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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Dataset For The Environmental Risk Assessment Of Chlorpyrifos To Chinook Salmon In Four Rivers Of Washington State, United States, Wayne G. Landis, Valerie R. Chu, Scarlett Graham, Meagan J. Harris, April J. Markiewicz, Chelsea J. Mitchell, Katherine E. Stackelberg, John Stark Aug 2019

Dataset For The Environmental Risk Assessment Of Chlorpyrifos To Chinook Salmon In Four Rivers Of Washington State, United States, Wayne G. Landis, Valerie R. Chu, Scarlett Graham, Meagan J. Harris, April J. Markiewicz, Chelsea J. Mitchell, Katherine E. Stackelberg, John Stark

Environmental Sciences Faculty and Staff Publications

Data files available below.

This data set is in support of Landis et al (in press) The integration of chlorpyrifos acetylcholinesterase inhibition, water temperature and dissolved oxygen concentration into a regional scale multiple stressor risk assessment estimating risk to Chinook salmon in four rivers in Washington State, USA. DOI: 10.1002/ieam.4199. In this research We estimated the risk to populations of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) due to chlorpyrifos (CH), water temperature (WT) and dissolved oxygen concentrations (DO) in four watersheds in Washington State, USA. The watersheds included the Nooksack and Skagit Rivers in the Northern Puget Sound, the ...


Evidence Of Strong Stabilizing Effects On The Evolution Of Boreoeutherian (Mammalia) Dental Proportions, Tesla A. Monson, Jean-Renaud Boisserie, Marianne F. Brasil, Selene M. Clay, Rena Dvoretzky, Shruti Ravindramurthy, Christopher A. Schmitt, Antoine Souron, Risa Takenaka, Peter S. Ungar, Sunwoo Yoo, Michael Zhou, Madeleine E. Zuercher, Leslea J. Hlusko Jul 2019

Evidence Of Strong Stabilizing Effects On The Evolution Of Boreoeutherian (Mammalia) Dental Proportions, Tesla A. Monson, Jean-Renaud Boisserie, Marianne F. Brasil, Selene M. Clay, Rena Dvoretzky, Shruti Ravindramurthy, Christopher A. Schmitt, Antoine Souron, Risa Takenaka, Peter S. Ungar, Sunwoo Yoo, Michael Zhou, Madeleine E. Zuercher, Leslea J. Hlusko

Anthropology Faculty and Staff Publications

The dentition is an extremely important organ in mammals with variation in timing and sequence of eruption, crown morphology, and tooth size enabling a range of behavioral, dietary, and functional adaptations across the class. Within this suite of variable mammalian dental phenotypes, relative sizes of teeth reflect variation in the underlying genetic and developmental mechanisms. Two ratios of postcanine tooth lengths capture the relative size of premolars to molars (premolar–molar module, PMM), and among the three molars (molar module component, MMC), and are known to be heritable, independent of body size, and to vary significantly across primates. Here, we ...


The Microbiome And Medicine: The Relationship Between Early-Life Colonization And Health Outcomes Such As Asthma And Allergies, Madeline May Jan 2019

The Microbiome And Medicine: The Relationship Between Early-Life Colonization And Health Outcomes Such As Asthma And Allergies, Madeline May

WWU Honors Program Senior Projects

Bacteria inhabit all surfaces of our bodies, and this symbiotic relationship is critical for our survival. The human gut, is colonized by bacteria who aide in digestion and other functions within our immune system. A healthy gut environment is characterized by a rich and diverse microbial ecosystem. The microbiome is fundamental in the proper functioning of our immune system and can influence many health outcomes. The gut microbiome has an essential role in infant health and development. In recent years, this long established relationship between beneficial bacteria and humans has been disrupted by environmental factors, antibiotics, maternal diet, delivery mode ...


Occam's Razor Vol. 9 - Full (2019) Jan 2019

Occam's Razor Vol. 9 - Full (2019)

Occam's Razor

No abstract provided.


Embodied Control: Biopolitics In The Water Crisis Of Flint, Mi And Appalachian Coal, Sarah Wheeler Jan 2019

Embodied Control: Biopolitics In The Water Crisis Of Flint, Mi And Appalachian Coal, Sarah Wheeler

Occam's Razor

Flint, Michigan still doesn't have clean water or safe pipes. On the border between West Virginia and Pennsylvania, a coal ash pond called Little Blue Run has been leaking toxic metals into nearby streams for four decades (Patterson, 2018). While these two regions differ in their location and history, similarities can be contextualized and understood based on class, race, state sanctioned water contamination, the exploitation of natural resources, and environmental crimes. Given the factors at work when water crises occur, it is crucial to recognize the United States' practice of knowingly poisoning their citizens, to draw parallels between the ...


Optimizing Abalone Outplant Strategies Using Larval Haliotis Kamtschatkana In The San Juan Archipelago, Washington, Katherine Mills-Orcutt Jan 2019

Optimizing Abalone Outplant Strategies Using Larval Haliotis Kamtschatkana In The San Juan Archipelago, Washington, Katherine Mills-Orcutt

WWU Graduate School Collection

Prior studies testing the use of Haliotis kamtschatkana larvae as a means of stock enhancement in the San Juan archipelago have shown no success in inducing larvae to settle in densities required for successful reproduction. I conducted an experiment to test the effectiveness of new methods for outplanting larval abalone in hopes of creating a protocol Puget Sound Restoration Fund could use to restore wild populations. Using two sites within the San Juan archipelago, I outplanted abalone into pre-constructed larval abalone modules (LAMs) and sampled over four months, testing retention strategies. Three types of LAMs were used at each site ...


Spatiotemporal Diversity Of Alpine Snow Algae Communities In The Pacific Northwest, Rachael C. Mallon Jan 2019

Spatiotemporal Diversity Of Alpine Snow Algae Communities In The Pacific Northwest, Rachael C. Mallon

WWU Graduate School Collection

Snow algae are the dominant primary producers of snowy alpine environments and have recently been thrust into the public spotlight for contributing to glacial melt by decreasing snow albedo. These microbial communities are subject to extreme temperature regimes, high irradiance, low nutrient levels, and freeze-thaw cycles on daily, seasonal, and even long-term climatological changes. Although snow algae have been described on every continent, the spatiotemporal diversity of snow algae communities across snowy habitats has not been addressed. The natural geography and climate of the Pacific Northwest provides diverse snowy alpine ecosystems to study the effects of latitude, elevation, and precipitation ...


Development Of Cryopreservation Methods For Sperm Of Pinto Abalone (Haliotis Kamtschatkana) For Conservation Aquaculture., Caitlin O'Brien Jan 2019

Development Of Cryopreservation Methods For Sperm Of Pinto Abalone (Haliotis Kamtschatkana) For Conservation Aquaculture., Caitlin O'Brien

WWU Graduate School Collection

The pinto abalone, Haliotis kamtschatkana, is an ecosystem engineer with cultural and ecological significance. Due to the dramatic 98% decline in populations, a ten-year recovery plan was enacted to bring levels of pinto abalone back from the brink of extirpation in the San Juan Archipelago, Washington. The focus of this study was to assist restoration efforts in creating self-sustaining populations by developing methods of cryopreservation for male pinto abalone sperm. My study evaluated three commonly used cryoprotectants, a series of freeze/thaw temperatures, and developed methods of quality assessment specific to pinto abalone. Animals were provided and cared for by ...


Trunk, Hip And Knee Motions During A Step-Down Test And Running In Patellofemoral Pain Individuals, Katie Olinger Jan 2019

Trunk, Hip And Knee Motions During A Step-Down Test And Running In Patellofemoral Pain Individuals, Katie Olinger

WWU Graduate School Collection

Context: A common knee injury in runners is patellofemoral femoral pain syndrome (PFPS). The step-down test (SDT) is used to analyze lower extremity motions in runners with PFPS because kinematics are similar for the SDT and running. Individuals with PFPS often experience altered kinematics when compared to healthy. However, there are no known studies that examine the relationship in kinematics between the SDT and running.

Objective: Examine the relationship between lower extremity kinematics of the knee, hip and trunk in runners with PFPS and healthy controls, during the midstance of running and during a SDT.

Patients or Other Participants: Sixteen ...


Fascia Thickness And Mechanical Demand At The Ankle Joint During Dance Jumps In Classically Trained Ballet Dancers, Sarah Perry Jan 2019

Fascia Thickness And Mechanical Demand At The Ankle Joint During Dance Jumps In Classically Trained Ballet Dancers, Sarah Perry

WWU Graduate School Collection

Ballet is an athletic activity that combines aesthetics and artistry with power and ­­­­­skill. One of the most athletic aspects of dance is observed during jumps. Many jumps in ballet involve takeoff from a single leg, but differ in propulsion direction. To assess differences in mechanical demand, two single leg jumps commonly trained in ballet were compared; a saut de chat (SDC) and a temp levé from a step (SLSJ). Fifteen female classically trained dancers with similar number of years of training (13.9 ± 5.0 years) were instrumented with lower body reflective markers and performed each jump three times ...


The Effect Of A Brief Mindfulness Intervention On Free-Throw Shooting Performance Under Pressure, Nathan J. Wolch Jan 2019

The Effect Of A Brief Mindfulness Intervention On Free-Throw Shooting Performance Under Pressure, Nathan J. Wolch

WWU Graduate School Collection

Pressure situations in sport can be a source of anxiety for athletes (Craft, Magyar, Becker, & Feltz, 2003). Research indicates that a brief mindfulness training can improve math performance under pressure (Brunye et al., 2013); however, no known studies have examined the effects of mindfulness practice on an athletic performance under pressure. Therefore, this experiment investigated the effects of a brief mindfulness training on basketball free-throw shooting under pressure. Participants were 32 college-aged (Mage = 21.29), male competitive basketball players. Participants shot 20 free-throws in a low-pressure phase, then were pair-matched by free-throws made and randomly assigned to mindfulness (n = 16) or control (n = 16) conditions. Pressure was induced before participants listened to a 15-minute mindfulness or history of ...


Effects Of Deep Slow Breath Training On Performance And Recovery During High Intensity Interval Cycling, Andrew D. (Andrew David) Brown Jan 2019

Effects Of Deep Slow Breath Training On Performance And Recovery During High Intensity Interval Cycling, Andrew D. (Andrew David) Brown

WWU Graduate School Collection

The present investigation sought to delineate the effects of a six-week deep slow breathing (DSB) program on measures of cycling performance (mean power: MP), recovery (heart rate recovery: HRR, and expired carbon dioxide: VCO2), and pulmonary capacities (vital capacity: VC, forced expiratory volume: FEV1, and maximum voluntary ventilation: MVV). Twenty male cyclists were divided into training (n=10) and control (n=10) groups, where the training group completed a six-week DSB program in addition to their own training while the control group completed no breathe training. Participants completed two testing sessions, one before and one after the six-week ...


The Effects Of Hallux Valgus And Walking Speed On Dynamic Balance In Older Adults, Carolyn E. Barbee Jan 2019

The Effects Of Hallux Valgus And Walking Speed On Dynamic Balance In Older Adults, Carolyn E. Barbee

WWU Graduate School Collection

Hallux valgus (HV) contributes to deficits in static balance and increased fall risk in older adults. Very limited research has examined dynamic balance deficits in walking in this population. These individuals generally walk slowly, as balance challenge is lesser at slow speeds. The purpose of this study was to examine dynamic balance in older adults with HV compared to healthy controls at controlled slow and fast speeds. Nineteen older adults with HV and 13 healthy controls completed 5 continuous walking trials at 1.0 and 1.3 m·s-1 as whole body marker position and ground reaction force data ...


Exploring The Relationship Between Stress-Related Growth And Basic Psychological Needs Following Athletic Injuries, Samantha L. Macdonald Jan 2019

Exploring The Relationship Between Stress-Related Growth And Basic Psychological Needs Following Athletic Injuries, Samantha L. Macdonald

WWU Graduate School Collection

Approximately 8.6 million sport-related injuries occur yearly in the United States that cause a variety of physical and psychological outcomes. One positive psychological consequence after injury is stress-related growth (SRG), which is positive change experienced after undergoing something stressful. The aim of the present study was to investigate how the full model of basic psychological needs was related to SRG and explore sources of need satisfaction while injured. SRG and basic psychological need satisfaction and frustration was measured in 93 competitive adult athletes who suffered lower limb sport injuries within the past 5 years. Multiple regression analyses did not ...


Effect Of Pedal Stance Width Manipulation Via Pedal Spacers On Lower Limb Frontal Plane Kinematics During Cycling, Andrew Fife Jan 2019

Effect Of Pedal Stance Width Manipulation Via Pedal Spacers On Lower Limb Frontal Plane Kinematics During Cycling, Andrew Fife

WWU Graduate School Collection

Anecdotal evidence suggests that frontal plane kinematics of the lower extremity may be an important aspect of bicycle fit, however, frontal plane adjustments are often overlooked during common fit procedures. The purpose of this study was to manipulate pedal stance width through the use of pedal spacers to determine their influence on frontal plane kinematics of the hip, knee, and ankle during cycling. Twenty-four young healthy subjects (12 female) recreational cyclists completed five minutes of pedaling at their preferred cadence and power output under three stance widths conditions: no spacer, 20 mm spacer, and 30 mm spacer. The pedaling cadence ...


Functional Analysis Of Cyc2 In Microbial Mat Communities Of Mariana Arc And Back-Arc Hydrothermal Vents, Christina A. Turner Jan 2019

Functional Analysis Of Cyc2 In Microbial Mat Communities Of Mariana Arc And Back-Arc Hydrothermal Vents, Christina A. Turner

WWU Graduate School Collection

The primary production by Zetaproteobacteria at iron-rich vents of the Mariana Arc and back-arc supports high microbial diversity. In microaerophilic circumneutral pH, Zetaproteobacteria are able to produce energy by oxidizing ferrous iron (Fe2+) from the vent effluent with the presence of a key gene involved in their iron-oxidation, Cyc2, a fused cytochrome-porin. These genes are found in all Zetaproteobacteria known to date. This study combines molecular quantitative techniques with metagenomic analyses to enhance our confidence in gene quantification from environmental samples. The occurrence of cyc2 was quantified from microbial mat communities at NW Eifuku, NW Rota-1, Snail and Urashima ...


Protein Quality Control At The Endoplasmic Reticulum And Nucleus In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Daniel Hassell Jan 2019

Protein Quality Control At The Endoplasmic Reticulum And Nucleus In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Daniel Hassell

WWU Honors Program Senior Projects

Cells need proteins to carry out molecular functions, but proteins can become damaged or misfolded, which inhibits their function and can cause aggregation. Misfolded protein aggregation is associated with degenerative diseases in mammals. In Eukaryotic cells, chronically misfolded proteins can be destroyed by the Ubiquitin Proteasome System (UPS) as a way to prevent aggregation and disease. For my thesis work, I have investigated two pathways that participate in the UPS.

First, I investigate Endoplasmic Reticulum Associated Degradation (ERAD), a UPS pathway is active in the Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) of eukaryotic cells. ERAD is well characterized in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast), but ...


Modeling Climate-Dependent Larval Growth Rate And Duration Of Olympia Oysters In The Salish Sea, Jake A. Lawlor Jan 2019

Modeling Climate-Dependent Larval Growth Rate And Duration Of Olympia Oysters In The Salish Sea, Jake A. Lawlor

WWU Graduate School Collection

Most invertebrates in the ocean begin their lives with a planktonic larval phase that is of utmost importance for dispersal and distribution of these species, especially for organisms that are sessile or otherwise mobility-limited during adult life. As larvae are particularly vulnerable to environmental change, holistic understanding of interacting climate stressors on larval life is important to predict population persistence and vulnerability of species. However, traditional experimental designs are often limited by resolution in understanding multiple stress relationships, as environmental variables in the ocean do not occur in discrete interacting levels. Here, I use a novel experimental approach to model ...


Effect Of Cupping Therapy On Respiratory Gas Exchange In Trained Endurance Runners, Maximilian Antush Jan 2019

Effect Of Cupping Therapy On Respiratory Gas Exchange In Trained Endurance Runners, Maximilian Antush

WWU Graduate School Collection

The objective of this study was to elucidate the effects of myofascial decompression through cupping therapy (CT) on running economy (RE) in well-trained runners. Five minutes of CT or placebo gel (PG) was applied to bilateral hip extensor muscles of 15 well-trained runners (n = 7 female, n = 8 male) after a 10-minute treadmill warm-up. Running economy was measured using two 6-minute steady-state treadmill runs, one at a standardized velocity (females = 3.93 m·s-1; males = 4.47 m·s-1) and the other at 10-km race velocity. Maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max) test followed the RE tests. All ...


A Multidecade Experiment Shows That Fertilization By Salmon Carcasses Enhanced Tree Growth In The Riparian Zone, Thomas P. Quinn, Helfield M. James, Catherine S. Austin, Rachel A. Hovel, Andrew Godard Bunn Nov 2018

A Multidecade Experiment Shows That Fertilization By Salmon Carcasses Enhanced Tree Growth In The Riparian Zone, Thomas P. Quinn, Helfield M. James, Catherine S. Austin, Rachel A. Hovel, Andrew Godard Bunn

Environmental Sciences Faculty and Staff Publications

As they return to spawn and die in their natal streams, anadromous, semelparous fishes such as Pacific salmon import marine‐derived nutrients to otherwise nutrient‐poor freshwater and riparian ecosystems. Diverse organisms exploit this resource, and previous studies have indicated that riparian tree growth may be enhanced by such marine‐derived nutrients. However, these studies were largely inferential and did not account for all factors affecting tree growth. As an experimental test of the contribution of carcasses to tree growth, for 20 yr, we systematically deposited all sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) carcasses (217,055 individual salmon) in the riparian zone ...


Phylogenetics: A Catalyst For A Biophilic Revolution?, Holli N. Watne Oct 2018

Phylogenetics: A Catalyst For A Biophilic Revolution?, Holli N. Watne

Summit to Salish Sea: Inquiries and Essays

A biology framework in Environmental Education can inspire biophilia, the love for the complex array of lifeforms on this planet, in students. In this paper, a simple, multi-scaled phylogenetic tree is presented to express such a framework. When viewing life from a framework such as a phylogenetic tree, the human species is seen as just one part of something vastly complex. This view is contrasted to another framework, more anthropocentric in nature, that seems to be more typical in the developed world. Challenging students to view the role of humanity from a biocentric, rather than anthropocentric, framework can lead to ...


Oysters And Eelgrass: Potential Partners In A High Pco2 Ocean, Maya L. Groner, Colleen A. Burge, Ruth Cox, Natalie D. Rivlin, Mo Turner, Kathryn L. Van Alstyne Dr., Sandy Wyllie-Echeverria, John Bucci, Philip Staudigel, Carolyn S. Friedman Oct 2018

Oysters And Eelgrass: Potential Partners In A High Pco2 Ocean, Maya L. Groner, Colleen A. Burge, Ruth Cox, Natalie D. Rivlin, Mo Turner, Kathryn L. Van Alstyne Dr., Sandy Wyllie-Echeverria, John Bucci, Philip Staudigel, Carolyn S. Friedman

Shannon Point Marine Center Faculty Publications

Ocean acidification (OA) threatens calcifying organisms such as the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas. In contrast, eelgrass, Zostera marina, can benefit from the increase in available carbon for photosynthesis found at a lower seawater pH. Seagrasses can remove dissolved inorganic carbon from OA environments, creating local daytime pH refugia. Pacific oysters may improve the health of eelgrass by filtering out pathogens such as Labyrinthula zosterae, which causes eelgrass wasting disease (EWD). Using a laboratory experiment, we found that co-culture of eelgrass with oysters reduced the severity of EWD. EWD was also reduced in more acidic waters, which negatively affect oyster growth.


Large-Scale Molecular Diet Analysis In A Generalist Marine Mammal Reveals Male Preference For Prey Of Conservation Concern, Dietmar Schwarz, Sara M. Spitzer, Austen C. Thomas, Christa M. Kohnert, Theresa R. Keates, Alejandro Acevedo-Gutiérrez Sep 2018

Large-Scale Molecular Diet Analysis In A Generalist Marine Mammal Reveals Male Preference For Prey Of Conservation Concern, Dietmar Schwarz, Sara M. Spitzer, Austen C. Thomas, Christa M. Kohnert, Theresa R. Keates, Alejandro Acevedo-Gutiérrez

Biology Faculty and Staff Publications

Sex-specific diet information is important in the determination of predator impacts on prey populations. Unfortunately, the diet of males and females can be difficult to describe, particularly when they are marine predators. We combined two molecular techniques to describe haul-out use and prey preferences of male and female harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) from Comox and Cowichan Bay (Canada) during 2012-2013. DNA metabarcoding quantified the diet proportions comprised of prey species in harbor seal scat, and qPCR determined the sex of the individual that deposited each scat. Using 287 female and 260 male samples, we compared the monthly sex ratio with ...


Phenological Responses Of 215 Mothspecies To Interannual Climate Variation In The Pacific Northwest From 1895 Through 2013, Julie A. Maurer, Jon H. Shepard, Lars G. Crabo, Paul C. Hammond, Richard S. Zack, Merrill A. Peterson Sep 2018

Phenological Responses Of 215 Mothspecies To Interannual Climate Variation In The Pacific Northwest From 1895 Through 2013, Julie A. Maurer, Jon H. Shepard, Lars G. Crabo, Paul C. Hammond, Richard S. Zack, Merrill A. Peterson

Biology Faculty and Staff Publications

Climate change has caused shifts in the phenology and distributions of many species but comparing responses across species is challenged by inconsistencies in the methodology and taxonomic and temporal scope of individual studies. Natural history collections offer a rich source of data for examining phenological shifts for a large number of species. We paired specimen records from Pacific Northwest insect collections to climate data to analyze the responses of 215 moth species to interannual climate variation over a period of 119 years (1895–2013) during which average annual temperatures have increased in the region. We quantified the effects of late ...


Using Machine Learning To Classify Extant Apes And Interpret The Dental Morphology Of The Chimpanzee-Human Last Common Ancestor, Tesla A. Monson, David W. Armitage, Leslea J. Hlusko Aug 2018

Using Machine Learning To Classify Extant Apes And Interpret The Dental Morphology Of The Chimpanzee-Human Last Common Ancestor, Tesla A. Monson, David W. Armitage, Leslea J. Hlusko

Anthropology Faculty and Staff Publications

Machine learning is a formidable tool for pattern recognition in large datasets. We developed and expanded on these methods, applying machine learning pattern recognition to a problem in paleoanthropology and evolution. For decades, paleontologists have used the chimpanzee as a model for the chimpanzee-human last common ancestor (LCA) because they are our closest living primate relative. Using a large sample of extant and extinct primates, we tested the hypothesis that machine learning methods can accurately classify extant apes based on dental data. We then used this classification tool to observe the affinities between extant apes and Miocene hominoids. We assessed ...


Measuring Environmental & Genetic Effects On Cell Differentiation Kinetics In Yeast, Tiara Johnson May 2018

Measuring Environmental & Genetic Effects On Cell Differentiation Kinetics In Yeast, Tiara Johnson

Scholars Week

The MAPKinase pathway is commonly involved in cell differentiation and growth processes. To study the kinetics of this pathway in regards to the effects of several genetic and environmental factors, we have chosen the popular model of pheromone response in yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Our data showed significant differences based on strain that seem to match previous data. Surprisingly, there were no measurable trends based on concentration, but results indicate that temperature may be positively correlated with response rate and may vary between strains. Future experiments will be aimed towards statistically defining the effects of each variable and creating a mathematical ...


How Low Can You Go (And Live): Determining The Sub-Lethal Exposure Time To Desiccation In Snowberry Maggot Flies (Rhagoletis Zephyria), Alison Klimke, Anna Marie Yanny May 2018

How Low Can You Go (And Live): Determining The Sub-Lethal Exposure Time To Desiccation In Snowberry Maggot Flies (Rhagoletis Zephyria), Alison Klimke, Anna Marie Yanny

Scholars Week

The fruit infesting snowberry maggot (Rhagoletis zephyria) inhabits a broad range of habitats across the northern United States, including the humid and arid parts of Washington State. Pupating snowberry maggots (the most vulnerable life stage) exhibit local adaptation, with flies being more desiccation resistant east than west of the Cascades. Previous experiments have measured this difference at eight days after the larvae leave the fruit. However, desiccation impacts on survival may occur much earlier. To better understand the mechanism(s) by which flies protect themselves from desiccation we need to study flies at a sub-lethal level of stress, as dying ...


Feeding Success Of Harbor Seals In Relation To Hunting Technique At Whatcom Creek, Mackenna Newmarch May 2018

Feeding Success Of Harbor Seals In Relation To Hunting Technique At Whatcom Creek, Mackenna Newmarch

Scholars Week

Factors that influence hunting success of seals and sea lions are underrepresented in studies of animal behavior. This is a critical interaction to understand when evaluating the top-down effects of pinnipeds on endangered Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.). In the Pacific Northwest, harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) consume a very large number of individual salmon, species that are a valuable resource and the subject of costly restorative efforts. A salmon hatchery in Whatcom Creek estuary of downtown Bellingham, Washington, attracts harbor seals that prey on returning adult Pacific salmon. The convenient location and small size of the site allows consistent observation of ...


Ameliorating Ocean Acidification: A Model Relating Pco2, Irradiance And Leaf Area Index Of Zostera Marina (Eelgrass) In Padilla Bay, Wa, Tyler Tran May 2018

Ameliorating Ocean Acidification: A Model Relating Pco2, Irradiance And Leaf Area Index Of Zostera Marina (Eelgrass) In Padilla Bay, Wa, Tyler Tran

Graduate Student Symposium

In nearshore, soft-sediment habitats of the Salish Sea, eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) meadows have been identified as potential mitigators of ocean acidification (OA) because their photosynthetic activity can decrease pCO2, increase pH and provide refuge for organisms sensitive to OA. The diurnal light cycle controls photosynthetic production of eelgrass and therefore, along with tidal cycles, exerts strong controls on variations in pCO2 in nearshore environment. In this study, we investigate the carbon uptake rates for eelgrass under varying light, ambient pCO2 conditions and eelgrass densities (leaf area index). The magnitude of changes predicted based ...


Structure Determination Of A Bioengineered Human/Porcine Factor Viii For Hemophilia A Treatment, And Improvements To The Human Factor Viii Model, Ian Smith May 2018

Structure Determination Of A Bioengineered Human/Porcine Factor Viii For Hemophilia A Treatment, And Improvements To The Human Factor Viii Model, Ian Smith

Graduate Student Symposium

Blood coagulation factor VIII (FVIII), is a non-enzymatic cofactor which plays a crucial role in the formation of a stable blood clot. Absence or deficiency of FVIII results in the blood disorder hemophilia A; with symptoms including internal hemorrhaging and the inability to stop bleeding from open wounds. Treatment of hemophilia A relies on infusions of blood, plasma, or protein concentrates to replace FVIII. Unfortunately, approximately 30% of patients receiving replacement FVIII generate pathologic anti-FVIII inhibitory antibodies, which both reduce the effectiveness of the FVIII therapeutic and increase the severity of hemophilia A symptoms.

We have determined the molecular structure ...