Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Life Sciences Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Biology Faculty Publications

Discipline
Institution
Keyword
Publication Year
File Type

Articles 1 - 30 of 1652

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Laurier Biology Departmental Seminars Poster Colouring Book (Vol 1), Tristan A.F. Long Apr 2022

Laurier Biology Departmental Seminars Poster Colouring Book (Vol 1), Tristan A.F. Long

Biology Faculty Publications

Departmental seminar posters are largely utilitarian affairs – who is talking?, when are they speaking?, where is the seminar? (and maybe will there will be refreshments served?). While functional, they often fail to capture the beauty and excitement of their subject matter, and may fail to engage a wider audience. As the organizer of the Wilfrid Laurier University Department of Biology seminar series in 2014, on a lark, I started drawing posters that tried to illustrate our speaker’s research in a non-conventional manner, and hopefully appeal to those that might otherwise find attending a departmental seminar intimidating. Little did I ...


Resolving The Drivers Of Algal Nutrient Limitation From Boreal To Arctic Lakes And Streams, Maria Myrstener, Megan Fork, Ann-Kristin Bergstrom, Isolde Callisto Puts, Demian Hauptmann, Peter D. F. Isles, Ryan M. Burrows, Ryan A. Sponseller Apr 2022

Resolving The Drivers Of Algal Nutrient Limitation From Boreal To Arctic Lakes And Streams, Maria Myrstener, Megan Fork, Ann-Kristin Bergstrom, Isolde Callisto Puts, Demian Hauptmann, Peter D. F. Isles, Ryan M. Burrows, Ryan A. Sponseller

Biology Faculty Publications

Nutrient inputs to northern freshwaters are changing, potentially altering aquatic ecosystem functioning through effects on primary producers. Yet, while primary producer growth is sensitive to nutrient supply, it is also constrained by a suite of other factors, including light and temperature, which may play varying roles across stream and lake habitats. Here, we use bioassay results from 89 lakes and streams spanning northern boreal to Arctic Sweden to test for differences in nutrient limitation status of algal biomass along gradients in colored dissolved organic carbon (DOC), water temperature, and nutrient concentrations, and to ask whether there are distinct patterns and ...


Scaling Of Maneuvering Performance In Baleen Whales: Larger Whales Outperform Expectations, Paolo S. Segre, William T. Gough, Edward A. Roualdes, David E. Cade, Max F. Czapanskiy, James Fahlbusch, Shirel R. Kahane-Rapport, William K. Oestreich, Lars Bejder, K. C. Bierlich, Julia A. Burrows, John Calambokidis, Ellen M. Chenoweth, Jacopo Di Clemente, John W. Durban, Holly Fearnbach, Frank E. Fish, Ari S. Friedlaender, Peter Hegelund, David W. Johnston, Douglas P. Nowacek, Machiel G. Oudejans, Gwenith S. Penry, Jean Potvin, Malene Simon, Andrew Stanworth, Janice M. Straley, Andrew Szabo, Simone K. A. Videsen, Fleur Visser, Caroline R. Weir, David N. Wiley, Jeremy A. Goldbogen Mar 2022

Scaling Of Maneuvering Performance In Baleen Whales: Larger Whales Outperform Expectations, Paolo S. Segre, William T. Gough, Edward A. Roualdes, David E. Cade, Max F. Czapanskiy, James Fahlbusch, Shirel R. Kahane-Rapport, William K. Oestreich, Lars Bejder, K. C. Bierlich, Julia A. Burrows, John Calambokidis, Ellen M. Chenoweth, Jacopo Di Clemente, John W. Durban, Holly Fearnbach, Frank E. Fish, Ari S. Friedlaender, Peter Hegelund, David W. Johnston, Douglas P. Nowacek, Machiel G. Oudejans, Gwenith S. Penry, Jean Potvin, Malene Simon, Andrew Stanworth, Janice M. Straley, Andrew Szabo, Simone K. A. Videsen, Fleur Visser, Caroline R. Weir, David N. Wiley, Jeremy A. Goldbogen

Biology Faculty Publications

Despite their enormous size, whales make their living as voracious predators. To catch their much smaller, more maneuverable prey, they have developed several unique locomotor strategies that require high energetic input, high mechanical power output and a surprising degree of agility. To better understand how body size affects maneuverability at the largest scale, we used bio-logging data, aerial photogrammetry and a high-throughput approach to quantify the maneuvering performance of seven species of free-swimming baleen whale. We found that as body size increases, absolute maneuvering performance decreases: larger whales use lower accelerations and perform slower pitch changes, rolls and turns than ...


Salicylic Acid And N-Hydroxypipecolic Acid At The Fulcrum Of The Plant Immunity-Growth Equilibrium, Alyssa Shields, Vanessa Shivnauth, Christian Danve M. Castroverde Mar 2022

Salicylic Acid And N-Hydroxypipecolic Acid At The Fulcrum Of The Plant Immunity-Growth Equilibrium, Alyssa Shields, Vanessa Shivnauth, Christian Danve M. Castroverde

Biology Faculty Publications

Salicylic acid (SA) and N-hydroxypipecolic acid (NHP) are two central plant immune signals involved in both resistance at local sites of pathogen infection (basal resistance) and at distal uninfected sites after primary infection (systemic acquired resistance). Major discoveries and advances have led to deeper understanding of their biosynthesis and signaling during plant defense responses. In addition to their well-defined roles in immunity, recent research is emerging on their direct mechanistic impacts on plant growth and development. In this review, we will first provide an overview of how SA and NHP regulate local and systemic immune responses in plants. We ...


Glia Excitation In The Cns Modulates Intact Behaviors And Sensory-Cns-Motor Circuitry, Shelby Mccubbin, Douglas A. Harrison, Robin L. Cooper Feb 2022

Glia Excitation In The Cns Modulates Intact Behaviors And Sensory-Cns-Motor Circuitry, Shelby Mccubbin, Douglas A. Harrison, Robin L. Cooper

Biology Faculty Publications

Glial cells play a role in many important processes, though the mechanisms through which they affect neighboring cells are not fully known. Insights may be gained by selectively activating glial cell populations in intact organisms utilizing the activatable channel proteins channel rhodopsin (ChR2XXL) and TRPA1. Here, the impacts of the glial-specific expression of these channels were examined in both larval and adult Drosophila. The Glia > ChR2XXL adults and larvae became immobile when exposed to blue light and TRPA1-expressed Drosophila upon heat exposure. The chloride pump expression in glia > eNpHR animals showed no observable differences in adults or larvae. In the ...


Sex Differences In Desiccation Tolerance Varies By Colony In The Mesic Liverwort Plagiochila Porelloides, Juliana Da C. Silva-E-Costa, Andrea P. Luizi-Ponzo, David Nicholas Mcletchie Feb 2022

Sex Differences In Desiccation Tolerance Varies By Colony In The Mesic Liverwort Plagiochila Porelloides, Juliana Da C. Silva-E-Costa, Andrea P. Luizi-Ponzo, David Nicholas Mcletchie

Biology Faculty Publications

Water scarcity, a common stress factor, negatively impacts plant performance. Strategies to cope with it, such as desiccation tolerance, are becoming increasingly important to investigate. However, phenomena, such as intraspecific variation in stress responses have not received much attention. Knowledge of this variability and the environmental drivers can be leveraged to further investigate the mechanisms of desiccation tolerance. Here we tested for variation in desiccation tolerance in Plagiochila porelloides among colonies and sexes within the same riparian zone. Field-collected dehardened plants were subjected to a desiccation event, under controlled conditions and then rehydrated. Plant water status, photosynthetic rates, net carbon ...


Zoonotic Pathogens From Illegally Traded Wildlife Justify Adopting The One Health Perspective In Disease Response, Marianne Allison G. Lee, Vinyl Joseph S. Valeza, Jonathan Patrick H. Yan, Ronald Allan L. Cruz Jan 2022

Zoonotic Pathogens From Illegally Traded Wildlife Justify Adopting The One Health Perspective In Disease Response, Marianne Allison G. Lee, Vinyl Joseph S. Valeza, Jonathan Patrick H. Yan, Ronald Allan L. Cruz

Biology Faculty Publications

Recent studies have described a direct relationship between the illegal wildlife trade (IWT) and the prevalence of zoonotic pathogens in human populations. In the Philippines, the Philippine Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (PIDSR) framework outlines the monitoring, response, and management of disease outbreaks, but needs to be updated in the wake of zoonoses from IWT. Here, we identified zoonotic pathogens that may be introduced to human populations through the IWT, pinpointed potential outbreak hotspots, and provided recommendations on how to improve the Philippines’ public health response while considering One Health. Using seizure data from the Biodiversity Management Bureau (DENR-BMB) covering ...


Plant Canopy May Promote Seed Dispersal By Wind, Xuanping Qin, Wei Liang, Zhimin Liu, Minghu Liu, Carol C. Baskin, Jerry M. Baskin, Zhiming Xin, Zhigang Wang, Quanlai Zhou Jan 2022

Plant Canopy May Promote Seed Dispersal By Wind, Xuanping Qin, Wei Liang, Zhimin Liu, Minghu Liu, Carol C. Baskin, Jerry M. Baskin, Zhiming Xin, Zhigang Wang, Quanlai Zhou

Biology Faculty Publications

Seed dispersal has received much research attention. The plant canopy can intercept diaspores, but the effect of the plant canopy (the aboveground portion of a plant consisting of branches and leaves) on dispersal distance has not been explored empirically. To determine the effect of plant canopy on seed dispersal distance, a comparison of diaspores falling through open air and through plant canopy was made in a wind tunnel using three wind speeds and diaspores with various traits. Compared with diaspores falling through open air, the dispersal distance of diaspores falling through plant canopy was decreased or increased, depending on wind ...


Velocity Field Measurements Of The California Sea Lion Propulsive Stroke Using Bubble Piv, Gino Perrotta, Frank E. Fish, Danielle S. Adams, Ariel M. Leahy, Abigal M. Downs, Megan C. Leftwich Jan 2022

Velocity Field Measurements Of The California Sea Lion Propulsive Stroke Using Bubble Piv, Gino Perrotta, Frank E. Fish, Danielle S. Adams, Ariel M. Leahy, Abigal M. Downs, Megan C. Leftwich

Biology Faculty Publications

California sea lions are among the most agile of swimming mammals. Most marine mammals swim with their hind appendages-flippers or flukes, depending on the species-whereas sea lions use their foreflippers for propulsion and maneuvering. The sea lion's propulsive stroke generates thrust by forming a jet between the flippers and the body and by dragging a starting vortex along the suction side of the flipper. Prior experiments using robotic flippers have shown these mechanisms to be possible, but no flow measurements around live sea lions previously existed with which to compare. In this study, the flow structures around swimming sea ...


Aquaporin Expression And Cholesterol Content In Eel Swimbladder Tissue, Victoria Drechsel, Gabriel Schneebauer, Birgit Fiechtner, Christopher P. Cutler, Bernd Pelster Dec 2021

Aquaporin Expression And Cholesterol Content In Eel Swimbladder Tissue, Victoria Drechsel, Gabriel Schneebauer, Birgit Fiechtner, Christopher P. Cutler, Bernd Pelster

Biology Faculty Publications

Leakiness of the swimbladder wall of teleost fishes must be prevented to avoid diffusional loss of gases out of the swimbladder. Guanine incrustation as well as high concentrations of cholesterol in swimbladder membranes in midwater and deep-sea fish has been connected to a reduced gas permeability of the swimbladder wall. On the contrary, the swimbladder is filled by diffusion of gases, mainly oxygen and CO2, from the blood and the gas gland cells into the swimbladder lumen. In swimbladder tissue of the zebrafish and the Japanese eel, aquaporin mRNA has been detected, and the aquaporin protein has been considered important ...


Global Patterns Of Potential Future Plant Diversity Hidden In Soil Seed Banks, Xuejun Yang, Carol C. Baskin, Jerry M. Baskin, Robin J. Pakeman, Zhenying Huang, Ruiru Gao, Johannes H. C. Cornelissen Dec 2021

Global Patterns Of Potential Future Plant Diversity Hidden In Soil Seed Banks, Xuejun Yang, Carol C. Baskin, Jerry M. Baskin, Robin J. Pakeman, Zhenying Huang, Ruiru Gao, Johannes H. C. Cornelissen

Biology Faculty Publications

Soil seed banks represent a critical but hidden stock for potential future plant diversity on Earth. Here we compiled and analyzed a global dataset consisting of 15,698 records of species diversity and density for soil seed banks in natural plant communities worldwide to quantify their environmental determinants and global patterns. Random forest models showed that absolute latitude was an important predictor for diversity of soil seed banks. Further, climate and soil were the major determinants of seed bank diversity, while net primary productivity and soil characteristics were the main predictors of seed bank density. Moreover, global mapping revealed clear ...


American Bullfrog (Lithobates Catesbeianus) Diet In Uruguay Compared With Other Invasive Populations In Southern South America, Gabriel Laufer, Noelia Gobel, Mauro Berazategui, Matías Zarucki, Sofía Cortizas, Alvaro Soutullo, Claudio Martinez Debat, Rafael O. De Sá Dec 2021

American Bullfrog (Lithobates Catesbeianus) Diet In Uruguay Compared With Other Invasive Populations In Southern South America, Gabriel Laufer, Noelia Gobel, Mauro Berazategui, Matías Zarucki, Sofía Cortizas, Alvaro Soutullo, Claudio Martinez Debat, Rafael O. De Sá

Biology Faculty Publications

Between 2000-2020, more than ten new populations of the invasive American bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus) have been reported in the southern cone of South America. We studied the stomach contents of 126 bullfrogs from a population at an early invasion stage in Uruguay (Acegua, Cerro Largo Department). We observed a rich diet, with extensive prey volume range (1 mm3 to more than 7 000 mm(3)); the most frequent items were Hymenoptera (19.6%), Coleoptera (16.4%), Amphipoda (13.3%), Anura (8.9%) and Heteroptera (8.7%). Despite some overlap, differences were observed in volume (chi(2) = 54.6, p <0.001, d.f. = 2) and prey quantity (F = 8.1, p <0.001, d.f. = 79) between males, females, and juveniles. Juveniles showed significantly higher consumption of terrestrial prey by count (82% of their total ingestion) than adults (29% for males and 32% for females) (chi(2) = 28.5, p <0.001, d.f. = 2). Adults, especially females, showed a high frequency of cannibalism (33% of their total ingestion; chi(2) = 20.9, p <0.001, d.f. = 2). Comparing our data with other bullfrog regional studies, we found great plasticity in trophic habits and differences in the incidence of cannibalism (higher incidence in the populations of Acegua, Uruguay, and Buenos Aires, Argentina). These differences could be related to local biodiversity, but also could be affected by the invasion phase. Cannibalism frequency was higher in small bullfrog populations, where it could be favoring the establishment success. This shift in foraging strategies during the invasion process had been insufficiently evaluated in amphibians. Knowing the ecological determinants for the invasion by bullfrogs can be useful to the development of management strategies.


A Global Agenda For Advancing Freshwater Biodiversity Research, Alain Maasri, Sonja C. Jähnig, Hendrik Freitag, 93 Co-Authors Dec 2021

A Global Agenda For Advancing Freshwater Biodiversity Research, Alain Maasri, Sonja C. Jähnig, Hendrik Freitag, 93 Co-Authors

Biology Faculty Publications

Global freshwater biodiversity is declining dramatically, and meeting the challenges of this crisis requires bold goals and the mobilisation of substantial resources. While the reasons are varied, investments in both research and conservation of freshwater biodiversity lag far behind those in the terrestrial and marine realms. Inspired by a global consultation, we identify 15 pressing priority needs, grouped into five research areas, in an effort to support informed stewardship of freshwater biodiversity. The proposed agenda aims to advance freshwater biodiversity research globally as a critical step in improving coordinated actions towards its sustainable management and conservation.


Understanding Differences In Underrepresented Minorities And First-Generation Student Perceptions In The Introductory Biology Classroom, Jacob Jantzer, Thomas W. Kirkman, Katherine L. Furniss Dec 2021

Understanding Differences In Underrepresented Minorities And First-Generation Student Perceptions In The Introductory Biology Classroom, Jacob Jantzer, Thomas W. Kirkman, Katherine L. Furniss

Biology Faculty Publications

We used quantitative methods to better understand the perceptions of students in an introductory biology course (Biology 101) at a small, liberal arts college (SLAC) that is also a primarily white institution (PWI). In pre/post surveys, we asked students questions related to their attitudes and beliefs about their professor, classmates, and Biology 101. We were especially interested in the responses and outcomes of underrepresented minorities (URM) and first-generation (FG) students. Our findings suggest URM and FG students have a decreased sense of belonging and increased perceptions of exclusion and differential treatment due to race. These findings can explain, in ...


Rapid And Direct Action Of Lipopolysaccharide (Lps) On Skeletal Muscle Of Larval Drosophila, Rachel Potter, Alexis Meade, Samuel Potter, Robin L. Cooper Nov 2021

Rapid And Direct Action Of Lipopolysaccharide (Lps) On Skeletal Muscle Of Larval Drosophila, Rachel Potter, Alexis Meade, Samuel Potter, Robin L. Cooper

Biology Faculty Publications

The endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Gram-negative bacteria exerts a direct and rapid effect on tissues. While most attention is given to the downstream actions of the immune system in response to LPS, this study focuses on the direct actions of LPS on skeletal muscle in Drosophila melanogaster. It was noted in earlier studies that the membrane potential rapidly hyperpolarizes in a dose-dependent manner with exposure to LPS from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Serratia marcescens. The response is transitory while exposed to LPS, and the effect does not appear to be due to calcium-activated potassium channels, activated nitric oxide synthase (NOS), or ...


Warming Increases Activity In The Common Tropical Frog Eleutherodactylus Coqui, T. J. Hawley Matlaga, P. A. Burrows, R. Hernández-Pacheco, J. Pena, C. Sutherland, T. E. Wood Nov 2021

Warming Increases Activity In The Common Tropical Frog Eleutherodactylus Coqui, T. J. Hawley Matlaga, P. A. Burrows, R. Hernández-Pacheco, J. Pena, C. Sutherland, T. E. Wood

Biology Faculty Publications

Tropical ecosystems are expected to experience climate warming, with predicted increases in drying and heat extremes in the coming years. Understanding how these changes will affect terrestrial vertebrates such as amphibians is limited. The Tropical Responses to Altered Climate Experiment in the Luquillo Experimental Forest in northeastern Puerto Rico allows us to study how the tropical forest responds to warming within a replicated plot design. From September 2018 to August 2019, we used mark-recapture sampling to investigate how the spatial population ecology of the common coqui frog (Eleutherodactylus coqui) is impacted by experimentally increasing surface temperatures by 4 °C above ...


Two New Species Of Byrrhinus Motschulsky, 1858 (Coleoptera, Limnichidae, Limnichinae) From Negros, Philippines, Emmanuel D. Delocado, Hendrik Freitag Nov 2021

Two New Species Of Byrrhinus Motschulsky, 1858 (Coleoptera, Limnichidae, Limnichinae) From Negros, Philippines, Emmanuel D. Delocado, Hendrik Freitag

Biology Faculty Publications

Two new species of Limnichidae beetles, Byrrhinus negrosensis sp. nov. and Byrrhinus villarini sp. nov., are described from the Island of Negros in the Philippines. The adult specimens of the new species can be differentiated by patterns of body punctation, colour and orientation of elytral pubescence, posterolateral angle of pronotum, tarsomere length ratio and aedeagal form. Two clades, representing the two new species, were retrieved in the Maximum Likelihood gene tree using the 3’-end of the COI gene. Maximum genetic divergence within B. negrosensis sp. nov. and B. villarini sp. nov. were recorded to be 2.3% and 1 ...


Developing Inside A Layer Of Germs—A Potential Role For Multiciliated Surface Cells In Vertebrate Embryos, Ryan R. Kerney Oct 2021

Developing Inside A Layer Of Germs—A Potential Role For Multiciliated Surface Cells In Vertebrate Embryos, Ryan R. Kerney

Biology Faculty Publications

This paper reviews current research on the microbial life that surrounds vertebrate embryos. Several clades are believed to develop inside sterile—or near-sterile—embryonic microhabitats, while others thrive within a veritable zoo of microbial life. The occurrence of embryo-associated microbes in some groups, but not others, is an under-appreciated transition (possibly transitions) in vertebrate evolution. A lack of comparable studies makes it currently impossible to correlate embryo-associated microbiomes with other aspects of vertebrate evolution. However, there are embryonic features that should instruct a more targeted survey. This paper concludes with a hypothesis for the role of multiciliated surface cells in ...


The Effect Of Optogenetically Activating Glia On Neuronal Function, Cecilia Pankau, Shelby Mccubbin, Robin L. Cooper Oct 2021

The Effect Of Optogenetically Activating Glia On Neuronal Function, Cecilia Pankau, Shelby Mccubbin, Robin L. Cooper

Biology Faculty Publications

Glia, or glial cells, are considered a vital component of the nervous system, serving as an electrical insulator and a protective barrier from the interstitial (extracellular) media. Certain glial cells (i.e., astrocytes, microglia, and oligodendrocytes) within the CNS have been shown to directly affect neural functions, but these properties are challenging to study due to the difficulty involved with selectively-activating specific glia. To overcome this hurdle, we selectively expressed light-sensitive ion channels (i.e., channel rhodopsin, ChR2-XXL) in glia of larvae and adult Drosophila melanogaster. Upon activation of ChR2, both adults and larvae showed a rapid contracture of body ...


The Effect Of Calcium Ions On Mechanosensation And Neuronal Activity In Proprioceptive Neurons, Devan E. Atkins, Kimberly L. Bosh, Grace W. Breakfield, Sydney E. Daniels, Makayla J. Devore, Hailey E. Fite, Landys Z. Guo, Danielle K. J. Henry, Alana K. Kaffenberger, Katherine S. Manning, Tatum E. Mowery, Cecilia L. Pankau, Nyla Parker, Malina E. Serrano, Yamaan Shakhashiro, Hannah N. Tanner, Ruth. A. Ward, Aubrey H. Wehry, Robin L. Cooper Oct 2021

The Effect Of Calcium Ions On Mechanosensation And Neuronal Activity In Proprioceptive Neurons, Devan E. Atkins, Kimberly L. Bosh, Grace W. Breakfield, Sydney E. Daniels, Makayla J. Devore, Hailey E. Fite, Landys Z. Guo, Danielle K. J. Henry, Alana K. Kaffenberger, Katherine S. Manning, Tatum E. Mowery, Cecilia L. Pankau, Nyla Parker, Malina E. Serrano, Yamaan Shakhashiro, Hannah N. Tanner, Ruth. A. Ward, Aubrey H. Wehry, Robin L. Cooper

Biology Faculty Publications

Proprioception of all animals is important in being able to have coordinated locomotion. Stretch activated ion channels (SACs) transduce the mechanical force into electrical signals in the proprioceptive sensory endings. The types of SACs vary among sensory neurons in animals as defined by pharmacological, physiological and molecular identification. The chordotonal organs within insects and crustaceans offer a unique ability to investigate proprioceptive function. The effects of the extracellular environment on neuronal activity, as well as the function of associated SACs are easily accessible and viable in minimal saline for ease in experimentation. The effect of extracellular [Ca2+] on membrane ...


The Role Of California Sea Lion (Zalophus Californianus) Hindflippers As Aquatic Control Surfaces For Maneuverability, Ariel M. Leahy, Frank E. Fish, Sarah J. Kerr, Jenifer A. Zeligs, Stefani Skrovan, Kaitlyn L. Cardenas, Megan C. Leftwich Oct 2021

The Role Of California Sea Lion (Zalophus Californianus) Hindflippers As Aquatic Control Surfaces For Maneuverability, Ariel M. Leahy, Frank E. Fish, Sarah J. Kerr, Jenifer A. Zeligs, Stefani Skrovan, Kaitlyn L. Cardenas, Megan C. Leftwich

Biology Faculty Publications

California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) are a highly maneuverable species of marine mammal. During uninterrupted, rectilinear swimming, sea lions oscillate their foreflippers to propel themselves forward without aid from the collapsed hindfiippers, which are passively trailed. During maneuvers such as turning and leaping (porpoising), the hindfiippers are spread into a delta-wing configuration. There is little information defining the role of otarrid hindfiippers as aquatic control surfaces. To examine Z. califomianus hindflippers during maneuvering, trained sea lions were video recorded underwater through viewing windows performing porpoising behaviors and banking turns. Porpoising by a trained sea lion was compared with sea lions ...


The Hox Protein Conundrum: The “Specifics” Of Dna Binding For Hox Proteins And Their Partners, Bony De Kumar, Diane C. Darland Sep 2021

The Hox Protein Conundrum: The “Specifics” Of Dna Binding For Hox Proteins And Their Partners, Bony De Kumar, Diane C. Darland

Biology Faculty Publications

Homeotic genes (Hox genes) are homeodomain-transcription factors involved in conferring segmental identity along the anterior-posterior body axis. Molecular characterization of HOX protein function raises some interesting questions regarding the source of the binding specificity of the HOX proteins. How do HOX proteins regulate common and unique target specificity across space and time? This review attempts to summarize and interpret findings in this area, largely focused on results from in vitro and in vivo studies in Drosophila and mouse systems. Recent studies related to HOX protein binding specificity compel us to reconsider some of our current models for transcription factor-DNA interactions ...


Is The Life History Flexibility Of Cold Desert Annuals Broad Enough To Cope With Predicted Climate Change? The Case Of Erodium Oxyrhinchum In Central Asia, Huiliang Liu, Yanfeng Chen, Lingwei Zhang, Jerry M. Baskin, Carol C. Baskin, Lan Zhang, Yan Liu, Daoyuan Zhang, Yuanming Zhang Aug 2021

Is The Life History Flexibility Of Cold Desert Annuals Broad Enough To Cope With Predicted Climate Change? The Case Of Erodium Oxyrhinchum In Central Asia, Huiliang Liu, Yanfeng Chen, Lingwei Zhang, Jerry M. Baskin, Carol C. Baskin, Lan Zhang, Yan Liu, Daoyuan Zhang, Yuanming Zhang

Biology Faculty Publications

Interannual seasonal variability in precipitation may strongly affect the life history and growth of desert annual plants. We compared the effects of dry and wet springs and dry and wet autumns on growth and F2 seed dormancy of plants from spring (SG)- and autumn (AG)-germinated seeds of the cold desert annual Erodium oxyrhinchum. Vegetative and reproductive growth and F2 seed dormancy and germination were monitored from September 2016 to November 2020 in the sandy Gurbantunggut Desert in NW China in Central Asia. Dry autumns decreased the density of AG plants, and dry springs decreased the density of SG plants ...


Unbiased Automated Quantitation Of Ros Signals In Live Retinal Neurons Of Drosophila Using Fiji/Imagej, Prajakta Deshpande, Neha Gogia, Anuradha Venkatakrishnan Chimata, Amit Singh Aug 2021

Unbiased Automated Quantitation Of Ros Signals In Live Retinal Neurons Of Drosophila Using Fiji/Imagej, Prajakta Deshpande, Neha Gogia, Anuradha Venkatakrishnan Chimata, Amit Singh

Biology Faculty Publications

Numerous imaging modules are utilized to study changes that occur during cellular processes. Besides qualitative (immunohistochemical) or semiquantitative (Western blot) approaches, direct quantitation method(s) for detecting and analyzing signal intensities for disease(s) biomarkers are lacking. Thus, there is a need to develop method(s) to quantitate specific signals and eliminate noise during live tissue imaging. An increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide (O2•-) radicals results in oxidative damage of biomolecules, which leads to oxidative stress. This can be detected by dihydroethidium staining in live tissue(s), which does not rely on fixation and helps prevent ...


Diminishing Opportunities For Sustainability Of Coastal Cities In The Anthropocene: A Review, John W. Day, Joel D. Gunn, Joseph Robert Burger Aug 2021

Diminishing Opportunities For Sustainability Of Coastal Cities In The Anthropocene: A Review, John W. Day, Joel D. Gunn, Joseph Robert Burger

Biology Faculty Publications

The world is urbanizing most rapidly in tropical to sub-temperate areas and in coastal zones. Climate change along with other global change forcings will diminish the opportunities for sustainability of cities, especially in coastal areas in low-income countries. Climate forcings include global temperature and heatwave increases that are expanding the equatorial tropical belt, sea-level rise, an increase in the frequency of the most intense tropical cyclones, both increases and decreases in freshwater inputs to coastal zones, and increasingly severe extreme precipitation events, droughts, freshwater shortages, heat waves, and wildfires. Current climate impacts are already strongly influencing natural and human systems ...


Euadb: A Resource For Covid-19 Test Development And Comparison, Alyssa Woronik, Henry W. Shaffer, Karin Kiontke, Jon M. Laurent, Ronald Zambrano, Mariah Daley, Jef D. Boeke, David H. Fitch Aug 2021

Euadb: A Resource For Covid-19 Test Development And Comparison, Alyssa Woronik, Henry W. Shaffer, Karin Kiontke, Jon M. Laurent, Ronald Zambrano, Mariah Daley, Jef D. Boeke, David H. Fitch

Biology Faculty Publications

Due to the sheer number of COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) cases there is a need for increased world-wide SARS-CoV-2 testing capability that is both efficient and effective. Having open and easy access to detailed information about these tests, their sensitivity, the types of samples they use, etc. would be highly useful to ensure their reproducibility, to help clients compare and decide which tests would be best suited for their applications, and to avoid costs of reinventing similar or identical tests. Additionally, this resource would provide a means of comparing the many innovative diagnostic tools that are currently being developed in ...


Persistent Miscalibration For Low And High Achievers Despite Practice Test Feedback In An Introductory Biology Course, Jennifer L. Osterhage Jul 2021

Persistent Miscalibration For Low And High Achievers Despite Practice Test Feedback In An Introductory Biology Course, Jennifer L. Osterhage

Biology Faculty Publications

Students' ability to accurately judge their knowledge is crucial for effective learning. However, students' perception of their current knowledge is often misaligned with their actual performance. The relationship between learners' perception of their performance and their actual performance on a task is defined as calibration. Previous studies have shown significant student miscalibration in an introductory biology course: students' predicted exam scores were, on average, significantly higher than their actual scores. The goal of this study was to determine whether completion of a practice test before exams would result in better performance and calibration. The hypothesis was that students who completed ...


Set1 Targets Genes With Essential Identity And Tumor-Suppressing Functions In Planarian Stem Cells, Prince Verma, Courtney K. M. Waterbury, Elizabeth M. Duncan Jul 2021

Set1 Targets Genes With Essential Identity And Tumor-Suppressing Functions In Planarian Stem Cells, Prince Verma, Courtney K. M. Waterbury, Elizabeth M. Duncan

Biology Faculty Publications

Tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) are essential for normal cellular function in multicellular organisms, but many TSGs and tumor-suppressing mechanisms remain unknown. Planarian flatworms exhibit particularly robust tumor suppression, yet the specific mechanisms underlying this trait remain unclear. Here, we analyze histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3) signal across the planarian genome to determine if the broad H3K4me3 chromatin signature that marks essential cell identity genes and TSGs in mammalian cells is conserved in this valuable model of in vivo stem cell function. We find that this signature is indeed conserved on the planarian genome and that the lysine methyltransferase Set1 ...


Zebrafish Blunt-Force Tbi Induces Heterogenous Injury Pathologies That Mimic Human Tbi And Responds With Sonic Hedgehog-Dependent Cell Proliferation Across The Neuroaxis, James Hentig, Kaylee Cloghessy, Manuela Lahne, Yoo Jin Jung, Rebecca A. Petersen, Ann C. Morris, David R. Hyde Jul 2021

Zebrafish Blunt-Force Tbi Induces Heterogenous Injury Pathologies That Mimic Human Tbi And Responds With Sonic Hedgehog-Dependent Cell Proliferation Across The Neuroaxis, James Hentig, Kaylee Cloghessy, Manuela Lahne, Yoo Jin Jung, Rebecca A. Petersen, Ann C. Morris, David R. Hyde

Biology Faculty Publications

Blunt-force traumatic brain injury (TBI) affects an increasing number of people worldwide as the range of injury severity and heterogeneity of injury pathologies have been recognized. Most current damage models utilize non-regenerative organisms, less common TBI mechanisms (penetrating, chemical, blast), and are limited in scalability of injury severity. We describe a scalable blunt-force TBI model that exhibits a wide range of human clinical pathologies and allows for the study of both injury pathology/progression and mechanisms of regenerative recovery. We modified the Marmarou weight drop model for adult zebrafish, which delivers a scalable injury spanning mild, moderate, and severe phenotypes ...


The Anti-Dipsogenic And Anti-Natriorexigenic Effects Of Estradiol, But Not The Anti-Pressor Effect, Are Lost In Aged Female Rats, Jessica Santollo, Jason A. Collett, Andrea A. Edwards Jul 2021

The Anti-Dipsogenic And Anti-Natriorexigenic Effects Of Estradiol, But Not The Anti-Pressor Effect, Are Lost In Aged Female Rats, Jessica Santollo, Jason A. Collett, Andrea A. Edwards

Biology Faculty Publications

Estradiol (E2) inhibits fluid intake in several species, which may help to defend fluid homeostasis by preventing excessive extracellular fluid volume. Although this phenomenon is well established using the rat model, it has only been studied directly in young adults. Because aging influences the neuronal sensitivity to E2 and the fluid intake effects of E2 are mediated in the brain, we tested the hypothesis that aging influences the fluid intake effects of E2 in female rats. To do so, we examined water and NaCl intake in addition to the pressor effect after central angiotensin II treatment in young (3-4 months ...