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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Analysis Of Iron Sources In Antarctic Continental Shelf Waters, Michael S. Dinniman, Pierre St-Laurent, Kevin R. Arrigo, Eileen E. Hofmann, Gert L. Van Dijken Jan 2020

Analysis Of Iron Sources In Antarctic Continental Shelf Waters, Michael S. Dinniman, Pierre St-Laurent, Kevin R. Arrigo, Eileen E. Hofmann, Gert L. Van Dijken

CCPO Publications

Previous studies showed that satellite‐derived estimates of chlorophyll a in coastal polynyas over the Antarctic continental shelf are correlated with the basal melt rate of adjacent ice shelves. A 5‐km resolution ocean/sea ice/ice shelf model of the Southern Ocean is used to examine mechanisms that supply the limiting micronutrient iron to Antarctic continental shelf surface waters. Four sources of dissolved iron are simulated with independent tracers, assumptions about the source iron concentration for each tracer, and an idealized summer biological uptake. Iron from ice shelf melt provides about 6% of the total dissolved iron in surface ...


The “Challenge" Of Depletion: Why The Oyster Fishery Is Not Self-Regulating, Eric N. Powell, John M. Klinck, Leanne M. Poussard Jan 2020

The “Challenge" Of Depletion: Why The Oyster Fishery Is Not Self-Regulating, Eric N. Powell, John M. Klinck, Leanne M. Poussard

CCPO Publications

The possibility that the economics of the oyster fishery impose a self-limitation on overharvesting has been proffered on occasion. The inefficiency of harvesting by the fishery has been evaluated and estimates of the exploitation rate permissible under conditions of maximum sustainable yield have been obtained in previous studies. The question becomes to what extent does the inefficiency of harvest interact with the economics of the fishery to compromise ready detection of overfishing? This study explores the possibility that the constraint of economics on the fishery occurs at oyster exploitation rates that are higher than maximum sustainable yield, leading ineluctably to ...


Modeling The Seasonal Cycle Of Iron And Carbon Fluxes In The Amundsen Sea Polynya, Antarctica, P. St-Laurent, P. L. Yager, R. M. Sherrell, H. Oliver, M. S. Dinniman, S. E. Stammerjohn Jan 2019

Modeling The Seasonal Cycle Of Iron And Carbon Fluxes In The Amundsen Sea Polynya, Antarctica, P. St-Laurent, P. L. Yager, R. M. Sherrell, H. Oliver, M. S. Dinniman, S. E. Stammerjohn

CCPO Publications

The Amundsen Sea Polynya (ASP) is distinguished by having the highest net primary production per unit area in the coastal Antarctic. Recent studies have related this high productivity to the presence of fast-melting ice shelves, but the mechanisms involved are not well understood. In this study we describe the first numerical model of the ASP to represent explicitly the ocean-ice interactions, nitrogen and iron cycles, and the coastal circulation at high resolution. The study focuses on the seasonal cycle of iron and carbon, and the results are broadly consistent with field observations collected during the summer of 2010–2011. The ...


Distributions Of Krill And Antarctic Silverfish And Correlations With Environmental Variables In The Western Ross Sea, Antarctica, L. Brynn Davis, Eileen E. Hofmann, John M. Klinck, Andrea Piñones, Michael S. Dinniman Dec 2017

Distributions Of Krill And Antarctic Silverfish And Correlations With Environmental Variables In The Western Ross Sea, Antarctica, L. Brynn Davis, Eileen E. Hofmann, John M. Klinck, Andrea Piñones, Michael S. Dinniman

CCPO Publications

Antarctic krill Euphausia superba, crystal krill E. crystallorophias, and Antarctic silverfish Pleuragramma antarctica are key mid-trophic level species in the Ross Sea, connecting primary production to the upper trophic levels. Distributions of these species were constructed from observations made in the western Ross Sea from 1988 to 2004. Distributions of environmental conditions were obtained from a 5-km resolution circulation model (temperature, mixed layer depth, surface speed) and satellite-derived observations (chlorophyll, sea ice cover). A hierarchy of statistical methods determined correlations and relationships between species and environmental conditions. Each species occupies a localized habitat defined by different environmental characteristics. Antarctic krill ...


A Synergistic Approach For Evaluating Climate Model Output For Ecological Applications, Rachel D. Cavanagh, Eugene J. Murphy, Thomas J. Bracegirdle, John Turner, Cheryl A. Knowland, Stuart P. Corney, Walker O. Smith Jr., Claire M. Waluda, Nadine M. Johnston, Richard G. J. Bellerby, Eileen E. Hofmann Sep 2017

A Synergistic Approach For Evaluating Climate Model Output For Ecological Applications, Rachel D. Cavanagh, Eugene J. Murphy, Thomas J. Bracegirdle, John Turner, Cheryl A. Knowland, Stuart P. Corney, Walker O. Smith Jr., Claire M. Waluda, Nadine M. Johnston, Richard G. J. Bellerby, Eileen E. Hofmann

CCPO Publications

Increasing concern about the impacts of climate change on ecosystems is prompting ecologists and ecosystem managers to seek reliable projections of physical drivers of change. The use of global climate models in ecology is growing, although drawing ecologically meaningful conclusions can be problematic. The expertise required to access and interpret output from climate and earth system models is hampering progress in utilizing them most effectively to determine the wider implications of climate change. To address this issue, we present a joint approach between climate scientists and ecologists that explores key challenges and opportunities for progress. As an exemplar, our focus ...


Development Of An Age-Frequency Distribution For Ocean Quahogs Arctica Islandica On Georges Bank, Sara M. Pace, Eric N. Powell, Roger Mann, M. Chase Long, John M. Klinck Jan 2017

Development Of An Age-Frequency Distribution For Ocean Quahogs Arctica Islandica On Georges Bank, Sara M. Pace, Eric N. Powell, Roger Mann, M. Chase Long, John M. Klinck

CCPO Publications

Ocean quahogs [Arctica islandica (Linnaeus, 1769)] are the longest-lived, noncolonial animal known today, with a maximum life span exceeding 500 y. Ocean quahogs are a commercially important bivalve, inhabiting the continental shelf of the North Atlantic Basin. Although considerable information exists on the growth and physiology of A. islandica, limited information is available regarding recruitment; accordingly, sustainably managing the fishery is a challenge. To investigate long-term recruitment trends, the age of ocean quahogs from Georges Bank which were fully recruited to the commercial fishery (>80 mm shell length) was determined by analysis of annual growth lines in the hinge plate ...


Developing Priority Variables (“Ecosystem Essential Ocean Variables” — Eeovs) For Observing Dynamics And Change In Southern Ocean Ecosystems, Andrew J. Constable, Daniel P. Costa, Oscar Schofield, Louise Newman, Edward R. Urban Jr., Elizabeth A. Fulton, Jessica Melbourne-Thomas, Tosca Ballerini, Philip W. Boyd, Angelika Brandt, Eileen E. Hofmann Jan 2016

Developing Priority Variables (“Ecosystem Essential Ocean Variables” — Eeovs) For Observing Dynamics And Change In Southern Ocean Ecosystems, Andrew J. Constable, Daniel P. Costa, Oscar Schofield, Louise Newman, Edward R. Urban Jr., Elizabeth A. Fulton, Jessica Melbourne-Thomas, Tosca Ballerini, Philip W. Boyd, Angelika Brandt, Eileen E. Hofmann

CCPO Publications

Reliable statements about variability and change in marine ecosystems and their underlying causes are needed to report on their status and to guide management. Here we use the Framework on Ocean Observing (FOO) to begin developing ecosystem Essential Ocean Variables (eEOVs) for the Southern Ocean Observing System (SOOS). An eEOV is a defined biological or ecological quantity, which is derived from field observations, and which contributes significantly to assessments of Southern Ocean ecosystems. Here, assessments are concerned with estimating status and trends in ecosystem properties, attribution of trends to causes, and predicting future trajectories. eEOVs should be feasible to collect ...


Imber- Research For Marine Sustainability: Synthesis And The Way Forward, Eileen Hofmann, Alida Bundy, Ken Drinkwater, Alberto R. Piola, Bernard Avril, Carol Robinson Jan 2015

Imber- Research For Marine Sustainability: Synthesis And The Way Forward, Eileen Hofmann, Alida Bundy, Ken Drinkwater, Alberto R. Piola, Bernard Avril, Carol Robinson

CCPO Publications

The Integrated Marine Biogeochemistry and Ecosystem Research (IMBER) project aims at developing a comprehensive understanding of and accurate predictive capacity of ocean responses to accelerating global change and the consequent effects on the Earth system and human society. Understanding the changing ecology and biogeochemistry of marine ecosystems and their sensitivity and resilience to multiple drivers, pressures and stressors is critical to developing responses that will help reduce the vulnerability of marine-dependent human communities. This overview of the IMBER project provides a synthesis of project achievements and highlights the value of collaborative, interdisciplinary, integrated research approaches as developed and implemented through ...


The Value Of Captains’ Behavioral Choices In The Success Of The Surfclam (Spisula Solidissima) Fishery On The U.S. Mid-Atlantic Coast: A Model Evaluation, Eric N. Powell, John M. Klinck, Daphne M. Munroe, Eileen E. Hofmann, Paula Moreno, Roger Mann Jan 2015

The Value Of Captains’ Behavioral Choices In The Success Of The Surfclam (Spisula Solidissima) Fishery On The U.S. Mid-Atlantic Coast: A Model Evaluation, Eric N. Powell, John M. Klinck, Daphne M. Munroe, Eileen E. Hofmann, Paula Moreno, Roger Mann

CCPO Publications

The response of the surfclam Spisula solidissima to warming of the Mid-Atlantic Bight is manifested by recession of the southern and inshore boundary of the clam’s range. This phenomenon has impacted the fishery through the closure of southern ports and the movement of processing capacity north, impacts that may require responsive actions on the part of fishery captains to mitigate a decline in fishery performance otherwise ineluctably accompanying this shift in range. The purpose of this study was to evaluate options in the behavioral repertoire of captains that might provide mitigation. A model capable of simulating a spatially and ...


Acclimation, Adaptation, Traits And Trade-Offs In Plankton Functional Type Models: Reconciling Terminology For Biology And Modelling, Kevin J. Flynn, Michael St. John, John A. Raven, David O. F. Skibinski, J. Icarus Allen, Aditee Mitra, Eileen E. Hofmann Jan 2015

Acclimation, Adaptation, Traits And Trade-Offs In Plankton Functional Type Models: Reconciling Terminology For Biology And Modelling, Kevin J. Flynn, Michael St. John, John A. Raven, David O. F. Skibinski, J. Icarus Allen, Aditee Mitra, Eileen E. Hofmann

CCPO Publications

We propose definitions in terminology to enhance ongoing collaborations between biologists and modellers on plankton ecology. Organism "functional type" should refer to commonality in ecology not biogeochemistry; the latter is largely an emergent property of the former, while alignment with ecology is also consistent with usage in terrestrial science. Adaptation should be confined, as in genetics, to consideration of species inter-generational change; most so-called "adaptive" plankton models are thus acclimative, modifying vital rates in response to stimuli. Trait trade-off approaches should ideally only be considered for describing intra-generational interactions; in applications between generations, and certainly between unrelated species, such concepts ...


Estimating Sustainable Harvests Of Eastern Oysters, Crassostrea Virginica, Thomas M. Soniat, Nathan Cooper, Eric N. Powell, John M. Klinck, Mahdi Abdelguerfi, Shengru Tu, Roger Mann, Patrick D. Banks Jan 2014

Estimating Sustainable Harvests Of Eastern Oysters, Crassostrea Virginica, Thomas M. Soniat, Nathan Cooper, Eric N. Powell, John M. Klinck, Mahdi Abdelguerfi, Shengru Tu, Roger Mann, Patrick D. Banks

CCPO Publications

Sustainability of a fishery is traditionally and typically considered achieved if the exploited population does not decline in numbers or biomass over time as a result of fishing relative to biological reference point goals. Oysters, however, exhibit atypical population dynamics compared with many other commercial species. The population dynamics often display extreme natural interannual variation in numbers and biomass, and oysters create their own habitat--the reef itself. With the worldwide decline of oyster reef habitat and the oyster fisheries dependent thereon, the maintenance of shell has received renewed attention as essential to population sustainability. We apply a shell budget model ...


Krill, Climate, And Contrasting Future Scenarios For Arctic And Antarctic Fisheries, Margaret M. Mcbride, Padmini Dalpadado, Kenneth F. Drinkwater, Olav Rune Godø, Alistair J. Hobday, Anne B. Hollowed, Trond Kristiansen, Eugene J. Murphy, Patrick H. Ressler, Sam Subbey, Eileen E. Hofmann, Harald Loeng Jan 2014

Krill, Climate, And Contrasting Future Scenarios For Arctic And Antarctic Fisheries, Margaret M. Mcbride, Padmini Dalpadado, Kenneth F. Drinkwater, Olav Rune Godø, Alistair J. Hobday, Anne B. Hollowed, Trond Kristiansen, Eugene J. Murphy, Patrick H. Ressler, Sam Subbey, Eileen E. Hofmann, Harald Loeng

CCPO Publications

Arctic and Antarcticmarine systems have incommon high latitudes, large seasonal changes in light levels, cold air and sea temperatures, and sea ice. In other ways, however, they are strikingly different, including their: age, extent, geological structure, ice stability, and foodweb structure. Both regions contain very rapidly warming areas and climate impacts have been reported, as have dramatic future projections. However, the combined effects of a changing climate on oceanographic processes and foodweb dynamics are likely to influence their future fisheries in very different ways. Differences in the life-history strategies of the key zooplankton species (Antarctic krill in the Southern Ocean ...


Understanding The Success And Failure Of Oyster Populations: Periodicities Of Perkinsus Marinus, And Oyster Recruitment, Mortality, And Size, Thomas M. Soniat, John M. Klinck, Eric N. Powell, Eileen E. Hofmann Aug 2012

Understanding The Success And Failure Of Oyster Populations: Periodicities Of Perkinsus Marinus, And Oyster Recruitment, Mortality, And Size, Thomas M. Soniat, John M. Klinck, Eric N. Powell, Eileen E. Hofmann

CCPO Publications

Ten-year time series (1992 to 2002) of salinity, Dermo disease, and size-class structure and mortality measured for an eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) population at a reef in Bay Tambour, Terrebonne Parish, LA, were analyzed using wavelet techniques to determine dominant frequencies and correlations. Along the Gulf Coast of the United States, Dermo disease (caused by Perkinsus marinus) responds to the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) climate signal through its response to salinity. During the La Nina portion of ENSO, decreased rainfall leads to an increase in salinity, which triggers a rise in Dermo disease prevalence and intensity, producing increased oyster mortality ...


How Do Marine Protected Area Strategies Influence Metapopulation Genetic Connectivity? A Modeling Study With Oysters, Daphne Munroe, Eric N. Powell, John M. Klinck, Eileen E. Hofmann Apr 2012

How Do Marine Protected Area Strategies Influence Metapopulation Genetic Connectivity? A Modeling Study With Oysters, Daphne Munroe, Eric N. Powell, John M. Klinck, Eileen E. Hofmann

CCPO Publications

No abstract provided.


Coupled Physical And Biological Modeling Of Atlantic Surfclam Larval Transport And Sub-Population Connectivity In The Middle Atlantic Bight And Georges Bank, Xinzhong (Peter) Zhang, Dale B. Haidvogel, John M. Klinck, Roger Mann, Eric N. Powell Apr 2012

Coupled Physical And Biological Modeling Of Atlantic Surfclam Larval Transport And Sub-Population Connectivity In The Middle Atlantic Bight And Georges Bank, Xinzhong (Peter) Zhang, Dale B. Haidvogel, John M. Klinck, Roger Mann, Eric N. Powell

CCPO Publications

No abstract provided.


A Retrospective Analysis Of Sustainable Oyster Harvest From The Louisiana State Primary Seed Grounds, 1999-2010: A Shell-Neutral Modeling Approach, Thomas M. Soniat, Mahdi Abdelguerfi, Eric N. Powell, John M. Klinck, Eileen E. Hofmann, Shengru Tu, Nathan Cooper, Janak Dahal, John Finigan, Benjamin S. Eberline, Jerome F. La Peyre, Megan K. La Peyre, Keith B. Ibos, Brian Lezina, Patrick Banks Mar 2012

A Retrospective Analysis Of Sustainable Oyster Harvest From The Louisiana State Primary Seed Grounds, 1999-2010: A Shell-Neutral Modeling Approach, Thomas M. Soniat, Mahdi Abdelguerfi, Eric N. Powell, John M. Klinck, Eileen E. Hofmann, Shengru Tu, Nathan Cooper, Janak Dahal, John Finigan, Benjamin S. Eberline, Jerome F. La Peyre, Megan K. La Peyre, Keith B. Ibos, Brian Lezina, Patrick Banks

CCPO Publications

No abstract provided.


Circulation And Behavior Controls On Dispersal Of Eastern Oyster (Crassostrea Virginica) Larvae In Delaware Bay, Diego A. Narvaez, John M. Klinck, Eric N. Powell, Eileen E. Hofmann, John Wilkin, Dale B. Haidvogel Jan 2012

Circulation And Behavior Controls On Dispersal Of Eastern Oyster (Crassostrea Virginica) Larvae In Delaware Bay, Diego A. Narvaez, John M. Klinck, Eric N. Powell, Eileen E. Hofmann, John Wilkin, Dale B. Haidvogel

CCPO Publications

The degree of genetic connectivity among populations in a metapopulation has direct consequences for species evolution, development of disease resistance, and capacity of a metapopulation to adapt to climate change. This study used a metapopulation model that integrates population dynamics, dispersal, and genetics within an individual-based model framework to examine the mechanisms and dynamics of genetic connectivity within a metapopulation. The model was parameterized to simulate four populations of oysters (Crassostrea virginica) from Delaware Bay on the mid-Atlantic coast of the United States. Differences among the four populations include a strong spatial gradient in mortality, a spatial gradient in growth ...


The Rise And Fall Of Crassostrea Virginica Oyster Reefs: The Role Of Disease And Fishing In Their Demise And A Vignette On Their Management, Eric N. Powell, John M. Klinck, Kathryn Ashton-Alcox, Eileen E. Hofmann, Jason Morson Jan 2012

The Rise And Fall Of Crassostrea Virginica Oyster Reefs: The Role Of Disease And Fishing In Their Demise And A Vignette On Their Management, Eric N. Powell, John M. Klinck, Kathryn Ashton-Alcox, Eileen E. Hofmann, Jason Morson

CCPO Publications

We describe a model designed to simulate the shell carbonate budget of an oyster reef.We identify five parameters descriptive of basic characteristics of the shell carbonate budget of a reef that limit simulation accuracy. Two describe the TAZ (taphonomically-active zone) and the distribution of shell carbonate within it. One is the taphonomic rate in the TAZ. Two determine the volume contribution of shell carbonate and the taphonomic loss rate within the reef framework. For Mid-Atlantic estuaries, model simulations suggest that reef accretion only occurs if oyster abundance is near carrying capacity. Simulations further suggest that reef accretion is infeasible ...


End-To-End Models: Management Applications, John H. Steele, Eileen E. Hofmann, Dian J. Gifford Jan 2012

End-To-End Models: Management Applications, John H. Steele, Eileen E. Hofmann, Dian J. Gifford

CCPO Publications

Preface to the 2012 issue of Progress in Oceanography.


Does Large-Scale Ocean Circulation Structure Life History Connectivity In Antarctic Toothfish (Dissostichus Mawsoni)?, Julian Ashford, Michael S. Dinniman, Cassandra Brooks, Allen H. Andrews, Eileen E. Hofmann, Gregor Cailliet, Christopher Jones, Nakul Ramanna Jan 2012

Does Large-Scale Ocean Circulation Structure Life History Connectivity In Antarctic Toothfish (Dissostichus Mawsoni)?, Julian Ashford, Michael S. Dinniman, Cassandra Brooks, Allen H. Andrews, Eileen E. Hofmann, Gregor Cailliet, Christopher Jones, Nakul Ramanna

CCPO Publications

A multidisciplinary approach incorporating otolith chemistry, age data, and numerical Lagrangian particle simulations indicated a single, self-recruiting population of Antarctic toothfish (Dissostichus mawsoni) in the Southeast Pacific Basin (SPB) and Ross Sea, with a life history structured by the large-scale circulation. Chemistry deposited prior to capture along otolith edges demonstrated strong environmental heterogeneity, yet the chemistry in otolith nuclei, deposited during early life, showed no differences. Age data showed only adult fish in catches on the Pacific-Antarctic Ridge in the SPB and structuring of life stages consistent with transport pathways from the northern Ross Sea. Lagrangian particle simulations predicted that ...


Modeling The Dispersal Of Eastern Oyster (Crassostrea Virginica) Larvae In Delaware Bay, Diego A. Narvaez, John M. Klinck, Eric N. Powell, Eileen E. Hofmann, John Wilkin, Dale B. Haidvogel Jan 2012

Modeling The Dispersal Of Eastern Oyster (Crassostrea Virginica) Larvae In Delaware Bay, Diego A. Narvaez, John M. Klinck, Eric N. Powell, Eileen E. Hofmann, John Wilkin, Dale B. Haidvogel

CCPO Publications

The interactions of circulation and growth processes in determining the horizontal distribution of eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) larvae in the Delaware Bay estuary were investigated with a coupled circulation-individual-based larvae model that used environmental conditions from the spawning seasons (mid-June to mid-September) of 1984, 1985, 1986, 2000, and 2001. Particles, representing oyster larvae, were released at five-day intervals from areas in Delaware Bay that correspond to natural oyster reefs. The simulated larval development time was used to estimate potential larval success, determined by the percent of larvae that successfully reached settlement size (330 µm) within the planktonic larval duration of ...


Circulation And Water Properties And Their Relationship To The Oyster Disease Msx In Delaware Bay, Zhiren Wang, Dale B. Haidvogel, David Bushek, Susan E. Ford, Eileen E. Hofmann, Eric N. Powell, John Wilkin Jan 2012

Circulation And Water Properties And Their Relationship To The Oyster Disease Msx In Delaware Bay, Zhiren Wang, Dale B. Haidvogel, David Bushek, Susan E. Ford, Eileen E. Hofmann, Eric N. Powell, John Wilkin

CCPO Publications

We apply a high-resolution hydro-dynamical model to investigate the role of physical factors influencing infection prevalence of Haplosporidium nelsoni, causative agent of MSX disease in the eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica), in Delaware Bay, USA. Validation studies conducted for the years 2000 and 2010-2011 confirm that the model, based upon the Regional Ocean Modeling System, has significant skill in the recovery of observed water level, temperature, salinity, and velocity. Multi-year simulations are performed for periods representing temporal and spatial variations in H. nelsoni infection prevalence (1974-76, 1979-81, 1984-86, 1990-92, and 2006-09) to assess the degree to which the variations in water ...


Can Oysters Crassostrea Virginica Develop Resistance To Dermo Disease In The Field: The Impediment Posed By Climate Cycles, Eric N. Powell, John M. Klinck, Ximing Guo, Eileen E. Hofmann, Susan E. Ford, David Bushek Jan 2012

Can Oysters Crassostrea Virginica Develop Resistance To Dermo Disease In The Field: The Impediment Posed By Climate Cycles, Eric N. Powell, John M. Klinck, Ximing Guo, Eileen E. Hofmann, Susan E. Ford, David Bushek

CCPO Publications

Populations of eastern oysters, Crassostrea virginica, are commonly limited by mortality from dermo disease. Little development of resistance to Perkinsus marinus, the dermo pathogen, has occurred, despite the high mortality rates and frequency of epizootics. Can the tendency of the parasite to exhibit cyclic epizootics limit the oyster's response to the disease despite the presence of alleles apparently conferring disease resistance? We utilize a gene-based population dynamics model to simulate the development of disease resistance in Crassostrea virginica populations exposed to cyclic mortality encompassing periodicities expected of dermo disease over the geographic range at which epizootics have been observed ...


Application Of A Gene-Based Population Dynamics Model To The Optimal Egg Size Problem: Why Do Bivalve Planktotrophic Eggs Vary In Size?, Eric N. Powell, Jason Morson, John M. Klinck Aug 2011

Application Of A Gene-Based Population Dynamics Model To The Optimal Egg Size Problem: Why Do Bivalve Planktotrophic Eggs Vary In Size?, Eric N. Powell, Jason Morson, John M. Klinck

CCPO Publications

The presumption is that egg quality influences larval survival and that egg size influences egg quality. Thus, larger eggs should be favored by selection. Counterweighing the tendency for egg size to increase is the number of eggs that can be produced if egg size remains small. We examine how egg size and egg number counterbalance in Crassostrea oysters, resulting in an average egg size near 50 mu m. Simulations imposing a diversity of ranges in larval survivorship-from little advantage for large eggs relative to small eggs to a great advantage-yield some anticipated outcomes in which genotypes generating larger eggs are ...


Enso And Variability Of The Antarctic Peninsula Pelagic Marine Ecosystem, Valerie J. Loeb, Eileen E. Hofmann, John M. Klinck, Osmund Holm-Hansen, Warren B. White Jan 2009

Enso And Variability Of The Antarctic Peninsula Pelagic Marine Ecosystem, Valerie J. Loeb, Eileen E. Hofmann, John M. Klinck, Osmund Holm-Hansen, Warren B. White

CCPO Publications

The West Antarctic Peninsula region is an important source of Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) in the Southern Ocean. From 1980-2004 abundance and concentration of phytoplankton and zooplankton, krill reproductive and recruitment success and seasonal sea ice extent here were significantly correlated with the atmospheric Southern Oscillation Index and exhibited three- to five-year frequencies characteristic of El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) variability. This linkage was associated with movements of the Southern Antarctic Circumpolar Current Front and Boundary, a changing influence of Antarctic Circumpolar Current and Weddell Sea waters, and eastward versus westward flow and mixing processes that are consistent with forcing by ...


Understanding How Disease And Environment Combine To Structure Resistance In Estuarine Bivalve Populations, Eileen E. Hofmann, David Bushek, Susan E. Ford, Ximing Guo, Dale Haidvogel, Dennis Hedgecock, John M. Klinck, Coren Milbury, Diego Narvaez, Eric Powell, Yongping Wang, Zhiren Wang, Liusuo Zhang Jan 2009

Understanding How Disease And Environment Combine To Structure Resistance In Estuarine Bivalve Populations, Eileen E. Hofmann, David Bushek, Susan E. Ford, Ximing Guo, Dale Haidvogel, Dennis Hedgecock, John M. Klinck, Coren Milbury, Diego Narvaez, Eric Powell, Yongping Wang, Zhiren Wang, Liusuo Zhang

CCPO Publications

Delaware Bay oyster (Crassostrea virginica) populations are influenced by two lethal parasites that cause Dermo and MSX diseases. As part of the US National Science Foundation Ecology of Infectious Diseases initiative, a program developed for Delaware Bay focuses on understanding how oyster population genetics and population dynamics interact with the environment and these parasites to structure he host populations, and how these interactions might modified by climate change. Laboratory and field studies undertaken during this program include identifying genes related to MSX and Dermo disease resistance, potential regions for refugia and the mechanisms that allow them to exist, phenotypic and ...


On The Movement Of Beluga Whales In Cook Inlet, Alaska: Simulations Of Tidal And Environmental Impacts Using A Hydrodynamic Inundation Model, Tal Ezer, Roderick Hobbs, Lie-Yauw Oey Dec 2008

On The Movement Of Beluga Whales In Cook Inlet, Alaska: Simulations Of Tidal And Environmental Impacts Using A Hydrodynamic Inundation Model, Tal Ezer, Roderick Hobbs, Lie-Yauw Oey

CCPO Publications

The population of beluga whales in Cook Inlet, Alaska, is in decline, and since 2000 these whales have been under consideration for designation as "endangered" under the Endangered Species Act (and were placed on the list in October 2008, just before this article went to press). In order to study environmental and hydrodynamic impacts on the belugas' movements and survival in the unique habitat of the inlet, a three-dimensional ocean circulation and inundation model is combined with satellite-tracked beluga whale data. Model-wale data comparisons from two whale paths during a five-day period (september 17-21, 2000) covering 10 tidal cycles suggest ...


Otolith Chemistry Indicates Population Structuring By The Antarctic Circumpolar Current, Julian R. Ashford, Cynthia M. Jones, Eileen E. Hofmann, Inigo Everson, Carlos A. Moreno, Guy Duhamel, Richard Williams Jan 2008

Otolith Chemistry Indicates Population Structuring By The Antarctic Circumpolar Current, Julian R. Ashford, Cynthia M. Jones, Eileen E. Hofmann, Inigo Everson, Carlos A. Moreno, Guy Duhamel, Richard Williams

CCPO Publications

Large-scale transport of seawater in ocean currents may generate spatially complex population structure through the advection of life stages of marine fish species. To test this, we compared the chemistry of otolith nuclei from Patagonian toothfish (Dissostichus eleginoides), presently managed as spatially discrete Populations corresponding to fishing management areas along the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC), which transports water eastward around the Southern Ocean. The chemistry of otolith nuclei, laid down during early life, differed significantly between fishing areas Off South America and the Antarctic and between some Antarctic areas. However, we found significant discrepancies from expectation for a population structure ...


A Modelling Study Of Developmental Stage And Environmental Variability Effects On Copepod Foraging, Jerry D. Wiggert, Eileen E. Hofmann, Gustav-Adolf Paffenhöfer Jan 2008

A Modelling Study Of Developmental Stage And Environmental Variability Effects On Copepod Foraging, Jerry D. Wiggert, Eileen E. Hofmann, Gustav-Adolf Paffenhöfer

CCPO Publications

We used a stochastic Lagrangian model to study how behaviour contributes to copepod grazing success. The model simulates distinct foraging behaviours of Clausocalanus furcatus, Paracalanus aculeatus, and Oithona plumifera. Three sets of simulations were performed to investigate the effects of (a) prey-size preference; (b) variation in prey-size spectra; and (c) turbulence intensity on these species’ grazing rates. The size preference simulations demonstrate that, compared with copepodites, mature females have cell ingestion rates that are an order of magnitude lower, while carbon uptake is reduced by 35%. A prey spectrum that is skewed towards cells ,<6 μm promotes copepodite success because the basal metabolic needs of the adult females require a prey concentration of 850–1000 cells ml-1. Variations in turbulence intensity reveal ...


Bottom-Up Forcing And The Decline Of Steller Sea Lions (Eumetopias Jubatus) In Alaska: Assessing The Ocean Climate Hypothesis, Andrew W. Trites, Arthur J. Miller, Michael A. Alexander, Steven J. Bograd, John A. Calder, Antonietta Capotondi, Kenneth O. Coyle, Emanuele Di Lorenzo, Bruce P. Finney, Edward J. Gregr, Chester E. Grosch, Thomas C. Royer Jan 2007

Bottom-Up Forcing And The Decline Of Steller Sea Lions (Eumetopias Jubatus) In Alaska: Assessing The Ocean Climate Hypothesis, Andrew W. Trites, Arthur J. Miller, Michael A. Alexander, Steven J. Bograd, John A. Calder, Antonietta Capotondi, Kenneth O. Coyle, Emanuele Di Lorenzo, Bruce P. Finney, Edward J. Gregr, Chester E. Grosch, Thomas C. Royer

CCPO Publications

Declines of Steller sea lion ( Eumetopias jubatus) populations in the Aleutian Islands and Gulf of Alaska could be a consequence of physical oceanographic changes associated with the 1976–77 climate regime shift. Changes in ocean climate are hypothesized to have affected the quantity, quality, and accessibility of prey, which in turn may have affected the rates of birth and death of sea lions. Recent studies of the spatial and temporal variations in the ocean climate system of the North Pacific support this hypothesis. Ocean climate changes appear to have created adaptive opportunities for various species that are preyed upon by ...