation of nitrogen isotopes by saxitoxin-producing Alexandrium fundyense, to validate the use of the δ15N of particulate organic matter and identify the nitrogen source ...


Juvenile Blue Crab (Callinectes Sapidus) Response To Altered Nursery Habitat, Megan Wood Jan 2017

Juvenile Blue Crab (Callinectes Sapidus) Response To Altered Nursery Habitat, Megan Wood

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

Habitats of Chesapeake Bay have been altered due to anthropogenic impacts and climate change. Due to these human disturbances, seagrasses have been extirpated from many areas in lower Chesapeake Bay and persisting beds face future losses as water temperatures continue to rise. Further loss of seagrass habitat will negatively impact juvenile blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus) that use seagrass beds as nursery grounds. Habitat degradation allows for more successful introductions of exotic species, and the communities formed from the mixing of native and exotic species are known as emerging ecosystems. Gracilaria vermiculophylla, an exotic macroalga, may be an emerging nursery habitat ...


Using High-Resolution Glider Data And Biogeochemical Modeling To Investigate Phytoplankton Variability In The Ross Sea, Daniel Edward Kaufman Jan 2017

Using High-Resolution Glider Data And Biogeochemical Modeling To Investigate Phytoplankton Variability In The Ross Sea, Daniel Edward Kaufman

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

As Earth’s climate changes, polar environments experience a disproportionate share of extreme shifts. Because the Ross Sea shelf has the highest annual productivity of any Antarctic continental shelf, this region is of particular interest when striving to characterize current and future changes in Antarctic systems. However, understanding of mesoscale variability of biogeochemical patterns in the Ross Sea and how this variability affects assemblage dynamics is incomplete. Furthermore, it is unknown how the Ross Sea may respond to projected warming, reduced summer sea ice concentrations, and shallower mixed layers during the next century. to investigate these dynamics and explore their ...


Impacts Of Invasive Phragmites Australis On Diamondback Terrapin Nesting, Cassandra Cook Oct 2016

Impacts Of Invasive Phragmites Australis On Diamondback Terrapin Nesting, Cassandra Cook

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

The diamondback terrapin (Malaclemys terrapin) is a species of turtle found exclusively in brackish water habitats. Terrapins are currently facing population threats including by-catch mortality in crab pots, predation, and habitat loss. The expansion of the exotic, invasive reed Phragmites australis is causing widespread structural and functional changes to coastal ecosystems throughout North America, which could negatively impact the nesting success of female terrapins by invading preferred nesting habitats. I examined the extent to which Phragmites affects nesting of a breeding population of diamondback terrapins at Fisherman Island National Wildlife Refuge on the eastern shore of Virginia, where Phragmites has ...


Differences In Sockeye Salmon Antibody Composition: Testing The Immunological Imprinting Hypothesis, Maxwell Elliott Chappell Apr 2016

Differences In Sockeye Salmon Antibody Composition: Testing The Immunological Imprinting Hypothesis, Maxwell Elliott Chappell

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

Anadromous fish such as sockeye salmon return to their natal streams to spawn, during which they undergo significant physiological changes including the release of cortisol, a known immunosuppressive hormone. Our lab has proposed the Immunological Imprinting Hypothesis, which suggests that juvenile anadromous fish respond to pathogens specific to their natal site by producing protective long lived plasma cells (LLPCs) that constitutively produce antibodies against those pathogens. These LLPCs are believed to be highly cortisol resistant. Thus, fish returning to their natal streams have immunological protection from pathogens found at that specific location. I investigated the Immunological Imprinting Hypothesis through analysis ...


Patterns Of Abundance And Community Dynamics In Atlantic Coastal Sharks, Cassidy Peterson Jan 2016

Patterns Of Abundance And Community Dynamics In Atlantic Coastal Sharks, Cassidy Peterson

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

No abstract provided.


Population Dynamics Of Gelatinous Zooplankton In The Chesapeake Bay And Sargasso Sea, And Effects On Carbon Export, Joshua Paul Stone Jan 2016

Population Dynamics Of Gelatinous Zooplankton In The Chesapeake Bay And Sargasso Sea, And Effects On Carbon Export, Joshua Paul Stone

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

Gelatinous zooplankton (GZ; cnidarians, ctenophores, and pelagic tunicates) periodically are the dominant members of the zooplankton throughout the majority of the world’s oceans. their unique body plans and life cycles allow them to rapidly take advantage of favorable environmental conditions, which has far-ranging consequences for food web dynamics and biogeochemical cycles. GZ populations have been speculated to respond to anthropogenic changes, but few long-term studies exist to test this hypothesis and even fewer have examined the consequent effects on carbon export. I analyzed two long-term time series in the Chesapeake Bay and one in the Sargasso Sea for annual ...


Influence Of Perkinsus Marinus Infection And Oyster Health On Levels Of Human-Pathogenic Vibrios In Oysters, Lydia M. Bienlien Jan 2016

Influence Of Perkinsus Marinus Infection And Oyster Health On Levels Of Human-Pathogenic Vibrios In Oysters, Lydia M. Bienlien

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

The eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica is an ecologically and commercially important species whose natural populations have been devastated by overharvesting, habitat destruction, and disease, but the rapid growth of oyster aquaculture has shown potential to restore the economic significance of this species. A key threat to the growth and sustainability of oyster aquaculture is the association of human-pathogenic Vibrio bacteria with product marketed for raw consumption. Two Vibrio species, Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus, are the causes of the highest rates of seafood consumption-related mortality and gastrointestinal illness, respectively. Identification of the factors influencing V. vulnificus and V. parahaemolyticus prevalence ...


Zooplankton Community Composition And Grazing In The Amazon River Plume And Western Tropical North Atlantic Ocean, Brandon J. Conroy Jan 2016

Zooplankton Community Composition And Grazing In The Amazon River Plume And Western Tropical North Atlantic Ocean, Brandon J. Conroy

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

Large river plumes and frontal zones are important physical features influencing plankton distribution in the marine environment. In the western tropical North Atlantic Ocean (WTNA) the Amazon River plume may extend over an area reaching 1.5 x 106 km2. The freshwater plume creates a low-density lens in the surface 25m and supplies silicon and phosphorus to the WTNA. These physical and chemical gradients create an ideal environment for large-scale blooms of diatom diazotroph associations (DDAs), a symbiotic relationship between nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria and chain-forming diatoms. While the physical and chemical properties of the plume with regard to influences on phytoplankton ...


Modulation Of Watershed Nutrient Loads By Tidal Creek Ecosystems On The Virginia Eastern Shore, Britt Leighanne Dean Jan 2016

Modulation Of Watershed Nutrient Loads By Tidal Creek Ecosystems On The Virginia Eastern Shore, Britt Leighanne Dean

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

While deeper estuaries typically demonstrate predictable responses to increased nutrient loads, responses in shallow systems are more varied, due in part to the presence of multiple benthic autotrophs. Shallow systems are particularly vulnerable to increases in watershed nutrient loads due to their position at the interface between land and open water. The prevailing conceptual model of eutrophication for shallow systems currently describes a succession in the dominant autotroph from seagrass to macroalgae to phytoplankton, but this model does not include benthic microalgae, which can sequester nutrients in photic systems. The Virginia Eastern Shore is characterized by shallow lagoons connected to ...


Dietary Mercury Exposure In Male Zebra Finches Does Not Decrease Their Attractiveness To Females, Virginia Greene Jan 2016

Dietary Mercury Exposure In Male Zebra Finches Does Not Decrease Their Attractiveness To Females, Virginia Greene

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

Choosing a high-quality mate contributes strongly to increased reproductive success in birds. Female birds assess quality in males, in part, via condition-dependent signals such as male songs and plumage. The production of attractive signals can be disrupted by environmental stressors, however, including environmental toxins. Mercury, a globally-increasing pollutant, is one such toxin. Mercury exposure has been shown to affect song, plumage, bill color, and mating behaviors in male birds, but the effect of these changes on the outcome of female mate choice is unknown. These effects on condition-dependent signals indicate that mercury could potentially alter males’ attractiveness to females, as ...


The Effect Of Methylmercury On The Auditory Brainstem Response In Domestic Zebra Finches (Taeniopygia Guttata), Sarah Elizabeth Wolf Jan 2016

The Effect Of Methylmercury On The Auditory Brainstem Response In Domestic Zebra Finches (Taeniopygia Guttata), Sarah Elizabeth Wolf

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

With global urbanization on the rise, human activities continue to threaten the functionality of auditory communication in birds through induced change to vocalizations, the acoustic landscape, and hearing ability. One human-associated pollutant potentially affecting auditory communication is mercury, which is released into the environment through industrial emissions and is correlated with markers of global climate change. Already, mercury has been implicated in mammalian high-frequency hearing impairment; however, the effect of mercury on avian hearing ability is unknown. In this study, we examined whether dietary mercury exposure affected hearing ability in domestic zebra finches using the auditory brainstem response (ABR), which ...


Thyroid Hormone Receptor Nucleocytoplasmic Transport, Zhang Jibo Jan 2016

Thyroid Hormone Receptor Nucleocytoplasmic Transport, Zhang Jibo

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

The thyroid hormone receptor α1 (TRα1) and the thyroid hormone receptor β1 (TRβ1) are transcription factors that modulate the expression of target genes that are important in metabolism and development in response to thyroid hormone. Although primarily localized to the nucleus, prior studies have shown that TRα1 and TRβ1 shuttle rapidly between the nucleus and cytoplasm, and that nuclear import of TRα1 is directed by two nuclear localization signal (NLS) motifs: NLS-1 in the hinge domain, and NLS-2 in the N-terminal A/B domain. In contrast, TRβ1 lacks NLS-2. Previous studies also characterized two nuclear export signal (NES) motifs, NES-H3 ...


Does Sound Help Prevent Birds From Flying Into Objects?, Nicole Ingrassia Jan 2016

Does Sound Help Prevent Birds From Flying Into Objects?, Nicole Ingrassia

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

Bird strike is the often fatal collision between a bird and a surface, such as a window or tower. Collisions kill millions of birds each year in the US alone, and cost industries millions of dollars per year. as more buildings, wind turbines, communication towers and other structures are built, bird strikes and its associated costs are predicted to increase. Researchers have explored mitigative measures to alleviate bird strikes but to date none have solved this growing problem. Recent research suggests that current technologies fail because their design does not take into account birds' sensory ecology, including habituation to loud ...


Assemblage Dynamics Of Larval Fishes In The York River Of Virginia And The Chesapeake Bay, Cindy Marlene Marin Martinez Jan 2016

Assemblage Dynamics Of Larval Fishes In The York River Of Virginia And The Chesapeake Bay, Cindy Marlene Marin Martinez

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

This thesis developed from the VIMS Larval Fish Monitoring Program, which began in 2007 as part of a study comparing the larval fish assemblages of Chesapeake and Delaware Bays. Ribeiro et al. (2015) analyzed data from the first three years of this time series to describe the temporal variation in the larval fish assemblages. After this initial study was completed (three years in duration), the sampling continued at the fixed station near the mouth of the York River, which was used to represent the Chesapeake Bay. For this thesis, therefore, eight years of data (2007-2015) were available to investigate temporal ...


Modeling Phytoplankton Community Response To Nutrient Loading And Climate Change In A Shallow Temperate Estuary, Sara Aimee Blachman Jan 2016

Modeling Phytoplankton Community Response To Nutrient Loading And Climate Change In A Shallow Temperate Estuary, Sara Aimee Blachman

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

Phytoplankton account for at least half of all primary production in estuarine waters and are at the center of biogeochemical cycles and material budgets. Environmental managers use water column chlorophyll-a (chl-a) concentrations as a basic water quality indictor, as the problems of eutrophication and hypoxia are intrinsically linked to excessive phytoplankton growth. Evidence suggests that the distribution and frequency of harmful algal blooms may be increasing worldwide. For the most part, phytoplankton communities follow a standard seasonal pattern, with specific groups dominating the assemblage during the time of year when environmental conditions correspond to their requisites for growth. However, climate ...


Biogeochemistry Of Redox-Sensitive Elements In The Subterranean Estuary, Alison E. O'Connor Jan 2016

Biogeochemistry Of Redox-Sensitive Elements In The Subterranean Estuary, Alison E. O'Connor

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) is any flow of water along the continental margins from the seabed into the coastal ocean, and it represents an important source of nutrients and trace metals to the coastal ocean. The chemical composition of SGD is strongly influenced by biogeochemical reactions that take place within the subterranean estuary (STE), the subsurface mixing zone of fresh and saline waters. Understanding the reactions that take place within the shallow STE is critical to evaluating the composition of SGD, and therefore SGD-driven chemical fluxes. In this dissertation, I seek to determine the biogeochemical processes controlling the behavior of ...