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Biology Faculty Publications

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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Sex-Related Differences In Immune Response And Symptomatic Manifestations To Infection With Leishmania Species, Ryan D. Lockard, Mary E. Wilson, Nilda E. Rodriguez Jan 2019

Sex-Related Differences In Immune Response And Symptomatic Manifestations To Infection With Leishmania Species, Ryan D. Lockard, Mary E. Wilson, Nilda E. Rodriguez

Biology Faculty Publications

Worldwide, an estimated 12 million people are infected with Leishmania spp. and an additional 350 million are at risk of infection. Leishmania are intracellular parasites that cause disease by suppressing macrophage microbicidal responses. Infection can remain asymptomatic or lead to a spectrum of diseases including cutaneous, mucocutaneous, and visceral leishmaniasis. Ultimately, the combination of both pathogen and host factors determines the outcome of infection. Leishmaniasis, as well as numerous other infectious diseases, exhibits sex-related differences that cannot be explained solely in terms of environmental exposure or healthcare access. Furthermore, transcriptomic evidence is revealing that biological sex is a variable impacting ...


Ne Stem 4u Afterschool Intervention Leads To Gains In Stem Content Knowledge For Middle School Youth, Christine E. Cutucache, Taylor Boham, Jamie Luhr, Amie Sommers, Nikolaus Stevenson, Erkko Sointu, Kati Mäkitalo‐Siegl, Sirpa Kärkkäinen, Teemu Valtonen, Neal Grandgenett, William Tapprich Dec 2018

Ne Stem 4u Afterschool Intervention Leads To Gains In Stem Content Knowledge For Middle School Youth, Christine E. Cutucache, Taylor Boham, Jamie Luhr, Amie Sommers, Nikolaus Stevenson, Erkko Sointu, Kati Mäkitalo‐Siegl, Sirpa Kärkkäinen, Teemu Valtonen, Neal Grandgenett, William Tapprich

Biology Faculty Publications

Afterschool interventions in STEM are linked to learning gains during the school day. These opportunities engage and excite students about STEM concepts since they observe a more hands-on, project-oriented approach. Often these opportunities for afterschool interventions are infrequent in nature and leave gaps for students in their maturation and understanding. Herein we describe the first report of an afterschool intervention, named NE STEM 4U, targeting socioeconomically disadvantaged middle school youth via a twice weekly, year-long intervention, studied across two years. We assessed the impact of this program on i.) short-term, individual student gains in STEM content knowledge and ii.) delivery ...


Effect Of Temperature Change On Synaptic Transmission At Crayfish Neuromuscular Junctions, Yuechen Zhu, Leo De Castro, Robin L. Cooper Dec 2018

Effect Of Temperature Change On Synaptic Transmission At Crayfish Neuromuscular Junctions, Yuechen Zhu, Leo De Castro, Robin L. Cooper

Biology Faculty Publications

Ectothermic animals in areas characterised by seasonal changes are susceptible to extreme fluctuations in temperature. To survive through varied temperatures, ectotherms have developed unique strategies. This study focuses on synaptic transmission function at cold temperatures, as it is a vital component of ectothermic animals' survival. For determining how synaptic transmission is influenced by an acute change in temperature (20°C to 10°C within a minute) and chronic cold (10°C), the crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) neuromuscular junction (NMJ) was used as a model. To simulate chronic cold conditions, crayfish were acclimated to 15°C for 1 week and then to ...


Reducing Protected Lands In A Hotspot Of Bee Biodiversity: Bees Of Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument, Joseph S. Wilson, Matt Kelly, Olivia Messinger Carril Dec 2018

Reducing Protected Lands In A Hotspot Of Bee Biodiversity: Bees Of Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument, Joseph S. Wilson, Matt Kelly, Olivia Messinger Carril

Biology Faculty Publications

Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument is a federally protected area found in central southern Utah. Designated in 1996 by President William J. Clinton, it was recently reduced in size by President Donald J. Trump in a proclamation that turned the one large monument into three smaller ones. A long-term, standardized study of the bees had been conducted from 2000–2003, revealing 660 species. The bee communities of the area are characterized by being spatially heterogeneous; most of the bees occur in isolated areas, with only a few being both abundant and widespread. Here we examine what affect the recent resizing of ...


Long-Term Experimental Hybridisation Results In The Evolution Of A New Sex Chromosome In Swordtail Fish, Paolo Franchini, Julia C. Jones, Peiwen Xiong, Susanne Kneitz, Zachariah Gompert, Wesley C. Warren, Ronald B. Walter, Axel Meyer, Manfred Schartl Dec 2018

Long-Term Experimental Hybridisation Results In The Evolution Of A New Sex Chromosome In Swordtail Fish, Paolo Franchini, Julia C. Jones, Peiwen Xiong, Susanne Kneitz, Zachariah Gompert, Wesley C. Warren, Ronald B. Walter, Axel Meyer, Manfred Schartl

Biology Faculty Publications

The remarkable diversity of sex determination mechanisms known in fish may be fuelled by exceptionally high rates of sex chromosome turnovers or transitions. However, the evolutionary causes and genomic mechanisms underlying this variation and instability are yet to be understood. Here we report on an over 30-year evolutionary experiment in which we tested the genomic consequences of hybridisation and selection between two Xiphophorus fish species with different sex chromosome systems. We find that introgression and imposing selection for pigmentation phenotypes results in the retention of an unexpectedly large maternally derived genomic region. During the hybridisation process, the sex-determining region of ...


Derivatives Of A Benzoquinone Acyl Hydrazone With Activity Against Toxoplasma Gondii, A. G. Sanford, T. T. Schulze, L. P. Potluri, G. F. Watson, E. B. Darner, S. J. Zach, R. M. Hemsley, A. I. Wallick, R. C. Warner, S. A. Charman, X. Wang, J. L. Vennerstrom, P. H. Davis Dec 2018

Derivatives Of A Benzoquinone Acyl Hydrazone With Activity Against Toxoplasma Gondii, A. G. Sanford, T. T. Schulze, L. P. Potluri, G. F. Watson, E. B. Darner, S. J. Zach, R. M. Hemsley, A. I. Wallick, R. C. Warner, S. A. Charman, X. Wang, J. L. Vennerstrom, P. H. Davis

Biology Faculty Publications

Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite with global incidence. The acute infection, toxoplasmosis, is treatable but current regimens have poor host tolerance and no cure has been found for latent infections. This work builds upon a previous high throughput screen which identified benzoquinone acyl hydrazone (KG8) as the most promising compound; KG8 displayed potent in vitro activity against T. gondii but only marginal in vivoefficacy in a T. gondii animal model. To define the potential of this new lead compound, we now describe a baseline structure-activity relationship for this chemotype. Several derivatives displayed IC50's comparable to that ...


The Effects Of Diet And Mating System On Reproductive (And Post‐Reproductive) Life Span In A Freshwater Snail, Josh R. Auld Dec 2018

The Effects Of Diet And Mating System On Reproductive (And Post‐Reproductive) Life Span In A Freshwater Snail, Josh R. Auld

Biology Faculty Publications

The length of the reproductive life span, along with the number/frequency/magnitude of reproductive events, quantifies an individual’s potential contribution to the next generation. By examining reproductive life span, and distinguishing it from somatic life span, we gain insight into critical aspects of an individual’s potential fitness as well as reproductive and somatic senescence. Additionally, differentiating somatic and reproductive life spans can provide insight into the existence of a post‐reproductive period and factors that shape its duration. Given the known importance of diet and mating system on resource allocation, I reared individual freshwater snails (Physa acuta ...


The Contribution Of The Descending Pain Modulatory Pathway In Opioid Tolerance, Lindsay M. Lueptow, Amanda K. Fakira, Erin Bobeck Nov 2018

The Contribution Of The Descending Pain Modulatory Pathway In Opioid Tolerance, Lindsay M. Lueptow, Amanda K. Fakira, Erin Bobeck

Biology Faculty Publications

Opioids remain among the most effective pain-relieving therapeutics. However, their long-term use is limited due to the development of tolerance and potential for addiction. For many years, researchers have explored the underlying mechanisms that lead to this decreased effectiveness of opioids after repeated use, and numerous theories have been proposed to explain these changes. The most widely studied theories involve alterations in receptor trafficking and intracellular signaling. Other possible mechanisms include the recruitment of new structural neuronal and microglia networks. While many of these theories have been developed using molecular and cellular techniques, more recent behavioral data also supports these ...


Derivatives Of A Benzoquinone Acyl Hydrazone With Activity Against Toxoplasma Gondii, A. G. Sanford, T. T. Schulze, L. P. Potluri, G. F. Watson, E. B. Darner, S. J. Zach, R. M. Hemsley, A. I. Wallick, R. C. Warner, S. A. Charman, X. Wang, J. L. Vennerstrom, P. H. Davis Nov 2018

Derivatives Of A Benzoquinone Acyl Hydrazone With Activity Against Toxoplasma Gondii, A. G. Sanford, T. T. Schulze, L. P. Potluri, G. F. Watson, E. B. Darner, S. J. Zach, R. M. Hemsley, A. I. Wallick, R. C. Warner, S. A. Charman, X. Wang, J. L. Vennerstrom, P. H. Davis

Biology Faculty Publications

Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite with global incidence. The acute infection, toxoplasmosis, is treatable but current regimens have poor host tolerance and no cure has been found for latent infections. This work builds upon a previous high throughput screen which identified benzoquinone acyl hydrazone (KG8) as the most promising compound; KG8 displayed potent in vitro activity against T. gondii but only marginal in vivoefficacy in a T. gondii animal model. To define the potential of this new lead compound, we now describe a baseline structure-activity relationship for this chemotype. Several derivatives displayed IC50's comparable to that ...


Recruitment, Survival, And Parasitism Of Monarch Butterflies (Danaus Plexippus) In Milkweed Gardens And Conservation Areas, Emily A. Geest, L. Lareesa Wolfenbarger, John P. Mccarty Nov 2018

Recruitment, Survival, And Parasitism Of Monarch Butterflies (Danaus Plexippus) In Milkweed Gardens And Conservation Areas, Emily A. Geest, L. Lareesa Wolfenbarger, John P. Mccarty

Biology Faculty Publications

Monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) are suffering from declining populations and conservationists have encouraged planting milkweed gardens in urban and suburban landscapes to help offset habitat loss across the breeding range. The effectiveness of gardens as a conservation strategy depends on their ability to attract ovipositing adults and the survival of monarch larvae in these gardens. Larvae are susceptible to a variety of predators as well as to parasitism by a tachinid fly (Lespesia archippivora) and a protozoan parasite (Ophryocystis elektroscirrha) which cause lethal or sublethal effects, yet the severity of these risks in gardens is not well understood. We compared ...


Dispersal In Host–Parasitoid Interactions: Crop Colonization By Pests And Specialist Enemies, Edward Evans Oct 2018

Dispersal In Host–Parasitoid Interactions: Crop Colonization By Pests And Specialist Enemies, Edward Evans

Biology Faculty Publications

Interactions of insect pests and their natural enemies increasingly are being considered from a metapopulation perspective, with focus on movements of individuals among habitat patches (e.g., individual crop fields). Biological control may be undercut in short-lived crops as natural enemies lag behind the pests in colonizing newly created habitat. This hypothesis was tested by assessing parasitism of cereal leaf beetle (Oulema melanopus) and alfalfa weevil (Hypera postica) larvae at varying distances along transects into newly planted fields of small grains and alfalfa in northern Utah. The rate of parasitism of cereal leaf beetles and alfalfa weevils by their host-specific ...


Decadal Effects Of Thinning On Understory Light Environments And Plant Community Structure In A Subtropical Forest, Ho-Chen Tsai, Jyh-Min Chiang, Ryan Mcewan, Teng-Chiu Lin Oct 2018

Decadal Effects Of Thinning On Understory Light Environments And Plant Community Structure In A Subtropical Forest, Ho-Chen Tsai, Jyh-Min Chiang, Ryan Mcewan, Teng-Chiu Lin

Biology Faculty Publications

Canopy-opening disturbance such as thinning has immediate and substantive effects on understory microclimate and therefore the establishment and growth of understory plants. A large number of studies have reported the effects of thinning on tree growth, but few studies have examined long-term effects of thinning on understory light environments and species and functional diversity of understory plants. Even less is known whether the change in understory plant community structure observed following canopy disturbance is short-lived and would diminish as the canopy closes or a long lasting due to legacy effects. We examined the effects of an experimental removal of 25 ...


Evolution Of Nuchal Glands, Unusual Defensive Organs Of Asian Natricine Snakes (Serpentes: Colubridae), Inferred From A Molecular Phylogeny, Hirohiko Takeuchi, Alan H. Savitzky, Li Ding, Anslem De Silva, Indraneil Das, Tao Thien Nguyen, Tein-Shun Tsai, Teppei Jono, Guang-Xiang Zhu, Dharshani Mahaulpatha, Yezhong Tang, Akira Mori Sep 2018

Evolution Of Nuchal Glands, Unusual Defensive Organs Of Asian Natricine Snakes (Serpentes: Colubridae), Inferred From A Molecular Phylogeny, Hirohiko Takeuchi, Alan H. Savitzky, Li Ding, Anslem De Silva, Indraneil Das, Tao Thien Nguyen, Tein-Shun Tsai, Teppei Jono, Guang-Xiang Zhu, Dharshani Mahaulpatha, Yezhong Tang, Akira Mori

Biology Faculty Publications

A large body of evidence indicates that evolutionary innovations of novel organs have facilitated the subsequent diversification of species. Investigation of the evolutionary history of such organs should provide important clues for understanding the basis for species diversification. An Asian natricine snake, Rhabdophis tigrinus, possesses a series of unusual organs, called nuchal glands, which contain cardiotonic steroid toxins known as bufadienolides. Rhabdophis tigrinus sequesters bufadienolides from its toad prey and stores them in the nuchal glands as a defensive mechanism. Among more than 3,500 species of snakes, only 17 Asian natricine species are known to possess nuchal glands or ...


Physiological Changes As A Measure Of Crustacean Welfare Under Different Standardized Stunning Techniques: Cooling And Electroshock, Kristin Weineck, Andrew J. Ray, Leo J. Fleckenstein, Meagan Medley, Nicole Dzubuk, Elena Piana, Robin L. Cooper Sep 2018

Physiological Changes As A Measure Of Crustacean Welfare Under Different Standardized Stunning Techniques: Cooling And Electroshock, Kristin Weineck, Andrew J. Ray, Leo J. Fleckenstein, Meagan Medley, Nicole Dzubuk, Elena Piana, Robin L. Cooper

Biology Faculty Publications

Stunning of edible crustaceans to reduce sensory perception prior and during slaughter is an important topic in animal welfare. The purpose of this project was to determine how neural circuits were affected during stunning by examining the physiological function of neural circuits. The central nervous system circuit to a cardiac or skeletal muscle response was examined. Three commercially important crustacean species were utilized for stunning by immersion in an ice slurry below 4 °C and by electrocution; both practices are used in the seafood industry. The blue crab (Callinectes sapidus), the red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii), and the whiteleg shrimp ...


Environment And Past Land Use Together Predict Functional Diversity In A Temperate Forest, Meghna Krishnadas, Noelle G. Beckman, Jaun Carlos Peñagos Zuluaga, Yan Zhu, James Whitacre, John W. Wenzel, Simon A. Queenborough, Lize S. Comita Sep 2018

Environment And Past Land Use Together Predict Functional Diversity In A Temperate Forest, Meghna Krishnadas, Noelle G. Beckman, Jaun Carlos Peñagos Zuluaga, Yan Zhu, James Whitacre, John W. Wenzel, Simon A. Queenborough, Lize S. Comita

Biology Faculty Publications

Environment and human land use both shape forest composition. Abiotic conditions sift tree species from a regional pool via functional traits that influence species’ suitability to the local environment. In addition, human land use can modify species distributions and change functional diversity of forests. However, it is unclear how environment and land use simultaneously shape functional diversity of tree communities. Land-use legacies are especially prominent in temperate forest landscapes that have been extensively modified by humans in the last few centuries. Across a 900-ha temperate deciduous forest in the northeastern United States, comprising a mosaic of different-aged stands due to ...


An Investigation Into Tetrodotoxin (Ttx) Levels Associated With The Red Dorsal Spots In Eastern Newt (Notophthalmus Viridescens) Efts And Adults, Mackenzie M. Spicer, Amber N. Stokes, Trevor L. Chapman, Edmund D. Brodie Jr., Edmund D. Brodie Iii, Brian G. Gall Sep 2018

An Investigation Into Tetrodotoxin (Ttx) Levels Associated With The Red Dorsal Spots In Eastern Newt (Notophthalmus Viridescens) Efts And Adults, Mackenzie M. Spicer, Amber N. Stokes, Trevor L. Chapman, Edmund D. Brodie Jr., Edmund D. Brodie Iii, Brian G. Gall

Biology Faculty Publications

We investigated the concentration of tetrodotoxin (TTX) in sections of skin containing and lacking red dorsal spots in both Eastern newt (Notophthalmus viridescens) efts and adults. Several other species, such as Pleurodeles waltl and Echinotriton andersoni, have granular glands concentrated in brightly pigmented regions on the dorsum, and thus we hypothesized that the red dorsal spots of Eastern newts may also possess higher levels of TTX than the surrounding skin. We found no difference between the concentrations of TTX in the red spots as compared to neighboring skin lacking these spots in either efts or adults. However, efts with more ...


Structural Basis For Light Control Of Cell Development Revealed By Crystal Structures Of A Myxobacterial Phytochrome, Nicole C. Woitowich, Andrei S. Halavaty, Patricia Waltz, Christopher Kupitz, Joseph Valera, Gregory Tracy, Kevin D. Gallagher, Elin Claesson, Takanori Nakane, Suraj Pandey, Garrett Nelson, Rie Tanaka, Eriko Nango, Eiichi Mizohata, Shigeki Owada, Kensure Tono, Yasumasa Joti, Angela C. Nugent, Hardik Patel, Ayesha Mapara, James Hopkins, Phu Duong, Dorina Bizhga, Svetlana E. Kovaleva, Rachel St. Peter, Cynthia N. Hernandez, Wesley B. Ozarowski, Shatabdi Roy-Chowdhuri, Jay-How Yang, Petra Edlund, Heikki Takala, Janne Ihalainen, Jennifer Brayshaw, Tyler Norwood, Ishwor Poudyal, Petra Fromme, John C.H. Spence, Keith Moffat, Sebastian Westenhoff, Marius Schmidt, Emina A. Stojkovic Sep 2018

Structural Basis For Light Control Of Cell Development Revealed By Crystal Structures Of A Myxobacterial Phytochrome, Nicole C. Woitowich, Andrei S. Halavaty, Patricia Waltz, Christopher Kupitz, Joseph Valera, Gregory Tracy, Kevin D. Gallagher, Elin Claesson, Takanori Nakane, Suraj Pandey, Garrett Nelson, Rie Tanaka, Eriko Nango, Eiichi Mizohata, Shigeki Owada, Kensure Tono, Yasumasa Joti, Angela C. Nugent, Hardik Patel, Ayesha Mapara, James Hopkins, Phu Duong, Dorina Bizhga, Svetlana E. Kovaleva, Rachel St. Peter, Cynthia N. Hernandez, Wesley B. Ozarowski, Shatabdi Roy-Chowdhuri, Jay-How Yang, Petra Edlund, Heikki Takala, Janne Ihalainen, Jennifer Brayshaw, Tyler Norwood, Ishwor Poudyal, Petra Fromme, John C.H. Spence, Keith Moffat, Sebastian Westenhoff, Marius Schmidt, Emina A. Stojkovic

Biology Faculty Publications

Phytochromes are red-light photoreceptors that were first characterized in plants, with homologs in photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic bacteria known as bacteriophytochromes (BphPs). Upon absorption of light, BphPs interconvert between two states denoted Pr and Pfr with distinct absorption spectra in the red and far-red. They have recently been engineered as enzymatic photoswitches for fluorescent-marker applications in non-invasive tissue imaging of mammals. This article presents cryo- and room-temperature crystal structures of the unusual phytochrome from the non-photosynthetic myxobacterium Stigmatella aurantiaca (SaBphP1) and reveals its role in the fruitingbody formation of this photomorphogenic bacterium. SaBphP1 lacks a conserved histidine (His) in the chromophore-binding ...


Nurudea Zhengii Ren, A New Species Of The Rhus Gall Aphids (Aphididae: Eriosomatinae: Fordini) From Eastern China, Zhu-Mei Ren, Xu Su, Carol D. Von Dohlen, Jun Wen Aug 2018

Nurudea Zhengii Ren, A New Species Of The Rhus Gall Aphids (Aphididae: Eriosomatinae: Fordini) From Eastern China, Zhu-Mei Ren, Xu Su, Carol D. Von Dohlen, Jun Wen

Biology Faculty Publications

A new Rhus gall aphid species Nurudea zhengii Ren, sp. nov. collected from the Mountain Qixing in Shangrao County, Jiangxi Province, China is described and illustrated from alate viviparous female. The new species differs from the other Nurudea species in the length and proportion of antennal segments, the structure of antennal secondary sensilla, and the flower-like shape of the galls that are formed on its primary host. Its primary host plant is Rhus hypoleuca, whereas other Nurudea species are on R. chinensis.


Plasmonic-Ceria Nanoparticles As Fluorescence Intensity And Lifetime Quenching Optical Sensor, Nader Shehata, Effat Samir, Ishac Kandas Aug 2018

Plasmonic-Ceria Nanoparticles As Fluorescence Intensity And Lifetime Quenching Optical Sensor, Nader Shehata, Effat Samir, Ishac Kandas

Biology Faculty Publications

Ceria nanoparticles have been recently used as an optical fluorescent material with visible emission under ultraviolet excitation, due to the formation of trivalent cerium ions with corresponding oxygen vacancies. This paper introduces the enhancement of both fluorescence emission and lifetime through adding gold nanoparticles. The reason is due to possible coupling between the plasmonic resonance of gold nanoparticles and the fluorescence emission of ceria that has been achieved, along with enhanced formation of trivalent cerium ions. Both factors lead to higher fluorescence intensity peaks and shorter fluorescence lifetimes. As an application, gold-ceria nanoparticles have been used as an optical sensing ...


Mobile Elements Shape Plastome Evolution In Ferns, Tanner A. Robison, Amanda L. Grusz, Paul G. Wolf, Jeffrey P. Mower, Blake D. Fauskee, Karla Sosa, Eric Schuettpelz Aug 2018

Mobile Elements Shape Plastome Evolution In Ferns, Tanner A. Robison, Amanda L. Grusz, Paul G. Wolf, Jeffrey P. Mower, Blake D. Fauskee, Karla Sosa, Eric Schuettpelz

Biology Faculty Publications

Plastid genomes display remarkable organizational stability over evolutionary time. From green algae to angiosperms, most plastid genomes are largely collinear, with only a few cases of inversion, gene loss, or, in extremely rare cases, gene addition. These plastome insertions are mostly clade-specific and are typically of nuclear or mitochondrial origin. Here, we expand on these findings and present the first family-level survey of plastome evolution in ferns, revealing a novel suite of dynamic mobile elements. Comparative plastome analyses of the Pteridaceae expose several mobile open reading frames that vary in sequence length, insertion site, and configuration among sampled taxa. Even ...


Generalist And Specialist Mite Herbivores Induce Similar Defense Responses In Maize And Barley But Differ In Susceptibility To Benzoxazinoids, Huyen Bui, Robert Greenhalgh, Alice Ruckert, Gunbharpur S. Gill, Sarah Lee, Ricardo A. Ramirez, Richard M. Clark Aug 2018

Generalist And Specialist Mite Herbivores Induce Similar Defense Responses In Maize And Barley But Differ In Susceptibility To Benzoxazinoids, Huyen Bui, Robert Greenhalgh, Alice Ruckert, Gunbharpur S. Gill, Sarah Lee, Ricardo A. Ramirez, Richard M. Clark

Biology Faculty Publications

While substantial progress has been made in understanding defense responses of cereals to insect herbivores, comparatively little is known about responses to feeding by spider mites. Nevertheless, several spider mite species, including the generalist Tetranychus urticae and the grass specialist Oligonychus pratensis, cause damage on cereals such as maize and wheat, especially during drought stress. To understand defense responses of cereals to spider mites, we characterized the transcriptomic responses of maize and barley to herbivory by both mite species, and included a wounding control against which modulation of defenses could be tested. T. urticae and O. pratensis induced highly correlated ...


Repeatability And Reliability Of Exploratory Behavior In Proactive And Reactive Zebrafsh, Danio Rerio, Matthew R. Baker, Alexander C. Goodman, Jonathan B. Santo, Ryan Y. Wong Aug 2018

Repeatability And Reliability Of Exploratory Behavior In Proactive And Reactive Zebrafsh, Danio Rerio, Matthew R. Baker, Alexander C. Goodman, Jonathan B. Santo, Ryan Y. Wong

Biology Faculty Publications

Behavioral responses to novel situations often vary and can belong to a suite of correlated behaviors. Characteristic behaviors of different personality types (e.g. stress coping styles) are generally consistent across contexts and time. Here, we compare the repeatability and reliability of exploratory behaviors between zebrafsh strains selectively bred to display contrasting behavioral responses to stressors that represent the proactive-reactive axis. Specifically, we measure exploratory behavior of individual fish in an open field test over five weeks. We quantified the stationary time, average swimming speed and time spent by a fish in the center area. We found a number of ...


Molecular Adaptations For Sensing And Securing Prey And Insight Into Amniote Genome Diversity From The Garter Snake Genome, Blair W. Perry, Daren C. Card, Joel W. Mcglothlin, Giulia I.M. Pasquesi, Richard H. Adams, Drew R. Schield, Nicole R. Hales, Andrew B. Corbin, Jeffery P. Demuth, Federico G. Hoffmann, Michael W. Vandewege, Ryan K. Schott, Nihar Bhattacharyya, Belinda S.W. Chang, Nicholas R. Casewell, Gareth Whiteley, Jacobo Reyes-Velasco, Stephen P. Mackessy, Tony Gamble, Kenneth B. Storey, Kyle K. Biggar, Courtney N. Passow, Chih-Horng Kuo, Suzanne E. Mcgaugh, Anne M. Bronikowski, A.P. Jason De Koning, Scott V. Edwards, Michael E. Pfrender, Patrick Minx, Edmund D. Brodie Iii, Edmund D. Brodie Jr., Wesley C. Warren, Todd A. Castoe Jul 2018

Molecular Adaptations For Sensing And Securing Prey And Insight Into Amniote Genome Diversity From The Garter Snake Genome, Blair W. Perry, Daren C. Card, Joel W. Mcglothlin, Giulia I.M. Pasquesi, Richard H. Adams, Drew R. Schield, Nicole R. Hales, Andrew B. Corbin, Jeffery P. Demuth, Federico G. Hoffmann, Michael W. Vandewege, Ryan K. Schott, Nihar Bhattacharyya, Belinda S.W. Chang, Nicholas R. Casewell, Gareth Whiteley, Jacobo Reyes-Velasco, Stephen P. Mackessy, Tony Gamble, Kenneth B. Storey, Kyle K. Biggar, Courtney N. Passow, Chih-Horng Kuo, Suzanne E. Mcgaugh, Anne M. Bronikowski, A.P. Jason De Koning, Scott V. Edwards, Michael E. Pfrender, Patrick Minx, Edmund D. Brodie Iii, Edmund D. Brodie Jr., Wesley C. Warren, Todd A. Castoe

Biology Faculty Publications

Colubridae represents the most phenotypically diverse and speciose family of snakes, yet no well-assembled and annotated genome exists for this lineage. Here, we report and analyze the genome of the garter snake, Thamnophis sirtalis, a colubrid snake that is an important model species for research in evolutionary biology, physiology, genomics, behavior, and the evolution of toxin resistance. Using the garter snake genome, we show how snakes have evolved numerous adaptations for sensing and securing prey, and identify features of snake genome structure that provide insight into the evolution of amniote genomes. Analyses of the garter snake and other squamate reptile ...


Prioritizing Phylogenetic Diversity Captures Functional Diversity Unreliably, Florent Mazel, Matthew W. Pennell, Marc W. Cadotte, Sandra Diaz, Giulio Valentino Dalla Riva, Richard Grenyer, Fabien Leprieur, Arne O. Mooers, David Mouillot, Caroline M. Tucker, William D. Pearse Jul 2018

Prioritizing Phylogenetic Diversity Captures Functional Diversity Unreliably, Florent Mazel, Matthew W. Pennell, Marc W. Cadotte, Sandra Diaz, Giulio Valentino Dalla Riva, Richard Grenyer, Fabien Leprieur, Arne O. Mooers, David Mouillot, Caroline M. Tucker, William D. Pearse

Biology Faculty Publications

In the face of the biodiversity crisis, it is argued that we should prioritize species in order to capture high functional diversity (FD). Because species traits often reflect shared evolutionary history, many researchers have assumed that maximizing phylogenetic diversity (PD) should indirectly capture FD, a hypothesis that we name the “phylogenetic gambit”. Here, we empirically test this gambit using data on ecologically relevant traits from >15,000 vertebrate species. Specifically, we estimate a measure of surrogacy of PD for FD. We find that maximizing PD results in an average gain of 18% of FD relative to random choice. However, this ...


Cross-Life Stage Effects Of Aquatic Larval Density And Terrestrial Moisture On Growth And Corticosterone In The Spotted Salamander, Julie F. Charbonnier, Jacquelyn Pearlmutter, James R. Vonesh, Caitlin R. Gabor, Zachery R. Forsburg, Kristine L. Grayson Jul 2018

Cross-Life Stage Effects Of Aquatic Larval Density And Terrestrial Moisture On Growth And Corticosterone In The Spotted Salamander, Julie F. Charbonnier, Jacquelyn Pearlmutter, James R. Vonesh, Caitlin R. Gabor, Zachery R. Forsburg, Kristine L. Grayson

Biology Faculty Publications

For organisms with complex life cycles, conditions experienced during early life stages may constrain later growth and survival. Conversely, compensatory mechanisms may attenuate negative effects from early life stages. We used the spotted salamander, Ambystoma maculatum, to test how aquatic larval density and terrestrial moisture influence juvenile growth, food intake, evaporative water loss and water reuptake rates, and corticosterone levels. We conducted an outdoor mesocosm experiment to manipulate larval density and transferred metamorphosed salamanders into low and high terrestrial moisture treatments in laboratory terrariums. After the larval stage, high-density salamanders were significantly smaller and had higher corticosterone release rates than ...


Deciphering The Biology Of Cryptophyllachora Eurasiatica Gen. Et Sp. Nov., An Often Cryptic Pathogen Of An Allergenic Weed, Ambrosia Artemisiifolia, Levente Kiss, Gábor M. Kovács, Károly Bóka, Gyula Bohár, Krisztina Varga Bohárné, Márk Z. Németh, Susumu Takamatsu, Hyeon-Dong Shin, Vera Hayova, Claudia Nischwitz, Marion K. Seier, Harry C. Evans, Paul F. Cannon, Gavin James Ash, Roger G. Shivas, Heinz Müller-Schärer Jul 2018

Deciphering The Biology Of Cryptophyllachora Eurasiatica Gen. Et Sp. Nov., An Often Cryptic Pathogen Of An Allergenic Weed, Ambrosia Artemisiifolia, Levente Kiss, Gábor M. Kovács, Károly Bóka, Gyula Bohár, Krisztina Varga Bohárné, Márk Z. Németh, Susumu Takamatsu, Hyeon-Dong Shin, Vera Hayova, Claudia Nischwitz, Marion K. Seier, Harry C. Evans, Paul F. Cannon, Gavin James Ash, Roger G. Shivas, Heinz Müller-Schärer

Biology Faculty Publications

A little known, unculturable ascomycete, referred to as Phyllachora ambrosiae, can destroy the inflorescences of Ambrosia artemisiifolia, an invasive agricultural weed and producer of highly allergenic pollen. The fungus often remains undetectable in ragweed populations. This work was conducted to understand its origin and pathogenesis, a prerequisite to consider its potential as a biocontrol agent. The methods used included light and transmission electron microscopy, nrDNA sequencing, phylogenetic analyses, artificial inoculations, and the examination of old herbarium and recent field specimens from Hungary, Korea, Ukraine and USA. The Eurasian and the North American specimens of this fungus were to represent two ...


Thermal Physiology And Developmental Plasticity Of Pigmentation In The Harlequin Bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), Carly D. Sibilia, Kelly A. Brosko, Christopher J. Hickling, Lily M. Thompson, Kristine L. Grayson, Jennifer R. Olson Jul 2018

Thermal Physiology And Developmental Plasticity Of Pigmentation In The Harlequin Bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), Carly D. Sibilia, Kelly A. Brosko, Christopher J. Hickling, Lily M. Thompson, Kristine L. Grayson, Jennifer R. Olson

Biology Faculty Publications

Traits that promote the maintenance of body temperatures within an optimal range provide advantages to ectothermic species. Pigmentation plasticity is found in many insects and enhances thermoregulatory potential as increased melanization can result in greater heat retention. The thermal melanism hypothesis predicts that species with developmental plasticity will have darker pigmentation in colder environments, which can be an important adaptation for temperate species experiencing seasonal variation in climate. The harlequin bug (Murgantia histrionica, Hemiptera: Pentatomidae, Hahn 1834) is a widespread invasive crop pest with variable patterning where developmental plasticity in melanization could affect performance. To investigate the impact of temperature ...


Geographic Variation In Larval Metabolic Rate Between Northern And Southern Populations Of The Invasive Gypsy Moth, Carolyn May, Noah Hillerbrand, Lily M. Thompson, Trevor M. Faske, Eloy Martinez, Dylan Perry, Salvatore J. Agosta, Kristine L. Grayson Jul 2018

Geographic Variation In Larval Metabolic Rate Between Northern And Southern Populations Of The Invasive Gypsy Moth, Carolyn May, Noah Hillerbrand, Lily M. Thompson, Trevor M. Faske, Eloy Martinez, Dylan Perry, Salvatore J. Agosta, Kristine L. Grayson

Biology Faculty Publications

Thermal regimes can diverge considerably across the geographic range of a species, and accordingly, populations can vary in their response to changing environmental conditions. Both local adaptation and acclimatization are important mechanisms for ectotherms to maintain homeostasis as environments become thermally stressful, which organisms often experience at their geographic range limits. The spatial spread of the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) (Lepidoptera: Erebidae) after introduction to North America provides an exemplary system for studying population variation in physiological traits given the gradient of climates encompassed by its current invasive range. This study quantifies differences in resting metabolic rate (RMR) across ...


Deciphering Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma Pathogenesis: The Proposed Role Of Microrna, Jacob E. Robinson, Christine E. Cutucache Jul 2018

Deciphering Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma Pathogenesis: The Proposed Role Of Microrna, Jacob E. Robinson, Christine E. Cutucache

Biology Faculty Publications

Splenic marginal zone lymphoma (SMZL) is a malignancy of mature B-cells that primarily involves the spleen, but can affect peripheral organs as well. Even though SMZL is overall considered an indolent malignancy, the majority of cases will eventually progress to be more aggressive. In recent years, the gene expression profile of SMZL has been characterized in an effort to identify: 1) the etiology of SMZL, 2) biological consequences of SMZL, and 3) putative therapeutic targets. However, due to the vast heterogeneity of the malignancy, no conclusive target(s) have been deciphered. However, the role of miRNA in SMZL, much as ...


Hyperpolarization By Activation Of Halorhodopsin Results In Enhanced Synaptic Transmission: Neuromuscular Junction And Cns Circuit, Matthew Mattingly, Kristin Weineck, Jennifer Costa, Robin L. Cooper Jul 2018

Hyperpolarization By Activation Of Halorhodopsin Results In Enhanced Synaptic Transmission: Neuromuscular Junction And Cns Circuit, Matthew Mattingly, Kristin Weineck, Jennifer Costa, Robin L. Cooper

Biology Faculty Publications

Optogenetics offers a unique method to regulate the activity of select neural circuits. However, the electrophysiological consequences of targeted optogenetic manipulation upon the entire circuit remain poorly understood. Analysis of the sensory-CNS-motor circuit in Drosophila larvae expressing eHpHR and ChR2-XXL revealed unexpected patterns of excitability. Optical stimulation of motor neurons targeted to express eNpHR resulted in inhibition followed by excitation of body wall contraction with repetitive stimulation in intact larvae. In situ preparations with direct electrophysiological measures showed an increased responsiveness to excitatory synaptic activity induced by sensory stimulation within a functional neural circuit. To ensure proper function of eNpHR ...