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Biology Faculty Publications

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Articles 1 - 30 of 1069

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Derivatives Of A Benzoquinone Acyl Hydrazone With Activity Against Toxoplasma Gondii, A. G. Sanford, T. T. Schulze, L. P. Potluri, G. F. Watson, E. B. Darner, S. J. Zach, R. M. Hemsley, A. I. Wallick, R. C. Warner, S. A. Charman, X. Wang, J. L. Vennerstrom, P. H. Davis Nov 2018

Derivatives Of A Benzoquinone Acyl Hydrazone With Activity Against Toxoplasma Gondii, A. G. Sanford, T. T. Schulze, L. P. Potluri, G. F. Watson, E. B. Darner, S. J. Zach, R. M. Hemsley, A. I. Wallick, R. C. Warner, S. A. Charman, X. Wang, J. L. Vennerstrom, P. H. Davis

Biology Faculty Publications

Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite with global incidence. The acute infection, toxoplasmosis, is treatable but current regimens have poor host tolerance and no cure has been found for latent infections. This work builds upon a previous high throughput screen which identified benzoquinone acyl hydrazone (KG8) as the most promising compound; KG8 displayed potent in vitro activity against T. gondii but only marginal in vivoefficacy in a T. gondii animal model. To define the potential of this new lead compound, we now describe a baseline structure-activity relationship for this chemotype. Several derivatives displayed IC50's comparable to that ...


Dispersal In Host–Parasitoid Interactions: Crop Colonization By Pests And Specialist Enemies, Edward Evans Oct 2018

Dispersal In Host–Parasitoid Interactions: Crop Colonization By Pests And Specialist Enemies, Edward Evans

Biology Faculty Publications

Interactions of insect pests and their natural enemies increasingly are being considered from a metapopulation perspective, with focus on movements of individuals among habitat patches (e.g., individual crop fields). Biological control may be undercut in short-lived crops as natural enemies lag behind the pests in colonizing newly created habitat. This hypothesis was tested by assessing parasitism of cereal leaf beetle (Oulema melanopus) and alfalfa weevil (Hypera postica) larvae at varying distances along transects into newly planted fields of small grains and alfalfa in northern Utah. The rate of parasitism of cereal leaf beetles and alfalfa weevils by their host-specific ...


Decadal Effects Of Thinning On Understory Light Environments And Plant Community Structure In A Subtropical Forest, Ho-Chen Tsai, Jyh-Min Chiang, Ryan Mcewan, Teng-Chiu Lin Oct 2018

Decadal Effects Of Thinning On Understory Light Environments And Plant Community Structure In A Subtropical Forest, Ho-Chen Tsai, Jyh-Min Chiang, Ryan Mcewan, Teng-Chiu Lin

Biology Faculty Publications

Canopy-opening disturbance such as thinning has immediate and substantive effects on understory microclimate and therefore the establishment and growth of understory plants. A large number of studies have reported the effects of thinning on tree growth, but few studies have examined long-term effects of thinning on understory light environments and species and functional diversity of understory plants. Even less is known whether the change in understory plant community structure observed following canopy disturbance is short-lived and would diminish as the canopy closes or a long lasting due to legacy effects. We examined the effects of an experimental removal of 25 ...


Evolution Of Nuchal Glands, Unusual Defensive Organs Of Asian Natricine Snakes (Serpentes: Colubridae), Inferred From A Molecular Phylogeny, Hirohiko Takeuchi, Alan H. Savitzky, Li Ding, Anslem De Silva, Indraneil Das, Tao Thien Nguyen, Tein-Shun Tsai, Teppei Jono, Guang-Xiang Zhu, Dharshani Mahaulpatha, Yezhong Tang, Akira Mori Sep 2018

Evolution Of Nuchal Glands, Unusual Defensive Organs Of Asian Natricine Snakes (Serpentes: Colubridae), Inferred From A Molecular Phylogeny, Hirohiko Takeuchi, Alan H. Savitzky, Li Ding, Anslem De Silva, Indraneil Das, Tao Thien Nguyen, Tein-Shun Tsai, Teppei Jono, Guang-Xiang Zhu, Dharshani Mahaulpatha, Yezhong Tang, Akira Mori

Biology Faculty Publications

A large body of evidence indicates that evolutionary innovations of novel organs have facilitated the subsequent diversification of species. Investigation of the evolutionary history of such organs should provide important clues for understanding the basis for species diversification. An Asian natricine snake, Rhabdophis tigrinus, possesses a series of unusual organs, called nuchal glands, which contain cardiotonic steroid toxins known as bufadienolides. Rhabdophis tigrinus sequesters bufadienolides from its toad prey and stores them in the nuchal glands as a defensive mechanism. Among more than 3,500 species of snakes, only 17 Asian natricine species are known to possess nuchal glands or ...


An Investigation Into Tetrodotoxin (Ttx) Levels Associated With The Red Dorsal Spots In Eastern Newt (Notophthalmus Viridescens) Efts And Adults, Mackenzie M. Spicer, Amber N. Stokes, Trevor L. Chapman, Edmund D. Brodie Jr., Edmund D. Brodie Iii, Brian G. Gall Sep 2018

An Investigation Into Tetrodotoxin (Ttx) Levels Associated With The Red Dorsal Spots In Eastern Newt (Notophthalmus Viridescens) Efts And Adults, Mackenzie M. Spicer, Amber N. Stokes, Trevor L. Chapman, Edmund D. Brodie Jr., Edmund D. Brodie Iii, Brian G. Gall

Biology Faculty Publications

We investigated the concentration of tetrodotoxin (TTX) in sections of skin containing and lacking red dorsal spots in both Eastern newt (Notophthalmus viridescens) efts and adults. Several other species, such as Pleurodeles waltl and Echinotriton andersoni, have granular glands concentrated in brightly pigmented regions on the dorsum, and thus we hypothesized that the red dorsal spots of Eastern newts may also possess higher levels of TTX than the surrounding skin. We found no difference between the concentrations of TTX in the red spots as compared to neighboring skin lacking these spots in either efts or adults. However, efts with more ...


Structural Basis For Light Control Of Cell Development Revealed By Crystal Structures Of A Myxobacterial Phytochrome, Nicole C. Woitowich, Andrei S. Halavaty, Patricia Waltz, Christopher Kupitz, Joseph Valera, Gregory Tracy, Kevin D. Gallagher, Elin Claesson, Takanori Nakane, Suraj Pandey, Garrett Nelson, Rie Tanaka, Eriko Nango, Eiichi Mizohata, Shigeki Owada, Kensure Tono, Yasumasa Joti, Angela C. Nugent, Hardik Patel, Ayesha Mapara, James Hopkins, Phu Duong, Dorina Bizhga, Svetlana E. Kovaleva, Rachel St. Peter, Cynthia N. Hernandez, Wesley B. Ozarowski, Shatabdi Roy-Chowdhuri, Jay-How Yang, Petra Edlund, Heikki Takala, Janne Ihalainen, Jennifer Brayshaw, Tyler Norwood, Ishwor Poudyal, Petra Fromme, John C.H. Spence, Keith Moffat, Sebastian Westenhoff, Marius Schmidt, Emina A. Stojkovic Sep 2018

Structural Basis For Light Control Of Cell Development Revealed By Crystal Structures Of A Myxobacterial Phytochrome, Nicole C. Woitowich, Andrei S. Halavaty, Patricia Waltz, Christopher Kupitz, Joseph Valera, Gregory Tracy, Kevin D. Gallagher, Elin Claesson, Takanori Nakane, Suraj Pandey, Garrett Nelson, Rie Tanaka, Eriko Nango, Eiichi Mizohata, Shigeki Owada, Kensure Tono, Yasumasa Joti, Angela C. Nugent, Hardik Patel, Ayesha Mapara, James Hopkins, Phu Duong, Dorina Bizhga, Svetlana E. Kovaleva, Rachel St. Peter, Cynthia N. Hernandez, Wesley B. Ozarowski, Shatabdi Roy-Chowdhuri, Jay-How Yang, Petra Edlund, Heikki Takala, Janne Ihalainen, Jennifer Brayshaw, Tyler Norwood, Ishwor Poudyal, Petra Fromme, John C.H. Spence, Keith Moffat, Sebastian Westenhoff, Marius Schmidt, Emina A. Stojkovic

Biology Faculty Publications

Phytochromes are red-light photoreceptors that were first characterized in plants, with homologs in photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic bacteria known as bacteriophytochromes (BphPs). Upon absorption of light, BphPs interconvert between two states denoted Pr and Pfr with distinct absorption spectra in the red and far-red. They have recently been engineered as enzymatic photoswitches for fluorescent-marker applications in non-invasive tissue imaging of mammals. This article presents cryo- and room-temperature crystal structures of the unusual phytochrome from the non-photosynthetic myxobacterium Stigmatella aurantiaca (SaBphP1) and reveals its role in the fruitingbody formation of this photomorphogenic bacterium. SaBphP1 lacks a conserved histidine (His) in the chromophore-binding ...


Nurudea Zhengii Ren, A New Species Of The Rhus Gall Aphids (Aphididae: Eriosomatinae: Fordini) From Eastern China, Zhu-Mei Ren, Xu Su, Carol D. Von Dohlen, Jun Wen Aug 2018

Nurudea Zhengii Ren, A New Species Of The Rhus Gall Aphids (Aphididae: Eriosomatinae: Fordini) From Eastern China, Zhu-Mei Ren, Xu Su, Carol D. Von Dohlen, Jun Wen

Biology Faculty Publications

A new Rhus gall aphid species Nurudea zhengii Ren, sp. nov. collected from the Mountain Qixing in Shangrao County, Jiangxi Province, China is described and illustrated from alate viviparous female. The new species differs from the other Nurudea species in the length and proportion of antennal segments, the structure of antennal secondary sensilla, and the flower-like shape of the galls that are formed on its primary host. Its primary host plant is Rhus hypoleuca, whereas other Nurudea species are on R. chinensis.


Plasmonic-Ceria Nanoparticles As Fluorescence Intensity And Lifetime Quenching Optical Sensor, Nader Shehata, Effat Samir, Ishac Kandas Aug 2018

Plasmonic-Ceria Nanoparticles As Fluorescence Intensity And Lifetime Quenching Optical Sensor, Nader Shehata, Effat Samir, Ishac Kandas

Biology Faculty Publications

Ceria nanoparticles have been recently used as an optical fluorescent material with visible emission under ultraviolet excitation, due to the formation of trivalent cerium ions with corresponding oxygen vacancies. This paper introduces the enhancement of both fluorescence emission and lifetime through adding gold nanoparticles. The reason is due to possible coupling between the plasmonic resonance of gold nanoparticles and the fluorescence emission of ceria that has been achieved, along with enhanced formation of trivalent cerium ions. Both factors lead to higher fluorescence intensity peaks and shorter fluorescence lifetimes. As an application, gold-ceria nanoparticles have been used as an optical sensing ...


Mobile Elements Shape Plastome Evolution In Ferns, Tanner A. Robison, Amanda L. Grusz, Paul G. Wolf, Jeffrey P. Mower, Blake D. Fauskee, Karla Sosa, Eric Schuettpelz Aug 2018

Mobile Elements Shape Plastome Evolution In Ferns, Tanner A. Robison, Amanda L. Grusz, Paul G. Wolf, Jeffrey P. Mower, Blake D. Fauskee, Karla Sosa, Eric Schuettpelz

Biology Faculty Publications

Plastid genomes display remarkable organizational stability over evolutionary time. From green algae to angiosperms, most plastid genomes are largely collinear, with only a few cases of inversion, gene loss, or, in extremely rare cases, gene addition. These plastome insertions are mostly clade-specific and are typically of nuclear or mitochondrial origin. Here, we expand on these findings and present the first family-level survey of plastome evolution in ferns, revealing a novel suite of dynamic mobile elements. Comparative plastome analyses of the Pteridaceae expose several mobile open reading frames that vary in sequence length, insertion site, and configuration among sampled taxa. Even ...


Generalist And Specialist Mite Herbivores Induce Similar Defense Responses In Maize And Barley But Differ In Susceptibility To Benzoxazinoids, Huyen Bui, Robert Greenhalgh, Alice Ruckert, Gunbharpur S. Gill, Sarah Lee, Ricardo A. Ramirez, Richard M. Clark Aug 2018

Generalist And Specialist Mite Herbivores Induce Similar Defense Responses In Maize And Barley But Differ In Susceptibility To Benzoxazinoids, Huyen Bui, Robert Greenhalgh, Alice Ruckert, Gunbharpur S. Gill, Sarah Lee, Ricardo A. Ramirez, Richard M. Clark

Biology Faculty Publications

While substantial progress has been made in understanding defense responses of cereals to insect herbivores, comparatively little is known about responses to feeding by spider mites. Nevertheless, several spider mite species, including the generalist Tetranychus urticae and the grass specialist Oligonychus pratensis, cause damage on cereals such as maize and wheat, especially during drought stress. To understand defense responses of cereals to spider mites, we characterized the transcriptomic responses of maize and barley to herbivory by both mite species, and included a wounding control against which modulation of defenses could be tested. T. urticae and O. pratensis induced highly correlated ...


Repeatability And Reliability Of Exploratory Behavior In Proactive And Reactive Zebrafsh, Danio Rerio, Matthew R. Baker, Alexander C. Goodman, Jonathan B. Santo, Ryan Y. Wong Aug 2018

Repeatability And Reliability Of Exploratory Behavior In Proactive And Reactive Zebrafsh, Danio Rerio, Matthew R. Baker, Alexander C. Goodman, Jonathan B. Santo, Ryan Y. Wong

Biology Faculty Publications

Behavioral responses to novel situations often vary and can belong to a suite of correlated behaviors. Characteristic behaviors of different personality types (e.g. stress coping styles) are generally consistent across contexts and time. Here, we compare the repeatability and reliability of exploratory behaviors between zebrafsh strains selectively bred to display contrasting behavioral responses to stressors that represent the proactive-reactive axis. Specifically, we measure exploratory behavior of individual fish in an open field test over five weeks. We quantified the stationary time, average swimming speed and time spent by a fish in the center area. We found a number of ...


Molecular Adaptations For Sensing And Securing Prey And Insight Into Amniote Genome Diversity From The Garter Snake Genome, Blair W. Perry, Daren C. Card, Joel W. Mcglothlin, Giulia I.M. Pasquesi, Richard H. Adams, Drew R. Schield, Nicole R. Hales, Andrew B. Corbin, Jeffery P. Demuth, Federico G. Hoffmann, Michael W. Vandewege, Ryan K. Schott, Nihar Bhattacharyya, Belinda S.W. Chang, Nicholas R. Casewell, Gareth Whiteley, Jacobo Reyes-Velasco, Stephen P. Mackessy, Tony Gamble, Kenneth B. Storey, Kyle K. Biggar, Courtney N. Passow, Chih-Horng Kuo, Suzanne E. Mcgaugh, Anne M. Bronikowski, A.P. Jason De Koning, Scott V. Edwards, Michael E. Pfrender, Patrick Minx, Edmund D. Brodie Iii, Edmund D. Brodie Jr., Wesley C. Warren, Todd A. Castoe Jul 2018

Molecular Adaptations For Sensing And Securing Prey And Insight Into Amniote Genome Diversity From The Garter Snake Genome, Blair W. Perry, Daren C. Card, Joel W. Mcglothlin, Giulia I.M. Pasquesi, Richard H. Adams, Drew R. Schield, Nicole R. Hales, Andrew B. Corbin, Jeffery P. Demuth, Federico G. Hoffmann, Michael W. Vandewege, Ryan K. Schott, Nihar Bhattacharyya, Belinda S.W. Chang, Nicholas R. Casewell, Gareth Whiteley, Jacobo Reyes-Velasco, Stephen P. Mackessy, Tony Gamble, Kenneth B. Storey, Kyle K. Biggar, Courtney N. Passow, Chih-Horng Kuo, Suzanne E. Mcgaugh, Anne M. Bronikowski, A.P. Jason De Koning, Scott V. Edwards, Michael E. Pfrender, Patrick Minx, Edmund D. Brodie Iii, Edmund D. Brodie Jr., Wesley C. Warren, Todd A. Castoe

Biology Faculty Publications

Colubridae represents the most phenotypically diverse and speciose family of snakes, yet no well-assembled and annotated genome exists for this lineage. Here, we report and analyze the genome of the garter snake, Thamnophis sirtalis, a colubrid snake that is an important model species for research in evolutionary biology, physiology, genomics, behavior, and the evolution of toxin resistance. Using the garter snake genome, we show how snakes have evolved numerous adaptations for sensing and securing prey, and identify features of snake genome structure that provide insight into the evolution of amniote genomes. Analyses of the garter snake and other squamate reptile ...


Prioritizing Phylogenetic Diversity Captures Functional Diversity Unreliably, Florent Mazel, Matthew W. Pennell, Marc W. Cadotte, Sandra Diaz, Giulio Valentino Dalla Riva, Richard Grenyer, Fabien Leprieur, Arne O. Mooers, David Mouillot, Caroline M. Tucker, William D. Pearse Jul 2018

Prioritizing Phylogenetic Diversity Captures Functional Diversity Unreliably, Florent Mazel, Matthew W. Pennell, Marc W. Cadotte, Sandra Diaz, Giulio Valentino Dalla Riva, Richard Grenyer, Fabien Leprieur, Arne O. Mooers, David Mouillot, Caroline M. Tucker, William D. Pearse

Biology Faculty Publications

In the face of the biodiversity crisis, it is argued that we should prioritize species in order to capture high functional diversity (FD). Because species traits often reflect shared evolutionary history, many researchers have assumed that maximizing phylogenetic diversity (PD) should indirectly capture FD, a hypothesis that we name the “phylogenetic gambit”. Here, we empirically test this gambit using data on ecologically relevant traits from >15,000 vertebrate species. Specifically, we estimate a measure of surrogacy of PD for FD. We find that maximizing PD results in an average gain of 18% of FD relative to random choice. However, this ...


Cross-Life Stage Effects Of Aquatic Larval Density And Terrestrial Moisture On Growth And Corticosterone In The Spotted Salamander, Julie F. Charbonnier, Jacquelyn Pearlmutter, James R. Vonesh, Caitlin R. Gabor, Zachery R. Forsburg, Kristine L. Grayson Jul 2018

Cross-Life Stage Effects Of Aquatic Larval Density And Terrestrial Moisture On Growth And Corticosterone In The Spotted Salamander, Julie F. Charbonnier, Jacquelyn Pearlmutter, James R. Vonesh, Caitlin R. Gabor, Zachery R. Forsburg, Kristine L. Grayson

Biology Faculty Publications

For organisms with complex life cycles, conditions experienced during early life stages may constrain later growth and survival. Conversely, compensatory mechanisms may attenuate negative effects from early life stages. We used the spotted salamander, Ambystoma maculatum, to test how aquatic larval density and terrestrial moisture influence juvenile growth, food intake, evaporative water loss and water reuptake rates, and corticosterone levels. We conducted an outdoor mesocosm experiment to manipulate larval density and transferred metamorphosed salamanders into low and high terrestrial moisture treatments in laboratory terrariums. After the larval stage, high-density salamanders were significantly smaller and had higher corticosterone release rates than ...


Deciphering The Biology Of Cryptophyllachora Eurasiatica Gen. Et Sp. Nov., An Often Cryptic Pathogen Of An Allergenic Weed, Ambrosia Artemisiifolia, Levente Kiss, Gábor M. Kovács, Károly Bóka, Gyula Bohár, Krisztina Varga Bohárné, Márk Z. Németh, Susumu Takamatsu, Hyeon-Dong Shin, Vera Hayova, Claudia Nischwitz, Marion K. Seier, Harry C. Evans, Paul F. Cannon, Gavin James Ash, Roger G. Shivas, Heinz Müller-Schärer Jul 2018

Deciphering The Biology Of Cryptophyllachora Eurasiatica Gen. Et Sp. Nov., An Often Cryptic Pathogen Of An Allergenic Weed, Ambrosia Artemisiifolia, Levente Kiss, Gábor M. Kovács, Károly Bóka, Gyula Bohár, Krisztina Varga Bohárné, Márk Z. Németh, Susumu Takamatsu, Hyeon-Dong Shin, Vera Hayova, Claudia Nischwitz, Marion K. Seier, Harry C. Evans, Paul F. Cannon, Gavin James Ash, Roger G. Shivas, Heinz Müller-Schärer

Biology Faculty Publications

A little known, unculturable ascomycete, referred to as Phyllachora ambrosiae, can destroy the inflorescences of Ambrosia artemisiifolia, an invasive agricultural weed and producer of highly allergenic pollen. The fungus often remains undetectable in ragweed populations. This work was conducted to understand its origin and pathogenesis, a prerequisite to consider its potential as a biocontrol agent. The methods used included light and transmission electron microscopy, nrDNA sequencing, phylogenetic analyses, artificial inoculations, and the examination of old herbarium and recent field specimens from Hungary, Korea, Ukraine and USA. The Eurasian and the North American specimens of this fungus were to represent two ...


Thermal Physiology And Developmental Plasticity Of Pigmentation In The Harlequin Bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), Carly D. Sibilia, Kelly A. Brosko, Christopher J. Hickling, Lily M. Thompson, Kristine L. Grayson, Jennifer R. Olson Jul 2018

Thermal Physiology And Developmental Plasticity Of Pigmentation In The Harlequin Bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), Carly D. Sibilia, Kelly A. Brosko, Christopher J. Hickling, Lily M. Thompson, Kristine L. Grayson, Jennifer R. Olson

Biology Faculty Publications

Traits that promote the maintenance of body temperatures within an optimal range provide advantages to ectothermic species. Pigmentation plasticity is found in many insects and enhances thermoregulatory potential as increased melanization can result in greater heat retention. The thermal melanism hypothesis predicts that species with developmental plasticity will have darker pigmentation in colder environments, which can be an important adaptation for temperate species experiencing seasonal variation in climate. The harlequin bug (Murgantia histrionica, Hemiptera: Pentatomidae, Hahn 1834) is a widespread invasive crop pest with variable patterning where developmental plasticity in melanization could affect performance. To investigate the impact of temperature ...


Geographic Variation In Larval Metabolic Rate Between Northern And Southern Populations Of The Invasive Gypsy Moth, Carolyn May, Noah Hillerbrand, Lily M. Thompson, Trevor M. Faske, Eloy Martinez, Dylan Perry, Salvatore J. Agosta, Kristine L. Grayson Jul 2018

Geographic Variation In Larval Metabolic Rate Between Northern And Southern Populations Of The Invasive Gypsy Moth, Carolyn May, Noah Hillerbrand, Lily M. Thompson, Trevor M. Faske, Eloy Martinez, Dylan Perry, Salvatore J. Agosta, Kristine L. Grayson

Biology Faculty Publications

Thermal regimes can diverge considerably across the geographic range of a species, and accordingly, populations can vary in their response to changing environmental conditions. Both local adaptation and acclimatization are important mechanisms for ectotherms to maintain homeostasis as environments become thermally stressful, which organisms often experience at their geographic range limits. The spatial spread of the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) (Lepidoptera: Erebidae) after introduction to North America provides an exemplary system for studying population variation in physiological traits given the gradient of climates encompassed by its current invasive range. This study quantifies differences in resting metabolic rate (RMR) across ...


Deciphering Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma Pathogenesis: The Proposed Role Of Microrna, Jacob E. Robinson, Christine E. Cutucache Jul 2018

Deciphering Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma Pathogenesis: The Proposed Role Of Microrna, Jacob E. Robinson, Christine E. Cutucache

Biology Faculty Publications

Splenic marginal zone lymphoma (SMZL) is a malignancy of mature B-cells that primarily involves the spleen, but can affect peripheral organs as well. Even though SMZL is overall considered an indolent malignancy, the majority of cases will eventually progress to be more aggressive. In recent years, the gene expression profile of SMZL has been characterized in an effort to identify: 1) the etiology of SMZL, 2) biological consequences of SMZL, and 3) putative therapeutic targets. However, due to the vast heterogeneity of the malignancy, no conclusive target(s) have been deciphered. However, the role of miRNA in SMZL, much as ...


Fern Genomes Elucidate Land Plant Evolution And Cyanobacterial Symbioses, Fay-Wei Li, Paul Brouwer, Lorenzo Carretero-Paulet, Shifeng Cheng, Jan De Vries, Pierre-Marc Delaux, Ariana Eily, Nils Koppers, Li-Yaung Kuo, Zheng Li, Mathew Simenc, Ian Small, Eric Wafula, Stephany Angarita, Michael S. Barker, Andrea Bräutigam, Claude Depamphilis, Sven Gould, Prashant S. Hosmani, Yao-Moan Huang, Bruno Huettel, Yoichiro Kato, Xin Liu, Steven Maere, Rose Mcdowell, Lukas A. Mueller, Klaas G. J. Nierop, Stefan A. Rensing, Tanner Robison, Carl J. Rothfels, Erin M. Sigel, Yue Song, Prakash R. Timilsena, Yves Van De Peer, Hongli Wang, Per K. I. Wilhelmsson, Paul G. Wolf, Xun Xu, Joshua P. Der, Henriette Schluepmann, Gane K.-S. Wong, Kathleen M. Pryer Jul 2018

Fern Genomes Elucidate Land Plant Evolution And Cyanobacterial Symbioses, Fay-Wei Li, Paul Brouwer, Lorenzo Carretero-Paulet, Shifeng Cheng, Jan De Vries, Pierre-Marc Delaux, Ariana Eily, Nils Koppers, Li-Yaung Kuo, Zheng Li, Mathew Simenc, Ian Small, Eric Wafula, Stephany Angarita, Michael S. Barker, Andrea Bräutigam, Claude Depamphilis, Sven Gould, Prashant S. Hosmani, Yao-Moan Huang, Bruno Huettel, Yoichiro Kato, Xin Liu, Steven Maere, Rose Mcdowell, Lukas A. Mueller, Klaas G. J. Nierop, Stefan A. Rensing, Tanner Robison, Carl J. Rothfels, Erin M. Sigel, Yue Song, Prakash R. Timilsena, Yves Van De Peer, Hongli Wang, Per K. I. Wilhelmsson, Paul G. Wolf, Xun Xu, Joshua P. Der, Henriette Schluepmann, Gane K.-S. Wong, Kathleen M. Pryer

Biology Faculty Publications

Ferns are the closest sister group to all seed plants, yet little is known about their genomes other than that they are generally colossal. Here, we report on the genomes of Azolla filiculoides and Salvinia cucullata (Salviniales) and present evidence for episodic whole-genome duplication in ferns—one at the base of ‘core leptosporangiates’ and one specific to Azolla. One fern-specific gene that we identified, recently shown to confer high insect resistance, seems to have been derived from bacteria through horizontal gene transfer. Azolla coexists in a unique symbiosis with N2-fixing cyanobacteria, and we demonstrate a clear pattern of cospeciation between ...


Demographic Hallmarks Of An Overbrowsed Population State In American Ginseng, James B. Mcgraw, Jennifer L. Chandler Jul 2018

Demographic Hallmarks Of An Overbrowsed Population State In American Ginseng, James B. Mcgraw, Jennifer L. Chandler

Biology Faculty Publications

Effects of high deer herbivory in North America on populations of favored plant browse species have been well-documented, however since less palatable plants now dominate the understory, we asked whether these species could be vulnerable as well, and if so, what symptoms might signal that this was occurring? Using American ginseng (Panax quinquefoliusL.) as our representative less palatable understory plant, we compared two subpopulations within a single natural population that were differentially exposed to browse; one isolated from deer by growing atop a large, flat-topped boulder, and a browse-exposed subpopulation in the surrounding low-lying area. We tested the hypothesis that ...


Remotely Sensed Canopy Nitrogen Correlates With Nitrous Oxide Emissions In A Lowland Tropical Rainforest, Fiona M. Soper, Benjamin W. Sullivan, Megan K. Nasto, Brooke B. Osborne, David Bru, Christopher S. Balzotti, Phillip G. Taylor, Gregory P. Asner, Alan R. Townsend, Laurent Philippot, Stephen Porder, Cory C. Cleveland Jun 2018

Remotely Sensed Canopy Nitrogen Correlates With Nitrous Oxide Emissions In A Lowland Tropical Rainforest, Fiona M. Soper, Benjamin W. Sullivan, Megan K. Nasto, Brooke B. Osborne, David Bru, Christopher S. Balzotti, Phillip G. Taylor, Gregory P. Asner, Alan R. Townsend, Laurent Philippot, Stephen Porder, Cory C. Cleveland

Biology Faculty Publications

Tropical forests exhibit significant heterogeneity in plant functional and chemical traits that may contribute to spatial patterns of key soil biogeochemical processes, such as carbon storage and greenhouse gas emissions. Although tropical forests are the largest ecosystem source of nitrous oxide (N2O), drivers of spatial patterns within forests are poorly resolved. Here, we show that local variation in canopy foliar N, mapped by remote‐sensing image spectroscopy, correlates with patterns of soil N2O emission from a lowland tropical rainforest. We identified ten 0.25 ha plots (assemblages of 40–70 individual trees) in which average remotely‐sensed canopy N fell ...


Optical Fluorescent Spider Silk Electrospun Nanofibers With Embedded Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles, Ishac Kandas, Nader Shehata, Ibrahim Hassounah, Patrik Sobolciak, Igor Krupa, Randolph Lewis Jun 2018

Optical Fluorescent Spider Silk Electrospun Nanofibers With Embedded Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles, Ishac Kandas, Nader Shehata, Ibrahim Hassounah, Patrik Sobolciak, Igor Krupa, Randolph Lewis

Biology Faculty Publications

The work demonstrates an electrospun nanocomposite of recombinant spider silk protein (rSSp) nanofibers with embedded cerium oxide (ceria) nanoparticles. RSSP (MaSp1) has been produced, extracted from goat milk, and fabricated into nanofibers using an electrospinning process. The resulting electrospun nanofibers have a mean diameter of ∼50  nm. Furthermore, ceria nanoparticles of mean diameterions, associated with formed oxygen vacancies. The formed nanocomposite shows promising mechanical properties such as the Young’s modulus, elasticity (or elongation at break), and toughness. In addition, the electrospun mat becomes fluorescent with 520-nm emission upon exposure to UV light, due to excitation of the optically active ...


Investigating The Viral Ecology Of Global Bee Communities With High-Throughput Metagenomics, David A. Galbraith, Zachary L. Fuller, Allyson M. Ray, Axel Brockmann, Maryann Frazier, Mary W. Gikungu, J. Francisco Iturralde Martinez, Karen M. Kapheim, Jeffrey T. Kerby, Sarah D. Kocher, Oleksiy Losyev, Elliud Muli, Harland M. Patch, Cristina Rosa, Joyce M. Sakamoto, Scott Stanley, Anthony D. Vaudo, Christina M. Grozinger Jun 2018

Investigating The Viral Ecology Of Global Bee Communities With High-Throughput Metagenomics, David A. Galbraith, Zachary L. Fuller, Allyson M. Ray, Axel Brockmann, Maryann Frazier, Mary W. Gikungu, J. Francisco Iturralde Martinez, Karen M. Kapheim, Jeffrey T. Kerby, Sarah D. Kocher, Oleksiy Losyev, Elliud Muli, Harland M. Patch, Cristina Rosa, Joyce M. Sakamoto, Scott Stanley, Anthony D. Vaudo, Christina M. Grozinger

Biology Faculty Publications

Bee viral ecology is a fascinating emerging area of research: viruses exert a range of effects on their hosts, exacerbate the impacts of other environmental stressors, and, importantly, are readily shared across multiple bee species in a community. However, our understanding of bee viral communities is limited, as it is primarily derived from studies of North American and European Apis mellifera populations. Here, we examined viruses in populations of A. mellifera and 11 other bee species from 9 countries, across 5 continents and Oceania. We developed a novel pipeline to rapidly, inexpensively, and robustly screen for bee viruses. This pipeline ...


Electrospun Pva Polymer Embedded With Ceria Nanoparticles As Silicon Solar Cells Rear Surface Coaters For Efficiency Improvement, Effat Samir, Mohamed Salah, Ali Hajjiah, Nader Shehata, Marwa Fathy, Aya Hamed Jun 2018

Electrospun Pva Polymer Embedded With Ceria Nanoparticles As Silicon Solar Cells Rear Surface Coaters For Efficiency Improvement, Effat Samir, Mohamed Salah, Ali Hajjiah, Nader Shehata, Marwa Fathy, Aya Hamed

Biology Faculty Publications

This paper introduces electrospun nanofibers embedded with ceria nanoparticles as silicon solar cells coaters, showing their influence on the solar cells efficiency. Ceria nanoparticles can be synthesized to have formed oxygen vacancies (O-vacancies), which are associated with converting cerium ions from the Ce4+ state ions to the Ce3+ ones. These O-vacancies follow the rule of improving silicon solar cellconductivity through the hopping mechanism. Besides, under violet excitation, the reduced trivalent cerium Ce3+ ions are directly responsible for down-converting the un-absorbed violet or ultra-violet (UV) wavelengths to a resulted green fluorescence emission at ~520 nm. These are absorbed through the silicon ...


Experimental Measurement Of Dolphin Thrust Generated During A Tail Stand Using Dpiv, Frank E. Fish, Terrie M. Williams, Erica Sherman, Yae Eun Moon, Vicki Wu, Timothy Wei Jun 2018

Experimental Measurement Of Dolphin Thrust Generated During A Tail Stand Using Dpiv, Frank E. Fish, Terrie M. Williams, Erica Sherman, Yae Eun Moon, Vicki Wu, Timothy Wei

Biology Faculty Publications

: Estimation of force generated by dolphins has long been debated. The problem was that indirect estimates of force production for dolphins resulted in low values that could not be validated. Bubble digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) measured hydrodynamic force production for swimming dolphins and demonstrated high force production. To validate the bubble DPIV and reconcile force production measurements, two bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) performing tail stands were measured with bubble DPIV. Microbubbles were generated from a finely porous hose and compressed air source. Displacement of the bubbles by the propulsive motions of the dolphin was tracked with a high-speed video ...


Partnering With A Pest: Genomes Of Hemlock Woolly Adelgid Symbionts Reveal Atypical Nutritional Provisioning Patterns In Dual-Obligate Bacteria, Kathryn Weglarz, Nathan P. Havill, Gaelen R. Burke, Carol D. Von Dohlen Jun 2018

Partnering With A Pest: Genomes Of Hemlock Woolly Adelgid Symbionts Reveal Atypical Nutritional Provisioning Patterns In Dual-Obligate Bacteria, Kathryn Weglarz, Nathan P. Havill, Gaelen R. Burke, Carol D. Von Dohlen

Biology Faculty Publications

Nutritional bacterial symbionts enhance the diets of sap-feeding insects with amino acids and vitamins missing from their diets. In many lineages, an ancestral senior symbiont is joined by a younger junior symbiont. To date, an emergent pattern is that senior symbionts supply a majority of amino acids, and junior symbionts supply a minority. Similar to other hemipterans, adelgids harbor obligate symbionts, but have higher diversity of bacterial associates, suggesting a history of symbiont turnover. The metabolic roles of dual symbionts in adelgids and their contributions to the consortium are largely unexplored. Here, we investigate the symbionts of Adelges tsugae, the ...


Inflammation And Immune Evasion Coexist In Treponema Pallidum-Infected Skin, Rodolfo Trujillo, Jorge Cervantes, Kelly L. Hawley, Adriana R. Cruz, Sankhiros Babapoor, Michael Murphy, Soheil S. Dadras, Juan C. Salazar Jun 2018

Inflammation And Immune Evasion Coexist In Treponema Pallidum-Infected Skin, Rodolfo Trujillo, Jorge Cervantes, Kelly L. Hawley, Adriana R. Cruz, Sankhiros Babapoor, Michael Murphy, Soheil S. Dadras, Juan C. Salazar

Biology Faculty Publications

Syphilis is a systemic, multistage, sexually transmitted infection caused by the highly invasive spirochetal bacterium, Treponema pallidum, subspecies pallidum. In the United States, the annual rate of primary and secondary syphilis (SS) between 2002 and 2016 has increased from 2.1 to 8.7 cases per 100,000.1 Gestational and congenital syphilis cases have also increased in the last few years. There is no evidence of a change in T pallidum susceptibility to penicillin as an explanation for the significant increase in the number of syphilis cases in the United States. It is more likely that changes in risk-taking ...


Lanthanide-Doped Ceria Nanoparticles As Backside Coaters To Improve Silicon Solar Cell Efficiency, Ali Hajjiah, Effat Samir, Nader Shehata, Mohamed Salah May 2018

Lanthanide-Doped Ceria Nanoparticles As Backside Coaters To Improve Silicon Solar Cell Efficiency, Ali Hajjiah, Effat Samir, Nader Shehata, Mohamed Salah

Biology Faculty Publications

This paper introduces lanthanide-doped ceria nanoparticles as silicon solar cell back-side coaters, showing their influence on the solar cell efficiency. Ceria nanoparticles can be synthesized to have formed oxygen vacancies (O-vacancies), which are associated with converting cerium ions from the Ce4+ state ions to the Ce3+ ones. These O-vacancies follow the rule of improving silicon solar cell conductivity through a hopping mechanism. Besides, under near-ultra violet (near-UV) excitation, the reduced trivalent cerium Ce3+ ions are directly responsible for down converting the un-absorbed UV wavelengths to a resultant green photo-luminescence emission at ~520 nm, which is absorbed through ...


Algae Living In Salamanders, Friend Or Foe?, John Burns, Ryan R. Kerney May 2018

Algae Living In Salamanders, Friend Or Foe?, John Burns, Ryan R. Kerney

Biology Faculty Publications

Roughly speaking, our bodies use energy from the sun, but we can't use sunlight directly. Instead, plants and algae collect sunlight and store it as chemical energy through the process of photosynthesis. We can access that fuel directly when we eat plants, or indirectly when we eat other animals that eat plants.

However, in some invertebrate animals (those without a backbone) the relationships to algae are more intimate. Tiny single-celled algal "symbionts" can actually live inside the cells of living corals and small animals like hydra that live in water. The algae live in a safe environment inside animal ...


On The Relationship Between Phylogenetic Diversity And Trait Diversity, Caroline M. Tucker, T. Jonathan Davies, Marc W. Cadotte, William D. Pearse May 2018

On The Relationship Between Phylogenetic Diversity And Trait Diversity, Caroline M. Tucker, T. Jonathan Davies, Marc W. Cadotte, William D. Pearse

Biology Faculty Publications

Niche differences are key to understanding the distribution and structure of biodiversity. To examine niche differences, we must first characterize how species occupy niche space, and two approaches are commonly used in the ecological literature. The first uses species traits to estimate multivariate trait space (so‐called functional trait diversity, FD); the second quantifies the amount of time or evolutionary history captured by a group of species (phylogenetic diversity, PD). It is often—but controversially—assumed that these putative measures of niche space are at a minimum correlated and perhaps redundant, since more evolutionary time allows for greater accumulation of ...