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Biology Faculty Publications

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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Effect Of Nitrogen Addition On Selection Of Germination Trait In An Alpine Meadow On The Tibet Plateau, Kun Liu, Yang Liu, Zhilong Zhang, Shiting Zhang, Carol C. Baskin, Jerry M. Baskin, Ting Liang, Haiyan Bu, Shuxia Li, Tingting Zhang, Xianliang Cui, Sa Xiao May 2021

Effect Of Nitrogen Addition On Selection Of Germination Trait In An Alpine Meadow On The Tibet Plateau, Kun Liu, Yang Liu, Zhilong Zhang, Shiting Zhang, Carol C. Baskin, Jerry M. Baskin, Ting Liang, Haiyan Bu, Shuxia Li, Tingting Zhang, Xianliang Cui, Sa Xiao

Biology Faculty Publications

Seed germination requirements may determine the kinds of habitat in which plants can survive. We tested the hypothesis that nitrogen (N) addition can change seed germination trait-environmental filter interactions and ultimately redistribute seed germination traits in alpine meadows. We determined the role of N addition on germination trait selection in an alpine meadow after N addition by combining a 3-year N addition experiment in an alpine meadow and laboratory germination experiments. At the species level, germination percentage, germination rate (speed) and breadth of temperature niche for germination (BTN) were positively related to survival of a species in the fertilized community ...


The Giant Axolotl Genome Uncovers The Evolution, Scaling, And Transcriptional Control Of Complex Gene Loci, Siegfried Schloissnig, Akane Kawaguchi, Sergej Nowoshilow, Francisco Falcon, Leo Otsuki, Pietro Tardivo, Nataliya Timoshevskaya, Melissa C. Keinath, Jeramiah J. Smith, S. Randal Voss, Elly M. Tanaka Apr 2021

The Giant Axolotl Genome Uncovers The Evolution, Scaling, And Transcriptional Control Of Complex Gene Loci, Siegfried Schloissnig, Akane Kawaguchi, Sergej Nowoshilow, Francisco Falcon, Leo Otsuki, Pietro Tardivo, Nataliya Timoshevskaya, Melissa C. Keinath, Jeramiah J. Smith, S. Randal Voss, Elly M. Tanaka

Biology Faculty Publications

Vertebrates harbor recognizably orthologous gene complements but vary 100-fold in genome size. How chromosomal organization scales with genome expansion is unclear, and how acute changes in gene regulation, as during axolotl limb regeneration, occur in the context of a vast genome has remained a riddle. Here, we describe the chromosome-scale assembly of the giant, 32 Gb axolotl genome. Hi-C contact data revealed the scaling properties of interphase and mitotic chromosome organization. Analysis of the assembly yielded understanding of the evolution of large, syntenic multigene clusters, including the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) and the functional regulatory landscape of the Fibroblast Growth ...


Toward The Discovery Of Biological Functions Associated With The Mechanosensor Mtl1p Of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Via Integrative Multi-Omics Analysis, Nelson Martínez-Matías, Nataliya Chorna, Sahily González-Crespo, Lilliam Villanueva, Ingrid Montes-Rodríguez, Loyda M. Melendez-Aponte, Abiel Roche-Lima, Kelvin Carrasquillo-Carrión, Ednalise Santiago-Cartagena, Brian C. Rymond, Mohan Babu, Igor Stagljar, José R. Rodríguez-Medina Apr 2021

Toward The Discovery Of Biological Functions Associated With The Mechanosensor Mtl1p Of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Via Integrative Multi-Omics Analysis, Nelson Martínez-Matías, Nataliya Chorna, Sahily González-Crespo, Lilliam Villanueva, Ingrid Montes-Rodríguez, Loyda M. Melendez-Aponte, Abiel Roche-Lima, Kelvin Carrasquillo-Carrión, Ednalise Santiago-Cartagena, Brian C. Rymond, Mohan Babu, Igor Stagljar, José R. Rodríguez-Medina

Biology Faculty Publications

Functional analysis of the Mtl1 protein in Saccharomyces cerevisiae has revealed that this transmembrane sensor endows yeast cells with resistance to oxidative stress through a signaling mechanism called the cell wall integrity pathway (CWI). We observed upregulation of multiple heat shock proteins (HSPs), proteins associated with the formation of stress granules, and the phosphatase subunit of trehalose 6-phosphate synthase which suggests that mtl1Δ strains undergo intrinsic activation of a non-lethal heat stress response. Furthermore, quantitative global proteomic analysis conducted on TMT-labeled proteins combined with metabolome analysis revealed that mtl1Δ strains exhibit decreased levels of metabolites of carboxylic acid metabolism, decreased ...


Physical Mapping Of The Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) Darlingi Genomic Scaffolds, Míriam Silva Rafael, Leticia Cegatti Bridi, Igor V. Sharakhov, Osvaldo Marinotti, Maria V. Sharakhova, Vladimir A. Timoshevskiy, Giselle Moura Guimarães-Marques, Valéria Silva Santos, Carlos Gustavo Nunes Da Silva, Spartaco Astolfi-Filho, Wanderli Pedro Tadei Feb 2021

Physical Mapping Of The Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) Darlingi Genomic Scaffolds, Míriam Silva Rafael, Leticia Cegatti Bridi, Igor V. Sharakhov, Osvaldo Marinotti, Maria V. Sharakhova, Vladimir A. Timoshevskiy, Giselle Moura Guimarães-Marques, Valéria Silva Santos, Carlos Gustavo Nunes Da Silva, Spartaco Astolfi-Filho, Wanderli Pedro Tadei

Biology Faculty Publications

The genome assembly of Anopheles darlingi consists of 2221 scaffolds (N50 = 115,072 bp) and has a size spanning 136.94 Mbp. This assembly represents one of the smallest genomes among Anopheles species. Anopheles darlingi genomic DNA fragments of ~37 Kb were cloned, end-sequenced, and used as probes for fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with salivary gland polytene chromosomes. In total, we mapped nine DNA probes to scaffolds and autosomal arms. Comparative analysis of the An. darlingi scaffolds with homologous sequences of the Anopheles albimanus and Anopheles gambiae genomes identified chromosomal rearrangements among these species. Our results confirmed that physical ...


Effect Of Temperature On Heart Rate For Phaenicia Sericata And Drosophila Melanogaster With Altered Expression Of The Trpa1 Receptors, Nicole T. Marguerite, Jate Bernard, Douglas A. Harrison, David Harris, Robin L. Cooper Jan 2021

Effect Of Temperature On Heart Rate For Phaenicia Sericata And Drosophila Melanogaster With Altered Expression Of The Trpa1 Receptors, Nicole T. Marguerite, Jate Bernard, Douglas A. Harrison, David Harris, Robin L. Cooper

Biology Faculty Publications

The transient receptor potential (TrpA—ankyrin) receptor has been linked to pathological conditions in cardiac function in mammals. To better understand the function of the TrpA1 in regulation of the heart, a Drosophila melanogaster model was used to express TrpA1 in heart and body wall muscles. Heartbeat of in intact larvae as well as hearts in situ, devoid of hormonal and neural input, indicate that strong over-expression of TrpA1 in larvae at 30 or 37 °C stopped the heart from beating, but in a diastolic state. Cardiac function recovered upon cooling after short exposure to high temperature. Parental control larvae ...


Philibaetis Gen. Nov., A New Genus From The Philippines (Ephemeroptera, Baetidae), Thomas Kaltenbach, Jhoana M. Garces, Jean-Luc Gattolliat Jan 2021

Philibaetis Gen. Nov., A New Genus From The Philippines (Ephemeroptera, Baetidae), Thomas Kaltenbach, Jhoana M. Garces, Jean-Luc Gattolliat

Biology Faculty Publications

Investigations of type material and new material from the Philippines (Luzon) revealed that Baetis luzonensis Müller-Liebenau, 1982 and B. realonae Müller-Liebenau, 1982 do not belong to Baetis Leach, 1815. A new genus, Philibaetis gen. nov., is described to accommodate both species and both are re-described based on larvae. The new genus is characterised by having a rectangular labrum with a submarginal row of long, simple setae on the dorsal surface and ventrally on lateral margins long, simple, spine-like setae, on anterolateral margins long, feathered setae and medially long, bifid setae and a partial, submarginal row of lanceolate setae. Both mandibles ...


Hydraena (S.Str.) Dinarica, New Species (Coleoptera: Hydraenidae) Along With Further Records Of Hydraena Spp. From Durmitor National Park, Montenegro And Comments On The Dna Barcoding Problem With The Genus, Hendrik Freitag, Rick De Vries, Marta Paterno, Simone Maestri, Massimo Delledonne, Cameron G. Thompson, Helena Lamed, Rebekah Lambert, Michael F. Fox, Mariela C. Gonzalez, Emmanuel D. Delocado, Marc R. Sabordo, Clister V. Pangantihon, Iva Njunjić Jan 2021

Hydraena (S.Str.) Dinarica, New Species (Coleoptera: Hydraenidae) Along With Further Records Of Hydraena Spp. From Durmitor National Park, Montenegro And Comments On The Dna Barcoding Problem With The Genus, Hendrik Freitag, Rick De Vries, Marta Paterno, Simone Maestri, Massimo Delledonne, Cameron G. Thompson, Helena Lamed, Rebekah Lambert, Michael F. Fox, Mariela C. Gonzalez, Emmanuel D. Delocado, Marc R. Sabordo, Clister V. Pangantihon, Iva Njunjić

Biology Faculty Publications

Background Long-palped Water Beetles were collected during a taxon expedition in Montenegro which involved citizen scientists, students and taxonomists. The material was collected from springs, brooks, fens and the Tara River, at altitudes between 600 m and 1450 m above sea level, using fine-meshed hand-nets and by manual checking of submerged substrates. The morphological species delimitation was supplemented and congruent with mtDNA sequences mainly obtained in the field using the newly-developed MinION-based ONTrack pipeline. New information The new species Hydraena dinarica Freitag & de Vries, sp. n. from Durmitor Mt. is described, illustrated and compared in detail to closely-related congeners of ...


Seed Priming With Phytohormones: An Effective Approach For The Mitigation Of Abiotic Stress, Mohammad Saidur Rhaman, Shahin Imran, Farjana Rauf, Mousumi Khatun, Carol C. Baskin, Yoshiyuki Murata, Mirza Hasanuzzaman Jan 2021

Seed Priming With Phytohormones: An Effective Approach For The Mitigation Of Abiotic Stress, Mohammad Saidur Rhaman, Shahin Imran, Farjana Rauf, Mousumi Khatun, Carol C. Baskin, Yoshiyuki Murata, Mirza Hasanuzzaman

Biology Faculty Publications

Plants are often exposed to abiotic stresses such as drought, salinity, heat, cold, and heavy metals that induce complex responses, which result in reduced growth as well as crop yield. Phytohormones are well known for their regulatory role in plant growth and development, and they serve as important chemical messengers, allowing plants to function during exposure to various stresses. Seed priming is a physiological technique involving seed hydration and drying to improve metabolic processes prior to germination, thereby increasing the percentage and rate of germination and improving seedling growth and crop yield under normal and various biotic and abiotic stresses ...


Molecular Signatures Of Sexual Communication In The Phlebotomine Sand Flies, Paul V. Hickner, Nataliya Timoshevskaya, Ronald J. Nowling, Frédéric Labbé, Andrew D. Nguyen, Mary Ann Mcdowell, Carolina N. Spiegel, Zainulabeuddin Syed Dec 2020

Molecular Signatures Of Sexual Communication In The Phlebotomine Sand Flies, Paul V. Hickner, Nataliya Timoshevskaya, Ronald J. Nowling, Frédéric Labbé, Andrew D. Nguyen, Mary Ann Mcdowell, Carolina N. Spiegel, Zainulabeuddin Syed

Biology Faculty Publications

Phlebotomine sand flies employ an elaborate system of pheromone communication wherein males produce pheromones that attract other males to leks (thus acting as an aggregation pheromone) and females to the lekking males (sex pheromone). In addition, the type of pheromone produced varies among populations. Despite the numerous studies on sand fly chemical communication, little is known of their chemosensory genome. Chemoreceptors interact with chemicals in an organism’s environment to elicit essential behaviors such as the identification of suitable mates and food sources. Thus, they play important roles during adaptation and speciation. Major chemoreceptor gene families, odorant receptors (ORs), gustatory ...


The Energy Savings-Oxidative Cost Trade-Off For Migratory Birds During Endurance Flight, Scott R. Mcwilliams, Barbara J. Pierce, Andrea Wittenzellner, Lillie A. Langlois, Sophia Engel, John R. Speakman, Olivia Fatica, Kristen J. Demoranville, Wolfgang Goymann, Lisa Trost, Amadeusz Bryla, Maciej Dzialo, Edyta T. Sadowska, Ulf Bauchinger Dec 2020

The Energy Savings-Oxidative Cost Trade-Off For Migratory Birds During Endurance Flight, Scott R. Mcwilliams, Barbara J. Pierce, Andrea Wittenzellner, Lillie A. Langlois, Sophia Engel, John R. Speakman, Olivia Fatica, Kristen J. Demoranville, Wolfgang Goymann, Lisa Trost, Amadeusz Bryla, Maciej Dzialo, Edyta T. Sadowska, Ulf Bauchinger

Biology Faculty Publications

Elite human and animal athletes must acquire the fuels necessary for extreme feats, but also contend with the oxidative damage associated with peak metabolic performance. Here, we show that a migratory bird with fuel stores composed of more omega-6 polyunsaturated fats (PUFA) expended 11% less energy during long-duration (6 hr) flights with no change in oxidative costs; however, this short-term energy savings came at the long-term cost of higher oxidative damage in the omega-6 PUFA-fed birds. Given that fatty acids are primary fuels, key signaling molecules, the building blocks of cell membranes, and that oxidative damage has long-term consequences for ...


Plant Single-Cell Metabolomics—Challenges And Perspectives, Leonardo Perez De Souza, Monica Borghi, Alisdair R. Fernie Nov 2020

Plant Single-Cell Metabolomics—Challenges And Perspectives, Leonardo Perez De Souza, Monica Borghi, Alisdair R. Fernie

Biology Faculty Publications

Omics approaches for investigating biological systems were introduced in the mid-1990s and quickly consolidated to become a fundamental pillar of modern biology. The idea of measuring the whole complement of genes, transcripts, proteins, and metabolites has since become widespread and routinely adopted in the pursuit of an infinity of scientific questions. Incremental improvements over technical aspects such as sampling, sensitivity, cost, and throughput pushed even further the boundaries of what these techniques can achieve. In this context, single-cell genomics and transcriptomics quickly became a well-established tool to answer fundamental questions challenging to assess at a whole tissue level. Following a ...


Proteasome-Mediated Regulation Of Cdhr1a By Siah1 Modulates Photoreceptor Development And Survival In Zebrafish, Warlen P. Piedade, Kayla F. Titialii-Torres, Ann C. Morris, Jakub K. Famulski Nov 2020

Proteasome-Mediated Regulation Of Cdhr1a By Siah1 Modulates Photoreceptor Development And Survival In Zebrafish, Warlen P. Piedade, Kayla F. Titialii-Torres, Ann C. Morris, Jakub K. Famulski

Biology Faculty Publications

Congenital retinal dystrophies are a major cause of unpreventable and incurable blindness worldwide. Mutations in CDHR1, a retina specific cadherin, are associated with cone-rod dystrophy. The ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) is responsible for mediating orderly and precise targeting of protein degradation to maintain biological homeostasis and coordinate proper development, including retinal development. Recently, our lab uncovered that the seven in absentia (Siah) family of E3 ubiquitin ligases play a role in optic fissure fusion and identified Cdhr1a as a potential target of Siah. Using two-color whole mount in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, we detected siah1 and cdhr1a co-expression as well ...


Increasing Our Ability To Predict Contemporary Evolution, Patrik Nosil, Samuel M. Flaxman, Jeffrey L. Feder, Zachariah Gompert Nov 2020

Increasing Our Ability To Predict Contemporary Evolution, Patrik Nosil, Samuel M. Flaxman, Jeffrey L. Feder, Zachariah Gompert

Biology Faculty Publications

Classic debates concerning the extent to which scientists can predict evolution have gained new urgency as environmental changes force species to adapt or risk extinction. We highlight how our ability to predict evolution can be constrained by data limitations that cause poor understanding of deterministic natural selection. We then emphasize how such data limits can be reduced with feasible empirical effort involving a combination of approaches.


Contributions To The Knowledge Of Water Bugs In Mindoro Island, Philippines, With A Species Checklist Of Nepomorpha And Gerromorpha (Insecta, Hemiptera, Heteroptera), Arthien Lovell Pelingen, Herbert Zettel, Clister V. Pangantihon, Kyra Mari Dominique Aldaba, Earl Kevin Fatallo, Jemillie Madonna De Leon, Hendrik Freitag Nov 2020

Contributions To The Knowledge Of Water Bugs In Mindoro Island, Philippines, With A Species Checklist Of Nepomorpha And Gerromorpha (Insecta, Hemiptera, Heteroptera), Arthien Lovell Pelingen, Herbert Zettel, Clister V. Pangantihon, Kyra Mari Dominique Aldaba, Earl Kevin Fatallo, Jemillie Madonna De Leon, Hendrik Freitag

Biology Faculty Publications

This survey aims to provide an updated species checklist of aquatic and semi-aquatic bugs in the intra-Philippine biogeographic Region of Mindoro. An assessment survey of water bugs (Hemiptera, Heteroptera) was conducted mostly by manual collection in selected areas of Oriental Mindoro from 2017 to 2018, in which some of the collecting activities were undertaken by graduate students of Ateneo de Manila University. Twenty-nine aquatic and semi-aquatic heteropteran species were documented and some are known island-endemic species or subspecies, including Enithares martini mindoroensis Nieser & Zettel, 1999, Hydrotrephes stereoides mindoroensis Zettel, 2003, Aphelocheirus freitagi Zettel & Pangantihon, 2010, Rhagovelia mindoroensis Zettel, 1994, Rhagovelia ...


Spiny Mice (Acomys) Exhibit Attenuated Hallmarks Of Aging And Rapid Cell Turnover After Uv Exposure In The Skin Epidermis, Wesley Wong, Austin Kim, James R. Monaghan, Ashley W. Seifert, Malcolm Maden, Justin D. Crane Oct 2020

Spiny Mice (Acomys) Exhibit Attenuated Hallmarks Of Aging And Rapid Cell Turnover After Uv Exposure In The Skin Epidermis, Wesley Wong, Austin Kim, James R. Monaghan, Ashley W. Seifert, Malcolm Maden, Justin D. Crane

Biology Faculty Publications

The study of long-lived and regenerative animal models has revealed diverse protective responses to stressors such as aging and tissue injury. Spiny mice (Acomys) are a unique mammalian model of skin wound regeneration, but their response to other types of physiological skin damage has not been investigated. In this study, we examine how spiny mouse skin responds to acute UVB damage or chronological aging compared to non-regenerative C57Bl/6 mice (M. musculus). We find that, compared to M. musculus, the skin epidermis in A. cahirinus experiences a similar UVB-induced increase in basal cell proliferation but exhibits increased epidermal turnover. Notably ...


Herb-Layer Dynamics In An Old-Growth Forest: Vegetation–Environment Relationships And Response To Invasion-Related Perturbations, Taylor M. Buskey, M. E. Maloney, Julia I. Chapman, Ryan W. Mcewan Oct 2020

Herb-Layer Dynamics In An Old-Growth Forest: Vegetation–Environment Relationships And Response To Invasion-Related Perturbations, Taylor M. Buskey, M. E. Maloney, Julia I. Chapman, Ryan W. Mcewan

Biology Faculty Publications

Temperate forests of eastern North America are subject to multiple invasions from non-native species that have the potential to drive long-term dynamics in biodiversity. Garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata (M. Bieb.) Cavara and Grande) is an invasive plant in many deciduous forests, and management efforts often focus on removing this species to initiate native species restoration. Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (emerald ash borer; Coleoptera: Buprestidae) is a non-native insect pest that has caused substantial loss of ash trees (Fraxinus spp. L.) in North America. Our goal was to understand how the herbaceous layer in an old-growth forest responded to the removal of ...


A Tree Frog (Boana Pugnax) Dataset Of Skin Transcriptome For The Identification Of Biomolecules With Potential Antimicrobial Activities, Yamil Liscano Martinez, Claudia Marcela Arenas Gómez, Jeramiah J. Smith, Jean Paul Delgado Oct 2020

A Tree Frog (Boana Pugnax) Dataset Of Skin Transcriptome For The Identification Of Biomolecules With Potential Antimicrobial Activities, Yamil Liscano Martinez, Claudia Marcela Arenas Gómez, Jeramiah J. Smith, Jean Paul Delgado

Biology Faculty Publications

Increases in the prevalence of multiply resistant microbes have necessitated the search for new molecules with antimicrobial properties. One noteworthy avenue in this search is inspired by the presence of native antimicrobial peptides in the skin of amphibians. Having the second highest diversity of frogs worldwide, Colombian anurans represent an extensive natural reservoir that could be tapped in this search. Among this diversity, species such as Boana pugnax (the Chirique-Flusse Treefrog) are particularly notable, in that they thrive in a diversity of marginal habitats, utilize both aquatic and arboreal habitats, and are members of one of few genera that are ...


Adaptive Genetic Potential And Plasticity Of Trait Variation In The Foundation Prairie Grass Andropogon Gerardii Across The Us Great Plains’ Climate Gradient: Implications For Climate Change And Restoration, Matthew Galliart, Sofia Sabates, Hannah Tetreault, Angel Delacruz, Johnny Bryant, Jake Alsdurf, Mary Knapp, Nora M. Bello, Sara G. Baer, Brian R. Maricle, David J. Gibson, Jesse Poland, Paul St Amand, Natalie Unruh, Olivia Parrish, Loretta Johnson Oct 2020

Adaptive Genetic Potential And Plasticity Of Trait Variation In The Foundation Prairie Grass Andropogon Gerardii Across The Us Great Plains’ Climate Gradient: Implications For Climate Change And Restoration, Matthew Galliart, Sofia Sabates, Hannah Tetreault, Angel Delacruz, Johnny Bryant, Jake Alsdurf, Mary Knapp, Nora M. Bello, Sara G. Baer, Brian R. Maricle, David J. Gibson, Jesse Poland, Paul St Amand, Natalie Unruh, Olivia Parrish, Loretta Johnson

Biology Faculty Publications

Plant response to climate depends on a species’ adaptive potential. To address this, we used reciprocal gardens to detect genetic and environmental plasticity effects on phenotypic variation and combined with genetic analyses. Four reciprocal garden sites were planted with three regional ecotypes of Andropogon gerardii, a dominant Great Plains prairie grass, using dry, mesic, and wet ecotypes originating from western KS to Illinois that span 500–1,200 mm rainfall/year. We aimed to answer: (a) What is the relative role of genetic constraints and phenotypic plasticity in controlling phenotypes? (b) When planted in the homesite, is there a trait ...


Comparison Of Thermal And Hydrotime Requirements For Seed Germination Of Seven Stipa Species From Cool And Warm Habitats, Rui Zhang, Kai Luo, Dali Chen, Jerry M. Baskin, Carol C. Baskin, Yanrong Wang, Xiaowen Hu Sep 2020

Comparison Of Thermal And Hydrotime Requirements For Seed Germination Of Seven Stipa Species From Cool And Warm Habitats, Rui Zhang, Kai Luo, Dali Chen, Jerry M. Baskin, Carol C. Baskin, Yanrong Wang, Xiaowen Hu

Biology Faculty Publications

Temperature and water potential are two important environmental factors influencing germination and subsequent seedling establishment. Seed germination requirements vary with species and with the environment in which the seeds are produced. Stipa species dominate large areas of the Eurasian zonal vegetation, but comparisons of germination requirements between Stipa species from different habitats is limited. We investigated the effects of temperature and water potential on seed germination of S. grandis, S. purpurea, and S. penicillata from habitats with low temperatures and relatively abundant rainfall (cool habitats) and S. glareosa, S. breviflora, S. gobiea, and S. bungeana from habitats with relatively high ...


Taxonomic Revision Of Agraphydrus Régimbart , 1903 V. Philippine Species And Their First Dna Barcodes (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae: Acidocerinae), Hendrik Freitag, Albrecht Komarek Sep 2020

Taxonomic Revision Of Agraphydrus Régimbart , 1903 V. Philippine Species And Their First Dna Barcodes (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae: Acidocerinae), Hendrik Freitag, Albrecht Komarek

Biology Faculty Publications

The genus Agraphydrus RÉGIMBART , 1903 (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae) of the Republic of the Philippines is taxonomically reviewed aided by COI mtDNA barcodes. Nine new species are described, all currently regarded as endemic to the Philippines: A. abrasus sp.n., A. ampullatus sp.n., A. batak sp.n., A. brevilobatus sp.n., A. occultus sp.n., A. palawanensis sp.n., A. pelingeni sp.n., A. tenuipalpis sp.n., and A. zetteli sp.n. Agraphydrus coomani (O RCHYMONT , 1927), widespread in the Oriental and Australasian regions, is recorded from the Philippines for the first time. COI sequences and thorough morphological examination suggest that ...


Model And Data Concur And Explain The Coexistence Of Two Very Distinct Animal Behavioral Types, Jordi Moya-Laraño, Rubén Rabaneda-Bueno, Emily Morrison, Phillip H. Crowley Aug 2020

Model And Data Concur And Explain The Coexistence Of Two Very Distinct Animal Behavioral Types, Jordi Moya-Laraño, Rubén Rabaneda-Bueno, Emily Morrison, Phillip H. Crowley

Biology Faculty Publications

Behaviors may enhance fitness in some situations while being detrimental in others. Linked behaviors (behavioral syndromes) may be central to understanding the maintenance of behavioral variability in natural populations. The spillover hypothesis of premating sexual cannibalism by females explains genetically determined female aggression towards both prey and males: growth to a larger size translates into higher fecundity, but at the risk of insufficient sperm acquisition. Here, we use an individual-based model to determine the ecological scenarios under which this spillover strategy is more likely to evolve over a strategy in which females attack approaching males only once the female has ...


Complex Tissue Regeneration In Mammals Is Associated With Reduced Inflammatory Cytokines And An Influx Of T Cells, Thomas R. Gawriluk, Jennifer Simkin, Corin K. Hacker, John M. Kimani, Stephen G. Kiama, Vanessa O. Ezenwa, Ashley W. Seifert Aug 2020

Complex Tissue Regeneration In Mammals Is Associated With Reduced Inflammatory Cytokines And An Influx Of T Cells, Thomas R. Gawriluk, Jennifer Simkin, Corin K. Hacker, John M. Kimani, Stephen G. Kiama, Vanessa O. Ezenwa, Ashley W. Seifert

Biology Faculty Publications

While mammals tend to repair injuries, other adult vertebrates like salamanders and fish regenerate damaged tissue. One prominent hypothesis offered to explain an inability to regenerate complex tissue in mammals is a bias during healing toward strong adaptive immunity and inflammatory responses. Here we directly test this hypothesis by characterizing part of the immune response during regeneration in spiny mice (Acomys cahirinus and Acomys percivali) vs. fibrotic repair in Mus musculus. By directly quantifying cytokines during tissue healing, we found that fibrotic repair was associated with a greater release of pro-inflammatory cytokines (i.e., IL-6, CCL2, and CXCL1) during acute ...


The Effect Of Bacterial Endotoxin Lps On Serotonergic Modulation Of Glutamatergic Synaptic Transmission, Jate Bernard, Abigail Greenhalgh, Oscar Istas, Nicole T. Marguerite, Robin L. Cooper Aug 2020

The Effect Of Bacterial Endotoxin Lps On Serotonergic Modulation Of Glutamatergic Synaptic Transmission, Jate Bernard, Abigail Greenhalgh, Oscar Istas, Nicole T. Marguerite, Robin L. Cooper

Biology Faculty Publications

The release of the endotoxin lipopolysaccharides (LPS) from gram-negative bacteria is key in the induction of the downstream cytokine release from cells targeting cells throughout the body. However, LPS itself has direct effects on cellular activity and can alter synaptic transmission. Animals experiencing septicemia are generally in a critical state and are often treated with various pharmacological agents. Since antidepressants related to the serotonergic system have been shown to have a positive outcome for septicemic conditions impacting the central nervous system, the actions of serotonin (5-HT) on neurons also exposed to LPS were investigated. At the model glutamatergic synapse of ...


Heterotrophic Carbon Fixation In A Salamander-Alga Symbiosis, John A. Burns, Ryan Kerney, Solange Duhamel Aug 2020

Heterotrophic Carbon Fixation In A Salamander-Alga Symbiosis, John A. Burns, Ryan Kerney, Solange Duhamel

Biology Faculty Publications

The unique symbiosis between a vertebrate salamander, Ambystoma maculatum, and unicellular green alga, Oophila amblystomatis, involves multiple modes of interaction. These include an ectosymbiotic interaction where the alga colonizes the egg capsule, and an intracellular interaction where the alga enters tissues and cells of the salamander. One common interaction in mutualist photosymbioses is the transfer of photosynthate from the algal symbiont to the host animal. In the A. maculatumO. amblystomatis interaction, there is conflicting evidence regarding whether the algae in the egg capsule transfer chemical energy captured during photosynthesis to the developing salamander embryo. In experiments where we took ...


The Potential Impacts Of Soy Protein On Fish Gut Health, Vikas Kumar, Sakhawat Hossain, Janice A. Ragaza, Marina Rubio Benito Aug 2020

The Potential Impacts Of Soy Protein On Fish Gut Health, Vikas Kumar, Sakhawat Hossain, Janice A. Ragaza, Marina Rubio Benito

Biology Faculty Publications

Soy protein is the major source of protein as fishmeal replacement in fish feed because of its worldwide availability and low price. However, the presence of high carbohydrate content along with saponins, lectins, and phytates can have a negative impact on fish gut health. Based on the literature and our lab studies, dietary soybean meal can cause a dose-dependent type of distal intestine inflammation called enteritis in commercial fish species including salmonids. This leads to reduced absorptive capacity, increased mucus secretion, hyperpermeability, and leucocyte infiltration in the lamina propria and submucosa, also inducing the pro-inflammatory cytokine genes expression, including Il-1β ...


Insights From Population Genomics To Enhance And Sustain Biological Control Of Insect Pests, Arun Sethuraman, Fredric J. Janzen, David W. Weisrock, John J. Obrycki Jul 2020

Insights From Population Genomics To Enhance And Sustain Biological Control Of Insect Pests, Arun Sethuraman, Fredric J. Janzen, David W. Weisrock, John J. Obrycki

Biology Faculty Publications

Biological control—the use of organisms (e.g., nematodes, arthropods, bacteria, fungi, viruses) for the suppression of insect pest species—is a well-established, ecologically sound and economically profitable tactic for crop protection. This approach has served as a sustainable solution for many insect pest problems for over a century in North America. However, all pest management tactics have associated risks. Specifically, the ecological non-target effects of biological control have been examined in numerous systems. In contrast, the need to understand the short- and long-term evolutionary consequences of human-mediated manipulation of biological control organisms for importation, augmentation and conservation biological control ...


Her9/Hes4 Is Required For Retinal Photoreceptor Development, Maintenance, And Survival, Cagney E. Coomer, Stephen G. Wilson, Kayla F. Titialii-Torres, Jessica D. Bills, Laura A. Krueger, Rebecca A. Petersen, Evelyn M. Turnbaugh, Eden L. Janesch, Ann C. Morris Jul 2020

Her9/Hes4 Is Required For Retinal Photoreceptor Development, Maintenance, And Survival, Cagney E. Coomer, Stephen G. Wilson, Kayla F. Titialii-Torres, Jessica D. Bills, Laura A. Krueger, Rebecca A. Petersen, Evelyn M. Turnbaugh, Eden L. Janesch, Ann C. Morris

Biology Faculty Publications

The intrinsic and extrinsic factors that regulate vertebrate photoreceptor specification and differentiation are complex, and our understanding of all the players is far from complete. Her9, the zebrafish ortholog of human HES4, is a basic helix-loop-helix-orange transcriptional repressor that regulates neurogenesis in several developmental contexts. We have previously shown that her9 is upregulated during chronic rod photoreceptor degeneration and regeneration in adult zebrafish, but little is known about the role of her9 during retinal development. To better understand the function of Her9 in the retina, we generated zebrafish her9 CRISPR mutants. Her9 homozygous mutants displayed striking retinal phenotypes, including decreased ...


Brain Micrornas Among Social And Solitary Bees, Karen M. Kapheim, Beryl M. Jones, Eirik Søvik, Eckart Stolle, Robert M. Waterhouse, Guy Bloch, Yehuda Ben-Shahar Jul 2020

Brain Micrornas Among Social And Solitary Bees, Karen M. Kapheim, Beryl M. Jones, Eirik Søvik, Eckart Stolle, Robert M. Waterhouse, Guy Bloch, Yehuda Ben-Shahar

Biology Faculty Publications

Evolutionary transitions to a social lifestyle in insects are associated with lineage-specific changes in gene expression, but the key nodes that drive these regulatory changes are unknown. We examined the relationship between social organization and lineage-specific microRNAs (miRNAs). Genome scans across 12 bee species showed that miRNA copy-number is mostly conserved and not associated with sociality. However, deep sequencing of small RNAs in six bee species revealed a substantial proportion (20–35%) of detected miRNAs had lineage-specific expression in the brain, 24–72% of which did not have homologues in other species. Lineage-specific miRNAs disproportionately target lineage-specific genes, and have ...


Morphological Evidence For An Oral Venom System In Caecilian Amphibians, Pedro Luiz Mailho-Fontana, Marta Maria Antoniazzi, Cesar Alexandre, Daniel Carvalho Pimenta, Juliana Mozer Sciani, Edmund D. Brodie Jr., Carlos Jared Jul 2020

Morphological Evidence For An Oral Venom System In Caecilian Amphibians, Pedro Luiz Mailho-Fontana, Marta Maria Antoniazzi, Cesar Alexandre, Daniel Carvalho Pimenta, Juliana Mozer Sciani, Edmund D. Brodie Jr., Carlos Jared

Biology Faculty Publications

Amphibians are known for their skin rich in glands containing toxins employed in passive chemical defense against predators, different from, for example, snakes that have active chemical defense, injecting their venom into the prey. Caecilians (Amphibia, Gymnophiona) are snake-shaped animals with fossorial habits, considered one of the least known vertebrate groups. We show here that amphibian caecilians, including species from the basal groups, besides having cutaneous poisonous glands as other amphibians do, possess specific glands at the base of the teeth that produce enzymes commonly found in venoms. Our analysis of the origin of these glands shows that they originate ...


Investigating The Direct And Indirect Effects Of Forest Fragmentation On Plant Functional Diversity, Jenny Zambrano, Norbert J. Cordeiro, Carol Garzon-Lopez, Lauren Yeager, Claire Fortunel, Henry J. Ndangalasi, Noelle G. Beckman Jul 2020

Investigating The Direct And Indirect Effects Of Forest Fragmentation On Plant Functional Diversity, Jenny Zambrano, Norbert J. Cordeiro, Carol Garzon-Lopez, Lauren Yeager, Claire Fortunel, Henry J. Ndangalasi, Noelle G. Beckman

Biology Faculty Publications

Ongoing habitat loss and fragmentation alter the functional diversity of forests. Generalising the magnitude of change in functional diversity of fragmented landscapes and its drivers is challenging because of the multiple scales at which landscape fragmentation takes place. Here we propose a multi-scale approach to determine whether fragmentation processes at the local and landscape scales are reducing functional diversity of trees in the East Usambara Mountains, Tanzania. We employ a structural equation modelling approach using five key plant traits (seed length, dispersal mode, shade tolerance, maximum tree height, and wood density) to better understand the functional responses of trees to ...