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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Welcoming The Game Changer Of Human Society: A Defense Of The Moral Permissibility And Obligations Of Human Genetic Engineering, Yongkang Li May 2021

Welcoming The Game Changer Of Human Society: A Defense Of The Moral Permissibility And Obligations Of Human Genetic Engineering, Yongkang Li

Undergraduate Honors Theses

In 2018, a Chinese scientist, Jiankun He, announced the birth of two HIV-resistant babies through his experiment of human genetic engineering. This incidence has soon shocked the entire scientific community and invoked public outrage towards He’s corrupt moral integrity.

However, this event should also act as a harbinger to the human society that the technique of human genetic engineering is rapidly approaching maturity. In that case, how should we respond?

This thesis focuses on the moral issues surrounding human genetic engineering and advertises an accepting moral attitude to this booming technology. This thesis will first discuss the types of ...


Ecological Monitoring Program At Vims Esl : Annual Report 2020, Paige G. Ross, Richard A. Snyder Apr 2021

Ecological Monitoring Program At Vims Esl : Annual Report 2020, Paige G. Ross, Richard A. Snyder

Reports

An Ecological Monitoring Program (EMP) has been established at the Virginia Institute of Marine Science Eastern Shore Laboratory (VIMS ESL) for the coastal environment near the Wachapreague lab. The goals of the initiative are to 1) provide status and trends information to scientists who study and regulators who manage Virginia’s marine resources, 2) provide a scientific context for short-term research and grant proposals 3) provide pedagogical enrichment to educators for their classes, and 4) build capacity in staff expertise and training of interns and students at VIMS ESL.

The program formalizes and standardizes data collection for a long-term status ...


Variation In Seagrass-Associated Macroinvertebrate Communities Along The Gulf Coast Of Peninsular Florida: An Exploration Of Patterns And Ecological Consequences, Savanna C. Barry, A. Challen Hyman, Charles A. Jacoby, Laura K. Reynolds, Mark Kowalewski, Thomas K. Frazer Mar 2021

Variation In Seagrass-Associated Macroinvertebrate Communities Along The Gulf Coast Of Peninsular Florida: An Exploration Of Patterns And Ecological Consequences, Savanna C. Barry, A. Challen Hyman, Charles A. Jacoby, Laura K. Reynolds, Mark Kowalewski, Thomas K. Frazer

VIMS Articles

Seagrasses form vast meadows of structurally complex habitat that support faunal communities with greater numbers of species and individuals than nearby unstructured habitats. The Gulf coast of peninsular Florida represents a natural laboratory ideally suited to the study of processes that shape seagrass-associated invertebrate and fish communities within meadows of a single species of seagrass, Thalassia testudinum. This suitability arises from a pronounced structural and chemical gradient that exists over ecologically relevant spatial and temporal scales, as revealed by extensive monitoring of water quality and seagrass. We hypothesized that seagrass-associated invertebrate communities would vary across five estuarine systems spread along ...


Ribbed Mussel Geukensia Demissa Population Response To Living Shoreline Design And Ecosystem Development, Donna Marie Bilkovic, Robert Isdell, Amanda G. Guthrie, Molly Mitchell, Randolph M. Chambers Mar 2021

Ribbed Mussel Geukensia Demissa Population Response To Living Shoreline Design And Ecosystem Development, Donna Marie Bilkovic, Robert Isdell, Amanda G. Guthrie, Molly Mitchell, Randolph M. Chambers

VIMS Articles

Coastal communities increasingly invest in natural and nature-based features (e.g., living shorelines) as a strategy to protect shorelines and enhance coastal resilience. Tidal marshes are a common component of these strategies because of their capacity to reduce wave energy and storm surge impacts. Performance metrics of restoration success for living shorelines tend to focus on how the physical structure of the created marsh enhances shoreline protection via proper elevation and marsh plant presence. These metrics do not fully evaluate the level of marsh ecosystem development. In particular, the presence of key marsh bivalve species can indicate the capability of ...


Spatiotemporal Distribution Of Phycotoxins And Their Co-Occurrence Within Nearshore Waters, Michelle D. Onofrio, Todd A. Egerton, Kimberly S. Reece, Sarah K.D. Pease, Marta P. Sanderson, William Jones Iii, Evan Yeargan, Amanda Roach, Caroline Dement, William G. Reay, Allen R. Place, Juliette L. Smith Mar 2021

Spatiotemporal Distribution Of Phycotoxins And Their Co-Occurrence Within Nearshore Waters, Michelle D. Onofrio, Todd A. Egerton, Kimberly S. Reece, Sarah K.D. Pease, Marta P. Sanderson, William Jones Iii, Evan Yeargan, Amanda Roach, Caroline Dement, William G. Reay, Allen R. Place, Juliette L. Smith

VIMS Articles

Harmful algal blooms (HABs), varying in intensity and causative species, have historically occurred throughout the Chesapeake Bay, U.S.; however, phycotoxin data are sparse. The spatiotemporal distribution of phycotoxins was investigated using solid-phase adsorption toxin tracking (SPATT) across 12 shallow, nearshore sites within the lower Chesapeake Bay and Virginia's coastal bays over one year (2017-2018). Eight toxins, azaspiracid-1 (AZA1), azaspiracid-2 (AZA2), microcystin-LR (MC-LR), domoic acid (DA), okadaic acid (OA), dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX1), pectenotoxin-2 (PTX2), and goniodomin A (GDA) were detected in SPATT extracts. Temporally, phycotoxins were always present in the region, with at least one phycotoxin group (i.e., consisting ...


The Status Of Virginia’S Public Oyster Resource 2020, Melissa Southworth, Roger L. Mann Feb 2021

The Status Of Virginia’S Public Oyster Resource 2020, Melissa Southworth, Roger L. Mann

Reports

The Virginia Institute of Marine Science (VIMS) monitors recruitment of the Eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin, 1791), annually from late spring through early fall, by deploying spatfall[1] (settlement and recruitment of larval oysters to the post metamorphic form termed spat) collectors (shellstrings) at various sites in three Virginia western Chesapeake Bay tributaries. The survey provides an estimate of a particular area’s potential for receiving a "strike" or settlement (set) of oysters on the bottom and helps describe the timing of recruitment events in a given year. Information obtained from this monitoring effort provides an overview of long-term recruitment ...


Comparative Study Of The Hemolymph Microbiome Between Live And Recently Dead American Lobsters Homarus Americanus, Jibom Jung, Patrick M. Gillevet, Masoumeh Sikaroodi, Jamal Andrews, Bongkeun Song, Jeffrey D. Shields Feb 2021

Comparative Study Of The Hemolymph Microbiome Between Live And Recently Dead American Lobsters Homarus Americanus, Jibom Jung, Patrick M. Gillevet, Masoumeh Sikaroodi, Jamal Andrews, Bongkeun Song, Jeffrey D. Shields

VIMS Articles

Lobsters and other crustaceans do not have sterile hemolymph. Despite this, little is known about the microbiome in the hemolymph of the lobster Homarus americanus. The purpose of this study was to characterize the hemolymph microbiome in lobsters. The lobsters were part of a larger study on the effect of temperature on epizootic shell disease, and several died during the course of the study, providing an opportunity to examine differences in the microbiomes between live and recently dead (1−24 h) animals. The hemolymph microbiomes of live lobsters was different from those in dead animals and both were different from ...


Monitoring The Abundance Of American Shad And River Herring In Virginia’S Rivers 2020 Annual Report, Eric J. Hilton, Patrick E. Mcgrath, Brian Watkins, Ashleigh Magee Jan 2021

Monitoring The Abundance Of American Shad And River Herring In Virginia’S Rivers 2020 Annual Report, Eric J. Hilton, Patrick E. Mcgrath, Brian Watkins, Ashleigh Magee

Reports

This report describes the results of the twenty-third year of a continuing study to estimate the relative abundance and assess the status of American shad (Alosa sapidissima) stocks in Virginia by monitoring the spawning runs in the James, York and Rappahannock rivers in spring 2020, evaluating hatchery programs, and contributing to coast-wide assessments (ASMFC 2007, ASMFC 2020).

We also report on two fisheryindependent monitoring programs using anchor gillnets in the Rappahannock River (year 3) and the Chickahominy River (year 6; a major tributary of the James River), to determine relative abundance and stock structure for the adult spawning run of ...


Comparison Of Nutrient Accrual In Constructed Living Shoreline And Natural Fringing Marshes, Randolph Chambers, A. L. Gorsky, Robert E. Isdell, Molly Mitchell, Donna Marie Bilkovic Jan 2021

Comparison Of Nutrient Accrual In Constructed Living Shoreline And Natural Fringing Marshes, Randolph Chambers, A. L. Gorsky, Robert E. Isdell, Molly Mitchell, Donna Marie Bilkovic

Biology Articles & Book Chapters

Living shoreline marshes are coastal wetlands constructed as alternatives to “hardened shorelines” (e.g., bulkheads, riprap) to mitigate erosion and to allow for landward migration of intertidal habitat as sea level rises. Living shorelines are designed to mimic natural fringing marshes and over time should be sinks for carbon and other nutrients. We collected soil cores and aboveground plant material from 13 pairs of natural fringing marshes and living shoreline marshes of different ages and degree of isolation from more extensive marsh shorescapes to compare nutrient pools and accrual. Although the nutrient content of plants was similar within and between ...


Virginia Fishery Resource Grant Program 2020, Virginia Fishery Resource Grant Program, Virginia Institute Of Marine Science Jan 2021

Virginia Fishery Resource Grant Program 2020, Virginia Fishery Resource Grant Program, Virginia Institute Of Marine Science

Reports

No abstract provided.


Seabed Resuspension In The Chesapeake Bay: Implications For Biogeochemical Cycling And Hypoxia, Julia M. Moriarty, Marjorie A.M. Friedrichs, Courtney K. Harris Jan 2021

Seabed Resuspension In The Chesapeake Bay: Implications For Biogeochemical Cycling And Hypoxia, Julia M. Moriarty, Marjorie A.M. Friedrichs, Courtney K. Harris

VIMS Articles

Sediment processes, including resuspension and transport, affect water quality in estuaries by altering light attenuation, primary productivity, and organic matter remineralization, which then influence oxygen and nitrogen dynamics. The relative importance of these processes on oxygen and nitrogen dynamics varies in space and time due to multiple factors and is difficult to measure, however, motivating a modeling approach to quantify how sediment resuspension and transport affect estuarine biogeochemistry. Results from a coupled hydrodynamic-sediment transport-biogeochemical model of the Chesapeake Bay for the summers of 2002 and 2003 showed that resuspension increased light attenuation, especially in the northernmost portion of the Bay ...


Estimation Of Juvenile Striped Bass Relative Abundance In The Virginia Portion Of Chesapeake Bay Annual Progress Report: 2020-2021, Jack R. Buchanan, Mary C. Fabrizio, Troy D. Tuckey, Troy D. Tuckey Jan 2021

Estimation Of Juvenile Striped Bass Relative Abundance In The Virginia Portion Of Chesapeake Bay Annual Progress Report: 2020-2021, Jack R. Buchanan, Mary C. Fabrizio, Troy D. Tuckey, Troy D. Tuckey

Reports

No abstract provided.


Effects Of Food Limitation On Growth, Body Condition And Metabolic Rates Of Non-Native Blue Catfish, Vaskar Nepal, Mary C. Fabrizio, Richard Brill Jan 2021

Effects Of Food Limitation On Growth, Body Condition And Metabolic Rates Of Non-Native Blue Catfish, Vaskar Nepal, Mary C. Fabrizio, Richard Brill

VIMS Articles

Establishment and range expansion of non-native species in novel habitats depend on their energetic requirements and food availability. Knowledge of growth and metabolic rates of non-native fishes at various food levels is particularly critical to inform models that assess their invasion potential. We compared growth rates, body condition and metabolic rates of juvenile blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus), an invasive species in many lakes, coastal rivers and estuaries throughout the Eastern USA, at three ration levels: ad libitum (3.5% of fish body mass/d), two-third ad libitum and one-third ad libitum. All fish survived the entire duration of the experiment ...


Multi-Scale Biodiversity Drives Temporal Variability In Macrosystems, Christopher J. Patrick, Kevin E. Mccluney, Albert Ruhi, Andrew Gregory, John Sabo, James H. Thorp Jan 2021

Multi-Scale Biodiversity Drives Temporal Variability In Macrosystems, Christopher J. Patrick, Kevin E. Mccluney, Albert Ruhi, Andrew Gregory, John Sabo, James H. Thorp

VIMS Articles

High temporal variability in environmental conditions, populations, and ecological communities can result in species extinctions and outbreaks of agricultural pests and disease vectors, as well as impact industries dependent on reliable provisioning of ecosys- tem services. Yet few empirical studies have focused on testing hypotheses about the drivers of ecological temporal variability at large spatial and temporal scales. Using decadal datasets that span aquatic and terrestrial macrosystems and structural equation modeling, we show that local temporal variability and spatial synchrony increase temporal variability for entire macrosystems. These mechanisms are influenced by environmental heterogeneity, habitat-level species diversity, spatial scale, and the ...


Seagrass Recovery Following Marine Heat Wave Influences Sediment Carbon Stocks, Lillian R. Aoki, Karen J. Mcglathery, Patricia L. Wiberg, Matthew P. J. Oreska, Amelie C. Berger, Peter Berg, Robert J. Orth Jan 2021

Seagrass Recovery Following Marine Heat Wave Influences Sediment Carbon Stocks, Lillian R. Aoki, Karen J. Mcglathery, Patricia L. Wiberg, Matthew P. J. Oreska, Amelie C. Berger, Peter Berg, Robert J. Orth

VIMS Articles

Worldwide, seagrass meadows accumulate significant stocks of organic carbon (C),known as “blue” carbon, which can remain buried for decades to centuries. However,when seagrass meadows are disturbed, these C stocks may be remineralized, leading to significant CO2 emissions. Increasing ocean temperatures, and increasing frequency and severity of heat waves, threaten seagrass meadows and their sediment blue C. To date, no study has directly measured the impact of seagrass declines from high temperatures on sediment C stocks. Here, we use a long-term record of sediment C stocks from a 7-km2, restored eelgrass (Zostera marina) meadow to show that seagrass dieback ...


Toward A Better Understanding Of Fish‐Based Contribution To Ocean Carbon Flux, Grace K. Saba, Adrian B. Burd, John P. Dunne, (...), Deborah K. Steinberg, Et Al Jan 2021

Toward A Better Understanding Of Fish‐Based Contribution To Ocean Carbon Flux, Grace K. Saba, Adrian B. Burd, John P. Dunne, (...), Deborah K. Steinberg, Et Al

VIMS Articles

Fishes are the dominant vertebrates in the ocean, yet we know little of their contribution to carbon export flux at regional to global scales. We synthesize the existing information on fish‐based carbon flux in coastal and pelagic waters, identify gaps and challenges in measuring this flux and approaches to address them, and recommend research priorities. Based on our synthesis of passive (fecal pellet sinking) and active (migratory) flux of fishes, we estimated that fishes contribute an average (± standard deviation) of about 16.1% (± 13%) to total carbon flux out of the euphotic zone. Using the mean value of model ...


The Effects Of Scallop Dredge Fishing Practices On Physical, Behavioral, And Physiological Stress In Discarded Yellowtail Flounder, Windowpane, And Fourspot Flounder, Brooke N. Anderson, Amelia Weissman, John Mandelman, David B. Rudders, James A. Sulikowski Jan 2021

The Effects Of Scallop Dredge Fishing Practices On Physical, Behavioral, And Physiological Stress In Discarded Yellowtail Flounder, Windowpane, And Fourspot Flounder, Brooke N. Anderson, Amelia Weissman, John Mandelman, David B. Rudders, James A. Sulikowski

VIMS Articles

The Atlantic sea scallop Placopecten magellanicus dredge fishery is one of the most lucrative commercial fishing industries in the northeastern United States, and fish bycatch can comprise up to ~42% of the total catch. Benthic species, such as flatfish, are particularly susceptible to unintended capture in scallop dredge gear, and mitigating bycatch and associated mortality has been mandated a priority for fisheries management. Based on this management need, the present study evaluated the physical, physiological, and behavioral stress responses of Yellowtail Flounder Limanda ferruginea, Windowpane Scophthalmus aquosus, and Fourspot Flounder Paralichthys oblongus to capture in the scallop dredge fishery. More ...


Low Impact Of Different Snp Panels From Two Building-Loci Pipelines On Rad-Seq Population Genomic Metrics: Case Study On Five Diverse Aquatic Species, Adrian Casanova, Francesco Maroso, (...), Ana Verissimo, Et Al Jan 2021

Low Impact Of Different Snp Panels From Two Building-Loci Pipelines On Rad-Seq Population Genomic Metrics: Case Study On Five Diverse Aquatic Species, Adrian Casanova, Francesco Maroso, (...), Ana Verissimo, Et Al

VIMS Articles

The irruption of Next-generation sequencing (NGS) and restriction site-associated DNA sequencing(RAD-seq) in the last decade has led to the identification of thousands of molecular markers and their genotyping for refined genomic screening. This approach has been especially useful for non-model organisms with limited genomic resources. Many building-loci pipelines have been developed to obtain robust single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) genotyping datasets using a de novo RAD-seq approach, i.e. without reference genomes.Here, the performances of two building-loci pipelines, STACKS 2 and Meyer’s 2b-RAD v2.1 pipeline, were compared using a diverse set of aquatic species representing different genomic ...


Krill Availability In Adjacent Adélie And Gentoo Penguin Foraging Regions Near Palmer Station, Antarctica, Schuyler C. Nardelli, Megan A. Cimino, John A. Conroy, William R. Fraser, Deborah K. Steinberg, Oscar Schofield Jan 2021

Krill Availability In Adjacent Adélie And Gentoo Penguin Foraging Regions Near Palmer Station, Antarctica, Schuyler C. Nardelli, Megan A. Cimino, John A. Conroy, William R. Fraser, Deborah K. Steinberg, Oscar Schofield

VIMS Articles

The Palmer Deep canyon along the West Antarctic Peninsula is a biological hotspot with abundant phytoplankton and krill supporting Adélie and gentoo penguin rookeries at the canyon head. Nearshore studies have focused on physical mechanisms driving primary production and penguin foraging, but less is known about finer-scale krill distribution and density. We designed two acoustic survey grids paired with conductivity–temperature–depth profiles within adjacent Adélie and gentoo penguin foraging regions near Palmer Station, Ant-arctica. The grids were sampled from January to March 2019 to assess variability in krill availability and associations with oceanographic properties. Krill density was similar in ...


The Case Of The ‘Missing’ Arctic Bivalves And The Walrus: The Biggest [Overlooked] Clam Fishery On The Planet, Roger L. Mann, Eric N. Powell, Daphne M. Munroe Dec 2020

The Case Of The ‘Missing’ Arctic Bivalves And The Walrus: The Biggest [Overlooked] Clam Fishery On The Planet, Roger L. Mann, Eric N. Powell, Daphne M. Munroe

VIMS Articles

Bivalve molluscs represent a significant proportion of the diet of both Atlantic and Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus and Odobenus rosmarus divergens, respectively) and are pivotal to benthic–pelagic coupling and carbonate cycling in the Arctic oceans. The latter is of particular relevance in a period of seasonal ice retreat, freshwater release into associated surface waters, decreasing water pH, and possible undersaturation of Arctic waters with respect to aragonite. Using population estimates and predation rates for the walruses on bivalve molluscs, a conservative estimate of bivalve consumption in the regions of active walruses foraging is 2.0–3.0 3 ...


Not All Nitrogen Is Created Equal: Differential Effects Of Nitrate And Ammonium Enrichment In Coastal Wetlands, Jennifer L. Bowen, Anne E. Giblin, Anna E. Murphy, Ashley N. Bulseco, Linda A. Deegan, David S. Johnson, Et Al Dec 2020

Not All Nitrogen Is Created Equal: Differential Effects Of Nitrate And Ammonium Enrichment In Coastal Wetlands, Jennifer L. Bowen, Anne E. Giblin, Anna E. Murphy, Ashley N. Bulseco, Linda A. Deegan, David S. Johnson, Et Al

VIMS Articles

Excess reactive nitrogen (N) flows from agricultural, suburban, and urban systems to coasts, where it causes eutrophication. Coastal wetlands take up some of this N, thereby ameliorating the impacts on nearshore waters. Although the consequences of N on coastal wetlands have been extensively studied, the effect of the specific form of N is not often considered. Both oxidized N forms (nitrate, NO3−) and reduced forms (ammonium, NH4+) can relieve nutrient limitation and increase primary production. However, unlike NH4+, NO3− can also be used as an electron acceptor for microbial respiration. We present results demonstrating that, in salt marshes, microbes use ...


Estimating Shifts In Phenology And Habitat Use Of Cobia In Chesapeake Bay Under Climate Change, Daniel P. Crear, Brian E. Watkins, Marjorie A.M. Friedrichs, Pierre St-Laurent, Kevin C. Weng Nov 2020

Estimating Shifts In Phenology And Habitat Use Of Cobia In Chesapeake Bay Under Climate Change, Daniel P. Crear, Brian E. Watkins, Marjorie A.M. Friedrichs, Pierre St-Laurent, Kevin C. Weng

VIMS Articles

Cobia (Rachycentron canadum) is a large coastal pelagic fish species that represents an important fishery in many coastal Atlantic states of the U.S. They are heavily fished in Virginia when they migrate into Chesapeake Bay during the summer to spawn and feed. These coastal habitats have been subjected to warming and increased hypoxia which in turn could impact the timing of migration and the habitat suitability of Chesapeake Bay. With conditions expected to worsen, we project current and future habitat suitability of Chesapeake Bay for cobia and predict changes in their arrival and departure times as conditions shift. To ...


Challenges For Restoration Of Coastal Marine Ecosystems In The Anthropocene, Avigdor Abelson, Daniel Reed, Graham J. Edgar, Carter S. Smith, Gary A. Kendrick, R J. Orth, Et Al Nov 2020

Challenges For Restoration Of Coastal Marine Ecosystems In The Anthropocene, Avigdor Abelson, Daniel Reed, Graham J. Edgar, Carter S. Smith, Gary A. Kendrick, R J. Orth, Et Al

VIMS Articles

Coastal marine ecosystems provide critical goods and services to humanity but many are experiencing rapid degradation. The need for effective restoration tools capable of promoting large-scale recovery of coastal ecosystems in the face of intensifying climatic stress has never been greater. We identify four major challenges for more effective implementation of coastal marine ecosystem restoration (MER): (1) development of effective, scalable restoration methods, (2) incorporation of innovative tools that promote climate adaptation, (3) integration of social and ecological restoration priorities, and (4) promotion of the perception and use of coastal MER as a scientifically credible management approach. Tackling these challenges ...


Seasonal And Annual Variation In The Extent Of Suitable Habitats For Forage Fishes In Chesapeake Bay, 2000-2016, Mary C. Fabrizio, Troy D. Tuckey, Aaron J. Bever, Michael L. Macwilliams Nov 2020

Seasonal And Annual Variation In The Extent Of Suitable Habitats For Forage Fishes In Chesapeake Bay, 2000-2016, Mary C. Fabrizio, Troy D. Tuckey, Aaron J. Bever, Michael L. Macwilliams

Reports

The sustained production of sufficient forage is critical to advancing ecosystem-based management in Chesapeake Bay. Yet factors that affect local abundances and habitat conditions necessary to support forage production remain largely unexplored. Here, we quantified suitable habitat in the Chesapeake Bay region for four key forage fishes: bay anchovy Anchoa mitchilli, juvenile spot Leiostomus xanthurus, juvenile weakfish Cynoscion regalis, and juvenile spotted hake Urophycis regia. We coupled information from 17 years of monthly fisheries surveys with hindcasts from a numerical model of dissolved oxygen (DO) conditions and a 3-D hydrodynamic model of the Bay that provided estimates of habitat conditions ...


Disease Diagnostics And Potential Coinfections By Vibrio Coralliilyticus During An Ongoing Coral Disease Outbreak In Florida, Blake Ushijima, Julie L. Meyer, Sharon Thompson, Kelly Pitts, Michael F. Marusich, Jessica Tittl, Elizabeth Weatherup, Et Al Oct 2020

Disease Diagnostics And Potential Coinfections By Vibrio Coralliilyticus During An Ongoing Coral Disease Outbreak In Florida, Blake Ushijima, Julie L. Meyer, Sharon Thompson, Kelly Pitts, Michael F. Marusich, Jessica Tittl, Elizabeth Weatherup, Et Al

VIMS Articles

A deadly coral disease outbreak has been devastating the Florida Reef Tract since 2014. This disease, stony coral tissue loss disease (SCTLD), affects at least 22 coral species causing the progressive destruction of tissue. The etiological agents responsible for SCTLD are unidentified, but pathogenic bacteria are suspected. Virulence screens of 400 isolates identified four potentially pathogenic strains of Vibrio spp. subsequently identified as V. coralliilyticus. Strains of this species are known coral pathogens; however, cultures were unable to consistently elicit tissue loss, suggesting an opportunistic role. Using an improved immunoassay, the VcpA RapidTest, a toxic zinc-metalloprotease produced by V. coralliilyticus ...


Spatial Variations Of Phytoplankton Biomass Controlled By River Plume Dynamics Over The Lower Changjiang Estuary And Adjacent Shelf Based On High-Resolution Observations, Zhaoru Zhang, Meng Zhou, Et Al, Walker O. Smith Jr. Oct 2020

Spatial Variations Of Phytoplankton Biomass Controlled By River Plume Dynamics Over The Lower Changjiang Estuary And Adjacent Shelf Based On High-Resolution Observations, Zhaoru Zhang, Meng Zhou, Et Al, Walker O. Smith Jr.

VIMS Articles

Phytoplankton biomass in estuarine and continental shelf regions are regulated and modified by physical processes, but these interactions have mostly been investigated at a scale of tens of kilometers, and the role of meso- to sub-mesoscale dynamical processes of freshwater plumes in regulating the spatial and temporal variations of algal biomass is largely unknown. To assess the importance of features at these scales, high-resolution (horizontal spacing < 1 km) cross-sectional profiles of hydrographic and biogeochemical variables were collected in the lower Changjiang Estuary and adjacent continental shelf with a towed, undulating vehicle equipped with sensors measuring fluorescence, turbidity and irradiance. Discrete stations were also occupied to allow for the characterization of nutrients. Multiple physical features at different scales regulated the spatial variation of phytoplankton biomass. Phytoplankton biomass was initialized by an improved irradiance field driven by reduced turbidity together with a rapid development of subsurface stratification at the main plume front (isohaline of 23) downstream from the turbidity maximum zone. Phytoplankton blooms did not occur until outcrops located within the main front that were characterized by surface convergence and downwelling, which contributed to large algal biomass by mass trapping and enhanced light penetration. Wave-like features were detected seaward of the main front, coinciding with deacceleration of currents, indicating that they are front-released internal waves that increase algal retention time. This study revealed the critical role of small-scale processes near the plume front in triggering phytoplankton blooms under the large-scale context of improved light conditions, coastal upwelling and nutrient additions from intruding oceanic waters.


The Power Struggle: Assessing Interacting Global Change Stressors Via Experimental Studies On Sharks, Ian A. Bouyoucos, Sue-Ann Watson, Serge Planes, Colin A. Simpfendorfer, Gail D. Schwieterman, Et Al Oct 2020

The Power Struggle: Assessing Interacting Global Change Stressors Via Experimental Studies On Sharks, Ian A. Bouyoucos, Sue-Ann Watson, Serge Planes, Colin A. Simpfendorfer, Gail D. Schwieterman, Et Al

VIMS Articles

Ocean warming and acidification act concurrently on marine ectotherms with the potential for detrimental, synergistic effects; yet, effects of these stressors remain understudied in large predatory fishes, including sharks. We tested for behavioural and physiological responses of blacktip reef shark (Carcharhinus melanopterus) neonates to climate change relevant changes in temperature (28 and 31 °C) and carbon dioxide partial pressures (pCO2; 650 and 1050 µatm) using a fully factorial design. Behavioural assays (lateralisation, activity level) were conducted upon 7–13 days of acclimation, and physiological assays (hypoxia tolerance, oxygen uptake rates, acid–base and haematological status) were conducted upon ...


Sensitivity Of A Shark Nursery Habitat To A Changing Climate, Daniel Crear, Robert Latour, Marjorie A.M. Friedrichs, Pierre St-Laurent, Kevin Weng Oct 2020

Sensitivity Of A Shark Nursery Habitat To A Changing Climate, Daniel Crear, Robert Latour, Marjorie A.M. Friedrichs, Pierre St-Laurent, Kevin Weng

VIMS Articles

Nursery area habitats such as estuaries are vital for the success of many fish populations. Climate change is altering conditions in these areas, which can thus impact the availability of suitable nursery habitat. The sandbar shark Carcharhinus plumbeus uses Chesapeake Bay (USA) as a nursery habitat during the summer months from birth up to 10 yr of age. To assess the impacts of climate change on juvenile sandbar sharks, we developed a habitat model using longline data collected from a fishery-independent survey within Chesapeake Bay. With this model, we projected contemporary and future distributions of suitable habitat for juvenile sandbar ...


Results For The 2020 Vims Industry Cooperative Surveys Of The Mid-Atlantic, Nantucket Lightship, Great South Channel, Closed Area I, And Closed Area Ii Resource Areas, Sally Roman, David B. Rudders Oct 2020

Results For The 2020 Vims Industry Cooperative Surveys Of The Mid-Atlantic, Nantucket Lightship, Great South Channel, Closed Area I, And Closed Area Ii Resource Areas, Sally Roman, David B. Rudders

Reports

The Virginia Institute of Marine Science (VIMS) conducted high resolution sea scallop dredge surveys of the entire Mid-Atlantic (MAB), the Nantucket Lightship (NLCA), Great South Channel (GSC), Closed Area I (CAI), and Closed Area II (CAII) during July–September 2020. These surveys were funded by the Sea Scallop Research Set-Aside Program (RSA). Exploitable biomass for each survey is shown in Table 1 for each spatially explicit SAMS Area (Scallop Area Management Simulator). SAMS Areas represent management relevant spatial subunits of the resource and explicitly account for differences in recruitment, vital rates, and fishing effort in the forward projection of survey ...


Restoration Of Seagrass Habitat Leads To Rapid Recovery Of Coastal Ecosystem Services, Robert J. Orth, Jonathan S. Lefcheck, Karen S. Mcglathery, Lillian Aoki, Mark Luckenbach, Kenneth A. Moore, Matthew P.J. Oreska, Richard A. Snyder, David J. Wilcox, Bo Lusk Oct 2020

Restoration Of Seagrass Habitat Leads To Rapid Recovery Of Coastal Ecosystem Services, Robert J. Orth, Jonathan S. Lefcheck, Karen S. Mcglathery, Lillian Aoki, Mark Luckenbach, Kenneth A. Moore, Matthew P.J. Oreska, Richard A. Snyder, David J. Wilcox, Bo Lusk

VIMS Articles

There have been increasing attempts to reverse habitat degradation through active restoration, but few largescale successes are reported to guide these efforts. Here, we report outcomes from a unique and very successful seagrass restoration project: Since 1999, over 70 million seeds of a marine angiosperm, eelgrass (Zostera marina), have been broadcast into mid-western Atlantic coastal lagoons, leading to recovery of 3612 ha of seagrass. Well-developed meadows now foster productive and diverse animal communities, sequester substantial stocks of carbon and nitrogen, and have prompted a parallel restoration for bay scallops (Argopecten irradians). Restored ecosystem services are approaching historic levels, but we ...