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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Use Of Nest Web Cameras And Citizen Science To Quantify Osprey Prey Delivery Rate And Nest Success, Michael H. Academia, Harmony J. Dalgleish Jun 2022

Use Of Nest Web Cameras And Citizen Science To Quantify Osprey Prey Delivery Rate And Nest Success, Michael H. Academia, Harmony J. Dalgleish

Arts & Sciences Articles

Ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) are obligate piscivores and their nesting success depends on sufficient amounts of fish delivered to the nests during the breeding season. Nests are considered successful when pairs raise a minimum of one young to fledging or near-fledging age. Through web cameras and online broadcasts of Osprey nests, citizen scientists quantified daily number of fish deliveries, nest survival, and nest success. We received and analyzed curated data (one to seven seasons, 2014–2020) from citizen scientist groups representing 19 Osprey web cameras from four countries in North America and Europe. We compared the average and the coefficient of ...


The Cognitive & Educational Implications Of Color Use In Drawing To Learn, Juliana F.M. Cantarutti May 2022

The Cognitive & Educational Implications Of Color Use In Drawing To Learn, Juliana F.M. Cantarutti

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Drawing to Learn (D2L) is a learning aid that encourages STEM students to interact with abstract concepts in STEM by sketching. D2L is not an intuitive skill, and researchers strive to provide students with guidelines on how to master this method. One potential way to enhance the D2L method for students is by incorporation of visual cues, specifically color. While many students choose to incorporate color into their models without explicit instruction to do so, we have found no research on: a) why students use color in sketching, b) its effects on D2L. This study used interviews, surveys, and course ...


Climate Change And Conservation Of Milkweed: Evidence Of Extensive Admixture Between Common Milkweed And Poke Milkweed, Elizabeth Davies May 2022

Climate Change And Conservation Of Milkweed: Evidence Of Extensive Admixture Between Common Milkweed And Poke Milkweed, Elizabeth Davies

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Global climate change can drive many changes in species interactions. One primary way it affects species is by changing climates, causing species to expand their ranges and allowing them to interact with species from whom they were previously isolated. In plants, new species interactions can result in hybridization – the creation of hybrid offspring between two separate species. This hybridization can increase gene flow between the species and lead to introgression, the transfer of genetic material from one species to another through hybrid backcrossing with the parent species. My thesis investigates hybridization in the model system Asclepias (milkweed) by analyzing phenotypic ...


Using Deep Learning With Satellite Imagery To Estimate Deforestation Rates, Maeve Naughton-Rockwell May 2022

Using Deep Learning With Satellite Imagery To Estimate Deforestation Rates, Maeve Naughton-Rockwell

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Previous studies have used Convolutional Neural Networks for regional detection of deforestation breaks. However, there is limited research into the capability of deep neural networks to identify sudden shifts in global forest cover from satellite imagery. Additionally, many deforestation detection models are trained on region specific data and need manual input thresholds. In this work, we develop a deep learning model to predict the percent of deforestation in a region between two points in time, trained on globally sourced data. Using the before and after satellite images of a deforestation event as inputs, we implemented a two input Convolutional Neural ...


Modeling And Analyses Of Mechanisms Underlying Network Synaptic Dynamics In Two Neural Circuits, Linda Ma Apr 2022

Modeling And Analyses Of Mechanisms Underlying Network Synaptic Dynamics In Two Neural Circuits, Linda Ma

Undergraduate Honors Theses

In systems neuroscience, circuit models of cortical structures can be used to deconstruct mechanisms responsible for spike patterns that generate a variety of behaviors observed in the brain. In particular, mathematical simulations of these circuits can replicate complex dynamical behaviors that mirror not only macroscopically patterns observed in the brain, but also a significant amount of experimentally characterized minutiae. These models are capable of analyzing neural mechanisms by explicitly deconstructing connectivities between populations of neurons in ways that tend to be empirically inaccessible. This work presents two such models; one in the rat somatosensory barrel cortex, responsible for processing sensory ...


Honey As A Biomonitor For Air Pollutant Deposition In The Eastern United States Using Ion Chromatography And Scanning Electron Microscopy, Cole Cochran Apr 2022

Honey As A Biomonitor For Air Pollutant Deposition In The Eastern United States Using Ion Chromatography And Scanning Electron Microscopy, Cole Cochran

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Anthropogenic activities generate metal, acid, and particulate air pollutants which negatively impact human and ecological health. In the United States, power plant, industrial, and vehicle emissions are leading causes of air pollution, however, the measurement of air pollution at high-resolution spatial regimes remains a challenge. Honey has emerged as a powerful biomonitoring tool to effectively quantify contaminants without the need for a large array of monitoring instruments. I hypothesized that honey could be used to effectively measure and map modern air pollutant spatiotemporal relationships over the Eastern U.S. Using ion chromatography with sulfate as an indicator for air pollution ...


A Mathematical Model Of Vagus Nerve Stimulation In Alzheimer's Disease, Julianne Miranda Apr 2022

A Mathematical Model Of Vagus Nerve Stimulation In Alzheimer's Disease, Julianne Miranda

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Alzheimer’s Disease is a neurodegenerative condition characterized by cognitive decline as a result of brain atrophy. The exact cause of Alzheimer’s is unknown but current theories involve the aggregation of amyloid beta plaques as well as neurofibrillary tangles. Inflammation is emerging as central to the progression of the disease, with increased amyloid beta plaques and neurofibrillary tangles associated with the Nuclear Factor Kappa B pathway. This project presents a mathematical model of the impact of vagus nerve stimulation in Alzheimer’s Disease, as seen through the Nuclear Factor Kappa B (NFKB) pathway. The model examines several factors involved ...


Analysis Of Edna To Assess Effects Of Water Quality On Freshwater Fungal Diversity In A Virginia Coastal Watershed, Lauren French Apr 2022

Analysis Of Edna To Assess Effects Of Water Quality On Freshwater Fungal Diversity In A Virginia Coastal Watershed, Lauren French

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Freshwater fungi comprise a phylogenetically and functionally diverse group which contributes to wide-ranging ecosystem processes in aquatic systems. Saprotrophic fungi convert detritus into nutrient-rich food sources for fish and invertebrates, whereas pathogenic and parasitic fungi can cause disease and population declines of other aquatic organisms. With their diverse and important roles, changes in freshwater fungal community structure may have far-reaching impacts on ecosystems. To understand how natural and anthropogenic stressors to freshwater systems impact fungal-mediated ecosystem processes, a greater understanding of the taxonomic and functional composition of freshwater fungal communities is needed. We assessed relationships among freshwater habitat types, water ...


A General Pattern Of Trade-Offs Between Ecosystem Resistance And Resilience To Tropical Cyclones, Christopher J. Patrick, John S. Kominoski, (...), Enie Hensel, Marc J. S. Hense, Bradley A. Strickland, (..), A. K. Hardison, Sean Kinard, Et Al Mar 2022

A General Pattern Of Trade-Offs Between Ecosystem Resistance And Resilience To Tropical Cyclones, Christopher J. Patrick, John S. Kominoski, (...), Enie Hensel, Marc J. S. Hense, Bradley A. Strickland, (..), A. K. Hardison, Sean Kinard, Et Al

VIMS Articles

Tropical cyclones drive coastal ecosystem dynamics, and their frequency, intensity, and spatial distribution are pre-dicted to shift with climate change. Patterns of resistance and resilience were synthesized for 4138 ecosystem time series from n = 26 storms occurring between 1985 and 2018 in the Northern Hemisphere to predict how coastal ecosystems will respond to future disturbance regimes. Data were grouped by ecosystems (fresh water, salt water, terrestrial, and wetland) and response categories (biogeochemistry, hydrography, mobile biota, sedentary fauna, and vascular plants). We observed a repeated pattern of trade-offs between resistance and resilience across analyses. These patterns are likely the outcomes of ...


Ecological Equivalency Of Living Shorelines And Natural Marshes For Fish And Crustacean Communities, Amanda Guthrie, Donna Marie Bilkovic, Molly Mitchell, Randolph Chambers, Jessica S. Thompson, Robert Isdell Mar 2022

Ecological Equivalency Of Living Shorelines And Natural Marshes For Fish And Crustacean Communities, Amanda Guthrie, Donna Marie Bilkovic, Molly Mitchell, Randolph Chambers, Jessica S. Thompson, Robert Isdell

VIMS Articles

Salt marshes provide valued services to coastal communities including nutrient cycling, erosion control, habitat provision for crustaceans and fish (including juvenile and forage fish), and energy transfer from the detrital based food web to the greater estuarine system. Living shorelines are erosion control structures that recreate natural shorelines, such as fringing marshes, while providing other beneficial ecosystem services. Living shorelines are expected to provide fish and crustacean (nekton) habitat, but few comprehensive studies have evaluated nekton habitat use across a range of living shoreline settings and ages. We sampled the intertidal marsh and subtidal shallow water nekton community at 13 ...


Ecological Monitoring Program At Vims Esl: Annual Report 2021, Paige G. Ross, Richard A. Snyder Mar 2022

Ecological Monitoring Program At Vims Esl: Annual Report 2021, Paige G. Ross, Richard A. Snyder

Reports

An Ecological Monitoring Program (EMP) has been established at the Virginia Institute of Marine Science Eastern Shore Laboratory (VIMS ESL) for the coastal environment near the Wachapreague lab. The goals of the initiative are to 1) provide status and trends information to scientists who study and regulators who manage Virginia’s marine resources, 2) provide a scientific context for short-term research and grant proposals 3) provide pedagogical enrichment for educators to use in their classes, and 4) build capacity in staff expertise and training of interns and students at VIMS ESL.

The program formalizes and standardizes data collection for a ...


Estimating Relative Abundance Of Young-Of-Year American Eel, Anguilla Rostrata, In The Virginia Tributaries Of Chesapeake Bay (Spring 2021), Troy D. Tuckey, Mary C. Fabrizio Mar 2022

Estimating Relative Abundance Of Young-Of-Year American Eel, Anguilla Rostrata, In The Virginia Tributaries Of Chesapeake Bay (Spring 2021), Troy D. Tuckey, Mary C. Fabrizio

Reports

The Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission (ASMFC) adopted the Interstate Fishery Management Plan (FMP) for the American Eel in November 1999. The FMP calls for efforts to collect American Eel data through both fishery‐dependent and fishery‐independent studies in coastal states. Consequently, member jurisdictions agreed to implement an annual survey for young‐of‐year (YOY or glass) American Eels. The survey is intended to “…characterize trends in annual recruitment of the YOY eels over time [to produce a] qualitative appraisal of the annual recruitment of American Eel to the U.S. Atlantic Coast” (ASMFC 2000). The development of these ...


Aquaculture And Eelgrass Zostera Marina Interactions In Temperate Ecosystems, L. M. Howarth, L. M. Lewis-Mccrea, M. L. Kellogg, E. T. Apostolaki, G. K. Reid Feb 2022

Aquaculture And Eelgrass Zostera Marina Interactions In Temperate Ecosystems, L. M. Howarth, L. M. Lewis-Mccrea, M. L. Kellogg, E. T. Apostolaki, G. K. Reid

VIMS Articles

This paper reviews the impacts of shellfish and finfish aquaculture on eelgrass
Zostera marina, the most widely distributed seagrass species in the northern hemisphere. Shellfish aquaculture can have positive, neutral, and negative effects on eelgrass. Positive interactions can be generated by the filtering activity of cultured bivalves, which may improve water quality and reduce epiphyte loads, and shellfish biodeposits may provide more nutrients to eelgrass and other vegetation. However, negative responses are more commonly reported and can be caused
by shading and sedimentation. These negative effects tend to occur directly under and immediately surrounding shellfish farms and rapidly diminish with ...


The Biogeography Of Community Assembly: Latitude And Predation Drive Variation In Community Trait Distribution In A Guild Of Epifaunal Crustaceans, Collin P. Gross, J. Emmett Duffy, (...), Robert J. Orth, Et Al Feb 2022

The Biogeography Of Community Assembly: Latitude And Predation Drive Variation In Community Trait Distribution In A Guild Of Epifaunal Crustaceans, Collin P. Gross, J. Emmett Duffy, (...), Robert J. Orth, Et Al

VIMS Articles

While considerable evidence exists of biogeographic patterns in the intensity of species interactions, the influence of these patterns on variation in community structure is less clear. Studying how the distributions of traits in communities vary along global gradients can inform how variation in interactions and other factors contribute to the process of community assembly. Using a model selection approach on measures of trait dispersion in crustaceans associated with eelgrass (Zostera marina) spanning 30° of latitude in two oceans, we found that dispersion strongly increased with increasing predation and decreasing latitude. Ocean and epiphyte load appeared as secondary predictors; Pacific communities ...


Climate Drives Long-Term Change In Antarctic Silverfish Along The Western Antarctic Peninsula, Andrew D. Corso, Deborah K. Steinberg, Sharon E. Stammerjohn, Eric J. Hilton Feb 2022

Climate Drives Long-Term Change In Antarctic Silverfish Along The Western Antarctic Peninsula, Andrew D. Corso, Deborah K. Steinberg, Sharon E. Stammerjohn, Eric J. Hilton

VIMS Articles

Over the last half of the 20th century, the western Antarctic Peninsula has been one of the most rapidly warming regions on Earth, leading to substantial reductions in regional sea ice coverage. These changes are modulated by atmospheric forcing, including the Amundsen Sea Low (ASL) pressure system. We utilized a novel 25-year (1993–2017) time series to model the effects of environmental variability on larvae of a keystone species, the Antarctic Silverfish (Pleuragramma antarctica). Antarctic Silverfish use sea ice as spawning habitat and are important prey for penguins and other predators. We show that warmer sea surface temperature and decreased ...


The Status Of Virginia’S Public Oyster Resource 2021, Melissa Southworth, Roger L. Mann Feb 2022

The Status Of Virginia’S Public Oyster Resource 2021, Melissa Southworth, Roger L. Mann

Reports

The Virginia Institute of Marine Science (VIMS) monitors recruitment of the Eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin, 1791), annually from late spring through early fall, by deploying spatfall1 (settlement and recruitment of larval oysters to the post metamorphic form termed spat) collectors (shellstrings) at various sites in three Virginia western Chesapeake Bay tributaries. The survey provides an estimate of a particular area’s potential for receiving a "strike" or settlement (set) of oysters on the bottom and helps describe the timing of recruitment events in a given year. Information obtained from this monitoring effort provides an overview of long-term recruitment trends ...


Transcriptomes Of Electrophysiologically Recorded Dbx1-Derived Respiratory Neurons Of The Prebötzinger Complex In Neonatal Mice, Prajkta S. Kallurkar, Maria Cristina D. Picardo, Yae K. Sugimura, Margaret Saha, Gregory D. Conradi Smith, Christopher A. Del Negro Feb 2022

Transcriptomes Of Electrophysiologically Recorded Dbx1-Derived Respiratory Neurons Of The Prebötzinger Complex In Neonatal Mice, Prajkta S. Kallurkar, Maria Cristina D. Picardo, Yae K. Sugimura, Margaret Saha, Gregory D. Conradi Smith, Christopher A. Del Negro

Arts & Sciences Articles

Breathing depends on interneurons in the preBötzinger complex (preBötC) derived from Dbx1-expressing precursors. Here we investigate whether rhythm- and pattern-generating functions reside in discrete classes of Dbx1 preBötC neurons. In a slice model of breathing with ~ 5 s cycle period, putatively rhythmogenic Type-1 Dbx1 preBötC neurons activate 100–300 ms prior to Type-2 neurons, putatively specialized for output pattern, and 300–500 ms prior to the inspiratory motor output. We sequenced Type-1 and Type-2 transcriptomes and identified differential expression of 123 genes including ionotropic receptors (Gria3, Gabra1) that may explain their preinspiratory activation profiles and Ca2+ signaling (Cracr2a, Sgk1 ...


Evaluation Of Striped Bass Stocks In Virginia: Monitoring And Tagging Studies, 2021 Progress Report - 1 December 2020 - 30 November 2021, Robert J. Latour, Christopher F. Bonzek, James Gartland Jan 2022

Evaluation Of Striped Bass Stocks In Virginia: Monitoring And Tagging Studies, 2021 Progress Report - 1 December 2020 - 30 November 2021, Robert J. Latour, Christopher F. Bonzek, James Gartland

Reports

This report presents the results of striped bass (Morone saxatilis) tagging and monitoring activities in Virginia during the period 1 December 2020 through 30 November 2021. It includes an assessment of the biological characteristics of striped bass taken from the 2021 spring spawning run and estimates of annual survival and fishing mortality based on annual spring tagging. The information contained in this report is required by the Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission and is used to implement a coordinated management plan for striped bass in Virginia, and along the eastern seaboard.


Contrasting Controls On Seasonal And Spatial Distribution Of Marine Cable Bacteria (Candidatus Electrothrix) And Beggiatoaceae In Seasonally Hypoxic Chesapeake Bay, Sairah Y. Malkin, Pinky Liau, Carol Kim, Kalev G. Hantsoo, Maya L. Gomes, Bongkeun Song Jan 2022

Contrasting Controls On Seasonal And Spatial Distribution Of Marine Cable Bacteria (Candidatus Electrothrix) And Beggiatoaceae In Seasonally Hypoxic Chesapeake Bay, Sairah Y. Malkin, Pinky Liau, Carol Kim, Kalev G. Hantsoo, Maya L. Gomes, Bongkeun Song

VIMS Articles

Marine cable bacteria (Candidatus Electrothrix) and large colorless sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (e.g., Beggiatoaceae) are widespread thiotrophs in coastal environments but may exert different influences on biogeochemical cycling. Yet, the factors governing their niche partitioning remain poorly understood. To map their distribution and evaluate their growth constraints in a natural setting, we examined surface sediments across seasons at two sites with contrasting levels of seasonal oxygen depletion in Chesapeake Bay using microscopy coupled with 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing and biogeochemical characterization. We found that cable bacteria, dominated by a single phylotype closely affiliated to Candidatus Electrothrix communis, flourished during winter ...


Estimation Of Juvenile Striped Bass Relative Abundance In The Virginia Portion Of Chesapeake Bay Annual Progress Report: 2021 - 2022, Jack R. Buchanan, Mary C. Fabrizio, Troy D. Tuckey Jan 2022

Estimation Of Juvenile Striped Bass Relative Abundance In The Virginia Portion Of Chesapeake Bay Annual Progress Report: 2021 - 2022, Jack R. Buchanan, Mary C. Fabrizio, Troy D. Tuckey

Reports

The 2021 juvenile Striped Bass abundance index was 6.30 and was not significantly different than the reference mean of 7.77 for the period 1980 to 2009. Abundance indices were average in the York and Rappahannock rivers and below average in the James River in 2021 compared with the river‐specific reference means (1980‐2009). Relatively low catches of young‐of‐the‐year Striped Bass from sites upriver and downriver of core nursery areas suggest juvenile Striped Bass largely remained within core nursery areas in 2021.

Juvenile abundance indices for Alewife, American Shad, Atlantic Croaker, Atlantic Silverside, and Spot ...


Center For Coastal Resources Management Annual Report 2021, Center For Coastal Resources Management Jan 2022

Center For Coastal Resources Management Annual Report 2021, Center For Coastal Resources Management

Reports

No abstract provided.


Adaptive Carbon Export Response To Warming In The Sargasso Sea, Michael W. Lomas, Nicholas R. Bates, Rodney J. Johnson, Deborah K. Steinberg, Tatsuro Tanioka Jan 2022

Adaptive Carbon Export Response To Warming In The Sargasso Sea, Michael W. Lomas, Nicholas R. Bates, Rodney J. Johnson, Deborah K. Steinberg, Tatsuro Tanioka

VIMS Articles

Ocean ecosystem models predict that warming and increased surface ocean stratification will trigger a series of ecosystem events, reducing the biological export of particulate carbon to the ocean interior. We present a nearly three-decade time series from the open ocean that documents a biological response to ocean warming and nutrient reductions wherein particulate carbon export is maintained, counter to expectations. Carbon export is maintained through a combination of phytoplankton community change to favor cyanobacteria with high
cellular carbon-to-phosphorus ratios and enhanced shallow phosphorus recycling leading to increased nutrient use efficiency. These results suggest that surface ocean ecosystems may be more ...


Spatiotemporal Modeling Of Nursery Habitat Using Bayesian Inference: Environmental Drivers Of Juvenile Blue Crab Abundance, A. Challen Hyman, Grace S. Chiu, Mary C. Fabrizio, Rom Lipcius Jan 2022

Spatiotemporal Modeling Of Nursery Habitat Using Bayesian Inference: Environmental Drivers Of Juvenile Blue Crab Abundance, A. Challen Hyman, Grace S. Chiu, Mary C. Fabrizio, Rom Lipcius

VIMS Articles

Nursery grounds provide conditions favorable for growth and survival of juvenile fish and crustaceans through abundant food resources and refugia, and enhance secondary production of populations. While small-scale studies remain important tools to assess nursery value of structured habitats and environmental factors, targeted applications that unify survey data over large spatial and temporal scales are vital to generalize inference of nursery function, identify highly productive regions, and inform management strategies. Using 21 years of spatio-temporally indexed survey data (i.e., water chemistry, turbidity, blue crab, and predator abundance) and GIS information on potential nursery habitats (i.e., seagrass, salt marsh ...


Genome-Wide Analysis Of Acute Low Salinity Tolerance In The Eastern Oyster Crassostrea Virginica And Potential Of Genomic Selection For Trait Improvement, Alexandra J. Mccarty, Standish K. Allen Jr., Louis V. Plough Jan 2022

Genome-Wide Analysis Of Acute Low Salinity Tolerance In The Eastern Oyster Crassostrea Virginica And Potential Of Genomic Selection For Trait Improvement, Alexandra J. Mccarty, Standish K. Allen Jr., Louis V. Plough

VIMS Articles

As the global demand for seafood increases, research into the genetic basis of traits that can increase aquaculture production is critical. The eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) is an important aquaculture species along the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts of the United States, but increases in heavy rainfall events expose oysters to acute low salinity conditions, which negatively impact production. Low salinity survival is known to be a moderately heritable trait, but the genetic architecture underlying this trait is still poorly understood. In this study, we used ddRAD sequencing to generate genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data for four F2 families to ...


Development Of An Individual-Based Tag Recapture Model To Benchmark Biomass And Harvest Rates In An Iconic Lobster Fishery, Simon De Lestang, John Hoenig, Jason How Jan 2022

Development Of An Individual-Based Tag Recapture Model To Benchmark Biomass And Harvest Rates In An Iconic Lobster Fishery, Simon De Lestang, John Hoenig, Jason How

VIMS Articles

The West Coast Rock Lobster Managed Fishery (WCRLMF) moved from input to output controls in 2010. This change affected the relativity of fishery-based data sources (e.g., catch rates and landed size composition), making the assessment of the fishery problematic. A novel examination of the stock dynamics was required to ensure the robustness of the stock assessment and associated management arrangements. This study derived estimates of current biomass levels and harvest rates from the release of over 60,000 tagged western rock lobsters (Panulirus cygnus). A Brownie tag-recapture (BTR) model was initially implemented to provide an assessment on a fishery-wide ...


Unresolved Taxonomy Confounds Invasive Species Identification: The Lysmata Vittata Stimpson, 1860 (Decapoda: Caridea: Lysmatidae) Species Complex And Recent Introduction Of Lysmata Vittata Sensu Stricto In The Western Atlantic, Robert Aguilar, Sanjeevi Prakash, (...), Troy D. Tuckey, J. Antonio Baeza Jan 2022

Unresolved Taxonomy Confounds Invasive Species Identification: The Lysmata Vittata Stimpson, 1860 (Decapoda: Caridea: Lysmatidae) Species Complex And Recent Introduction Of Lysmata Vittata Sensu Stricto In The Western Atlantic, Robert Aguilar, Sanjeevi Prakash, (...), Troy D. Tuckey, J. Antonio Baeza

VIMS Articles

Peppermint shrimp resembling Lysmata vittata Stimpson, 1860, a species native to the Indo- West Pacific, were found in the lower Chesapeake Bay and adjacent coastal embayments in 2013, representing the first recorded introduction of this species in the northwestern Atlantic. Conflicting morphological descriptions, inconsistent morphological terminology, and limited molecular data (i.e., unresolved taxonomy), as well as the destruction of the type material of L. vittata, created uncertainty regarding proper identification. We provide the first phylogeny incorporating individuals from across the presumed native and introduced range of L. vittata. Morphological and phylogenetic analyses clearly indicate L. vittata represents a species ...


Refining Real-Time Predictions Of Vibrio Vulnificus Concentrations In A Tropical Urban Estuary By Incorporating Dissolved Organic Matter Dynamics, Jessica Bullington, Abigal R. Golder, Grieg F. Steward, Et Al Jan 2022

Refining Real-Time Predictions Of Vibrio Vulnificus Concentrations In A Tropical Urban Estuary By Incorporating Dissolved Organic Matter Dynamics, Jessica Bullington, Abigal R. Golder, Grieg F. Steward, Et Al

VIMS Articles

The south shore of Oʻahu, Hawaiʻi is one of the most visited coastal tourism areas in the United States with some of the highest instances of recreational waterborne disease. A population of the pathogenic bacterium Vibrio vulnificus lives in the estuarine Ala Wai Canal in Honolulu which surrounds the heavily populated tourism center of Waikīkī. We developed a statistical model to predict V. vulnificus dynamics in this system using environmental measurements from moored oceanographic and atmospheric sensors in real time. During a year-long investigation, we analyzed water from 9 sampling events at 3 depths and 8 sites along the canal ...


A Deterministic Model For Understanding Nonlinear Viral Dynamics In Oysters, Qubin Qin, Jian Shen, Kimberly S. Reece Jan 2022

A Deterministic Model For Understanding Nonlinear Viral Dynamics In Oysters, Qubin Qin, Jian Shen, Kimberly S. Reece

VIMS Articles

Contamination of oysters with a variety of viruses is one key pathway to trigger outbreaks of massive oyster mortality as well as human illnesses, including gastroenteritis and hepatitis. Much effort has gone into examining the fate of viruses in contaminated oysters, yet the current state of knowledge of nonlinear virus-oyster interactions is not comprehensive because most studies have focused on a limited number of processes under a narrow range of experimental conditions. A framework is needed for describing the complex nonlinear virus-oyster interactions. Here, we introduce a mathematical model that includes key processes for viral dynamics in oysters, such as ...


Effects Of Unregulated International Fishing On Recovery Potential Of The Sandbar Shark Within The Southeast United States, Cassidy Peterson, Michael J. Wilbert, Enric Cortes, Dean Courtney, Robert J. Latour Jan 2022

Effects Of Unregulated International Fishing On Recovery Potential Of The Sandbar Shark Within The Southeast United States, Cassidy Peterson, Michael J. Wilbert, Enric Cortes, Dean Courtney, Robert J. Latour

VIMS Articles

Coastal sharks are challenging to manage in the United States due to their slow life history, limited data availability, history of overexploitation, and competing stakeholder interests. Furthermore, species like the sandbar shark are subjected to international exploitation unmanaged by the U.S. We conducted a management strategy evaluation using Stock Synthesis on the sandbar shark to test the performance of various configurations of a threshold harvest control rule. In addition to uncertainties addressed in the operating model, we built multiple implementation models to address uncertainties related to future levels of a partially unmanaged source of removals, the combined Mexican and ...


Discard Mortality Of Sea Scallops Placopecten Magellanicus Following Capture And Handling In The U.S. Dredge Fishery, David Rudders, Hugues P. Benoıt, Ryan J. Knotek, John A. Mandelman, Sally Roman, James A. Sulikowski Jan 2022

Discard Mortality Of Sea Scallops Placopecten Magellanicus Following Capture And Handling In The U.S. Dredge Fishery, David Rudders, Hugues P. Benoıt, Ryan J. Knotek, John A. Mandelman, Sally Roman, James A. Sulikowski

VIMS Articles

Discard mortality can represent a potentially significant source of uncertainty for both stock assessments and fishery management measures. While the family Pectinidae is considered to be robust to the capture and handling process, understanding species-specific discard mortality rates is critical to characterize both population dynamics and to develop regulatory measures to meet management objectives. The discard mortality rate for the U.S. dredge fishery of sea scallop Placopecten magellanicus was estimated empirically via a retention study aboard industry vessels under commercial conditions. Over 16,000 sea scallops were assessed via a composite index of scallop vitality that consisted of semiqualitative ...