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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Composition Of The Community Of Small Mammals In The Great Basin Desert, Samantha Elizabeth Phillips Aug 2018

Composition Of The Community Of Small Mammals In The Great Basin Desert, Samantha Elizabeth Phillips

All Theses and Dissertations

Small mammals are a keystone guild in arid ecosystems; often exhibiting top-down control of the diversity and structure of plant communities. However, changing climate, shifting fire regimes, and the invasion of exotic plants are modifying the structure of arid systems. Environmental changes in these arid systems are likely altering small mammal communities, and therefore, their ecological role. We examined two aspects of the community composition of small mammals in the Great Basin: changes in community composition since large scale sampling of the region began in 1930, and the current population of a sensitive species of small mammal, the dark kangaroo ...


The Effects Of Ice And Tens Combination Treatment On Knee And Hip Joint Neuromechanics In Individuals With Experimentally Induced Knee Pain During Running, Sunku Kwon Aug 2018

The Effects Of Ice And Tens Combination Treatment On Knee And Hip Joint Neuromechanics In Individuals With Experimentally Induced Knee Pain During Running, Sunku Kwon

All Theses and Dissertations

Context: Knee injury is a common problem for runners. Knee pain is a common symptom in knee injury and is associated with alterations in knee and hip muscle activation and hip joint angles. Relieving pain through intervention may help to restore neuromuscular function. Objective: To examine the effects of ice and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) combination treatment on perceived knee pain, hip frontal plane angle, and muscle activation during running in individuals with experimental knee pain (EKP). Design: Crossover. Setting: Laboratory. Subjects: 19 participants (11 males and 8 females, 23.2 ± 1.9 y, 176 ± 11.6 cm, 71 ...


Bacteriophages For Treating American Foulbrood And The Neutralization Of Paenibacillus Larvae Spores, Thomas Scott Brady Jul 2018

Bacteriophages For Treating American Foulbrood And The Neutralization Of Paenibacillus Larvae Spores, Thomas Scott Brady

All Theses and Dissertations

The causative agent of the most devastating honeybee disease, American foulbrood (AFB), is the spore-forming bacterium Paenibacillus larvae. To prevent AFB outbreaks beekeepers prophylactically treat their hives with antibiotics even though it decreases the overall health of uninfected hives. A new treatment for AFB is needed due to recent legislation against using antibiotics, antibiotic resistance developing in P. larvae, and the resilience of P. larvae spores. Bacteriophages, or phages, are an attractive alternative to traditional antibiotics because of their specificity and ability to evolve alongside their target bacterium. In this study, two phage cocktails were developed for the treatment of ...


Passive Hallux Adduction Decreases Blood Flow To Plantar Fascia, Julia Lorene Dunbar Jul 2018

Passive Hallux Adduction Decreases Blood Flow To Plantar Fascia, Julia Lorene Dunbar

All Theses and Dissertations

Purpose: Due to the vital role that blood flow plays in maintaining tissue health, compromised blood flow can prevent effective tissue healing. An adducted hallux, as often seen inside a narrow shoe, may put passive tension on the abductor hallucis, consequently compressing the lateral plantar artery (LPA) into the calcaneus and thus restricting blood flow. The purpose of this study was to compare blood flow within the LPA before and after passive hallux adduction (PHA). Methods: Forty-five healthy volunteers (20 female, 25 male; age = 24.8 ± 6.8 yr; height = 1.7 ± 0.1 m; weight = 73.4 ± 13.5 ...


Genetic Basis For Elevated Rheumatic Heart Disease Susceptibility In Samoa, John Bowen Allen Jul 2018

Genetic Basis For Elevated Rheumatic Heart Disease Susceptibility In Samoa, John Bowen Allen

All Theses and Dissertations

Rheumatic heart disease is an inflammatory heart disease that affects millions of people around the world. Especially high rates of the disease can be found in Oceania, including the island nation of Samoa. Genetic studies of immune response genes have provided insight into a possible genetic link to increased susceptibility to rheumatic heart disease, including the genes that code for the toll-like receptor (TLR) protein family. One of the functions of TLR proteins is to recognize the presence of bacteria via identification of bacterial flagella. My evaluation of a Samoan family identified a variant in the TLR-5 gene that would ...


The Diversity Found Among Carbapenem-Resistant Bacteria, Galen Edward Card Jul 2018

The Diversity Found Among Carbapenem-Resistant Bacteria, Galen Edward Card

All Theses and Dissertations

This work will look at two factors that add to the diversity of carbapenem resistant bacteria. First, it focuses on the diversity of carbapenemase resistance plasmids. 446 plasmids were characterized by size, gene content and replicon groups. We identified that on average, over 30% of the encoded proteins on each plasmid have an unknown function. Plasmid sizes ranged from 1.6kb to 500kb, with an average of around 100kb and median of 80kb. Additionally, six replicon groups account for 80% of all the carbapenemase resistance plasmids. We also highlight the lack of data available for carbapenemase carrying plasmids from bacterial ...


Gait Alterations And Plantar Pressure In Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy: A Preliminary Study, Adrienne Dora Henderson Jul 2018

Gait Alterations And Plantar Pressure In Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy: A Preliminary Study, Adrienne Dora Henderson

All Theses and Dissertations

Background: Despite a lack of consensus on its utility, clinicians have traditionally relied on plantar pressure (PP) to predict ulcer risk and prescribe interventions in individuals with diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). Joint kinematics and kinetics have the potential to contribute to DPN assessment and treatment, however previous studies have not accounted for walking speed nor integrated a full-body analysis with a detailed foot model. Purpose: To assess PP and gait alterations in DPN by controlling walking speed and incorporating a multisegment foot model into a full-body gait analysis. We hypothesize that hip and ankle kinetics will be altered consistent with ...


Biotic Filtering In Endophytic Fungal Communities, Kevin Daniel Ricks Jun 2018

Biotic Filtering In Endophytic Fungal Communities, Kevin Daniel Ricks

All Theses and Dissertations

Plants can be colonized by complex communities of endophytic fungi. This thesis presents two studies, both of which investigate biotic filtering in endophytic fungal communities. Chapter 1. Endophytic fungi can be acquired horizontally via propagules produced in the environment such as in plant litters of various species. Given that litters from different plant species harbor distinct endophytic fungal communities and that endophytic fungi may be dispersal-limited, the structure of the endophytic fungal community of a given plant may be determined by proximity to particular inoculum sources. Community assembly may also be affected by biotic filtering by the plant. Therefore, a ...


Exploration Of The Gossypium Raimondii Genome Using Bionano Genomics Physical Mapping Technology, Christopher Jon Hanson Jun 2018

Exploration Of The Gossypium Raimondii Genome Using Bionano Genomics Physical Mapping Technology, Christopher Jon Hanson

All Theses and Dissertations

Cotton is a crop with a large global economic impact as well as a large, complex genome. Most industrial cotton production is from two tetraploid species (Gossypium hirsutum L. and Gossypium barbadense L.) which contain two subgenomes, specifically the AT and DT subgenomes. The DT subgenome is nearly half the size of the AT subgenome in tetraploid cotton and is closely related to an extant D-genome Gossypium species, G. raimondii Ulbr. Characterization of the structural variants present in diploid D-genome should provide greater insight into the evolution of the DT subgenome in the tetraploid cotton. Bionano (BNG) optical mapping uses ...


An Introductory Study Of Solid Materials For Capture And Catalysis Of Waste Stream Chemicals, Steven Kyle Butler Jun 2018

An Introductory Study Of Solid Materials For Capture And Catalysis Of Waste Stream Chemicals, Steven Kyle Butler

All Theses and Dissertations

Heterogeneous catalysts are key materials in research and industry. Herein we study two materials in different stages of development toward being applied as heterogeneous catalysts. First, MoO3SnO2 was synthesized and studied as a catalytic system similar to Sn-beta zeolites. While the Mo-based catalyst did not show similar activity to Sn-beta, it did show interesting reactivity in activating carbonyls and oxidizing organic substrates. Second, a method was developed for grafting amines onto carboxylic acid functionalized carbon nanotubes for CO2 capture. The method was successful for grafting monomer ethylamine groups onto CNT and can be further developed to allow for polymeric amine ...


Plane Of Energy Nutrition On Blood Metabolites, Milk Production And Lamb Growth In Friesian Sheep, Rebekah Paige Jensen Jun 2018

Plane Of Energy Nutrition On Blood Metabolites, Milk Production And Lamb Growth In Friesian Sheep, Rebekah Paige Jensen

All Theses and Dissertations

Small ruminant species are utilized for their diverse products including meat, dairy products, and wool. Effective and humane management are essential to maintain high production rates and comfortable animals. To attain this objective, managers needs to have an extensive knowledge of husbandry techniques, understanding of physiological processes, and familiarity with nutritional requirements. We examined the effects of varying feed components on two different ruminal species. In Chapter 1, we conducted a study to evaluate"¯the effects"¯of a low metabolizable energy (LME) and high metabolizable energy (HME) diet on twenty-two Friesian/Lacuane"¯cross ewes and lamb nutritional status."¯Effects on ...


Characterizing The Spatial Variation Of Crop Water Productivity For Variable-Rate Irrigation Management, Jeffrey David Svedin Jun 2018

Characterizing The Spatial Variation Of Crop Water Productivity For Variable-Rate Irrigation Management, Jeffrey David Svedin

All Theses and Dissertations

Irrigated agriculture is the primary consumer of limited worldwide freshwater resources. Drought, growing world populations, and environmental demands compete with irrigation for freshwater resources"”threatening sustainable global food, fuel, and fiber production. This escalating global crisis demands that agriculture produce more food using less water. Traditional irrigation management has used technology to apply uniform irrigation rates across landscapes"”ignoring natural environmental variation. This provides inherent inefficiencies of over- or under- irrigation within individual fields. Variable-rate irrigation (VRI) is modern technology that employs global positioning systems and geographic information systems to match irrigation to spatially variable crop water demands within a ...


Biomarker Analysis And Clinical Relevance Of Thymidine Kinase 1 In Solid And Hematological Malignancies, Evita Giraldez Weagel Jun 2018

Biomarker Analysis And Clinical Relevance Of Thymidine Kinase 1 In Solid And Hematological Malignancies, Evita Giraldez Weagel

All Theses and Dissertations

Despite the global effort to discover and improve ways to detect, treat, and monitor cancer, it still remains the second leading cause of death in the United States and poses a major health and economic burden worldwide. While traditional treatments like surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and hormone therapy have been successful and have decreased cancer mortality, cancer incidence in all sites continues to rise. Consequently, there is an immediate need to find new therapeutics for the treatment of cancer. In recent years, and with the continuing push towards personalized medicine, cancer biomarkers have become crucial to detect, treat, and monitor ...


Microbial And Co2 Responses To Water Stresses Show Decreased Productivity And Diversity Through Time, David Michael Robinson May 2018

Microbial And Co2 Responses To Water Stresses Show Decreased Productivity And Diversity Through Time, David Michael Robinson

All Theses and Dissertations

Some bacterial taxa when stimulated by water additions will break dormancy, grow, and become dominant members of the community and contribute significant pulses of CO2 associated with the rewetting event. These pulses of activity are associated with high levels of bacterial productivity in soils. (Aanderud et al. 2011) We examined the bacterial taxa that resuscitate and become metabolically active following two forms of water stress (soil drying-rewetting and freeze-thaw cycles) and we captured and measured the CO2 emanating from those soils. Specifically, We used target metagenomics, which uses a specific gene pool within bacteria that is associated with ...


Improving Post-Wildfire Seeding Success Using Germination Modeling And Seed Enhancement Technologies, William Charles Richardson Apr 2018

Improving Post-Wildfire Seeding Success Using Germination Modeling And Seed Enhancement Technologies, William Charles Richardson

All Theses and Dissertations

Arid and semi-arid rangelands are important ecosystems that are consistently degraded through disturbances such as wildfires. After such disturbances, the invasion and dominance of annual grasses, like cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.), can lead to an overall loss of ecosystem productivity and an increase in fire frequency. To reduce weed dominance, native and introduced perennials species are typically be seeded in the fall. High mortality is seen from these seeded plant communities due to germinated seed being exposed to freezing, drought, fungal pathogens, and other biotic and abiotic stressors during winter months. We utilized wet-thermal accumulation models to first further validate ...


Emerging Seed Enhancements To Reduce The Risk Of Sagebrush Post-Fire Seeding Failure, Ryan Scott Call Apr 2018

Emerging Seed Enhancements To Reduce The Risk Of Sagebrush Post-Fire Seeding Failure, Ryan Scott Call

All Theses and Dissertations

The sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) steppe is undergoing rapid ecological change. The degradation of sagebrush steppe rangelands has resulted in the listing of more than 350 animals and plants as species of conservation concern. In addition, there has been a decrease in recreational values, reduced forage production, degraded water resources, and an increase in fire frequency. In the sagebrush steppe, success rates for seeding sagebrush after wildfire are notoriously low. Not only are sagebrush seeds hard to sow due to their small size and associated flower parts, but seedlings are exposed to numerous stresses that lowers their survivability. To improve sowing ...


The Effect Of Whole-Body Vibration In Repositioning The Talus In Chronic Ankle Instability Populations, Melissa Nicole Frixione Apr 2018

The Effect Of Whole-Body Vibration In Repositioning The Talus In Chronic Ankle Instability Populations, Melissa Nicole Frixione

All Theses and Dissertations

Context: Dorsiflexion range of motion (DFROM) is often limited in patients with chronic ankle instability (CAI). Whole-body vibration (WBV) may enhance DFROM by helping to reposition the talus and assisting with talocrural arthrokinematics. Objective: To determine if WBV can enhance DFROM in patients with ankle instability and determine if talar position is affected. Setting: Cohort study. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 25 subjects with CAI (17 women, 8 men; age = 22 ±2.101 years, mass = 72.4 ±17.9 kg, height = 171.2 ± 11.6 cm) participated. Intervention(s): Participants in the WBV group completed a 4-week (12 ...


The Effect Of Photobiomodulation Therapy On Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage, Kathleen Nichole Thiriot Apr 2018

The Effect Of Photobiomodulation Therapy On Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage, Kathleen Nichole Thiriot

All Theses and Dissertations

Purpose: To explore the difference between continuous and pulsed photobiomodulation (PBMT) versus a placebo treatment when using a red-blue light combination over multiple treatment sessions to decrease the symptoms of muscle damage in the quadriceps muscle after a bout of muscle damaging exercise. Methods: Thirty-six healthy, nonactive male and female participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups: continuous PBMT, pulsed PBMT, and placebo treatment. Participants were assessed for muscle damage with knee extension maximal isometric and isokinetic contractions, as well as Visual Analog Scale (VAS) and Lower Extremity Functional Scale (LEFS) scores. Blood creatine kinase (CK) was also ...


Survival Of Neonate Mule Deer Fawns In Southern Utah: Effects Of Coyote Removal And Synchrony Of Parturition, Jacob Tyler Hall Apr 2018

Survival Of Neonate Mule Deer Fawns In Southern Utah: Effects Of Coyote Removal And Synchrony Of Parturition, Jacob Tyler Hall

All Theses and Dissertations

Mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) are an iconic species of wildlife, and populations of mule deer across much of the western U.S. have experienced recent fluctuations in size. Factors that affect the survival and subsequent recruitment of juveniles may be the preeminent cause of population fluctuations for mule deer in many areas. Many factors, including habitat loss, extreme weather, intense predation, timing and synchrony of parturition, and competition with other species may be influencing these changes. We studied two potential factors that can influence the survival of neonate mule deer in southern Utah. To better understand how predation affects mule ...


Hospital And Meat Associated Staphylococcus Aureus And Their Biofilm Characteristics, Trevor Michael Wienclaw Apr 2018

Hospital And Meat Associated Staphylococcus Aureus And Their Biofilm Characteristics, Trevor Michael Wienclaw

All Theses and Dissertations

Biofilm phenotypes were studied in 32 Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from store-bought meats and 22 from diseased patients in hospitals. Of the meat-associated strains, 21 were methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and 11 were methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA). The hospital-associated strains included 15 MRSAs and 7 MSSAs. We studied the robustness and composition of the biofilms produced by these strains. We found that on average hospital-associated strains form more robust biofilms than meat associated strains. The model often used to describe S. aureus biofilm composition includes two biofilm types defined by the presence or absence of polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA), PIA-dependent ...


Effects Of Acid Whey Marination On Tenderness, Sensory And Other Quality Parameters Of Beef Eye Of Round, Jason Kim Apr 2018

Effects Of Acid Whey Marination On Tenderness, Sensory And Other Quality Parameters Of Beef Eye Of Round, Jason Kim

All Theses and Dissertations

The growth of the Greek-style yogurt market is causing many problems for dairy companies who are trying to handle the voluminous whey by-product. Acid whey, unlike sweet whey, has a low amount of protein and high amounts of lactic acid, calcium, and other minerals. Therefore, it has limited commercial value to the food industry and often requires additional processing for disposal. Lactic acid and calcium solutions have shown efficacy in increasing the tenderness of beef and other types of meat. The purpose of this project is to investigate the use of acid whey, with its high amounts of lactic acid ...


Small Mammal Diversity, Rattlesnake Demographics, And Resource Utilization In The Great Basin: Implications For Management And Stable Isotope Proxies, Bryan T. Hamilton Apr 2018

Small Mammal Diversity, Rattlesnake Demographics, And Resource Utilization In The Great Basin: Implications For Management And Stable Isotope Proxies, Bryan T. Hamilton

All Theses and Dissertations

Plant carbon isotopes were used to track assimilation of riparian resources by small mammals. Voles and shrews derived significant portions of their carbon from riparian vegetation. Deer and harvest mice were abundant in riparian habitat but assimilated little riparian vegetation indicating that the riparian corridor provided resources other than food. This is first use of stable carbon isotopes to trace riparian resources into a vertebrate community. Conifer encroachment in sagebrush ecosystems negatively affects many wildlife populations. Conifer removal is recommended across millions of hectares in the Great Basin. However the effects of conifer encroachment and conifer removal are unknown for ...


Comparison Of Functional, Nutritional, And Sensory Properties Of Spray-Dried And Oven-Dried Cricket (Acheta Domesticus) Powder, Fred Stephen Bassett Apr 2018

Comparison Of Functional, Nutritional, And Sensory Properties Of Spray-Dried And Oven-Dried Cricket (Acheta Domesticus) Powder, Fred Stephen Bassett

All Theses and Dissertations

Three dried cricket products – Oven-roasted Cricket Meal (ORCM), Oven-roasted Cricket Powder (ORCP), and Spray-dried Cricket Powder (SDCP) – were prepared and compared to assess their relative nutritional, functional, and sensory properties. The range of particle sizes in SDCP was wider than that of ORCP; while SDCP had more particles in the 7.78-22.0 µm range, it also had more particles in the 176-498 µm range, which contributed to differences in functional and sensory properties. ORCM and SDCP meet the FDA definition of an "excellent source" of vitamin B2, ORCP is a "good source" of vitamin B2, and all ...


The Role Of The Midfoot In Drop Landings, Mark Taylor Olsen Jan 2018

The Role Of The Midfoot In Drop Landings, Mark Taylor Olsen

All Theses and Dissertations

The contribution of the midfoot in landing mechanics is understudied. Therefore, the main purpose of this study was to quantify midtarsal joint kinematics and kinetics during a barefoot single-leg landing task. A secondary aim of this study was to explore the relationship between static foot posture and dynamic midfoot function. In a cross-sectional study design, 48 females (age = 20.4 ± 1.8 yr, height = 1.6 ± 0.06 m, weight = 57.3 ± 5.5 kg, BMI = 21.6 ± 1.7 kg·m-1) performed drop landings from a height of 0.4 m onto split force platforms. Subjects hung from ...


Acetobacter Fabarum Genes Influencing Drosophila Melanogaster Phenotypes, Kylie Makay White Dec 2017

Acetobacter Fabarum Genes Influencing Drosophila Melanogaster Phenotypes, Kylie Makay White

All Theses and Dissertations

Research in our lab has predicted hundreds of bacterial genes that influence nine different traits in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. As a practical alternative to creating site-directed mutants for each of the predicted genes, we created an arrayed transposon insertion library using a strain of Acetobacter fabarum DsW_054 isolated from fruit flies. Creation of the Acetobacter fabarum DsW_054 gene knock-out library was done through random transposon insertion, combinatorial mapping and Illumina sequencing. Successful mapping of transposon insertion was achieved for 6418 mutants with hits within 63% of annotated genes within Acetobacter fabarum DsW_054. Insertion sites were verified in 40 ...


Clinical Predictors Of Movement Patterns In Patients With Chronic Ankle Instability, Seong Jun Son Dec 2017

Clinical Predictors Of Movement Patterns In Patients With Chronic Ankle Instability, Seong Jun Son

All Theses and Dissertations

BACKGROUND: Chronic ankle instability (CAI) patients have varying levels of mechanical and sensorimotor impairments that may lead to disparate functional movement patterns. Current literature on landing biomechanics in a CAI population, however, considers all patients as a homogeneous group. In our prior work, we identified 6 subgroups of movement patterns using lower extremity kinematics during a landing/cutting task and that showed promise in furthering understanding of movement patterns in a laboratory-based environment. To increase the utility of this methodology in clinical settings, there is a need to find easily administered clinical tests that can help identify multiple subgroups of ...


Phosphate Signaling Through Alternate Conformations Of The Pstscab Phosphate Transporter, Ramesh Krishna Vuppada Dec 2017

Phosphate Signaling Through Alternate Conformations Of The Pstscab Phosphate Transporter, Ramesh Krishna Vuppada

All Theses and Dissertations

Phosphate is an essential compound for life. Escherichia coli employs a signal transduction pathway that controls the expression of genes that are required for the high-affinity acquisition of phosphate and the utilization of alternate sources of phosphorous. These genes are only expressed when environmental phosphate is limiting. The seven genes for this signaling pathway encode the two-component regulatory proteins PhoB and PhoR, as well as the high-affinity phosphate transporter PstSCAB and an auxiliary protein called PhoU. As the sensor kinase PhoR has no periplasmic sensory domain, the mechanism by which these cells sense environmental phosphate is not known. This paper ...


Ground Reaction Forces For Irish Dance Landings In Hard And Soft Shoes, Sarah Elizabeth Klopp Dec 2017

Ground Reaction Forces For Irish Dance Landings In Hard And Soft Shoes, Sarah Elizabeth Klopp

All Theses and Dissertations

Introduction: Irish dance has evolved to become more athletically demanding, thus making the art form very hard on dancers' bodies. Irish dancers must land from difficult moves without letting their knees bend or heels touch the ground, causing large amounts of force to be absorbed by the body. Past studies have found dancers landing with a range of 4.5–6 times body weight, potentially causing high amounts of overuse injury. The majority of injuries incurred by Irish dancers are due to overuse (79.6%). The landings that occur in Irish dance have been minimally evaluated in current literature. Obtaining ...


Human-Bear Interactions Among Black Bears In Bryce Canyon National Park, Utah, And Polar Bears On Alaska's North Slope, Wesley G. Larson Dec 2017

Human-Bear Interactions Among Black Bears In Bryce Canyon National Park, Utah, And Polar Bears On Alaska's North Slope, Wesley G. Larson

All Theses and Dissertations

Human-bear interactions are an important consideration of bear biology, as interactions can lead to destruction of property as well as injury or death for both human and bear. Successful analysis of why these interactions occur can lead to appropriate preventative measures and mitigation of further conflict. Bryce Canyon National Park (BRCA) is comprised of relatively poor bear habitat, but a black bear population exists on the Paunsaugunt Plateau, on which the park occupies the eastern edge. Park managers expressed interest in learning more about bear movements and, specifically, bear use of anthropogenic features following a number of human-bear incidents located ...


Influence Of Epstein-Barr Virus On Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Development And The Role Of Depression On Disease Progression, Caleb Cornaby Dec 2017

Influence Of Epstein-Barr Virus On Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Development And The Role Of Depression On Disease Progression, Caleb Cornaby

All Theses and Dissertations

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease affecting 20 to 250 individuals per 100,000 worldwide. Symptomology includes dermatological manifestations such as discoid lesions, acute cutaneous rashes, and oral and nasal ulcers, along with musculoskeletal, pulmonary, and renal complications. Abnormal T and B lymphocyte function and apoptosis, immune complex clearance, complement function, and nucleosome processing are typical of disease pathophysiology. SLE is the result of both environmental and genetic factors, which together create the conditions leading to disease onset and progression. Of these environmental factors, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is known to cause the genesis of cross-reactive antibodies in ...