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Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Troubled Waters: Threats And Extinction Risk Of The Sharks, Rays And Chimaeras Of The Arabian Sea And Adjacent Waters, Rima W. Jabado, Peter M. Kyne, Riley A. Pollom, David A. Ebert, Colin A. Simpfendorfer, Gina M. Ralph, Shakha S. Al Dhaheri, K. V. Akhilesh, Khadeeja Ali, Mohamud Hassan Ali Nov 2018

Troubled Waters: Threats And Extinction Risk Of The Sharks, Rays And Chimaeras Of The Arabian Sea And Adjacent Waters, Rima W. Jabado, Peter M. Kyne, Riley A. Pollom, David A. Ebert, Colin A. Simpfendorfer, Gina M. Ralph, Shakha S. Al Dhaheri, K. V. Akhilesh, Khadeeja Ali, Mohamud Hassan Ali

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

The extinction risk of sharks, rays and chimaeras is higher than that for most other vertebrates due to low intrinsic population growth rates of many species and the fishing intensity they face. The Arabian Sea and adjacent waters border some of the most important chondrichthyan fishing and trading nations globally, yet there has been no previous attempt to assess the conservation status of species occurring here. Using IUCN Red List of Threatened Species Categories and Criteria and their guidelines for application at the regional level, we present the first assessment of extinction risk for 153 species of sharks, rays and ...


Characterization Of Tick Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptides (Oatps) Upon Bacterial And Viral Infections, Vikas Taank, Wenshou Zhou, Xuran Zhuang, John F. Anderson, Utpal Pal, Hameeda Sultana, Girish Neelakanta Nov 2018

Characterization Of Tick Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptides (Oatps) Upon Bacterial And Viral Infections, Vikas Taank, Wenshou Zhou, Xuran Zhuang, John F. Anderson, Utpal Pal, Hameeda Sultana, Girish Neelakanta

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Background: Ixodes scapularis organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs) play important roles in tickrickettsial pathogen interactions. In this report, we characterized the role of these conserved molecules in ticks infected with either Lyme disease agent Borrelia burgdorferi or tick-borne Langat virus (LGTV), a pathogen closely related to tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV).

Results: Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed no significant changes in oatps gene expression upon infection with B. burgdorferi in unfed ticks. Synchronous infection of unfed nymphal ticks with LGTV in vitro revealed no significant changes in oatps gene expression. However, expression of specific oatps was significantly downregulated upon ...


Dermal Mycobacteriosis And Warming Sea Surface Temperatures Are Associated With Elevated Mortality Of Striped Bass In Chesapeake Bay, Maya L. Groner, John M. Hoenig, Roger Pradel, Rémi Choquet, Wolfgang K. Vogelbein, David T. Gauthier, Marjorie A. M. Friedrichs Sep 2018

Dermal Mycobacteriosis And Warming Sea Surface Temperatures Are Associated With Elevated Mortality Of Striped Bass In Chesapeake Bay, Maya L. Groner, John M. Hoenig, Roger Pradel, Rémi Choquet, Wolfgang K. Vogelbein, David T. Gauthier, Marjorie A. M. Friedrichs

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Temperature is hypothesized to alter disease dynamics, particularly when species are living at or near their thermal limits. When disease occurs in marine systems, this can go undetected, particularly if the disease is chronic and progresses slowly. As a result, population-level impacts of diseases can be grossly underestimated. Complex migratory patterns, stochasticity in recruitment, and data and knowledge gaps can hinder collection and analysis of data on marine diseases. New tools enabling quantification of disease impacts in marine environments include coupled biogeochemical hydrodynamic models (to hindcast key environmental data), and multievent, multistate mark-recapture (MMSMR) (to quantify the effects of environmental ...


Arthropod Transcriptional Activator Protein-1 (Ap-1) Aids Tick-Rickettsial Pathogen Survival In The Cold, Supreet Khanal, Vikas Taank, John F. Anderson, Hameeda Sultana, Girish Neelakanta Jul 2018

Arthropod Transcriptional Activator Protein-1 (Ap-1) Aids Tick-Rickettsial Pathogen Survival In The Cold, Supreet Khanal, Vikas Taank, John F. Anderson, Hameeda Sultana, Girish Neelakanta

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Ixodes scapularis ticks transmit several pathogens to humans including rickettsial bacterium, Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Here, we report that A. phagocytophilum uses tick transcriptional activator protein-1 (AP-1) as a molecular switch in the regulation of arthropod antifreeze gene, iafgp. RNAi-mediated silencing of ap-1 expression significantly affected iafgp gene expression and A. phagocytophilum burden in ticks upon acquisition from the murine host. Gel shift assays provide evidence that both the bacterium and AP-1 influences iafgp promoter and expression. The luciferase assays revealed that a region of approximately 700 bp upstream of the antifreeze gene is sufficient for AP-1 binding to promote iafgp gene ...


Biotime: A Database Of Biodiversity Time Series For The Anthropocene, Maria Dornelas, Laura H. Antão, Faye Moyes, Amanda E. Bates, Anne E. Magurran, Dušan Adams, Asem A. Akhmetzhanova, Ward Appeltans, José Manuel Adam, Frank P. Day Jul 2018

Biotime: A Database Of Biodiversity Time Series For The Anthropocene, Maria Dornelas, Laura H. Antão, Faye Moyes, Amanda E. Bates, Anne E. Magurran, Dušan Adams, Asem A. Akhmetzhanova, Ward Appeltans, José Manuel Adam, Frank P. Day

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Motivation: The BioTIME database contains raw data on species identities and abundances in ecological assemblages through time. These data enable users to calculate temporal trends in biodiversity within and amongst assemblages using a broad range of metrics. BioTIME is being developed as a community-led open-source database of biodiversity time series. Our goal is to accelerate and facilitate quantitative analysis of temporal patterns of biodiversity in the Anthropocene.

Main types of variables included: The database contains 8,777,413 species abundance records, from assemblages consistently sampled for a minimum of 2 years, which need not necessarily be consecutive. In addition, the ...


Global Conservation Status Of Marine Pufferfishes (Tetraodontiformes: Tetraodontidae), Emilie Stump, Gina M. Ralph, Mia T. Comeros-Raynal, Keiichi Matsuura, Kent E. Carpenter Apr 2018

Global Conservation Status Of Marine Pufferfishes (Tetraodontiformes: Tetraodontidae), Emilie Stump, Gina M. Ralph, Mia T. Comeros-Raynal, Keiichi Matsuura, Kent E. Carpenter

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Puffers are biologically and ecologically fascinating fishes best known for their unique morphology and arsenal of defenses including inflation and bioaccumulation of deadly neurotoxins. These fishes are also commercially, culturally, and ecologically important in many regions. One-hundred-and-fifty-one species of marine puffers were assessed against the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List Criteria at a 2011 workshop held in Xiamen, China. Here we present the first comprehensive review of puffer geographic and depth distribution, use and trade, and habitats and ecology and a summary of the global conservation status of marine puffers, determined by applying the International Union ...


Assessing Trade-Offs In Large Marine Protected Areas, Tammy E. Davies, Graham Epstein, Stacy E. Aguilera, Cassandra M. Brooks, Michael Cox, Louisa S. Evans, Sara M. Maxwell, Mateja Nenadovic, Natalie C. Ban Apr 2018

Assessing Trade-Offs In Large Marine Protected Areas, Tammy E. Davies, Graham Epstein, Stacy E. Aguilera, Cassandra M. Brooks, Michael Cox, Louisa S. Evans, Sara M. Maxwell, Mateja Nenadovic, Natalie C. Ban

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Large marine protected areas (LMPAs) are increasingly being established and have a high profile in marine conservation. LMPAs are expected to achieve multiple objectives, and because of their size are postulated to avoid trade-offs that are common in smaller MPAs. However, evaluations across multiple outcomes are lacking. We used a systematic approach to code several social and ecological outcomes of 12 LMPAs. We found evidence of three types of trade-offs: trade-offs between different ecological resources (supply trade-offs); trade-offs between ecological resource conditions and the well-being of resource users (supply-demand trade-offs); and trade-offs between the well-being outcomes of different resource users ...


The Spatial Context Of “Winning” In Mpa Network Design: Location Matters, Andrew S. Kough, Claire B. Paris, Mark J. Butler Iv Jan 2018

The Spatial Context Of “Winning” In Mpa Network Design: Location Matters, Andrew S. Kough, Claire B. Paris, Mark J. Butler Iv

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

(First paragraph) Chollett et al. (2017) make the case that a local network of marine protected areas (MPAs) enhances fisheries for Caribbean spiny lobster (Panulirus argus) off the coast of Honduras. However, their simulation focused on one ecoregion where self-recruitment is predicted to be among the highest in the Caribbean (Cowen, Paris, & Srinivasan, 2006). The shallow banks and scattered cays of the Honduran-Nicaraguan Rise, separating the Cayman and Colombian basins, create an obstacle to the powerful southern Caribbean jet (Richardson, 2005), fostering an ideal location for topographically steered eddies and larval retention. Local management,whether based on traditional techniques or ...


Coordination Of Different Ligands To Copper(Ii) And Cobalt(Iii) Metal Centers Enhances Zika Virus And Dengue Virus Loads In Both Arthropod Cells And Human Keratinocytes, Shovan Dutta, Michael J. Celestine, Supreet Khanal, Alexis Huddleston, Colin Simms, Jessa Faye Arca, Amlam Mitra, Loree Heller, Piotr Kraj, Michael Ledizet, John F. Anderson, Girish Neelakanta, Alvin A. Holder, Hameeda Sultana Jan 2018

Coordination Of Different Ligands To Copper(Ii) And Cobalt(Iii) Metal Centers Enhances Zika Virus And Dengue Virus Loads In Both Arthropod Cells And Human Keratinocytes, Shovan Dutta, Michael J. Celestine, Supreet Khanal, Alexis Huddleston, Colin Simms, Jessa Faye Arca, Amlam Mitra, Loree Heller, Piotr Kraj, Michael Ledizet, John F. Anderson, Girish Neelakanta, Alvin A. Holder, Hameeda Sultana

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Trace elements such as copper and cobalt have been associated with virus-host interactions. However, studies to show the effect of conjugation of copper(II) or cobalt(III) metal centers to thiosemicarbazone ligand(s) derived from either food additives or mosquito repellent such as 2-acetylethiazole or citral, respectively, on Zika virus (ZIKV) or dengue virus (serotype 2; DENV2) infections have not been explored. In this study, we show that four compounds comprising of thiosemicarbazone ligand derived from 2-acetylethiazole viz., (E)-N-ethyl-2-[1-(thiazol-2-yl)ethylidene]hydrazinecarbothioamide (acetylethTSC) (compound 1), a copper(II) complex with acetylethTSC as a ligand (compound 2), a thiosemicarbazone ...


Review: Application Of Tick Control Technologies For Blacklegged, Lone Star, And American Dog Ticks, Alexis White, Holly Gaff Jan 2018

Review: Application Of Tick Control Technologies For Blacklegged, Lone Star, And American Dog Ticks, Alexis White, Holly Gaff

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Tick population control technologies have been studied for several decades but no method is successful in all situations. The success of each technology depends on tick species identity and abundance, host species identity and abundance, phenology of both ticks and hosts, geographic region, and a multitude of other factors. Here we review current technologies, presenting an overview of each and its effect on three common tick species in the eastern United States: blacklegged ticks (Ixodes scapularis (Say; Ixodida: Ixodidae)), lone star ticks (Amblyomma americanum (Linnaeus; Ixodida: Ixodidae)), and American dog ticks (Dermacentor variabilis (Say; Ixodida: Ixodidae)). Moreover, we assess the ...


A Dynamic Ocean Management Tool To Reduce Bycatch And Support Sustainable Fisheries, Elliot L. Hazen, Kylie L. Scales, Sara M. Maxwell, Dana K. Briscoe, Heather Welch, Steven J. Bograd, Helen Bailey, Scott R. Benson, Tomo Eguchi, Heidi Dewar Jan 2018

A Dynamic Ocean Management Tool To Reduce Bycatch And Support Sustainable Fisheries, Elliot L. Hazen, Kylie L. Scales, Sara M. Maxwell, Dana K. Briscoe, Heather Welch, Steven J. Bograd, Helen Bailey, Scott R. Benson, Tomo Eguchi, Heidi Dewar

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Seafood is anessential sourceofprotein formore than3billionpeopleworldwide, yet bycatchof threatened species in capture fisheries remains a major impediment to fisheries sustainability. Management measures designed to reduce bycatch often result in significant economic losses and even fisheries closures. Static spatial management approaches can also be rendered ineffective by environmental variability and climate change, as productive habitats shift and introduce new interactions between human activities and protected species. We introduce a new multispecies and dynamic approach that uses daily satellite data to track ocean features and aligns scales of management, species movement, and fisheries. To accomplish this, we create species distribution models for ...


The Mechanisms Shaping The Repertoire Of Cd4(+)Foxp3(+) Regulatory T Cells, Piotr Kraj, Leszek Ignatowicz Jan 2018

The Mechanisms Shaping The Repertoire Of Cd4(+)Foxp3(+) Regulatory T Cells, Piotr Kraj, Leszek Ignatowicz

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Regulatory T (Treg) cells expressing Foxp3 transcription factor control homeostasis of the immune system, antigenic responses to commensal and pathogenic microbiota, and immune responses to self and tumour antigens. The Treg cells differentiate in the thymus, along with conventional CD4+ T cells, in processes of positive and negative selection. Another class of Treg cells is generated in peripheral tissues by inducing Foxp3 expression in conventional CD4+ T cells in response to antigenic stimulation. Both thymic and peripheral generation of Treg cells depends on recognition of peptide/MHC ligands by the T-cell receptors (TCR) expressed on thymic Treg precursors or peripheral ...


Using An In Vitro System For Maintaining Varroa Destructor Mites On Apis Mellifera Pupae As Hosts: Studies Of Mite Longevity And Feeding Behavior, Noble I. Egekwu, Francisco Posada, Daniel E. Sonenshine, Steven Cook Jan 2018

Using An In Vitro System For Maintaining Varroa Destructor Mites On Apis Mellifera Pupae As Hosts: Studies Of Mite Longevity And Feeding Behavior, Noble I. Egekwu, Francisco Posada, Daniel E. Sonenshine, Steven Cook

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Varroa destructor mites (varroa) are ectoparasites of Apis mellifera honey bees, and the damage they inflict on hosts is likely a causative factor of recent poor honey bee colony performance. Research has produced an arsenal of control agents against varroa mites, which have become resistant to many chemical means of their control, and other means have uncertain efficacy. Novel means of control will result from a thorough understanding of varroa physiology and behavior. However, robust knowledge of varroa biology is lacking; mites have very low survivability and reproduction away from their natural environment and host, and few tested protocols of ...


Do Avian Blood Parasites Influence Hypoxia Physiology In A High Elevation Environment?, Farah Ishtiaq, Sahas Barve Jan 2018

Do Avian Blood Parasites Influence Hypoxia Physiology In A High Elevation Environment?, Farah Ishtiaq, Sahas Barve

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: Montane birds which engage in elevational movements have evolved to cope with fluctuations in environmental hypoxia, through changes in physiological parameters associated with blood oxygen-carrying capacity such as haemoglobin concentration (Hb) and haematocrit (Hct). In particular, elevational migrants which winter at low elevations, encounter varying intensities of avian haemosporidian parasites as they traverse heterogeneous environments. Whilst high intensity parasite infections lead to anaemia, one can expect that the ability to cope with haemosporidian infections should be a key trait for elevational migrants that must be balanced against reducing the oxygen-carrying capacity of blood in response to high elevation. In ...


Low- Copy Nuclear Markers In Isoëtes (Isoëtaceae) Identified With Transcriptomes, Peter W. Schafran, Gabriel Johnson, W. Carl Taylor, Elizabeth A. Zimmer, Lytton J. Musselman Jan 2018

Low- Copy Nuclear Markers In Isoëtes (Isoëtaceae) Identified With Transcriptomes, Peter W. Schafran, Gabriel Johnson, W. Carl Taylor, Elizabeth A. Zimmer, Lytton J. Musselman

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Few genetic markers provide phylogenetic information in closely related species of Isoëtes (Isoëtaceae). We describe the development of primers for several putative low- copy nuclear markers to resolve the phylogeny of Isoëtes, particularly in the southeastern United States.

METHODS AND RESULTS: We identified regions of interest in Isoëtes transcriptomes based on low- copy genes in other plants. Primers were designed for these regions and tested with 16 taxa of Isoëtes and one species of Lycopodium. Parts of the pgiC, gapC, and IBR3 gene regions show phylogenetic signal within the North American and Mediterranean clades of Isoëtes ...


High Frequency Temperature Variability Reduces The Risk Of Coral Bleaching, Aryan Safaie, Nyssa J. Silbiger, Timothy R. Mcclanahan, Geno Pawlak, Daniel J. Barshis, James L. Hench, Gareth J. Williams, Kristen A. Davis Jan 2018

High Frequency Temperature Variability Reduces The Risk Of Coral Bleaching, Aryan Safaie, Nyssa J. Silbiger, Timothy R. Mcclanahan, Geno Pawlak, Daniel J. Barshis, James L. Hench, Gareth J. Williams, Kristen A. Davis

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Coral bleaching is the detrimental expulsion of algal symbionts from their cnidarian hosts, and predominantly occurs when corals are exposed to thermal stress. The incidence and severity of bleaching is often spatially heterogeneous within reef-scales (<1 >km), and is therefore not predictable using conventional remote sensing products. Here, we systematically assess the relationship between in situ measurements of 20 environmental variables, along with seven remotely sensed SST thermal stress metrics, and 81 observed bleaching events at coral reef locations spanning five major reef regions globally. We find that high-frequency temperature variability (i.e., daily temperature range) was the most influential factor ...


Sea Turtles And Survivability In Demersal Trawl Fisheries: Do Comatose Olive Ridley Sea Turtles Survive Post-Release?, Sara M. Maxwell, Matthew J. Witt, Gaspard Abitsi, Marie Pierre Aboro, Pierre Didier Agamboue, Georges Mba Asseko, Francois Boussamba, Emmanuel Chartain, Micheline Schummer Gnandji, Brice Didier Koumba Mabert Jan 2018

Sea Turtles And Survivability In Demersal Trawl Fisheries: Do Comatose Olive Ridley Sea Turtles Survive Post-Release?, Sara M. Maxwell, Matthew J. Witt, Gaspard Abitsi, Marie Pierre Aboro, Pierre Didier Agamboue, Georges Mba Asseko, Francois Boussamba, Emmanuel Chartain, Micheline Schummer Gnandji, Brice Didier Koumba Mabert

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Incidental capture of air‑breathing species in fishing gear is a major source of mortality for many threatened populations. Even when individuals are discarded alive, they may not survive due to direct injury, or due to more cryptic internal physiological injury such as decompression sickness. Post‑release mortality, however, can be difficult to determine. In this pilot study, we deployed survivorship pop‑up archival tags (sPAT) (n = 3) for an air‑breathing species, the olive ridley sea turtle (Lepidochelys olivacea), one of the first studies to do so. We found that at least two of the three turtles survived after ...


Eleven Strategies For Getting Into Graduate School In Ecology & Evolutionary Biology, Eric Walters Jan 2018

Eleven Strategies For Getting Into Graduate School In Ecology & Evolutionary Biology, Eric Walters

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Getting into graduate school can be tough if you have not done your homework. I outline eleven strategies for increasing your chances of successfully being accepted into an ecology or evolutionary biology lab. Try to get good grades as an undergraduate, do well on the Graduate Record Exam (if applicable), join a lab reading group or undertake an undergraduate thesis, take time to forge relationships so you can have strong reference writers, obtain relevant work experience, author a publication, read peer-reviewed literature, attend national meetings, come up with some good research ideas, develop a relationship with a potential advisor, and ...


Better Living Through Chemistry: Addressing Emerging Antibiotic Resistance, Nathan P. Coussens, Ashley L. Molinaro, Kayla J. Culbertson, Tyler Peryea, Gergely Zahoránszky-Köhalmi, Matthew D. Hall, Dayle A. Daines Jan 2018

Better Living Through Chemistry: Addressing Emerging Antibiotic Resistance, Nathan P. Coussens, Ashley L. Molinaro, Kayla J. Culbertson, Tyler Peryea, Gergely Zahoránszky-Köhalmi, Matthew D. Hall, Dayle A. Daines

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

The increasing emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria is recognized as a major threat to human health worldwide. While the use of small molecule antibiotics has enabled many modern medical advances, it has also facilitated the development of resistant organisms. This minireview provides an overview of current small molecule drugs approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in humans, the unintended consequences of antibiotic use, and the mechanisms that underlie the development of drug resistance. Promising new approaches and strategies to counter antibiotic-resistant bacteria with small molecules are highlighted. However, continued public investment in this area is critical ...


Hydnora Arabica (Aristolochiaceae), A New Species From The Arabian Peninsula And A Key To Hydnora, Jay F. Bolin, Darach Lupton, Lytton John Musselman Jan 2018

Hydnora Arabica (Aristolochiaceae), A New Species From The Arabian Peninsula And A Key To Hydnora, Jay F. Bolin, Darach Lupton, Lytton John Musselman

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

The plant parasite Hydnora arabica (Aristolochiaceae) is described from the Arabian Peninsula. This species was previously identified as Hydnora africana in Oman. It can be separated from other Hydnora taxa primarily by its terete rhizome, red to orange inner perianth tube color, and tepal lobe margins entirely covered with dense strigose setae. In Oman, Hydnora arabica is known to parasitize two leguminous trees: Acacia tortilis and the introduced Pithocellobium dulce, but may parasitize additional Fabaceae. At least eleven synonyms or subspecific varieties of H. abyssinica are described in the literature, all from east or southern Africa. These synonyms are discussed ...


Range Expansion Of Tick Disease Vectors In North America: Implications For Spread Of Tick-Borne Disease, Daniel E. Sonenshine Jan 2018

Range Expansion Of Tick Disease Vectors In North America: Implications For Spread Of Tick-Borne Disease, Daniel E. Sonenshine

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Ticks are the major vectors of most disease-causing agents to humans, companion animals and wildlife. Moreover, ticks transmit a greater variety of pathogenic agents than any other blood-feeding arthropod. Ticks have been expanding their geographic ranges in recent decades largely due to climate change. Furthermore, tick populations in many areas of their past and even newly established localities have increased in abundance. These dynamic changes present new and increasing severe public health threats to humans, livestock and companion animals in areas where they were previously unknown or were considered to be of minor importance. Here in this review, the geographic ...


Characterizing Habitat Suitability For A Central‐Place Forager In A Dynamic Marine Environment, Dana K. Briscoe, Sabrina Fossette, Kylie L. Scales, Elliott L. Hazen, Steven J. Bograd, Sara M. Maxwell, Elizabeth A. Mchuon, Patrick W. Robibson, Carey Kuhn, Daniel P. Costa, Larry B. Crowder, Rebecca L. Lewison Jan 2018

Characterizing Habitat Suitability For A Central‐Place Forager In A Dynamic Marine Environment, Dana K. Briscoe, Sabrina Fossette, Kylie L. Scales, Elliott L. Hazen, Steven J. Bograd, Sara M. Maxwell, Elizabeth A. Mchuon, Patrick W. Robibson, Carey Kuhn, Daniel P. Costa, Larry B. Crowder, Rebecca L. Lewison

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Characterizing habitat suitability for a marine predator requires an understanding of the environmental heterogeneity and variability over the range in which a population moves during a particular life cycle. Female California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) are central‐place foragers and are particularly constrained while provisioning their young. During this time, habitat selection is a function of prey availability and proximity to the rookery, which has important implications for reproductive and population success. We explore how lactating females may select habitat and respond to environmental variability over broad spatial and temporal scales within the California Current System. We combine near‐real ...


Adiposity And Fat Metabolism During Combined Fasting And Lactation In Elephant Seals, Melinda Fowler, Cory Champagne, Daniel Croker Jan 2018

Adiposity And Fat Metabolism During Combined Fasting And Lactation In Elephant Seals, Melinda Fowler, Cory Champagne, Daniel Croker

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Animals that fast depend on mobilizing lipid stores to power metabolism. Northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) incorporate extended fasting into several life-history stages: development, molting, breeding and lactation. The physiological processes enabling fasting and lactation are important in the context of the ecology and life history of elephant seals. The rare combination of fasting and lactation depends on the efficient mobilization of lipid from adipose stores and its direction into milk production. The mother elephant seal must ration her finite body stores to power maintenance metabolism, as well as to produce large quantities of lipid and protein rich milk. Lipid ...


Ticks, Ixodes Scapularis, Feed Repeatedly On White-Footed Mice Despite Strong Inflammatory Response: An Expanding Paradigm For Understanding Tick-Host Interactions, Jennifer M. Anderson, Ian N. Moore, Bianca M. Nagata, José M.C. Ribeiro, Jesus G. Valenzuela, Daniel E. Sonenshine Dec 2017

Ticks, Ixodes Scapularis, Feed Repeatedly On White-Footed Mice Despite Strong Inflammatory Response: An Expanding Paradigm For Understanding Tick-Host Interactions, Jennifer M. Anderson, Ian N. Moore, Bianca M. Nagata, José M.C. Ribeiro, Jesus G. Valenzuela, Daniel E. Sonenshine

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Ticks transmit infectious agents including bacteria, viruses and protozoa. However, their transmission may be compromised by host resistance to repeated tick feeding. Increasing host resistance to repeated tick bites is well known in laboratory animals, including intense inflammation at the bite sites. However, it is not known whether this also occurs in wild rodents such as white-footed mice, Peromyscus leucopus, and other wildlife, or if it occurs at all. According to the "host immune incompetence" hypothesis, if these mice do not have a strong inflammatory response, they would not reject repeated tick bites by Ixodes scapularis. To test this hypothesis ...


Modeling Virus Coinfection To Inform Management Of Maize Lethal Necrosis In Kenya, Frank H. Hilker, Linda S. J. Allen, Vrushali A. Bokil, Cheryl J. Briggs, Zhilan Feng, Karen A. Garrett, Louis J. Gross, Frédéric M. Hamelin, Michael J. Jeger, Carrie A. Manore, Alison G. Power, Margaret G. Redinbaugh, Megan A. Rúa, Nik J. Cunniffee Oct 2017

Modeling Virus Coinfection To Inform Management Of Maize Lethal Necrosis In Kenya, Frank H. Hilker, Linda S. J. Allen, Vrushali A. Bokil, Cheryl J. Briggs, Zhilan Feng, Karen A. Garrett, Louis J. Gross, Frédéric M. Hamelin, Michael J. Jeger, Carrie A. Manore, Alison G. Power, Margaret G. Redinbaugh, Megan A. Rúa, Nik J. Cunniffee

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Maize lethal necrosis (MLN) has emerged as a serious threat to food security in sub-Saharan Africa. MLN is caused by coinfection with two viruses, Maize chlorotic mottle virus and a potyvirus, often Sugarcane mosaic virus. To better understand the dynamics of MLN and to provide insight into disease management, we modeled the spread of the viruses causing MLN within and between growing seasons. The model allows for transmission via vectors, soil, and seed, as well as exogenous sources of infection. Following model parameterization, we predict how management affects disease prevalence and crop performance over multiple seasons. Resource-rich farmers with large ...


Human Rickettsial Pathogen Modulates Arthropod Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptide And Tryptophan Pathway For Its Survival In Ticks, Vikas Taank, Shovan Dutta, Amrita Dasgupta, Durland Fish, John F. Anderson, Hameeda Sultana, Girish Neelakanta Oct 2017

Human Rickettsial Pathogen Modulates Arthropod Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptide And Tryptophan Pathway For Its Survival In Ticks, Vikas Taank, Shovan Dutta, Amrita Dasgupta, Durland Fish, John F. Anderson, Hameeda Sultana, Girish Neelakanta

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

The black-legged tick Ixodes scapularis transmits the human anaplasmosis agent, Anaplasma phagocytophilum. In this study, we show that A. phagocytophilum specifically up-regulates I. scapularis organic anion transporting polypeptide, isoatp4056 and kynurenine amino transferase (kat), a gene involved in the production of tryptophan metabolite xanthurenic acid (XA), for its survival in ticks. RNAi analysis revealed that knockdown of isoatp4056 expression had no effect on A. phagocytophilum acquisition from the murine host but affected the bacterial survival in tick cells. Knockdown of the expression of kat mRNA alone or in combination with isoatp4056 mRNA significantly affected A. phagocytophilum survival and isoatp4056 expression ...


Microbial Invasion Vs. Tick Immune Regulation, Daniel E. Sonenshine, Kevin R. Macaluso Sep 2017

Microbial Invasion Vs. Tick Immune Regulation, Daniel E. Sonenshine, Kevin R. Macaluso

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Ticks transmit a greater variety of pathogenic agents that cause disease in humans and animals than any other haematophagous arthropod, including Lyme disease, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, human granulocytic anaplasmosis, babesiosis, tick-borne encephalitis, Crimean Congo haemorhagic fever, and many others (Gulia-Nuss et al., 2016). Although diverse explanations have been proposed to explain their remarkable vectorial capacity, among the most important are their blood feeding habit, their long term off-host survival, the diverse array of bioactive molecules that disrupt the host's natural hemostatic mechanisms, facilitate blood flow, pain inhibitors, and minimize inflammation to prevent immune rejection (Hajdušek et al., 2013 ...


Allergen Homologs In The Euroglyphus Maynei Draft Genome, S. Dean Rider, Majorie S. Morgan, Larry G. Arlian Aug 2017

Allergen Homologs In The Euroglyphus Maynei Draft Genome, S. Dean Rider, Majorie S. Morgan, Larry G. Arlian

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Euroglyphus maynei is a house dust mite commonly found in homes worldwide and is the source of allergens that sensitize and induce allergic reactions in humans. It is the source of species-specific allergens as well as allergens that are cross-reactive with the allergens from house dust mites Dermatophagoides farinae and D. pteronyssinus, and the ectoparasitic scabies mite Sarcoptes scabiei. The genomics, proteomics and molecular biology of E. maynei and its allergens have not been as extensively investigated as those of D. farinae, D. pteronyssinus, and S. scabiei where natural and recombinant allergens from these species have been characterized. Until now ...


Accommodating Mixed-Severity Fire To Restore And Maintain Ecosystem Integrity With A Focus On The Sierra Nevada Of California, Usa, Dominick A. Dellasala, Richard L. Hutto, Chad T. Hanson, Monica L. Bond, Timothy Ingalsbee, Dennis C. Odion, William L. Baker Aug 2017

Accommodating Mixed-Severity Fire To Restore And Maintain Ecosystem Integrity With A Focus On The Sierra Nevada Of California, Usa, Dominick A. Dellasala, Richard L. Hutto, Chad T. Hanson, Monica L. Bond, Timothy Ingalsbee, Dennis C. Odion, William L. Baker

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Existing fire policy encourages the maintenance of ecosystem integrity in fire management, yet this is difficult to implement on lands managed for competing economic, human safety, and air quality concerns. We discuss a fire management approach in the mid-elevations of the Sierra Nevada, California, USA, that may exemplify similar challenges in other fire-adapted regions of the western USA. We also discuss how managing for pyrodiversity through mixed-severity fires can promote ecosystem integrity in Sierran mixed conifer and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws) forests. To illustrate, we show how coarse-filter (landscape-level) and complementary fine-filter (species-level) approaches can enhance forest management and ...


Large Marine Protected Areas Represent Biodiversity Now And Under Climate Change, T. E. Davies, S. M. Maxwell, K. Kaschner, C. Garilao, N. C. Ban Aug 2017

Large Marine Protected Areas Represent Biodiversity Now And Under Climate Change, T. E. Davies, S. M. Maxwell, K. Kaschner, C. Garilao, N. C. Ban

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Large marine protected areas (>30,000 km2) have a high profile in marine conservation, yet their contribution to conservation is contested. Assessing the overlap of large marine protected areas with 14,172 species, we found large marine protected areas cover 4.4% of the ocean and at least some portion of the range of 83.3% of the species assessed. Of all species within large marine protected areas, 26.9% had at least 10% of their range represented, and this was projected to increase to 40.1% in 2100. Cumulative impacts were significantly higher within large marine protected areas ...