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Biology Faculty Publications

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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Impacts Of Smooth Pigweed (Amaranthus Hybridus) On Cover Crops In Southern Ontario, Heather Vanvolkenburg, Frédérique C. Guinel, Liette Vasseur Apr 2020

Impacts Of Smooth Pigweed (Amaranthus Hybridus) On Cover Crops In Southern Ontario, Heather Vanvolkenburg, Frédérique C. Guinel, Liette Vasseur

Biology Faculty Publications

Amaranthus hybridus is a noxious weed in Ontario, with demonstrated allelopathic properties that can lead to decreased agricultural production. We tested the germination and growth of five cover crop species exposed to A. hybridus extracts, and to dried or fresh materials in soil. A germination index was calculated, and the dry weight of plant organs were measured to quantify responses to treatments. All species had reduced germination (≤29%) in 100% extract. Trifolium pratense had significant root weight reductions in extract (52%) and dried (72%) treatments, whereas shoot weight only decreased (48%) in dried treatment. Medicago sativa shoot weight decreased (52 ...


Combining Experimental Evolution And Genomics To Understand How Seed Beetles Adapt To A Marginal Host Plant, Alexandre Rêgo, Samridhi Chaturvedi, Amy Springer, Alexandra M. Lish, Caroline L. Barton, Karen M. Kapheim, Frank J. Messina, Zachariah Gompert Apr 2020

Combining Experimental Evolution And Genomics To Understand How Seed Beetles Adapt To A Marginal Host Plant, Alexandre Rêgo, Samridhi Chaturvedi, Amy Springer, Alexandra M. Lish, Caroline L. Barton, Karen M. Kapheim, Frank J. Messina, Zachariah Gompert

Biology Faculty Publications

Genes that affect adaptive traits have been identified, but our knowledge of the genetic basis of adaptation in a more general sense (across multiple traits) remains limited. We combined population-genomic analyses of evolve-and-resequence experiments, genome-wide association mapping of performance traits, and analyses of gene expression to fill this knowledge gap and shed light on the genomics of adaptation to a marginal host (lentil) by the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus. Using population-genomic approaches, we detected modest parallelism in allele frequency change across replicate lines during adaptation to lentil. Mapping populations derived from each lentil-adapted line revealed a polygenic basis for two ...


Microbial Lag Phase Can Be Indicative Of, Or Independent From, Cellular Stress, Philip G. Hamill, Andrew Stevenson, Phillip E. Mcmullan, James P. Williams, Abiann D. R. Lewis, Sudharsan S., Kath E. Stevenson, Keith D. Farnsworth, Galina Khroustalyova, Jon Y. Takemoto, John P. Quinn, Alexander Rapoport, John E. Hallsworth Apr 2020

Microbial Lag Phase Can Be Indicative Of, Or Independent From, Cellular Stress, Philip G. Hamill, Andrew Stevenson, Phillip E. Mcmullan, James P. Williams, Abiann D. R. Lewis, Sudharsan S., Kath E. Stevenson, Keith D. Farnsworth, Galina Khroustalyova, Jon Y. Takemoto, John P. Quinn, Alexander Rapoport, John E. Hallsworth

Biology Faculty Publications

Measures of microbial growth, used as indicators of cellular stress, are sometimes quantified at a single time-point. In reality, these measurements are compound representations of length of lag, exponential growth-rate, and other factors. Here, we investigate whether length of lag phase can act as a proxy for stress, using a number of model systems (Aspergillus penicillioides; Bacillus subtilis; Escherichia coli; Eurotium amstelodami, E. echinulatum, E. halophilicum, and E. repens; Mrakia frigida; Saccharomyces cerevisiae; Xerochrysium xerophilum; Xeromyces bisporus) exposed to mechanistically distinct types of cellular stress including low water activity, other solute-induced stresses, and dehydration-rehydration cycles. Lag phase was neither proportional ...


Difficult Creek, Difficult Management Choices, W. John Hayden Apr 2020

Difficult Creek, Difficult Management Choices, W. John Hayden

Biology Faculty Publications

Virginia is blessed with many botanical wonderlands; see Chapter 4 of the Flora of Virginia (Weakley et al. 2012) for thumbnail sketches describing 50 of these special places. One such treasure, Difficult Creek Natural Area Preserve, is home to a thriving population of the 2019 VNPS Wildflower of the year, Ceanothus americanus (New Jersey Tea). Paradoxically, however, our featured wildflower of last year is inextricably linked to a difficult conservation management decision.


Wildflower Of The Year—Cymes, Not Corymbs!, W. John Hayden Apr 2020

Wildflower Of The Year—Cymes, Not Corymbs!, W. John Hayden

Biology Faculty Publications

I hit a snag while composing the text for this year’s wildflower of the year brochure on Wild Geranium, Geranium maculatum. The problem concerned the proper descriptive term for its inflorescence, i.e., the pattern in which its flowers are grouped. In more than one source, I read that, for the family Geraniaceae, inflorescences are cymes (Figures 1 and 2), but those same sources indicated that inflorescences of Geranium maculatum are corymbs (Figure 4). That conflict caused me to scratch my head because cymes and corymbs are fundamentally different kinds of inflorescences.


Energetic And Physical Limitations On The Breaching Performance Of Large Whales, Paolo S. Segre, Jean Potvin, David E. Cade, John Calambokidis, Jacopo Di Clemente, Frank E. Fish, Ari S. Friedlaender, William T. Gough, Shirel R. Kahane-Rapport, Claudia Oliveira, Susan E. Parks, Gwenith S. Penry, Malene Simon, Alison K. Stimpert, David N. Wiley, K. C. Bierlich, Peter T. Madsen, Jeremy A. Goldbogen Mar 2020

Energetic And Physical Limitations On The Breaching Performance Of Large Whales, Paolo S. Segre, Jean Potvin, David E. Cade, John Calambokidis, Jacopo Di Clemente, Frank E. Fish, Ari S. Friedlaender, William T. Gough, Shirel R. Kahane-Rapport, Claudia Oliveira, Susan E. Parks, Gwenith S. Penry, Malene Simon, Alison K. Stimpert, David N. Wiley, K. C. Bierlich, Peter T. Madsen, Jeremy A. Goldbogen

Biology Faculty Publications

The considerable power needed for large whales to leap out of the water may represent the single most expensive burst maneuver found in nature. However, the mechanics and energetic costs associated with the breaching behaviors of large whales remain poorly understood. In this study we deployed whale-borne tags to measure the kinematics of breaching to test the hypothesis that these spectacular aerial displays are metabolically expensive. We found that breaching whales use variable underwater trajectories, and that high-emergence breaches are faster and require more energy than predatory lunges. The most expensive breaches approach the upper limits of vertebrate muscle performance ...


Dramatic Dietary Shift Maintains Sequestered Toxins In Chemically Defended Snakes, Tatsuya Yoshida, Rinako Ujiie, Alan H. Savitzky, Teppei Jono, Takato Inoue, Naoko Yoshinaga, Shunsuke Aburaya, Wataru Aoki, Hirohiko Takeuchi, Li Ding, Qin Chen, Chengquan Cao, Tein-Shun Tsai, Anslem De Silva, Dharshani Mahaulpatha, Et Al. Feb 2020

Dramatic Dietary Shift Maintains Sequestered Toxins In Chemically Defended Snakes, Tatsuya Yoshida, Rinako Ujiie, Alan H. Savitzky, Teppei Jono, Takato Inoue, Naoko Yoshinaga, Shunsuke Aburaya, Wataru Aoki, Hirohiko Takeuchi, Li Ding, Qin Chen, Chengquan Cao, Tein-Shun Tsai, Anslem De Silva, Dharshani Mahaulpatha, Et Al.

Biology Faculty Publications

Unlike other snakes, most species of Rhabdophis possess glands in their dorsal skin, sometimes limited to the neck, known as nucho-dorsal and nuchal glands, respectively. Those glands contain powerful cardiotonic steroids known as bufadienolides, which can be deployed as a defense against predators. Bufadienolides otherwise occur only in toads (Bufonidae) and some fireflies (Lampyrinae), which are known or believed to synthesize the toxins. The ancestral diet of Rhabdophis consists of anuran amphibians, and we have shown previously that the bufadienolide toxins of frog-eating species are sequestered from toads consumed as prey. However, one derived clade, the Rhabdophis nuchalis Group, has ...


In-Situ Gold–Ceria Nanoparticles: Superior Optical Fluorescence Quenching Sensor For Dissolved Oxygen, Nader Shehata, Ishac Kandas, Effat Samir Feb 2020

In-Situ Gold–Ceria Nanoparticles: Superior Optical Fluorescence Quenching Sensor For Dissolved Oxygen, Nader Shehata, Ishac Kandas, Effat Samir

Biology Faculty Publications

Cerium oxide (ceria) nanoparticles (NPs) have been proved to be an efficient optical fluorescent material through generating visible emission (~530 nm) under violet excitation. This feature allowed ceria NPs to be used as an optical sensor via the fluorescence quenching Technique. In this paper, the impact of in-situ embedded gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) inside ceria nanoparticles was studied. Then, gold–ceria NPs were used for sensing dissolved oxygen (DO) in aqueous media. It was observed that both fluorescence intensity and lifetime were changed due to increased concentration of DO. Added gold was found to enhance the sensitivity of ceria to ...


The Effects Of Dietary Linoleic Acid And Hydrophilic Antioxidants On Basal, Peak, And Sustained Metabolism In Flight‐Trained European Starlings, Wales A. Carter, Kristen J. Demoranville, Barbara J. Pierce, Scott R. Mcwilliams Feb 2020

The Effects Of Dietary Linoleic Acid And Hydrophilic Antioxidants On Basal, Peak, And Sustained Metabolism In Flight‐Trained European Starlings, Wales A. Carter, Kristen J. Demoranville, Barbara J. Pierce, Scott R. Mcwilliams

Biology Faculty Publications

Dietary micronutrients have the ability to strongly influence animal physiology and ecology. For songbirds, dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and antioxidants are hypothesized to be particularly important micronutrients because of their influence on an individual's capacity for aerobic metabolism and recovery from extended bouts of exercise. However, the influence of specific fatty acids and hydrophilic antioxidants on whole‐animal performance remains largely untested. We used diet manipulations to directly test the effects of dietary PUFA, specifically linoleic acid (18:2n6), and anthocyanins, a hydrophilic antioxidant, on basal metabolic rate (BMR), peak metabolic rate (PMR), and rates of fat catabolism ...


Maternal Weight Affects Placental Dna Methylation Of Genes Involved In Metabolic Pathways In The Common Marmoset Monkey (Callithrix Jacchus), Laren Narapareddy, Derek E. Wildman, Don L. Armstrong, Amy Weckle, Aleeca F. Bell, Crystal L. Patil, Suzette D. Tardif, Corinna N. Ross, Julienne N. Rutherford Feb 2020

Maternal Weight Affects Placental Dna Methylation Of Genes Involved In Metabolic Pathways In The Common Marmoset Monkey (Callithrix Jacchus), Laren Narapareddy, Derek E. Wildman, Don L. Armstrong, Amy Weckle, Aleeca F. Bell, Crystal L. Patil, Suzette D. Tardif, Corinna N. Ross, Julienne N. Rutherford

Biology Faculty Publications

Accumulating evidence suggests that dysregulation of placental DNA methylation (DNAm) is a mechanism linking maternal weight during pregnancy to metabolic programming outcomes. The common marmoset, Callithrix jaccus, is a platyrrhine primate species that has provided much insight into studies of the primate placenta, maternal condition, and metabolic programming, yet the relationships between maternal weight and placental DNAm are unknown. Here, we report genome-wide DNAm from term marmoset placentas using reduced representation bisulfite sequencing. We identified 74 genes whose DNAm pattern is associated with maternal weight during gestation. These genes are predominantly involved in energy metabolism and homeostasis, including the regulation ...


Investigating The Relationship Between Corticosterone And Glucose In A Reptile, Lorin A. Neuman-Lee, Spencer B. Hudson, Alison C. Webb, Susannah S. French Jan 2020

Investigating The Relationship Between Corticosterone And Glucose In A Reptile, Lorin A. Neuman-Lee, Spencer B. Hudson, Alison C. Webb, Susannah S. French

Biology Faculty Publications

The glucocorticoid hormone corticosterone (CORT) has classically been used in ecophysiological studies as a proxy for stress and energy mobilization, but rarely are CORT and the energy metabolites themselves concurrently measured. To examine CORT's role in mobilizing glucose in a wild reptile, we conducted two studies. The first study measured natural baseline and stress-induced blood-borne CORT and glucose levels in snakes during spring emergence and again when snakes return to the denning sites in autumn. The second study manipulated the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis in male snakes in the autumn by taking a baseline blood sample, then subjecting ...


Life History And Population Dynamics Of Green Crabs (Carcinus Maenas), Alan M. Young, James A. Elliott Dec 2019

Life History And Population Dynamics Of Green Crabs (Carcinus Maenas), Alan M. Young, James A. Elliott

Biology Faculty Publications

Carcinus maenas (the “shore crab” or “European green crab”) is a very proficient invader (considered to be one of the world’s 100 worst invaders by the IUCN) due to its phenotypic plasticity, wide temperature and salinity tolerance, and an extensive omnivorous diet. Native to Atlantic Europe, it has established two well-studied nonindigenous populations in the northwestern Atlantic and northeastern Pacific and less-studied populations in Australia, Argentina and South Africa. Green crabs are eurythermal and euryhaline as adults, but they are limited to temperate coastlines due to more restrictive temperature requirements for breeding and larval development. They cannot tolerate wave-swept ...


Seed‐To‐Seedling Transitions Exhibit Distance‐Dependent Mortality But No Strong Spacing Effects In A Neotropical Forest, Philippe Marchand, Liza S. Comita, S. Joseph Wright, Richard Condit, Stephen P. Hubbell, Noelle G. Beckman Dec 2019

Seed‐To‐Seedling Transitions Exhibit Distance‐Dependent Mortality But No Strong Spacing Effects In A Neotropical Forest, Philippe Marchand, Liza S. Comita, S. Joseph Wright, Richard Condit, Stephen P. Hubbell, Noelle G. Beckman

Biology Faculty Publications

Patterns of seed dispersal and seed mortality influence the spatial structure of plant communities and the local coexistence of competing species. Most seeds are dispersed in proximity to the parent tree, where mortality is also expected to be the highest, because of competition with siblings or the attraction of natural enemies. Whereas distance‐dependent mortality in the seed‐to‐seedling transition was often observed in tropical forests, few studies have attempted to estimate the shape of the survival‐distance curves, which determines whether the peak of seedling establishment occurs away from the parent tree (Janzen–Connell pattern) or if the ...


Variations In Tetrodotoxin Levels In Populations Of Taricha Granulosa Are Expressed In The Morphology Of Their Cutaneous Glands, Pedro Luiz Mailho-Fontana, Carlos Jared, Marta Maria Antoniazzi, Juliana Mozer Sciani, Daniel Carvalho Pimenta, James P. Strange, Taran Grant, Edmund D. Brodie Jr., Edmund D. Brodie Jr. Dec 2019

Variations In Tetrodotoxin Levels In Populations Of Taricha Granulosa Are Expressed In The Morphology Of Their Cutaneous Glands, Pedro Luiz Mailho-Fontana, Carlos Jared, Marta Maria Antoniazzi, Juliana Mozer Sciani, Daniel Carvalho Pimenta, James P. Strange, Taran Grant, Edmund D. Brodie Jr., Edmund D. Brodie Jr.

Biology Faculty Publications

Tetrodotoxin (TTX), one of the most toxic substances in nature, is present in bacteria, invertebrates, fishes, and amphibians. Marine organisms seem to bioaccumulate TTX from their food or acquire it from symbiotic bacteria, but its origin in amphibians is unclear. Taricha granulosa can exhibit high TTX levels, presumably concentrated in skin poison glands, acting as an agent of selection upon predatory garter snakes (Thamnophis). This co-evolutionary arms race induces variation in T. granulosa TTX levels, from very high to undetectable. Using morphology and biochemistry, we investigated differences in toxin localization and quality between two populations at the extremes of toxicity ...


The Effects Of Ship Wakes In The Venice Lagoon And Implications For The Sustainability Of Shipping In Coastal Waters, Gian Marco Scarpa, Luca Zaggia, Giorgia Manfe, Giuliano Lorenzetti, Kevin E. Parnell, Tarmo Soomere, John Rapaglia, Emanuela Molinaroli Dec 2019

The Effects Of Ship Wakes In The Venice Lagoon And Implications For The Sustainability Of Shipping In Coastal Waters, Gian Marco Scarpa, Luca Zaggia, Giorgia Manfe, Giuliano Lorenzetti, Kevin E. Parnell, Tarmo Soomere, John Rapaglia, Emanuela Molinaroli

Biology Faculty Publications

We analyse the impact of ship traffic in the vicinity of navigation channels in a wide shallow waterbody. The crucial hydrodynamic driver in this situation is the depression (Bernoulli) wake that may be transferred into a long-living solitary wave of depression over the shoals. The analysis considers navigation channels in the Venice Lagoon using a new large dataset of approximately 600 measured wake events associated to specific ships whose data are provided by the AIS system. Since the development of the modern industrial port and the opening of the Malamocco–Marghera channel in the late 1960s, growing pressure on the ...


Autophagy Protein Nrbf2 Has Reduced Expression In Alzheimer's Brains And Modulates Memory And Amyloid-Beta Homeostasis In Mice, Veronik Lachance, Qian Wang, Eric Sweet, Insup Choi, Cui-Zan Cai, Xu-Xu Zhuang, Jessica Li Jiang, Robert D. Blitzer, Ozlem Bozdagi-Gunal, Bin Zhang, Jia-Hong Lu, Zhenyu Yue Nov 2019

Autophagy Protein Nrbf2 Has Reduced Expression In Alzheimer's Brains And Modulates Memory And Amyloid-Beta Homeostasis In Mice, Veronik Lachance, Qian Wang, Eric Sweet, Insup Choi, Cui-Zan Cai, Xu-Xu Zhuang, Jessica Li Jiang, Robert D. Blitzer, Ozlem Bozdagi-Gunal, Bin Zhang, Jia-Hong Lu, Zhenyu Yue

Biology Faculty Publications

Background Dysfunctional autophagy is implicated in Alzheimer's Disease (AD) pathogenesis. The alterations in the expression of many autophagy related genes (ATGs) have been reported in AD brains; however, the disparity of the changes confounds the role of autophagy in AD. Methods To further understand the autophagy alteration in AD brains, we analyzed transcriptomic (RNAseq) datasets of several brain regions (BA10, BA22, BA36 and BA44 in 223 patients compared to 59 healthy controls) and measured the expression of 130 ATGs. We used autophagy-deficient mouse models to assess the impact of the identified ATGs depletion on memory, autophagic activity and amyloid-beta ...


Structure Of The 5′ Untranslated Region Of Enteroviral Genomic Rna, Bejan Mahmud, Christopher M. Horn, William E. Tapprich Nov 2019

Structure Of The 5′ Untranslated Region Of Enteroviral Genomic Rna, Bejan Mahmud, Christopher M. Horn, William E. Tapprich

Biology Faculty Publications

Enteroviral RNA genomes share a long, highly structured 5= untranslated region (5= UTR) containing a type I internal ribosome entry site (IRES). The 5= UTR is composed of stably folded RNA domains connected by unstructured RNA regions. Proper folding and functioning of the 5= UTR underlies the efficiency of viral replication and also determines viral virulence. We have characterized the structure of 5= UTR genomic RNA from coxsackievirus B3 using selective 2=-hydroxyl acylation analyzed by primer extension (SHAPE) and base-specific chemical probes in solution. Our results revealed novel structural features, including realignment of major domains, newly identified long-range interactions ...


Global Imprint Of Mycorrhizal Fungi On Whole-Plant Nutrient Economics, Colin Averill, Jennifer M. Bhatnagar, Michael C. Dietze, William D. Pearse, Stephanie N. Kivlin Oct 2019

Global Imprint Of Mycorrhizal Fungi On Whole-Plant Nutrient Economics, Colin Averill, Jennifer M. Bhatnagar, Michael C. Dietze, William D. Pearse, Stephanie N. Kivlin

Biology Faculty Publications

Mycorrhizal fungi are critical members of the plant microbiome, forming a symbiosis with the roots of most plants on Earth. Most plant species partner with either arbuscular or ectomycorrhizal fungi, and these symbioses are thought to represent plant adaptations to fast and slow soil nutrient cycling rates. This generates a second hypothesis, that arbuscular and ectomycorrhizal plant species traits complement and reinforce these fungal strategies, resulting in nutrient acquisitive vs. conservative plant trait profiles. Here we analyzed 17,764 species level trait observations from 2,940 woody plant species to show that mycorrhizal plants differ systematically in nitrogen and phosphorus ...


Piezoelastic Pvdf/Tpu Nanofibrous Composite Membrane: Fabrication And Characterization, Eman Elnabawy, Ahmed H. Hassanin, Nader Shehata, Anton Popelka, Remya Nair, Saifallah Yousef, Ishac Kandas Oct 2019

Piezoelastic Pvdf/Tpu Nanofibrous Composite Membrane: Fabrication And Characterization, Eman Elnabawy, Ahmed H. Hassanin, Nader Shehata, Anton Popelka, Remya Nair, Saifallah Yousef, Ishac Kandas

Biology Faculty Publications

Poly (vinylidene fluoride) nanofibers (PVDF NFs) have been extensively used in energy harvesting applications due to their promising piezoresponse characteristics. However, the mechanical properties of the generated fibers are still lacking. Therefore, we are presenting in this work a promising improvement in the elasticity properties of PVDF nanofibrous membrane through thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) additives. Morphological, physical, and mechanical analyses were performed for membranes developed from different blend ratios. Then, the impact of added weight ratio of TPU on the piezoelectric response of the formed nanofibrous composite membranes was studied. The piezoelectric characteristics were studied through impulse loading testing where the ...


Helianthus Maximiliani And Species Fine-Scale Spatial Pattern Affect Diversity Interactions In Reconstructed Tallgrass Prairies, Thomas P. Mckenna, Jack Mcdonnell, Kathryn A. Yurkonis, Caroline Brophy Oct 2019

Helianthus Maximiliani And Species Fine-Scale Spatial Pattern Affect Diversity Interactions In Reconstructed Tallgrass Prairies, Thomas P. Mckenna, Jack Mcdonnell, Kathryn A. Yurkonis, Caroline Brophy

Biology Faculty Publications

1. Biodiversity and Ecosystem Function analyses aim to explain how individual spe‐ cies and their interactions affect ecosystem function. With this study, we asked in what ways do species interact, are these interactions affected by species planting pattern, and are initial (planted) proportions or previous year (realized) propor‐ tions a better reference point for characterizing grassland diversity effects?

2. We addressed these questions with experimental communities compiled from a pool of 16 tallgrass prairie species. We planted all species in monocultures and mixtures that varied in their species richness, evenness, and spatial pattern. We recorded species‐specific biomass production over ...


Celebrating Nj Tea’S Unspecialized Pollination, W. John Hayden Oct 2019

Celebrating Nj Tea’S Unspecialized Pollination, W. John Hayden

Biology Faculty Publications

Specialized pollination systems are the source of some of the most compelling stories in natural history. There is something appealing to the human psyche about what seems to be a reciprocal agreement between a given plant and its dedicated pollinator: the plant attracts a pollinator and provides ample nectar and/or pollen as a reward for the pollinator’s service in moving pollen from anthers to stigmas while foraging for food. Of course, these organisms have neither signed agreements nor memos of understanding. Instead, it has merely proven to the benefit of the plant, over time, to form certain floral ...


Scaling Of Swimming Performance In Baleen Whales, William T. Gough, Paolo S. Segre, K. C. Bierlich, David E. Cade, Jean Potvin, Frank E. Fish, Julian Dale, Jacopo Di Clemente, Ari S. Friedlaender, David W. Johnston, Shirel R. Kahane-Rapport, John Kennedy, John H. Long, Machiel Oudejans, Gwenith Penry, Matthew S. Savoca, Malene Simon, Simone K. A. Videsen, Fleur Visser, David N. Wiley, Jeremy O. Goldbogen Oct 2019

Scaling Of Swimming Performance In Baleen Whales, William T. Gough, Paolo S. Segre, K. C. Bierlich, David E. Cade, Jean Potvin, Frank E. Fish, Julian Dale, Jacopo Di Clemente, Ari S. Friedlaender, David W. Johnston, Shirel R. Kahane-Rapport, John Kennedy, John H. Long, Machiel Oudejans, Gwenith Penry, Matthew S. Savoca, Malene Simon, Simone K. A. Videsen, Fleur Visser, David N. Wiley, Jeremy O. Goldbogen

Biology Faculty Publications

The scale dependence of locomotor factors has long been studied in comparative biomechanics, but remains poorly understood for animals at the upper extremes of body size. Rorqual baleen whales include the largest animals, but we lack basic kinematic data about their movements and behavior below the ocean surface. Here, we combined morphometrics from aerial drone photogrammetry, whale-borne inertial sensing tag data and hydrodynamic modeling to study the locomotion of five rorqual species. We quantified changes in tail oscillatory frequency and cruising speed for individual whales spanning a threefold variation in body length, corresponding to an order of magnitude variation in ...


Red Oak Seedlings As Indicators Of Deer Browse Pressure: Gauging The Outcome Of Different White-Tailed Deer Management Approaches, Bernd Blossey, Paul Curtis, Jason Boulanger, Andrea Davalos Sep 2019

Red Oak Seedlings As Indicators Of Deer Browse Pressure: Gauging The Outcome Of Different White-Tailed Deer Management Approaches, Bernd Blossey, Paul Curtis, Jason Boulanger, Andrea Davalos

Biology Faculty Publications

After decades of high deer populations, North American forests have lost much of their previous biodiversity. Any landscape‐level recovery requires substantial reduc‐ tions in deer herds, but modern societies and wildlife management agencies appear unable to devise appropriate solutions to this chronic ecological and human health crisis. We evaluated the effectiveness of fertility control and hunting in reducing deer impacts at Cornell University. We estimated spring deer populations and planted Quercus rubra seedlings to assess deer browse pressure, rodent attack, and other factors compromising seedling performance. Oak seedlings protected in cages grew well, but deer annually browsed ≥60% of ...


Water Entry Impact Dynamics Of Diving Birds, Saburel I. Sharker, Sean Holekamp, Mohammad M. Mansoor, Tadd T. Truscott Sep 2019

Water Entry Impact Dynamics Of Diving Birds, Saburel I. Sharker, Sean Holekamp, Mohammad M. Mansoor, Tadd T. Truscott

Biology Faculty Publications

Some seabirds (such as northern gannets and brown boobies) can dive from heights as high as 30 m reaching speeds of up to 24 m s−1 as they impact the water surface. The physical geometry of plunge diving birds, particularly of the beak, allows them to limit high impact forces compared to non-diving birds. Numerically simulated data for one species (northern gannet) provides some insight into the impact forces experienced during diving, however, no reliable experimental data with real bird geometries exist for comparison purposes. This study utilizes eleven 3D printed diving bird models of three types of birds ...


Vector Mosquito Surveillance Using Centers For Disease Control And Prevention Autocidal Gravid Ovitraps In San Antonio, Texas, Joel A. Obregón, Michelle A. Ximenez, Estefany E. Villalobos, Megan R. Wise De Valdez Sep 2019

Vector Mosquito Surveillance Using Centers For Disease Control And Prevention Autocidal Gravid Ovitraps In San Antonio, Texas, Joel A. Obregón, Michelle A. Ximenez, Estefany E. Villalobos, Megan R. Wise De Valdez

Biology Faculty Publications

Mosquito surveillance in large urban areas of the southern USA that border Mexico has become increasingly important due to recent transmission of Zika virus and chikungunya virus in the Americas as well as the continued threat of dengue and West Nile viruses. The vectors of these viruses, Aedes aegypti, Ae. albopictus, and Culex quinquefasciatus, co-occur in residential areas, requiring vector control entities to deploy several different trap types, often expensive and labor-intensive, to surveil these ecologically different species. We evaluated the use of a single trap type, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention autocidal gravid ovitraps (AGOs), to ...


Demographic Assessment Of The Triploid Parthenogenetic Lizard Aspidoscelis Neotesselatus At The Northern Edge Of Its Range, Lise M. Aubry, Douglas Eifler, Kaera Utsumi, Susannah S. French Aug 2019

Demographic Assessment Of The Triploid Parthenogenetic Lizard Aspidoscelis Neotesselatus At The Northern Edge Of Its Range, Lise M. Aubry, Douglas Eifler, Kaera Utsumi, Susannah S. French

Biology Faculty Publications

Aspidoscelis neotesselatus (Colorado Checkered Whiptail) is a hybrid-derived triploid parthenogenetic lizard with a natural range overlapping with six counties in southeastern Colorado, USA. It has also become established by anthropogenic causation in Grant County, Washington State, approximately 1,600 km northwest of its range in Colorado. Large parts of its natural range are within military reservations. Reduced genetic variation in all-female species makes them especially susceptible to environmental disturbances, such as military activities. At Fort Carson (FC), we estimated an abundance index via a catch-per-unit estimator, weekly survival using Cormack-Jolly-Seber models, and body condition and clutch size as indicators of ...


Phylogeny Of The Subfamilies Of Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera), Andrew M.R. Bennett, Sophie Cardinal, Ian D. Gauld, David B. Wahl Aug 2019

Phylogeny Of The Subfamilies Of Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera), Andrew M.R. Bennett, Sophie Cardinal, Ian D. Gauld, David B. Wahl

Biology Faculty Publications

A combined morphological and molecular phylogenetic analysis was performed to evaluate the subfamily relationships of the parasitoid wasp family Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera). Data were obtained by coding 135 morphological and 6 biological characters for 131 exemplar species of ichneumonids and 3 species of Braconidae (the latter as outgroups). The species of ichneumonids represent all of the 42 currently recognized subfamilies. In addition, molecular sequence data (cytochrome oxidase I “DNA barcoding” region, the D2 region of 28S rDNA and part of the F2 copy of elongation factor 1-alpha) were obtained from specimens of the same species that were coded for morphology (1309 ...


Fipronil And Ivermectin Treatment Of Cattle Reduced The Survival And Ovarian Development Of Field-Collection Anopheles Albimanus In A Pilot Trial Conducted In Northern Belize, Staci M. Dreyer, Donovan Leiva, Marla Magana, Marie Pott, Jonathan Kay, Alvaro Cruz, Nicole L. Achee, John P. Grieco, Jefferson A. Vaughan Aug 2019

Fipronil And Ivermectin Treatment Of Cattle Reduced The Survival And Ovarian Development Of Field-Collection Anopheles Albimanus In A Pilot Trial Conducted In Northern Belize, Staci M. Dreyer, Donovan Leiva, Marla Magana, Marie Pott, Jonathan Kay, Alvaro Cruz, Nicole L. Achee, John P. Grieco, Jefferson A. Vaughan

Biology Faculty Publications

Background: Most malaria vector control programmes rely on indoor residual spraying of insecticides and insecticide-treated bed nets. This is efective against vector species that feed indoors at night and rest inside the house afterwards. In Central America, malaria vectors have diferent behaviours and are typically exophagic (i.e., bite outdoors), exophilic (i.e., remain outdoors after feeding), and zoophagic (i.e., as likely to feed on non-humans as humans). Thus, malaria elimination in Central America may require additional tactics. This pilot study investigated whether commercially-available products used to treat livestock for ticks could also be used to kill and/or ...


Resolving The Genetic Paradox Of Invasions: Preadapted Genomes And Postintroduction Hybridization Of Bigheaded Carps In The Mississippi River Basin, Jun Wang, Sarah Gaughan, James T. Lamer, Cao Deng, Wanting Hu, Michael Wachholtz, Shishang Qin, Hu Nie, Xiaolin Liao, Qufei Ling, Weitao Li, Lifeng Zhu, Louis Bernatchez, Chenghui Wang, Guoqing Lu Aug 2019

Resolving The Genetic Paradox Of Invasions: Preadapted Genomes And Postintroduction Hybridization Of Bigheaded Carps In The Mississippi River Basin, Jun Wang, Sarah Gaughan, James T. Lamer, Cao Deng, Wanting Hu, Michael Wachholtz, Shishang Qin, Hu Nie, Xiaolin Liao, Qufei Ling, Weitao Li, Lifeng Zhu, Louis Bernatchez, Chenghui Wang, Guoqing Lu

Biology Faculty Publications

The genetic paradox of biological invasions is complex and multifaceted. In particular, the relative role of disparate propagule sources and genetic adaptation through postintroduction hybridization has remained largely unexplored. To add resolution to this paradox, we investigate the genetic architecture responsible for the invasion of two invasive Asian carp species, bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) and silver carp (H. molitrix) (bigheaded carps) that experience extensive hybridization in the Mississippi River Basin (MRB). We sequenced the genomes of bighead and silver carps (~1.08G bp and ~1.15G bp, respectively) and their hybrids collected from the MRB. We found moderate‐to‐high ...


Total Rna Extraction From Transgenic Flies Misexpressing Foreign Genes To Perform Next Generation Rna Sequencing, Abijeet Singh Mehta, Agustin Luz-Madrigal, Jian-Liang Li, Panagiotis A. Tsonis, Amit Singh Aug 2019

Total Rna Extraction From Transgenic Flies Misexpressing Foreign Genes To Perform Next Generation Rna Sequencing, Abijeet Singh Mehta, Agustin Luz-Madrigal, Jian-Liang Li, Panagiotis A. Tsonis, Amit Singh

Biology Faculty Publications

Due to absence of transgenic approaches in Notopthalmus Viridescens (newt), and conservation of genetic machinery across species, we generated transgenic Drosophila melanogaster to misexpress unique genes from newt. Novel newt genes cloned, and inserted at attP site in Drosophila were misexpressed ubiquitously using tubulin Gal-4. Sample (total RNA) for RNA sequencing was collected at 3rd instar larval stage during which major developmental events takes place in Drosophila. Total RNA was extracted, and purified using RNA clean and ConcentratorTM. RNA quality was quantitated by calculating absorbance at 260 nm (A260) and 280 nm (A280) wavelengths using Nanodrop 2000 spectrophotometer. Good quality ...