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Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

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Enhancing Hybrid Prediction In Pearl Millet Using Genomic And/Or Multi- Environment Phenotypic Information Of Inbreds, Diego Jarquin, Reka Howard, Zhikai Liang, Shashi K. Gupta, James C. Schnable, Jose Crossa Jan 2020

Enhancing Hybrid Prediction In Pearl Millet Using Genomic And/Or Multi- Environment Phenotypic Information Of Inbreds, Diego Jarquin, Reka Howard, Zhikai Liang, Shashi K. Gupta, James C. Schnable, Jose Crossa

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Genomic selection (GS) is an emerging methodology that helps select superior lines among experimental cultivars in plant breeding programs. It offers the opportunity to increase the productivity of cultivars by delivering increased genetic gains and reducing the breeding cycles. This methodology requires inexpensive and sufficiently dense marker information to be successful, and with whole genome sequencing, it has become an important tool in many crops. The recent assembly of the pearl millet genome has made it possible to employ GS models to improve the selection procedure in pearl millet breeding programs. Here, three GS models were implemented and compared using ...


Long-Term Ecological Research In Southern Brazil Grasslands: Effects Of Grazing Exclusion And Deferred Grazing On Plant And Arthropod Communities, Pedro M.A. Ferreira, Bianca O. Andrade, Luciana R. Podgaiski, Amanda C. Dias, Valerio D. Pillar, Gerhard E. Overbeck, Milton De S. Mendonca Jr., Ilsi I. Boldrini Jan 2020

Long-Term Ecological Research In Southern Brazil Grasslands: Effects Of Grazing Exclusion And Deferred Grazing On Plant And Arthropod Communities, Pedro M.A. Ferreira, Bianca O. Andrade, Luciana R. Podgaiski, Amanda C. Dias, Valerio D. Pillar, Gerhard E. Overbeck, Milton De S. Mendonca Jr., Ilsi I. Boldrini

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Grazing exclusion may lead to biodiversity loss and homogenization of naturally heterogeneous and species-rich grassland ecosystems, and these effects may cascade to higher trophic levels and ecosystem properties. Although grazing exclusion has been studied elsewhere, the consequences of alleviating the disturbance regime in grassland ecosystems remain unclear. In this paper, we present results of the first five years of an experiment in native grasslands of southern Brazil. Using a randomized block experimental design, we examined the effects of three grazing treatments on plant and arthropod communities: (i) deferred grazing (i.e., intermittent grazing), (ii) grazing exclusion and (iii) a control ...


Editorial: New Insights Into Mechanisms Of Epigenetic Modifiers In Plant Growth And Development, Ming Luo, Gabino Ríos, Tomasz Jacek Sarnowski, Shoudong Zhang, Nitin Mantri, Jean-Benoit Charron, Marc Libault Jan 2020

Editorial: New Insights Into Mechanisms Of Epigenetic Modifiers In Plant Growth And Development, Ming Luo, Gabino Ríos, Tomasz Jacek Sarnowski, Shoudong Zhang, Nitin Mantri, Jean-Benoit Charron, Marc Libault

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

In eukaryotic cells, chromatin, a highly dynamic nucleoprotein complex, plays a critical role in controlling gene expression notably by regulating the interaction between transcription factors and regulatory elements. The structure of the chromatin is determined by epigenetic mechanisms, including DNA methylation, histone modifications, and chromatin remodeling. A growing body of evidence indicates that epigenetic regulations are involved in plant adaptation to environmental stresses, and in plant development, including flowering control, fruit and root development, as well as seed maturation and germination. Furthermore, epigenetic mechanisms have the potential to stabilize cell identity and maintain tissue organization. Hence, epigenetic diversity is now ...


Yield And Quality In Purple-Grained Wheat Isogenic Lines, Alexey Morgounov, Yasar Karaduman, Beyhan Akin, Sinan Aydogan, Peter Stephen Baenziger, Madhav Bhatta, Vladimir Chudinov, Susanne Dreisigacker, Velu Govindan, Safure Güler, Carlos Guzman, Ajit Nehe, Rachana Poudel, Devin J. Rose, Elena Gordeeva, Vladimir Shamanin, Kemal Subasi, Yuriy Zelenskiy, Elena Khlestkina Jan 2020

Yield And Quality In Purple-Grained Wheat Isogenic Lines, Alexey Morgounov, Yasar Karaduman, Beyhan Akin, Sinan Aydogan, Peter Stephen Baenziger, Madhav Bhatta, Vladimir Chudinov, Susanne Dreisigacker, Velu Govindan, Safure Güler, Carlos Guzman, Ajit Nehe, Rachana Poudel, Devin J. Rose, Elena Gordeeva, Vladimir Shamanin, Kemal Subasi, Yuriy Zelenskiy, Elena Khlestkina

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Breeding programs for purple wheat are underway in many countries but there is a lack of information on the effects of Pp (purple pericarp) genes on agronomic and quality traits in variable environments and along the product chain (grain-flour-bread). This study was based on unique material: two pairs of isogenic lines in a spring wheat cv. Saratovskaya-29 (S29) background differing only in Pp genes and grain color. In 2017, seven experiments were conducted in Kazakhstan, Russia, and Turkey with a focus on genotype and environment interaction and, in 2018, one experiment in Turkey with a focus on grain, flour, and ...


The Land Variational Ensemble Data Assimilation Framework: Lavendar V1.0.0, Ewan Pinnington, Tristan Quaife, Amos Lawless, Karina Williams, Tim Arkebauer, David Scoby Jan 2020

The Land Variational Ensemble Data Assimilation Framework: Lavendar V1.0.0, Ewan Pinnington, Tristan Quaife, Amos Lawless, Karina Williams, Tim Arkebauer, David Scoby

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

The Land Variational Ensemble Data Assimilation Framework (LAVENDAR) implements the method of fourdimensional ensemble variational (4D-En-Var) data assimilation (DA) for land surface models. Four-dimensional ensemble variational data assimilation negates the often costly calculation of a model adjoint required by traditional variational techniques (such as 4D-Var) for optimizing parameters or state variables over a time window of observations. In this paper we present the first application of LAVENDAR, implementing the framework with the Joint UK Land Environment Simulator (JULES) land surface model. We show that the system can recover seven parameters controlling crop behaviour in a set of twin experiments. We ...


Adaptive Capacity In Ecosystems, David G. Angeler, Hannah Fried-Petersen, Craig R. Allen, Ahjond Garmestani, Dirac L. Twidwell Jr, H.E. Birgé, W. Chuang, V.M. Donovan, T. Eason, C.P. Roberts, S.M. Sundstrom, C.L. Wonkka Jan 2020

Adaptive Capacity In Ecosystems, David G. Angeler, Hannah Fried-Petersen, Craig R. Allen, Ahjond Garmestani, Dirac L. Twidwell Jr, H.E. Birgé, W. Chuang, V.M. Donovan, T. Eason, C.P. Roberts, S.M. Sundstrom, C.L. Wonkka

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Understanding the adaptive capacity of ecosystems to cope with change is crucial to management. However, unclear and often confusing definitions of adaptive capacity make application of this concept difficult. In this paper, we revisit definitions of adaptive capacity and operationalize the concept. We define adaptive capacity as the latent potential of an ecosystem to alter resilience in response to change. We present testable hypotheses to evaluate complementary attributes of adaptive capacity that may help further clarify the components and relevance of the concept. Adaptive sampling, inference and modeling can reduce key uncertainties incrementally over time and increase learning about adaptive ...


The Lateral Root Density Gene Regulates Root Growth During Water Stress In Wheat, Dante F. Placido, Jaspreet Sandhu, Shirley Sato, Natalya Nersesian, Truyen Quach, Thomas E. Clemente, Paul E. Staswick, Harkamal Walia Jan 2020

The Lateral Root Density Gene Regulates Root Growth During Water Stress In Wheat, Dante F. Placido, Jaspreet Sandhu, Shirley Sato, Natalya Nersesian, Truyen Quach, Thomas E. Clemente, Paul E. Staswick, Harkamal Walia

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Drought stress is the major limiting factor in agriculture. Wheat, which is the most widely grown crop in the world, is predominantly cultivated in drought-prone rainfed environments. Since roots play a critical role in water uptake, root response to water limitations is an important component for enhancing wheat adaptation. In an effort to discover novel genetic sources for improving wheat adaptation, we characterized a wheat translocation line with a chromosomal segment from Agropyron elongatum, a wild relative of wheat, which unlike common wheat maintains root growth under limited-water conditions. By exploring the root transcriptome data, we found that reduced transcript ...


Soil Carbon Increased By Twice The Amount Of Biochar Carbon Applied After 6 Years: Field Evidence Of Negative Priming, Humberto Blanco-Canqui, David A. Laird, Emily A. Heaton, Samuel Rathke, Bharat Sharma Acharya Jan 2020

Soil Carbon Increased By Twice The Amount Of Biochar Carbon Applied After 6 Years: Field Evidence Of Negative Priming, Humberto Blanco-Canqui, David A. Laird, Emily A. Heaton, Samuel Rathke, Bharat Sharma Acharya

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Applying biochar to agricultural soils has been proposed as a means of sequester-ing carbon (C) while simultaneously enhancing soil health and agricultural sustain-ability. However, our understanding of the long-term effects of biochar and annual versus perennial cropping systems and their interactions on soil properties under field conditions is limited. We quantified changes in soil C concentration and stocks, and other soil properties 6 years after biochar applications to corn (Zea mays L.) and dedicated bioenergy crops on a Midwestern US soil. Treatments were as fol-lows: no-till continuous corn, Liberty switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), and low-diversity prairie grasses, 45% big bluestem ...


The Lateral Root Density Gene Regulates Root Growth During Water Stress In Wheat, Dante F. Placido, Jaspreet Sandhu, Shirley Sato, Natalya Nersesian, Truyen Quach, Thomas Clemente, Paul E. Staswick, Harkamal Walia Jan 2020

The Lateral Root Density Gene Regulates Root Growth During Water Stress In Wheat, Dante F. Placido, Jaspreet Sandhu, Shirley Sato, Natalya Nersesian, Truyen Quach, Thomas Clemente, Paul E. Staswick, Harkamal Walia

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Drought stress is the major limiting factor in agriculture. Wheat, which is the most widely grown crop in the world, is predominantly cultivated in drought-prone rainfed environments. Since roots play a critical role in water uptake, root response to water limitations is an important component for enhancing wheat adaptation. In an effort to discover novel genetic sources for improving wheat adaptation, we characterized a wheat translocation line with a chromosomal segment from Agropyron elongatum, a wild relative of wheat, which unlike common wheat maintains root growth under limited-water conditions. By exploring the root transcriptome data, we found that reduced transcript ...


Rhizosphere Microbiome Of Arid Land Medicinal Plants And Extra Cellular Enzymes Contribute To Their Abundance, Abdul Latif Khan, Sajjad Asaf, Raeid M. M. Abed, Yen Ning Chai, Ahmed N. Al-Rawahi, Tupan Kumar Mohanta, Ahmed Al-Rawahi, Daniel P. Schachtman, Ahmed Al-Harrasi Jan 2020

Rhizosphere Microbiome Of Arid Land Medicinal Plants And Extra Cellular Enzymes Contribute To Their Abundance, Abdul Latif Khan, Sajjad Asaf, Raeid M. M. Abed, Yen Ning Chai, Ahmed N. Al-Rawahi, Tupan Kumar Mohanta, Ahmed Al-Rawahi, Daniel P. Schachtman, Ahmed Al-Harrasi

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Revealing the unexplored rhizosphere microbiome of plants in arid environments can help in understanding their interactions between microbial communities and plants during harsh growth conditions. Here, we report the first investigation of rhizospheric fungal and bacterial communities of Adenium obesum, Aloe dhufarensis and Cleome austroarabica using next-generation sequencing approaches. A. obesum and A. dhufarensis grows in dry tropical and C. austroarabica in arid conditions of Arabian Peninsula. The results indicated the presence of 121 fungal and 3662 bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) whilst microbial diversity was significantly high in the rhizosphere of A. obesum and A. dhufarensis and low in ...


Wheat Growth Monitoring And Yield Estimation Based On Multi-Rotor Unmanned Aerial Vehicle, Zhaopeng Fu, Jie Jang, Yang Gao, Brian Krienke, Meng Wang, Kaitai Zhong, Qiang Cao, Yongchao Tian, Yan Zhu, Weixing Cao, Xiaojun Liu Jan 2020

Wheat Growth Monitoring And Yield Estimation Based On Multi-Rotor Unmanned Aerial Vehicle, Zhaopeng Fu, Jie Jang, Yang Gao, Brian Krienke, Meng Wang, Kaitai Zhong, Qiang Cao, Yongchao Tian, Yan Zhu, Weixing Cao, Xiaojun Liu

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Leaf area index (LAI) and leaf dry matter (LDM) are important indices of crop growth. Real-time, nondestructive monitoring of crop growth is instructive for the diagnosis of crop growth and prediction of grain yield. Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)-based remote sensing is widely used in precision agriculture due to its unique advantages in flexibility and resolution. This study was carried out on wheat trials treated with different nitrogen levels and seeding densities in three regions of Jiangsu Province in 2018–2019. Canopy spectral images were collected by the UAV equipped with a multi-spectral camera during key wheat growth stages. To ...


The State Of Sustainable Agriculture And Agroecology Research And Impacts: A Survey Of U.S. Scientists, Marcia Delonge, Tali Robbins, Andrea D. Basche, Lindsey Haynes-Maslow Jan 2020

The State Of Sustainable Agriculture And Agroecology Research And Impacts: A Survey Of U.S. Scientists, Marcia Delonge, Tali Robbins, Andrea D. Basche, Lindsey Haynes-Maslow

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

A growing body of research suggests that although sustainable agriculture, particularly agroecology, can address challenges such as those related to climate change, ecosystem services, food insecurity, and farmer livelihoods, the transition to such systems remains limited. To gain insight into the state of U.S. sustainable agriculture and agroecology, we developed a 28-question mixed-method survey that was administered to scientists in these fields. Respondents (N=168) represented diverse locations, institutions, and career stages. They offered varied definitions of sustainable agriculture, with 40% considering economic and social well-being to be core components. Respondents identified the amount and duration of public research ...


Restoring The Fire–Grazing Interaction Promotes Tree–Grass Coexistence By Controlling Woody Encroachment, Jane F. Capozzelli, James R. Miller, Diane M. Debinski, Walter H. Schacht Jan 2020

Restoring The Fire–Grazing Interaction Promotes Tree–Grass Coexistence By Controlling Woody Encroachment, Jane F. Capozzelli, James R. Miller, Diane M. Debinski, Walter H. Schacht

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Woody encroachment can convert grasslands and savannas to shrublands and woodlands, so understanding the processes which regulate woody encroachment is necessary to conserve or restore these ecosystems. We hypothesized that recreating the fire–grazing interaction would limit woody encroachment because focal grazing increases fuel accumulation on unburned areas and increases browsing on emergent woody plants in burned areas. This study was conducted in the Grand River Grasslands of Iowa and Mis- souri (USA) on 11 sites (15.4–35.0 ha). Each site was assigned to one treatment: patch-burn-graze (n = 4), with spatially discrete prescribed fires and free access by ...


Multi-Trait Random Regression Models Increase Genomic Prediction Accuracy For A Temporal Physiological Trait Derived From High-Throughput Phenotyping, Toshimi Baba, Mehdi Momen, Malachy T. Campbell, Harkamal Walia, Gota Morota Jan 2020

Multi-Trait Random Regression Models Increase Genomic Prediction Accuracy For A Temporal Physiological Trait Derived From High-Throughput Phenotyping, Toshimi Baba, Mehdi Momen, Malachy T. Campbell, Harkamal Walia, Gota Morota

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Random regression models (RRM) are used extensively for genomic inference and predic- tion of time-valued traits in animal breeding, but only recently have been used in plant sys- tems. High-throughput phenotyping (HTP) platforms provide a powerful means to collect high-dimensional phenotypes throughout the growing season for large populations. How- ever, to date, selection of an appropriate statistical genomic framework to integrate multiple temporal traits for genomic prediction in plants remains unexplored. Here, we demonstrate the utility of a multi-trait RRM (MT-RRM) for genomic prediction of daily water usage (WU) in rice (Oryza sativa) through joint modeling with shoot biomass (projected ...


Gwas: Fast-Forwarding Gene Identification And Characterization In Temperate Cereals: Lessons From Barley – A Review, Ahmad M. Alqudah, Ahmed Sallam, P. Stephen Baenziger, Andreas Börner Jan 2020

Gwas: Fast-Forwarding Gene Identification And Characterization In Temperate Cereals: Lessons From Barley – A Review, Ahmad M. Alqudah, Ahmed Sallam, P. Stephen Baenziger, Andreas Börner

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Understanding the genetic complexity of traits is an important objective of small grain temperate cereals yield and adaptation improvements. Bi-parental quantitative trait loci (QTL) linkage mapping is a pow- erful method to identify genetic regions that co-segregate in the trait of interest within the research pop- ulation. However, recently, association or linkage disequilibrium (LD) mapping using a genome-wide association study (GWAS) became an approach for unraveling the molecular genetic basis underlying the natural phenotypic variation. Many causative allele(s)/loci have been identified using the power of this approach which had not been detected in QTL mapping populations. In barley ...


Transforming Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (Uav) And Multispectral Sensor Into A Practical Decision Support System For Precision Nitrogen Management In Corn, Laura J. Thompson, Laila A. Puntel Jan 2020

Transforming Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (Uav) And Multispectral Sensor Into A Practical Decision Support System For Precision Nitrogen Management In Corn, Laura J. Thompson, Laila A. Puntel

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Determining the optimal nitrogen (N) rate in corn remains a critical issue, mainly due to unaccounted spatial (e.g., soil properties) and temporal (e.g., weather) variability. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) equipped with multispectral sensors may provide opportunities to improve N management by the timely informing of spatially variable, in-season N applications. Here, we developed a practical decision support system (DSS) to translate spatial field characteristics and normalized difference red edge (NDRE) values into an in-season N application recommendation. On-farm strip-trials were established at three sites over two years to compare farmer’s traditional N management to a split-application N ...


Do Coffee Agroforestry Systems Always Improve Soil Carbon Stocks Deeper In The Soil?—A Case Study From Turrialba, Costa Rica, Nilovna Chatterjee, P. K. Ramachandran Nair, Vimala D. Nair, Abhishek Bhattacharjee, Elias De Melo Virginio Filho, Rheinhold G. Muschler, Martin R.A. Noponen Dec 2019

Do Coffee Agroforestry Systems Always Improve Soil Carbon Stocks Deeper In The Soil?—A Case Study From Turrialba, Costa Rica, Nilovna Chatterjee, P. K. Ramachandran Nair, Vimala D. Nair, Abhishek Bhattacharjee, Elias De Melo Virginio Filho, Rheinhold G. Muschler, Martin R.A. Noponen

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Shaded perennial agroforestry systems (AFS) are regarded as desirable land‐use practices that improve soil carbon sequestration. However, most studies assume a positive correlation between above ground and below ground carbon without considering the effect of past and current land management, textural variations (silt and clay percentage), and such other site‐specific factors that have a major influence on the extent of soil C sequestration. We assessed SOC stock at various depths (0–10, 10–30, 30–60, and 60–100 cm) in shaded perennial coffee (Coffea arabica L.) AFS in a 17‐ year‐old experimental field at the Centro ...


Pi‑Plat: A High‑Resolution Image‑Based 3d Reconstruction Method To Estimate Growth Dynamics Of Rice Inflorescence Traits, Jaspreet Sandhu, Feiyu Zhu, Puneet Paul, Tian Gao, Balpreet K. Dhatt, Yufeng Ge, Paul E. Staswick, Hongfeng Yu, Harkamal Walia Dec 2019

Pi‑Plat: A High‑Resolution Image‑Based 3d Reconstruction Method To Estimate Growth Dynamics Of Rice Inflorescence Traits, Jaspreet Sandhu, Feiyu Zhu, Puneet Paul, Tian Gao, Balpreet K. Dhatt, Yufeng Ge, Paul E. Staswick, Hongfeng Yu, Harkamal Walia

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Background: Recent advances in image-based plant phenotyping have improved our capability to study vegetative stage growth dynamics. However, more complex agronomic traits such as inflorescence architecture (IA), which predominantly contributes to grain crop yield are more challenging to quantify and hence are relatively less explored. Previous efforts to estimate inflorescence-related traits using image-based phenotyping have been limited to destructive end-point measurements. Development of non-destructive inflorescence phenotyping platforms could accelerate the discovery of the phenotypic variation with respect to inflorescence dynamics and mapping of the underlying genes regulating critical yield components.

Results: The major objective of this study is to evaluate ...


Divergent Phenotypic Response Of Rice Accessions To Transient Heat Stress During Early Seed Development, Puneet Paul, Balpreet K. Dhatt, Jaspreet Sandhu, Waseem Hussain, Larissa Irvin, Gota Morota, Paul E. Staswick, Harkamal Walia Dec 2019

Divergent Phenotypic Response Of Rice Accessions To Transient Heat Stress During Early Seed Development, Puneet Paul, Balpreet K. Dhatt, Jaspreet Sandhu, Waseem Hussain, Larissa Irvin, Gota Morota, Paul E. Staswick, Harkamal Walia

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Increasing global surface temperatures is posing a major food security challenge. Part of the solution to address this problem is to improve crop heat resilience, especially during grain development, along with agronomic decisions such as shift in planting time and increasing crop diversification. Rice is a major food crop consumed by more than 3 billion people. For rice, thermal sensitivity of reproductive development and grain filling is well-documented, while knowledge concerning the impact of heat stress (HS) on early seed development is limited. Here, we aim to study the phenotypic variation in a set of diverse rice accessions for elucidating ...


Deep Kernel And Deep Learning For Genome-Based Prediction Of Single Traits In Multienvironment Breeding Trials, José Crossa, Johannes W.R. Martini, Daniel Gianola, Paulino Pérez-Rodríguez, Diego Jarquin, Philomin Juliana, Osval Antonio Montesinos López, Jaime Cuevas Dec 2019

Deep Kernel And Deep Learning For Genome-Based Prediction Of Single Traits In Multienvironment Breeding Trials, José Crossa, Johannes W.R. Martini, Daniel Gianola, Paulino Pérez-Rodríguez, Diego Jarquin, Philomin Juliana, Osval Antonio Montesinos López, Jaime Cuevas

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Deep learning (DL) is a promising method for genomic-enabled prediction. However, the implementation of DL is difficult because many hyperparameters (number of hidden layers, number of neurons, learning rate, number of epochs, batch size, etc.) need to be tuned. For this reason, deep kernel methods, which only require defining the number of layers, may be an attractive alternative. Deep kernel methods emulate DL models with a large number of neurons, but are defined by relatively easily computed covariance matrices. In this research, we compared the genome-based prediction of DL to a deep kernel (arc-cosine kernel, AK), to the commonly used ...


Plant Hormones Differentially Control The Sub-Cellular Localization Of Plasma Membrane Microdomains During The Early Stage Of Soybean Nodulation, Zhenzhen Qiao, Prince Zogli, Marc Libault Dec 2019

Plant Hormones Differentially Control The Sub-Cellular Localization Of Plasma Membrane Microdomains During The Early Stage Of Soybean Nodulation, Zhenzhen Qiao, Prince Zogli, Marc Libault

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Phytohormones regulate the mutualistic symbiotic interaction between legumes and rhizobia, nitrogen-fixing soil bacteria, notably by controlling the formation of the infection thread in the root hair (RH). At the cellular level, the formation of the infection thread is promoted by the translocation of plasma membrane microdomains at the tip of the RH. We hypothesize that phytohormones regulate the translocation of plasma membrane microdomains to regulate infection thread formation. Accordingly, we treated with hormone and hormone inhibitors transgenic soybean roots expressing fusions between the Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) and GmFWL1 or GmFLOT2/4, two microdomain-associated proteins translocated at the tip of ...


Evaluation Of A Global Spring Wheat Panel For Stripe Rust: Resistance Loci Validation And Novel Resources Identification, Ibrahim Elbasyoni, Walid M. El-Orabey, Sabah Morsy, P. S. Baenziger, Zakaria Al Ajlouni4, Ismail M. Dweikat Nov 2019

Evaluation Of A Global Spring Wheat Panel For Stripe Rust: Resistance Loci Validation And Novel Resources Identification, Ibrahim Elbasyoni, Walid M. El-Orabey, Sabah Morsy, P. S. Baenziger, Zakaria Al Ajlouni4, Ismail M. Dweikat

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Stripe rust (incited by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici) is airborne wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) disease with dynamic virulence evolution. Thus, anticipatory and continued screening in hotspot regions is crucial to identify new pathotypes and integrate new resistance resources to prevent potential disease epidemics. A global wheat panel consisting of 882 landraces and 912 improved accessions was evaluated in two locations in Egypt during 2016 and 2017. Five prevalent and aggressive pathotypes of stripe rust were used to inoculate the accessions during the two growing seasons and two locations under field conditions. The objectives were to evaluate the panel for ...


Metabolic Dynamics Of Developing Rice Seeds Under High Night-Time Temperature Stress, Balpreet K. Dhatt, Nathan Abshire, Puneet Paul, Kalani Hasanthika, Jaspreet Sandhu, Qi Zhang, Toshihiro Obata, Harkamal Walia Nov 2019

Metabolic Dynamics Of Developing Rice Seeds Under High Night-Time Temperature Stress, Balpreet K. Dhatt, Nathan Abshire, Puneet Paul, Kalani Hasanthika, Jaspreet Sandhu, Qi Zhang, Toshihiro Obata, Harkamal Walia

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

High temperature stress during rice reproductive development results in yield losses. Reduced grain yield and grain quality has been associated with high temperature stress, and specifically with high night-time temperatures (HNT). Characterizing the impact of HNT on the phenotypic and metabolic status of developing rice seeds can provide insights into the mechanisms involved in yield and quality decline. Here, we examined the impact of warmer nights on the morphology and metabolome during early seed development in six diverse rice accessions. Seed size was sensitive to HNT in four of the six genotypes, while seed fertility and seed weight were unaffected ...


Ghd8 Controls Rice Photoperiod Sensitivity By Forming A Complex That Interacts With Ghd7, Peng Wang, Rong Gong, Ying Yang, Sibin Yu Nov 2019

Ghd8 Controls Rice Photoperiod Sensitivity By Forming A Complex That Interacts With Ghd7, Peng Wang, Rong Gong, Ying Yang, Sibin Yu

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Background: Flowering time is one of the most important agronomic characteristics that ultimately determine yield potential and eco-geographical adaptation in crops. Ghd8 and Ghd7, two major flowering genes, have similar functions and large pleiotropic effects in controlling the heading date, plant height and grain yield of rice. However, these gene interactions at the genetic and molecular levels have not been determined to date.

Results: In this study, we investigated the genetic interaction between Ghd8 and Ghd7 by using a set of near-isogenic lines and a panel of natural germplasm accessions in rice. We found that Ghd8 affected multiple agronomic traits ...


Application Of Autofluorescence For Confocal Microscopy To Aid In Archaeoparasitological Analyses, Johnica Jo Morrow, Christian Elowsky Oct 2019

Application Of Autofluorescence For Confocal Microscopy To Aid In Archaeoparasitological Analyses, Johnica Jo Morrow, Christian Elowsky

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) was used to examine archaeoparasitological specimens from coprolites associated with La Cueva de los Muertos Chiquitos (CMC) located near present-day Durango, Mexico. The eggs for 4 different types of parasites recovered from CMC coprolites were imaged using CLSM to assist with identification efforts. While some of the parasite eggs recovered from CMC coprolites were readily identified using standard light microscopy (LM), CLSM provided useful data for more challenging identifications by highlighting subtle morphological features and enhancing visualization of parasite egg anatomy. While other advanced microscopy techniques, such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), may also detect ...


How Do Ecological Resilience Metrics Relate To Community Stability And Collapse?, Caleb P. Roberts, Dirac L. Twidwell Jr, David G. Angeler, Craig R. Allen Jul 2019

How Do Ecological Resilience Metrics Relate To Community Stability And Collapse?, Caleb P. Roberts, Dirac L. Twidwell Jr, David G. Angeler, Craig R. Allen

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

The concept of ecological resilience (the amount of disturbance a system can absorb before collapsing and reorganizing) holds potential for predicting community change and collapse—increasingly common issues in the Anthropocene. Yet neither the predictions nor metrics of resilience have received rigorous testing. The crossscale resilience model, a leading operationalization of resilience, proposes resilience can be quantified by the combination of diversity and redundancy of functions performed by species operating at different scales. Here, we use 48 years of sub-continental avian community data aggregated at multiple spatial scales to calculate resilience metrics derived from the cross-scale resilience model (i.e ...


Identification Of Loci Controlling Adaptation In Chinese Soya Bean Landraces Via A Combination Of Conventional And Bioclimatic Gwas, Ying-Hui Li, Delin Li, Yong-Qing Jiao, James C. Schnable, Yan-Fei Li, Hui-Hui Li, Huai-Zhu Chen, Hui-Long Hong, Ting Zhang, Bin Liu, Zhang-Xiong Lui, Qing-Bo You, Yu Tian, Yong Guo, Rong-Xia Guan, Li-Juan Zhang, Ru-Zhen Chang, Zhiwu Zhang, Jochen Reif, Xin-An Zhou, Patrick S. Schnable, Li-Juan Qiu Jul 2019

Identification Of Loci Controlling Adaptation In Chinese Soya Bean Landraces Via A Combination Of Conventional And Bioclimatic Gwas, Ying-Hui Li, Delin Li, Yong-Qing Jiao, James C. Schnable, Yan-Fei Li, Hui-Hui Li, Huai-Zhu Chen, Hui-Long Hong, Ting Zhang, Bin Liu, Zhang-Xiong Lui, Qing-Bo You, Yu Tian, Yong Guo, Rong-Xia Guan, Li-Juan Zhang, Ru-Zhen Chang, Zhiwu Zhang, Jochen Reif, Xin-An Zhou, Patrick S. Schnable, Li-Juan Qiu

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Landraces often contain genetic diversity that has been lost in modern cultivars, including alleles that confer enhanced local adaptation. To comprehensively identify loci associated with adaptive traits in soya bean landraces, for example flowering time, a population of 1938 diverse landraces and 97 accessions of the wild progenitor of cultivated soya bean, Glycine soja was genotyped using tGBS. Based on 99 085 high-quality SNPs, landraces were classified into three subpopulations which exhibit geographical genetic differentiation. Clustering was inferred from STRUCTURE, principal component analyses and neighbour-joining tree analyses. Using phenotypic data collected at two locations separated by 10 degrees of latitude ...


Development Of A Nitrogen Recommendation Tool For Corn Considering Static And Dynamic Variables, Laila A. Puntel, Agustin Pagani, Sotirios V. Archontoulis Mar 2019

Development Of A Nitrogen Recommendation Tool For Corn Considering Static And Dynamic Variables, Laila A. Puntel, Agustin Pagani, Sotirios V. Archontoulis

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Many soil and weather variables can affect the economical optimum nitrogen (N) rate (EONR) for maize. We classified 54 potential factors as dynamic (change rapidly over time, e.g. soil water) and static (change slowly over time, e.g. soil organic matter) and explored their relative importance on EONR and yield prediction by analyzing a dataset with 51 N trials from Central-West region of Argentina. Across trials, the average EONR was 113 ± 83 kg N ha−1 and the average optimum yield was 12.3 ± 2.2 Mg ha−1, which is roughly 50% higher than the current N rates ...


Winter Wheat Grain Yield Response To Fungicide Application Is Influenced By Cultivar And Rainfall, Emmanuel Byamukama, Shaukat Ali, Jonathan Kleinjan, Dalitso N. Yabwalo, Christopher Graham, Melanie Caffe-Treml, Nathan D. Mueller, John Rickertsen, William A. Berzonsky Jan 2019

Winter Wheat Grain Yield Response To Fungicide Application Is Influenced By Cultivar And Rainfall, Emmanuel Byamukama, Shaukat Ali, Jonathan Kleinjan, Dalitso N. Yabwalo, Christopher Graham, Melanie Caffe-Treml, Nathan D. Mueller, John Rickertsen, William A. Berzonsky

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Winter wheat is susceptible to several fungal pathogens throughout the growing season and foliar fungicide application is one of the strategies used in the management of fungal diseases in winter wheat. However, for fungicides to be profitable, weather conditions conducive to fungal disease development should be present. To determine if winter wheat yield response to fungicide application at the flowering growth stage (Feekes 10.5.1) was related to the growing season precipitation, grain yield from fungicide treated plots was compared to non-treated plots for 19 to 30 hard red winter wheat cultivars planted at 8 site years from 2011 ...


Flue Gas Desulfurization Gypsum As Soil Amendment, Dinesh Panday, Richard Ferguson, Bijesh Maharjan Jan 2019

Flue Gas Desulfurization Gypsum As Soil Amendment, Dinesh Panday, Richard Ferguson, Bijesh Maharjan

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum is one of the by-products of a coal-fired power generation plant. Coal is the world’s most abundant and widely distributed fossil fuel. After natural gas, coal is the second primary source of energy to generate electricity globally (more than 25%) and remains a key component of the fuel mix for power generation to meet electricity demand in most of the developing countries. The U.S., China and India are the top coal producers and consumers (for production of electricity from coal sources) in the world (OECD/IEA, 2014; IEA, 2016). However, in the U ...