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Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

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Research Report: Prevalence And Mechanism Of Atrazine Resistance In Waterhemp From Nebraska, Rodrigo Werle, Mithila Jugulam, Greg Kruger, Amaranatha Vennapusa, Felipe Faleco, Bruno Viera, Spencer Samuelson Oct 2018

Research Report: Prevalence And Mechanism Of Atrazine Resistance In Waterhemp From Nebraska, Rodrigo Werle, Mithila Jugulam, Greg Kruger, Amaranatha Vennapusa, Felipe Faleco, Bruno Viera, Spencer Samuelson

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Waterhemp is a troublesome summer annual broadleaf weed species that has evolved resistance to glyphosate and other herbicide sites of action (SOA) in Nebraska, including to groups 2 (i.e., Classic, Pursuit, FirstRate), 4 (i.e., 2, 4-D), 5(i.e., atrazine) and 27 (e.g., Callisto, Laudis). The overall objectives of this study were to

  1. Evaluate the eficay of PRE applied atrazine, metribuzin and sulfentrazone to control Nebraska waterhemp populations;
  2. Evaluate the efficacy of POST applied atrazine to control Nebraska waterhemp populations; and
  3. Determine the mechanism of atrazine resistance in Nebraska waterhemp populations.


Digital Soil Mapping In The Bara District Of Nepal Using Kriging Tool In Arcgis, Dinesh Panday, Bijesh Maharjan, Devraj Chalise, Ram Kumar Shrestha, Bikesh Twanabasu Oct 2018

Digital Soil Mapping In The Bara District Of Nepal Using Kriging Tool In Arcgis, Dinesh Panday, Bijesh Maharjan, Devraj Chalise, Ram Kumar Shrestha, Bikesh Twanabasu

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Digital soil mapping has been widely used to develop statistical models of the relationships between environmental variables and soil attributes. This study aimed at determining and mapping the spatial distribution of the variability in soil chemical properties of the agricultural floodplain lands of the Bara district in Nepal. The study was carried out in 23 Village Development Committees with 12,516 ha total area, in the southern part of the Bara district. A total of 109 surface soil samples (0 to 15 cm depth) were collected and analyzed for pH, organic matter (OM), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P, expressed as P ...


Overexpression Of The Sorghum Bicolor Sbccoaomt Alters Cell Wall Associated Hydroxycinnamoyl Groups, Hannah M. Tetreault, Erin D. Scully, Tammy Gries, Nathan A. Palmer, Deanna L. Funnell-Harris, Bruce S. Dien, Gautam Sarath, Thomas E. Clemente, Scott E. Sattler Oct 2018

Overexpression Of The Sorghum Bicolor Sbccoaomt Alters Cell Wall Associated Hydroxycinnamoyl Groups, Hannah M. Tetreault, Erin D. Scully, Tammy Gries, Nathan A. Palmer, Deanna L. Funnell-Harris, Bruce S. Dien, Gautam Sarath, Thomas E. Clemente, Scott E. Sattler

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) is a drought tolerant crop, which is being developed as a bioenergy feedstock. The monolignol biosynthesis pathway is a major focus for altering the abundance and composition of lignin. Caffeoyl coenzyme-A O-methyltransferase (CCoAOMT) is an S-adenosyl methionine (SAM)-dependent O-methyltransferase that methylates caffeoyl-CoA to generate feruloyl-CoA, an intermediate required for the biosynthesis of both G- and S-lignin. SbCCoAOMT was overexpressed to assess the impact of increasing the amount of this enzyme on biomass composition. SbCCoAOMT overexpression increased both soluble and cell wall-bound (esterified) ferulic and sinapic acids, however lignin concentration and its composition (S ...


Elucidating Sorghum Biomass, Nitrogen And Chlorophyll Contents With Spectral And Morphological Traits Derived From Unmanned Aircraft System, Jiating Li, Yeyin Shi, Arun-Narenthiran Veeranampalayam-Sivakumar, Daniel P. Schachtman Oct 2018

Elucidating Sorghum Biomass, Nitrogen And Chlorophyll Contents With Spectral And Morphological Traits Derived From Unmanned Aircraft System, Jiating Li, Yeyin Shi, Arun-Narenthiran Veeranampalayam-Sivakumar, Daniel P. Schachtman

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) provide an efficient way to phenotype cropmorphology with spectral traits such as plant height, canopy cover and various vegetation indices (VIs) providing information to elucidate genotypic responses to the environment. In this study, we investigated the potential use of UAS-derived traits to elucidate biomass, nitrogen and chlorophyll content in sorghum under nitrogen stress treatments. A nitrogen stress trial located in Nebraska, USA, contained 24 different sorghum lines, 2 nitrogen treatments and 8 replications, for a total of 384 plots. Morphological and spectral traits including plant height, canopy cover and various VIs were derived from UAS flights ...


The Effect Of Ingredient-Specific Calorie Information On Calories Ordered, Christopher R. Gustafson, Eliana Zeballos Sep 2018

The Effect Of Ingredient-Specific Calorie Information On Calories Ordered, Christopher R. Gustafson, Eliana Zeballos

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Providing calorie labeling is a widely used strategy to combat obesity. However, there is little evidence that the availability of calorie information at food-away-from-home establishments has an effect on food choices. Listing calorie information for each ingredient, though, may allow customers to avoid high-calorie items that add little to their enjoyment. Data from a natural experiment were used to compare total calories ordered before and after the provision of per-ingredient versus for build-your-own sandwiches, and per-sandwich for pre-defined sandwiches, at a supermarket sandwich counter. Sandwich order slips from a Lincoln, Neb. supermarket were collected from December 15, 2016 to February ...


Phylogenomic Evidence For Ancient Recombination Between Plastid Genomes Of The Cupressus-Juniperus-Xanthocyparis Complex (Cupressaceae), Andan Zhu, Weishu Fan, Robert P. Adams, Jeffrey P. Mower Sep 2018

Phylogenomic Evidence For Ancient Recombination Between Plastid Genomes Of The Cupressus-Juniperus-Xanthocyparis Complex (Cupressaceae), Andan Zhu, Weishu Fan, Robert P. Adams, Jeffrey P. Mower

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Background: Phylogenetic relationships among Eastern Hemisphere cypresses, Western Hemisphere cypresses, junipers, and their closest relatives are controversial, and generic delimitations have been in flux for the past decade. To address relationships and attempt to produce a more robust classification, we sequenced 11 new plastid genomes (plastomes) from the five variously described genera in this complex (Callitropsis, Cupressus, Hesperocyparis, Juniperus, and Xanthocyparis) and compared them with additional plastomes from diverse members of Cupressaceae.

Results: Phylogenetic analysis of protein-coding genes recovered a topology in which Juniperus is sister to Cupressus, whereas a tree based on whole plastomes indicated that the Callitropsis-Hesperocyparis ...


Mobile Elements Shape Plastome Evolution In Ferns, Tanner A. Robison, Amanda L. Grusz, Paul G. Wolf, Jeffrey P. Mower, Blake D. Fauskee, Karla Sosa, Eric Schuettpelz Aug 2018

Mobile Elements Shape Plastome Evolution In Ferns, Tanner A. Robison, Amanda L. Grusz, Paul G. Wolf, Jeffrey P. Mower, Blake D. Fauskee, Karla Sosa, Eric Schuettpelz

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Plastid genomes display remarkable organizational stability over evolutionary time. From green algae to angiosperms, most plastid genomes are largely collinear, with only a few cases of inversion, gene loss, or, in extremely rare cases, gene addition. These plastome insertions are mostly clade-specific and are typically of nuclear or mitochondrial origin. Here, we expand on these findings and present the first family-level survey of plastome evolution in ferns, revealing a novel suite of dynamic mobile elements. Comparative plastome analyses of the Preridaceae expose several mobile open reading frames that vary in sequence length, insertion site, and configuration among sampled taxa. Even ...


Identification Of Genomic Regions Contributing To Protein Accumulation In Wheat Under Well-Watered And Water Deficit Growth Conditions, Ibrahim S. Elbasyoni, Sabah M. Morsy, Raghuprakash Kastoori Ramamurthy, Atef M. Nassar Jul 2018

Identification Of Genomic Regions Contributing To Protein Accumulation In Wheat Under Well-Watered And Water Deficit Growth Conditions, Ibrahim S. Elbasyoni, Sabah M. Morsy, Raghuprakash Kastoori Ramamurthy, Atef M. Nassar

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Sustaining wheat production under low-input conditions through development and identifying genotypes with enhanced nutritional quality are two current concerns of wheat breeders. Wheat grain total protein content, to no small extent, determines the economic and nutritive value of wheat. Therefore, the objectives of this study are to identify accessions with high and low grain protein content (GPC) under well-watered and water-deficit growth conditions and to locate genomic regions that contribute to GPC accumulation. Spring wheat grains obtained from 2111 accessions that were grown under well-watered and water-deficit conditions were assessed for GPC using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR). Results indicated significant influences ...


Vegetation And Soil Responses To Concrete Grinding Residue Application On Highway Roadsides Of Eastern Nebraska, Ana Wingeyer, Martha Mamo, Walter H. Schacht, Dennis L. Mccallister, Pamela Sutton Apr 2018

Vegetation And Soil Responses To Concrete Grinding Residue Application On Highway Roadsides Of Eastern Nebraska, Ana Wingeyer, Martha Mamo, Walter H. Schacht, Dennis L. Mccallister, Pamela Sutton

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

As a precautionary principle, the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit establishes that the primary pollutant in concrete grinding residue (CGR) is its alkalinity and restricts CGR roadside discharge to 11 Mg ha−1 or the agronomic liming rate, whichever is lower. We evaluated the effect of CGR application on roadside soil chemical properties, existing vegetation, and rainfall runoff. Five CGR rates (0, 11, 22, 45, and 90 dry Mg ha−1) were tested on roadsides slopes at two different locations in eastern Nebraska. Vegetation, soil, and runoff characteristics were evaluated before CGR application and 30 d and 1 ...


An Epigenetic Breeding System In Soybean For Increased Yield And Stability, Sunil K. Kenchanmane Raju, Mon-Ray Shao, Robersy Sanchez, Ying-Zhi Xu, Ajay Sandhu, George L. Graef, Sally A. Mackenzie Feb 2018

An Epigenetic Breeding System In Soybean For Increased Yield And Stability, Sunil K. Kenchanmane Raju, Mon-Ray Shao, Robersy Sanchez, Ying-Zhi Xu, Ajay Sandhu, George L. Graef, Sally A. Mackenzie

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Epigenetic variation has been associated with a wide range of adaptive phenotypes in plants, but there exist few direct means for exploiting this variation. RNAi suppression of the plant-specific gene, MutS HOMOLOG1 (MSH1), in multiple plant species produces a range of developmental changes accompanied by modulation of defence, phytohormone and abiotic stress response pathways along with methylome repatterning. This msh1-conditioned developmental reprogramming is retained independent of transgene segregation, giving rise to transgene-null ‘memory’ effects. An isogenic memory line crossed to wild type produces progeny families displaying increased variation in adaptive traits that respond to selection. This study investigates amenability ...


Inheritance Of Mesotrione Resistance In An Amaranthus Tuberculatus (Var. Rudis) Population From Nebraska, Usa, Maxwel C. Oliveira, Todd A. Gaines, Amit J. Jhala, Stevan Z. Knezevic Feb 2018

Inheritance Of Mesotrione Resistance In An Amaranthus Tuberculatus (Var. Rudis) Population From Nebraska, Usa, Maxwel C. Oliveira, Todd A. Gaines, Amit J. Jhala, Stevan Z. Knezevic

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

A population of Amaranthus tuberculatus (var. rudis) evolved resistance to 4- hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD) inhibitor herbicides (mesotrione, tembotrione, and topramezone) in Nebraska. The level of resistance was the highest to mesotrione, and the mechanism of resistance in this population is metabolism-based likely via cytochrome P450 enzymes. The increasing number of weeds resistant to herbicides warrants studies on the ecology and evolutionary factors contributing for resistance evolution, including inheritance of resistance traits. In this study, we investigated the genetic control of mesotrione resistance in an A. tuberculatus population from Nebraska, USA. Results showed that reciprocal crosses in the F1 families exhibited ...


Genome-Wide Analysis Of Grain Yield Stability And Environmental Interactions In A Multiparental Soybean Population, Alencar Xavier, Diego Jarquin, Reka Howard, Vishnu Ramasubramanian, James E. Specht, George L. Graef, William D. Beavis, Brian W. Diers, Qijian Song, Perry B. Cregan, Randall L. Nelson, Rouf Mian, J. Grover Shannon, Leah K. Mchale, Dechun Wang, William Schapaugh, Aaron J. Lorenz, Shizhong Xu, William M. Muir, Katy M. Rainey Feb 2018

Genome-Wide Analysis Of Grain Yield Stability And Environmental Interactions In A Multiparental Soybean Population, Alencar Xavier, Diego Jarquin, Reka Howard, Vishnu Ramasubramanian, James E. Specht, George L. Graef, William D. Beavis, Brian W. Diers, Qijian Song, Perry B. Cregan, Randall L. Nelson, Rouf Mian, J. Grover Shannon, Leah K. Mchale, Dechun Wang, William Schapaugh, Aaron J. Lorenz, Shizhong Xu, William M. Muir, Katy M. Rainey

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Genetic improvement toward optimized and stable agronomic performance of soybean genotypes is desirable for food security. Understanding how genotypes perform in different environmental conditions helps breeders develop sustainable cultivars adapted to target regions. Complex traits of importance are known to be controlled by a large number of genomic regions with small effects whose magnitude and direction are modulated by environmental factors. Knowledge of the constraints and undesirable effects resulting from genotype by environmental interactions is a key objective in improving selection procedures in soybean breeding programs. In this study, the genetic basis of soybean grain yield responsiveness to environmental factors ...


Overlapping Residual Herbicides For Control Of Photosystem (Ps) Ii- And 4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvate Dioxygenase (Hppd)-Inhibitor-Resistant Palmer Amaranth (Amaranthus Palmeri S. Watson) In Glyphosate-Resistant Maize, Parminder S. Chahal, Zahoor Ahmad Ganie, Amit J. Jhala Jan 2018

Overlapping Residual Herbicides For Control Of Photosystem (Ps) Ii- And 4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvate Dioxygenase (Hppd)-Inhibitor-Resistant Palmer Amaranth (Amaranthus Palmeri S. Watson) In Glyphosate-Resistant Maize, Parminder S. Chahal, Zahoor Ahmad Ganie, Amit J. Jhala

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

A Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Watson) biotype has evolved resistance to photosystem (PS) II- (atrazine) and 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD)-inhibiting herbicides (mesotrione, tembotrione, and topramezone) in maize seed production field in Nebraska, USA. The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of soil residual pre-emergence (PRE) herbicides followed by (fb) tank-mixture of residual and foliar active post-emergence (POST) herbicides on PS-II- and HPPD-inhibitor-resistant Palmer amaranth control, maize yield, and net economic returns. Field experiments were conducted in a grower’s field infested with PS II- and HPPD-inhibitor-resistant Palmer amaranth near Shickley in Fillmore County, Nebraska, USA in ...


Management And Modeling Of Winter-Time Basil Cultivars Grown With A Cap Mat System, George E. Meyer, M. Elizabeth Conley, Ellen T. Paparozzi Jan 2018

Management And Modeling Of Winter-Time Basil Cultivars Grown With A Cap Mat System, George E. Meyer, M. Elizabeth Conley, Ellen T. Paparozzi

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Basil (Ocimum basilicum) is a high value crop, currently grown in the field and greenhouses in Nebraska. Winter-time, greenhouse studies were conducted during 2015 and 2016, focusing on cultivars of basil grown on a Cap MAT II® system with various levels of fertilizer application. The goal was to select high value cultivars that could be grown in Nebraska greenhouses. The studies used water content, electrical conductivity, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), and relative humidity, air and soil media temperature sensors. Greenhouse systems can be very complex, even though controlled by mechanical heating and cooling. Uncertain or ambiguous environmental and plant growth ...


Assessing Explanatory Factors For Variation In On-Farm Irrigation In Us Maize-Soybean Systems, Katherine E.B. Gibson, Haishun S. Yang, Trenton E. Franz, Dean E. Eisenhauer, John B. Gates, Paolo Nasta, Bhupinder S. Farmaha, Patricio Grassini Jan 2018

Assessing Explanatory Factors For Variation In On-Farm Irrigation In Us Maize-Soybean Systems, Katherine E.B. Gibson, Haishun S. Yang, Trenton E. Franz, Dean E. Eisenhauer, John B. Gates, Paolo Nasta, Bhupinder S. Farmaha, Patricio Grassini

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Irrigation exhibits large variation across producer fields, even within same region and year. A knowledge gap exists relative to factors that explain this variation, in part due to lack of availability of high-quality irrigation data from multiple field-years. This study assessed sources of variation in irrigation using a large database collected during 9 years (2005–2013) from ca. 1400 maize and soybean producer fields in Nebraska, central USA (total of 12,750 field-year observations). The study area is representative of ca. 4.5 million ha of irrigated land sown with maize and soybean. Influence of biophysical (weather, soil, and crop ...


Genome-Wide Association Study Reveals Novel Genomic Regions For Grain Yield And Yield-Related Traits In Drought-Stressed Synthetic Hexaploid Wheat, Madhav Bhatta, Alexey Morgounov, Vikas Belamkar, P. Stephen Baenziger Jan 2018

Genome-Wide Association Study Reveals Novel Genomic Regions For Grain Yield And Yield-Related Traits In Drought-Stressed Synthetic Hexaploid Wheat, Madhav Bhatta, Alexey Morgounov, Vikas Belamkar, P. Stephen Baenziger

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Synthetic hexaploid wheat (SHW; 2n = 6x = 42, AABBDD, Triticum aestivum L.) is produced from an interspecific cross between durum wheat (2n = 4x = 28, AABB, T. turgidum L.) and goat grass (2n = 2x = 14, DD, Aegilops tauschii Coss.) and is reported to have significant novel alleles-controlling biotic and abiotic stresses resistance. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) was conducted to unravel these loci [marker–trait associations (MTAs)] using 35,648 genotyping-by-sequencing-derived single nucleotide polymorphisms in 123 SHWs. We identified 90 novel MTAs (45, 11, and 34 on the A, B, and D genomes, respectively) and haplotype ...


Climate Change Challenges Require Collaborative Research To Drive Agrifood System Transformation, Gabrielle E. Roesch-Mcnally, Andrea D. Basche, Rebecca Schewe Jan 2018

Climate Change Challenges Require Collaborative Research To Drive Agrifood System Transformation, Gabrielle E. Roesch-Mcnally, Andrea D. Basche, Rebecca Schewe

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

The recent Climate Science Special Report released as part of the Fourth National Climate Assessment confirms that we are living through the warmest period in modern civilization and that human activities are the primary driver of this warming (Wuebbles et al., 2017). These climatic changes have and will continue to impact global agricultural production, with food security and production consequences that will be felt unequally across the planet. Agricultural activities contribute to global warming emissions, while also offering opportunities for greenhouse gas mitigation. It is clear that the agrifood system will have to adapt to a changing climate. To better ...


A Novel Lidar-Based Instrument For High-Throughput, 3d Measurement Of Morphological Traits In Maize And Sorghum, Suresh Thapa, Feiyu Zhu, Harkamal Walia, Hongfeng Yu, Yufeng Ge Jan 2018

A Novel Lidar-Based Instrument For High-Throughput, 3d Measurement Of Morphological Traits In Maize And Sorghum, Suresh Thapa, Feiyu Zhu, Harkamal Walia, Hongfeng Yu, Yufeng Ge

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Recently, imaged-based approaches have developed rapidly for high-throughput plant phenotyping (HTPP). Imaging reduces a 3D plant into 2D images, which makes the retrieval of plant morphological traits challenging. We developed a novel LiDAR-based phenotyping instrument to generate 3D point clouds of single plants. The instrument combined a LiDAR scanner with a precision rotation stage on which an individual plant was placed. A LabVIEW program was developed to control the scanning and rotation motion, synchronize the measurements from both devices, and capture a 360 view point cloud. A data processing pipeline was developed for noise removal, voxelization, triangulation, and plant leaf ...


Hunger In The Land Of Plenty: Local Responses To Food Insecurity In Iowa, Gabrielle E. Roesch-Mcnally, Jacqueline Ann Nester, Andrea D. Basche, Eric Christianson, Emily Zimmerman Jan 2018

Hunger In The Land Of Plenty: Local Responses To Food Insecurity In Iowa, Gabrielle E. Roesch-Mcnally, Jacqueline Ann Nester, Andrea D. Basche, Eric Christianson, Emily Zimmerman

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Story County (estimated population 92,406 in 2013) lies in the heart of central Iowa, a state renowned for its remarkable agricultural productivity. Iowa leads all states for production of corn, soybean, and hogs. Revenues from agricultural products in Iowa total more than $30 billion annually according the 2012 Agricultural Census (USDA-NASS 2014). This productivity stems from a favorable natural and political environment. The temperate climate, productive soils, and gentle topography are ideal for our production system of commodity agriculture facilitated by federal policies, which include subsidized crop insurance and commodity payments (Horrigan, Lawrence, and Walker 2002). Despite this productivity ...


Crop Residue Harvest Impacts Wind Erodibility And Simulated Soil Loss In The Central Great Plains, Yuxin He, Deann R. Presley, John Tatarko, Humberto Blanco-Canqui Jan 2018

Crop Residue Harvest Impacts Wind Erodibility And Simulated Soil Loss In The Central Great Plains, Yuxin He, Deann R. Presley, John Tatarko, Humberto Blanco-Canqui

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Crop residue removal can affect the susceptibility to soil wind erosion in climates such as those of the Central Great Plains, United States. Six on-farm trials were conducted in Kansas from 2011 to 2013 to determine the effects of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), corn (Zea mays L.), and grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench), residue removal at 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% of initial height on soil wind erosion parameters. Those parameters include soil surface random roughness (RR), and wind erodible fraction (EF; aggregates <0.84 mm), geometric mean diameter (GMD) and geometric standard deviation (GSD), stability of dry aggregates (DAS). Complete (100%) residue removal decreased the surface RR, increased EF, and decreased GMD. Overwinter EF values increased for five of six sites from fall 2011 to spring of 2012, particularly for the uppermost removal height (≥75%). Measured EF, GMD, GSD, DAS, and RR were also input into the Single-event Wind Erosion Evaluation Program (SWEEP) to determine the effect of these parameters on simulated soil loss. The SWEEP simulated the wind velocity needed to initiate wind erosion as well as soil loss under each residue removal height at a wind velocity of 13 m s-1 for three hours. Threshold wind velocity required to initiate wind erosion generally decreased ...


Mulch And Groundcover Effects On Soil Temperature And Moisture, Surface Reflectance, Grapevine Water Potential, And Vineyard Weed Management, Christina M. Bavougian, Paul E. Read Jan 2018

Mulch And Groundcover Effects On Soil Temperature And Moisture, Surface Reflectance, Grapevine Water Potential, And Vineyard Weed Management, Christina M. Bavougian, Paul E. Read

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

The objectives of this research were to identify alternatives to glyphosate for intra- row (under-trellis) vineyard floor management and to evaluate the potential for intra- row and inter-row (alleyway) groundcovers to reduce vegetative vigor of `Marquette' grapevines (Vitis spp.) in a southeast Nebraska vineyard. The experiment was a randomized factorial design with five intra-row treatments (crushed glass mulch [CG], distillers' grain mulch [DG], creeping red fescue [CRF], non-sprayed control [NSC], and glyphosate [GLY]) and three inter-row treatments (creeping red fescue [CRF], Kentucky bluegrass [KB], and resident vegetation [RV]). Treatments were established in 2010-2011 and measurements were conducted during 2012 and ...


Risks And Opportunities Of Gm Crops: Bt Maize Example, Andrea K. Carzoli, Siddique I. Aboobucker, Leah L. Sandall, Thomas T. Lubberstedt, Walter P. Suza Jan 2018

Risks And Opportunities Of Gm Crops: Bt Maize Example, Andrea K. Carzoli, Siddique I. Aboobucker, Leah L. Sandall, Thomas T. Lubberstedt, Walter P. Suza

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

The anticipated world population growth emphasizes a need to produce more food on less land. Cutting-edge technologies, including genetic engineering, can help to develop improved crop varieties and protect natural resources. In spite of the potential for genetically-modified (GM) crops to make crop production more efficient, they remain a polarizing issue due to safety concerns. This paper provides an overview of the risk assessment process. The safety of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) proteins is used as an example for how risk assessment is applied to GM crops. Risks associated with GM crops have proven to be low to non-existent. Developing countries ...


Phosphate Deficiency Negatively Affects Early Steps Of The Symbiosis Between Common Bean And Rhizobia, Mariel C. Isidra-Arellano, Maria Del Rocio Reyero-Saavedra, Maria Del Socorro Sanchez-Correa, Lise Pingault, Sidharth Sen, Trupti Joshi, Lourdes Girard, Norma A. Castro-Guerrero, David G. Mendoza-Cozatl, Marc Libault, Oswaldo Valdes-Lopez Jan 2018

Phosphate Deficiency Negatively Affects Early Steps Of The Symbiosis Between Common Bean And Rhizobia, Mariel C. Isidra-Arellano, Maria Del Rocio Reyero-Saavedra, Maria Del Socorro Sanchez-Correa, Lise Pingault, Sidharth Sen, Trupti Joshi, Lourdes Girard, Norma A. Castro-Guerrero, David G. Mendoza-Cozatl, Marc Libault, Oswaldo Valdes-Lopez

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Phosphate (Pi) deficiency reduces nodule formation and development in different legume species including common bean. Despite significant progress in the understanding of the genetic responses underlying the adaptation of nodules to Pi deficiency, it is still unclear whether this nutritional deficiency interferes with the molecular dialogue between legumes and rhizobia. If so, what part of the molecular dialogue is impaired? In this study, we provide evidence demonstrating that Pi deficiency negatively affects critical early molecular and physiological responses that are required for a successful symbiosis between common bean and rhizobia. We demonstrated that the infection thread formation and the expression ...


Engineering Linear, Branched-Chain Triterpene Metabolism In Monocots, Chase Kempinski, Zuodong Jiang, Garrett Zinck, Shirley J. Sato, Zhengxiang Ge, Thomas E. Clemente, Joe Chappell Jan 2018

Engineering Linear, Branched-Chain Triterpene Metabolism In Monocots, Chase Kempinski, Zuodong Jiang, Garrett Zinck, Shirley J. Sato, Zhengxiang Ge, Thomas E. Clemente, Joe Chappell

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Triterpenes are thirty-carbon compounds derived from the universal five-carbon prenyl precursors isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) and dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP). Normally, triterpenes are synthesized via the mevalonate (MVA) pathway operating in the cytoplasm of eukaryotes where DMAPP is condensed with two IPPs to yield farnesyl diphosphate (FPP), catalyzed by FPP synthase (FPS). Squalene synthase (SQS) condenses two molecules of FPP to generate the symmetrical product squalene, the first committed precursor to sterols and most other triterpenes. In the green algae Botryococcus braunii, two FPP molecules can also be condensed in an asymmetric manner yielding the more highly branched triterpene, botryococcene. Botryococcene is ...


Biomass Production Of Herbaceous Energy Crops In The United States: Field Trial Results And Yield Potential Maps From The Multiyear Regional Feedstock Partnership, Dokyoung Lee, Ezra Aberle, Eric K. Anderson, William Anderson, Brian S. Baldwin, David Baltensperger, Michael Barrett, Jurg Blumenthal, Stacy Bonos, Joe Bouton, David I. Bransby, Charlie Brummer, Pane S. Burks, Chengci Chen, Christopher Daly, Jose Egenolf, Rodney L. Farris, John H. Fike, Roch E. Gaussoin, John R. Gill, Kenneth Gravois, Michael D. Halbleib, Anna Hale, Wayne Hanna, Keith Harmoney, Emily A. Heaton, Ron W. Heiniger, Lindsey Hoffman, Chang O. Hong, Gopal Kakani, Robert Kallenbach, Bisoondat Macoon, James C. Medley, Ali Missaoui, Robert B. Mitchell, Ken J. Moore, Jesse I. Morrison, Gary N. Odvody, Jonathan D. Richwine, Richard Ogoshi, Jimmy Ray Parrish, Lauren Quinn, Ed Richard, William L. Rooney, J. Brett Rushing, Ronnie Schnell, Matt Sousek, Scott A. Staggenborg, Thomas Tew, Goro Uehara, Donald R. Viands, Thomas Voigt, David Williams, Linda Williams, Lloyd Ted Wilson, Andrew Wycislo, Yubin Yang, Vance Owens Jan 2018

Biomass Production Of Herbaceous Energy Crops In The United States: Field Trial Results And Yield Potential Maps From The Multiyear Regional Feedstock Partnership, Dokyoung Lee, Ezra Aberle, Eric K. Anderson, William Anderson, Brian S. Baldwin, David Baltensperger, Michael Barrett, Jurg Blumenthal, Stacy Bonos, Joe Bouton, David I. Bransby, Charlie Brummer, Pane S. Burks, Chengci Chen, Christopher Daly, Jose Egenolf, Rodney L. Farris, John H. Fike, Roch E. Gaussoin, John R. Gill, Kenneth Gravois, Michael D. Halbleib, Anna Hale, Wayne Hanna, Keith Harmoney, Emily A. Heaton, Ron W. Heiniger, Lindsey Hoffman, Chang O. Hong, Gopal Kakani, Robert Kallenbach, Bisoondat Macoon, James C. Medley, Ali Missaoui, Robert B. Mitchell, Ken J. Moore, Jesse I. Morrison, Gary N. Odvody, Jonathan D. Richwine, Richard Ogoshi, Jimmy Ray Parrish, Lauren Quinn, Ed Richard, William L. Rooney, J. Brett Rushing, Ronnie Schnell, Matt Sousek, Scott A. Staggenborg, Thomas Tew, Goro Uehara, Donald R. Viands, Thomas Voigt, David Williams, Linda Williams, Lloyd Ted Wilson, Andrew Wycislo, Yubin Yang, Vance Owens

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Current knowledge of yield potential and best agronomic management practices for perennial bioenergy grasses is primarily derived from small-scale and short-term studies, yet these studies inform policy at the national scale. In an effort to learn more about how bioenergy grasses perform across multiple locations and years, the U.S. Department of Energy (US DOE)/Sun Grant Initiative Regional Feedstock Partnership was initiated in 2008. The objectives of the Feedstock Partnership were to (1) provide a wide range of information for feedstock selection (species choice) and management practice options for a variety of regions and (2) develop national maps of ...


Enhancing Resolution Of Natural Methylome Reprogramming Behavior In Plants, Robersy Sanchez, Xiaodong Yang, Hardik Kundariya, Jose R. Barreras, Yashitola Wamboldt, Sally A. Mackenzie Jan 2018

Enhancing Resolution Of Natural Methylome Reprogramming Behavior In Plants, Robersy Sanchez, Xiaodong Yang, Hardik Kundariya, Jose R. Barreras, Yashitola Wamboldt, Sally A. Mackenzie

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

We have developed a novel methylome analysis procedure, Methyl-IT, based on information thermodynamics and signal detection. Methylation analysis involves a signal detection problem, and the method was designed to discriminate methylation regulatory signal from background noise induced by thermal fluctuations. Comparison with three commonly used programs and various available datasets to furnish a comparative measure of resolution by each method is included. To confirm results, methylation analysis was integrated with RNAseq and network enrichment analyses. Methyl-IT enhances resolution of genome methylation behavior to reveal network-associated responses, offering resolution of gene pathway influences not attainable with previous methods.


Can Bangladesh Produce Enough Cereals To Meet Future Demand?, J. Timsina, J. Wolf, N. Guilpart, L G. J. Van Bussel, P. Grassini, J. Van Wart, A. Hossain, H. Rashid, S. Islam, M. K. Van Ittersum Jan 2018

Can Bangladesh Produce Enough Cereals To Meet Future Demand?, J. Timsina, J. Wolf, N. Guilpart, L G. J. Van Bussel, P. Grassini, J. Van Wart, A. Hossain, H. Rashid, S. Islam, M. K. Van Ittersum

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Bangladesh faces huge challenges in achieving food security due to its high population, diet changes, and limited room for expanding cropland and cropping intensity. The objective of this study is to assess the degree to which Bangladesh can be self-sufficient in terms of domestic maize, rice and wheat production by the years 2030 and 2050 by closing the existing gap (Yg) between yield potential (Yp) and actual farm yield (Ya), accounting for possible changes in cropland area. Yield potential and yield gaps were calculated for the three crops using well-validated crop models and site-specific weather,management and soil data, and ...


Sifting And Winnowing: Analysis Of Farmer Field Data For Soybean In The Us North-Central Region, Spyridon Mourtzinis, Juan I. Rattalino Edreira, Patricio Grassini, Adam C. Roth, Shaun N. Casteel, Ignacio A. Ciampitti, Hans J. Kandel, Peter M. Kyveryga, Mark A. Licht, Laura E. Lindsey, Daren S. Mueller, Emerson D. Nafziger, Seth L. Naeve, Jordan Stanley, Michael J. Staton, Shawn P. Conley Jan 2018

Sifting And Winnowing: Analysis Of Farmer Field Data For Soybean In The Us North-Central Region, Spyridon Mourtzinis, Juan I. Rattalino Edreira, Patricio Grassini, Adam C. Roth, Shaun N. Casteel, Ignacio A. Ciampitti, Hans J. Kandel, Peter M. Kyveryga, Mark A. Licht, Laura E. Lindsey, Daren S. Mueller, Emerson D. Nafziger, Seth L. Naeve, Jordan Stanley, Michael J. Staton, Shawn P. Conley

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Field trials are commonly used to estimate the effects of different factors on crop yields. In the present study, we followed an alternative approach to identify factors that explain field-to-field yield variation, which consisted of farmer survey data, a spatial framework, and multiple statistical procedures. This approach was used to identify management factors with strongest association with on-farm soybean yield variation in the US North Central (NC) region. Field survey data, including yield and management information, were collected over two crop growing seasons (2014 and 2015) from rainfed and irrigated soybean fields (total of 3568 field-year observations). Fields were grouped ...


Doublethink And Scale Mismatch Polarize Policies For An Invasive Tree, Caleb P. Roberts, Daniel R. Uden, Craig R. Allen, Dirac L. Twidwell Jr. Jan 2018

Doublethink And Scale Mismatch Polarize Policies For An Invasive Tree, Caleb P. Roberts, Daniel R. Uden, Craig R. Allen, Dirac L. Twidwell Jr.

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Mismatches between invasive species management policies and ecological knowledge can lead to profound societal consequences. For this reason, natural resource agencies have adopted the scientifically-based density-impact invasive species curve to guide invasive species management. We use the density-impact model to evaluate how well management policies for a native invader (Juniperus virginiana) match scientific guidelines. Juniperus virginiana invasion is causing a sub-continental regime shift from grasslands to woodlands in central North America, and its impacts span collapses in endemic diversity, heightened wildfire risk, and crashes in grazing land profitability. We (1) use land cover data to identify the stage of Juniperus ...


An Efficient And Improved Method For Virus-Induced Gene Silencing In Sorghum, Dharmendra Kumar Singh, Hee-Kyung Lee, Ismail M. Dweikat, Kirankumar S. Mysore Jan 2018

An Efficient And Improved Method For Virus-Induced Gene Silencing In Sorghum, Dharmendra Kumar Singh, Hee-Kyung Lee, Ismail M. Dweikat, Kirankumar S. Mysore

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Background: Although the draft genome of sorghum is available, the understanding of gene function is limited due to the lack of extensive mutant resources. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is an alternative to mutant resources to study gene function. This study reports an improved and efficient method for Brome mosaic virus (BMV)-based VIGS in sorghum.

Methods: Sorghum plants were rub-inoculated with sap prepared by grinding 2 g of infected Nicotiana benthamiana leaf in 1 ml 10 mM potassium phosphate buffer (pH 6.8) and 100 mg of carborundum abrasive. The sap was rubbed on two to three top leaves of ...