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University of Wollongong

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Articles 1 - 30 of 1949

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Efficacy Of The Feline Temperament Profile In Evaluating Sheltered Cats For Adoption Into Families Of A Child With Autism Spectrum Disorder, Angélique Lamontagne, Rebecca A. Johnson, Gretchen K. Carlisle, Leslie A. Lyons, Jessica L. Bibbo, Colleen Koch, Steven J. Osterlind Jan 2020

Efficacy Of The Feline Temperament Profile In Evaluating Sheltered Cats For Adoption Into Families Of A Child With Autism Spectrum Disorder, Angélique Lamontagne, Rebecca A. Johnson, Gretchen K. Carlisle, Leslie A. Lyons, Jessica L. Bibbo, Colleen Koch, Steven J. Osterlind

Animal Studies Journal

This project was part of the Feline Friends Study, which matches shelter cats with families of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) to study children’s social behaviour and cats’ stress. Cats were screened for calm temperament using the Feline Temperament Profile (FTP). The FTP consists of ten phases, with a list of ‘acceptable’ and ‘questionable’ behaviours under each phase. Our aim was to answer the following research questions: What items of the FTP best predict temperament in shelter cats? What are similarities and differences in temperament between cats who qualified or did not qualify for placement? Forty-four shelter cats ...


The Illegal Wildlife Trade: Through The Eyes Of A One-Year-Old Pangolin (Manis Javanica), Lelia Bridgeland-Stephens Jan 2020

The Illegal Wildlife Trade: Through The Eyes Of A One-Year-Old Pangolin (Manis Javanica), Lelia Bridgeland-Stephens

Animal Studies Journal

This paper explores the literature on the illegal wildlife trade (IWT) by following the journey of a single imagined Sunda pangolin (Manis javanica) through the entire trading process. Literature on IWT frequently refers to non-human animals in terms of collectives, species, or body parts, for example ‘tons of pangolin scales’, rather than as subjective individuals. In contrast, this paper centralizes the experiences of an individual pangolin by using a cross- disciplinary methodology, combining fact with a fictional narrative of subjective pangolin experience, in an empathetic and egomorphic process. The paper draws together known legislation, trade practices, and pangolin biology, structured ...


The Change In Farming: A Review, Neil Sandell May 2015

The Change In Farming: A Review, Neil Sandell

RadioDoc Review

The protagonist of the CBC documentary, The Change in Farming, is an 89-year-old farmer, called Henry. We learn that his grandson, Adam, has been recording Henry’s reminiscences about farming as a way of preserving his family heritage. The program was produced in 1998 by Adam Goddard, a 25-year-old musician and composer, in collaboration with veteran CBC producer, Steve Wadhams.

Adam is more hunter-gather than farmer. He collects found sound, an artist alert to its musical possibilities. He is composing a work using Henry’s speech. We hear the elder’s reaction. And then, in an indispensable coda, the two ...


Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells As Tools For Disease Modelling And Drug Discovery In Alzheimer's Disease, Lezanne Ooi, Kuldip Sidhu, Anne Poljak, Greg Sutherland, Michael D. O'Connor, Perminder Sachdev, Gerald Munch Jan 2013

Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells As Tools For Disease Modelling And Drug Discovery In Alzheimer's Disease, Lezanne Ooi, Kuldip Sidhu, Anne Poljak, Greg Sutherland, Michael D. O'Connor, Perminder Sachdev, Gerald Munch

Faculty of Science - Papers (Archive)

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative brain disorder that leads to a progressive decline in a person’s memory and ability to communicate and carry out daily activities. The brain pathology in AD is characterized by extensive neuronal loss, particularly of cholinergic neurons, intracellular neurofibrillary tangles composed of the tau protein (NFTs) and extracellular deposition of plaques composed of β-amyloid (Aβ), a cleavage product of the amyloid precursor protein (APP). These two insoluble protein aggregates are accompanied by a chronic inflammatory response and extensive oxidative damage. Whereas dys-regulation of APP expression or processing appears to be important for ...


A Reagentless Thermal Post-Synthetic Rearrangement Of An Allyloxy-Tagged Metal-Organic Framework, Andrew D. Burrows, Sally O. Hunter, Mary F. Mahon, Christopher Richardson Jan 2013

A Reagentless Thermal Post-Synthetic Rearrangement Of An Allyloxy-Tagged Metal-Organic Framework, Andrew D. Burrows, Sally O. Hunter, Mary F. Mahon, Christopher Richardson

Faculty of Science - Papers (Archive)

Direct heating of a metal-organic framework provides a simple, controllable way of effecting a covalent post-synthetic modification. Herein we report that an allyloxy-tagged zinc metal-organic framework undergoes a thermally-promoted aromatic Claisen rearrangement through which the framework connectivity and porosity are maintained.


Ten Trenches: A Scienceart Collaboration, Timothy J. Cohen, Martin Cohen, Stephanie Kermode, Michael G. Leggett Jan 2013

Ten Trenches: A Scienceart Collaboration, Timothy J. Cohen, Martin Cohen, Stephanie Kermode, Michael G. Leggett

Faculty of Science - Papers (Archive)

Collaborative and cross-disciplinary research by a group of artists and scientists in an Australian rural setting generates data and ideas that form the basis of a wider understanding of the ramifications of global warming and cooling within the local, regional and national community. The work is viewed as an initial educational platform that will allow the public to see and understand the complexities of climate-based research.


Transmembrane Domain Nrg1 Mutant Mice Show Altered Susceptibility To The Neurobehavioural Actions Of Repeated Thc Exposure In Adolescence, Leonora E. Long, Rose Chesworth, Xu-Feng Huang, Iain S. Mcgregor, Jonathon C. Arnold, Tim Karl Jan 2013

Transmembrane Domain Nrg1 Mutant Mice Show Altered Susceptibility To The Neurobehavioural Actions Of Repeated Thc Exposure In Adolescence, Leonora E. Long, Rose Chesworth, Xu-Feng Huang, Iain S. Mcgregor, Jonathon C. Arnold, Tim Karl

Faculty of Health and Behavioural Sciences - Papers (Archive)

Heavy cannabis abuse increases the risk of developing schizophrenia. Adolescents appear particularly vulnerable to the development of psychosis-like symptoms after cannabis use. To test whether the schizophrenia candidate gene neuregulin 1 (NRG1) modulates the effects of cannabinoids in adolescence, we tested male adolescent heterozygous transmembrane domain Nrg1 mutant (Nrg1 TM HET) mice and wild type-like littermates (WT) for their neurobehavioural response to repeated Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC, 10 mg/kg i.p. for 21 d starting on post-natal day 31). During treatment and 48 h after treatment withdrawal, we assessed several behavioural parameters relevant to schizophrenia. After behavioural testing we ...


Musculoskeletal And Estrogen Changes During The Adolescent Growth Spurt In Girls, Catherine Y. Wild, Julie R. Steele, Bridget J. Munro Jan 2013

Musculoskeletal And Estrogen Changes During The Adolescent Growth Spurt In Girls, Catherine Y. Wild, Julie R. Steele, Bridget J. Munro

Faculty of Health and Behavioural Sciences - Papers (Archive)

Introduction: The adolescent growth spurt is associated with rapid growth and hormonal changes, thought to contribute to the increased anterior cruciate ligament injury risk in girls. However, relatively little is known about these musculoskeletal and estrogen changes during the growth spurt in girls. Purpose: To investigate the longitudinal changes in estrogen as well as anterior knee laxity and lower limb strength and flexibility throughout the adolescent growth spurt in girls. Methods: Thirty-three healthy girls, age 10-13 yr, in Tanner stage II and 4-6 months from their peak height velocity were recruited. Participants were tested up to four times during the ...


Direct Evidence For Encoding Of Motion Streaks In Human Visual Cortex, Deborah M. Apthorp, D. Samuel Schwarzkopf, C. Kaul, B. Bahrami, David Alais, G. Rees Jan 2013

Direct Evidence For Encoding Of Motion Streaks In Human Visual Cortex, Deborah M. Apthorp, D. Samuel Schwarzkopf, C. Kaul, B. Bahrami, David Alais, G. Rees

Faculty of Health and Behavioural Sciences - Papers (Archive)

Temporal integration in the visual system causes fast-moving objects to generate static, oriented traces (‘motion streaks’), which could be used to help judge direction of motion. While human psychophysics and single-unit studies in non-human primates are consistent with this hypothesis, direct neural evidence from the human cortex is still lacking. First, we provide psychophysical evidence that faster and slower motions are processed by distinct neural mechanisms: faster motion raised human perceptual thresholds for static orientations parallel to the direction of motion, whereas slower motion raised thresholds for orthogonal orientations. We then used functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure brain activity ...


Bryophyte Species Composition Over Moisture Gradients In The Windmill Islands, East Antarctica: Development Of A Baseline For Monitoring Climate Change Impacts, J Wasley, S A. Robinson, J D. Turnbull, D H. King, W Wanek, M Popp Oct 2012

Bryophyte Species Composition Over Moisture Gradients In The Windmill Islands, East Antarctica: Development Of A Baseline For Monitoring Climate Change Impacts, J Wasley, S A. Robinson, J D. Turnbull, D H. King, W Wanek, M Popp

Faculty of Science - Papers (Archive)

Extreme environmental conditions prevail on the Antarctic continent and limit plant diversity to cryptogamic communities, dominated by bryophytes and lichens. Even small abiotic shifts, associated with climate change, are likely to have pronounced impacts on these communities that currently exist at their physiological limit of survival. Changes to moisture availability, due to precipitation shifts or alterations to permanent snow reserves, will most likely cause greatest impact. In order to establish a baseline for determining the effect of climate change on continental Antarctic terrestrial communities and to better understand bryophyte species distributions in relation to moisture in a floristically important Antarctic ...


The Isolation Of Bioactive Flavonoids From Jacaranda Obtusifolia H. B. K. Ssp. Rhombifolia (G. F. W. Meijer) Gentry, Sorachai Khamsan, Saisunee Liawruangrath, Aphiwat Teerawutkulrag, Stephen G. Pyne, Mary J. Garson, Boonsom Liawruangrath Jun 2012

The Isolation Of Bioactive Flavonoids From Jacaranda Obtusifolia H. B. K. Ssp. Rhombifolia (G. F. W. Meijer) Gentry, Sorachai Khamsan, Saisunee Liawruangrath, Aphiwat Teerawutkulrag, Stephen G. Pyne, Mary J. Garson, Boonsom Liawruangrath

Faculty of Science - Papers (Archive)

The paper describes the bioassay-guided isolation, structure elucidation and anticancer evaluation of five flavonoids (-)-liquiritigenin (1), (-)-neoliquiritin (2), isoliquiritigenin (3), isoliquiritin (4) and formononetin (5) from the twigs of Jacaranda obtusifolia H. B. K. ssp. rhombifolia (G. F. W. Meijer) Gentry. The structures were elucidated based on 1H, 13C NMR, comprehensive 2D NMR, MS analyses and comparison with previously reported spectral data. Compounds 1 and 3 were demonstrated to be inhibitory in vitro against NCI-H187 (small cell lung cancer) with IC50 values of 30.1 and 16.6 μg mL-1, respectively. The isolates were non-cytotoxic to Vero cells (African green ...


Translocation Of The Eastern Bristlebird 1: Radio-Tracking Of Post-Release Movements, David Bain, Kris French, Jack Baker, Jean Clarke May 2012

Translocation Of The Eastern Bristlebird 1: Radio-Tracking Of Post-Release Movements, David Bain, Kris French, Jack Baker, Jean Clarke

Faculty of Science - Papers (Archive)

Translocating birds to a new area of habitat to restore or supplement depleted populations may pose a significant threat to the translocated individuals. While for many species, translocated individuals appear to move larger distances than resident animals, species with poor dispersal capacity may be restricted in movements and translocation methods may need to accommodate differences in movements to ensure success. In this study, designed to provide insights to inform our broader programme of translocations in New South Wales, Australia, we investigated post-release movements in the endangered, semi-flightless Eastern Bristlebird (Dasyornis brachypterus). We predicted that movements would be minimal, with few ...


Manufacturing On The Move? Beyond The High Dollar In The Debate About Making Things In Australia - The Case Of The Australian Surfboard Industry - Ausccer Discussion Paper No. 2012/2, Andrew Warren, Chris Gibson May 2012

Manufacturing On The Move? Beyond The High Dollar In The Debate About Making Things In Australia - The Case Of The Australian Surfboard Industry - Ausccer Discussion Paper No. 2012/2, Andrew Warren, Chris Gibson

Faculty of Science - Papers (Archive)

In October 2011 surfboard manufacturer BASE abruptly closed its factory on the Gold Coast resulting in the direct loss of 50 jobs. A few days later, nearby D’Arcy Surfboards also announced it was shedding workers and downsizing from a state-of-the art purpose built factory into a backyard workshop. Each business exported surfboards internationally and employed some of Australia’s best known surfboard-makers. The troubles facing these workshops added to those brewing at the very same in Australia’s steel, aluminium, automotive and garment industries. With renewed public debate and media commentary on the future of manufacturing, we now face ...


Process-Evaluation Of Tropospheric Humidity Simulated By General Circulation Models Using Water Vapor Isotopologues: 1. Comparison Between Models And Observations, Camille Risi, David Noone, John Worden, Christian Frankenberg, Gabriele Stiller, Michael Kiefer, Bernd Funke, Kaley Walker, Peter Bernath, Matthias Schneider, Debra Wunch, Vanessa Sherlock, Nicholas M. Deutscher, David W. Griffith, Paul O. Wennberg, Kimberly Strong, Dan Smale, Emmanuel Mahieu, Sabine Barthlott, Frank Hase, Omar Garcia, Justus Notholt, Thorsten Warneke, Geoffrey Toon, David Sayres, Sandrine Bony, Jeonghoon Lee, Derek Brown, Ryu Uemura, Christophe Sturm Mar 2012

Process-Evaluation Of Tropospheric Humidity Simulated By General Circulation Models Using Water Vapor Isotopologues: 1. Comparison Between Models And Observations, Camille Risi, David Noone, John Worden, Christian Frankenberg, Gabriele Stiller, Michael Kiefer, Bernd Funke, Kaley Walker, Peter Bernath, Matthias Schneider, Debra Wunch, Vanessa Sherlock, Nicholas M. Deutscher, David W. Griffith, Paul O. Wennberg, Kimberly Strong, Dan Smale, Emmanuel Mahieu, Sabine Barthlott, Frank Hase, Omar Garcia, Justus Notholt, Thorsten Warneke, Geoffrey Toon, David Sayres, Sandrine Bony, Jeonghoon Lee, Derek Brown, Ryu Uemura, Christophe Sturm

Faculty of Science - Papers (Archive)

[1] The goal of this study is to determine how H2O and HDO measurements in water vapor can be used to detect and diagnose biases in the representation of processes controlling tropospheric humidity in atmospheric general circulation models (GCMs). We analyze a large number of isotopic data sets (four satellite, sixteen ground-based remote-sensing, five surface in situ and three aircraft data sets) that are sensitive to different altitudes throughout the free troposphere. Despite significant differences between data sets, we identify some observed HDO/H2O characteristics that are robust across data sets and that can be used to evaluate models. We ...


The Role Of Streptokinase As A Virulence Determinant Of Streptococcus Pyogenes - Potential For Therapeutic Targeting, Jason D. Mcarthur, Simon M. Cook, Carola Venturini, Mark J. Walker Mar 2012

The Role Of Streptokinase As A Virulence Determinant Of Streptococcus Pyogenes - Potential For Therapeutic Targeting, Jason D. Mcarthur, Simon M. Cook, Carola Venturini, Mark J. Walker

Faculty of Science - Papers (Archive)

Streptococcus pyogenes is a major human pathogen responsible for numerous diseases ranging from uncomplicated skin and throat infections to severe, life threatening invasive disease such as necrotising fasciitis and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. These severe invasive infections progress rapidly and produce high rates of morbidity and mortality despite the implementation of aggressive treatment plans. The activation of plasminogen and the acquisition of plasmin activity at the bacterial cell surface is critical for the invasive pathogenesis of this organism. To facilitate this process, S. pyogenes secrete streptokinase, a potent plasminogen activating protein. Here, we describe the role of streptokinase in invasive ...


Seed Bank Persistence And Climate Change, Mark K. J Ooi Feb 2012

Seed Bank Persistence And Climate Change, Mark K. J Ooi

Faculty of Science - Papers (Archive)

"The strong mechanistic relationship between climatic factors and seed dormancy and germination suggests that forecast climatic changes will significantly affect seed bank persistence. This review focuses on the potential impact of changing temperature, rainfall and fire regimes on the longevity of long-term persistent seed-banks. Currently, there are few studies investigating the mechanistic responses of demographic processes, such as seed-bank dynamics, to forecast climate change. However, from the work that has been published, several key points have been highlighted. First, increased air temperatures will produce significantly higher soil temperatures in open and sparsely vegetated habitats. Some evidence shows that this could ...


Evaluation Of The Evidence Between Consumption Of Refined Grains And Health Outcomes, Peter G. Williams Feb 2012

Evaluation Of The Evidence Between Consumption Of Refined Grains And Health Outcomes, Peter G. Williams

Faculty of Health and Behavioural Sciences - Papers (Archive)

This review evaluates the available evidence on the relationship between consumption of refined grains and health outcomes. A total of 135 relevant articles were identified from database searches of studies published between 2000 and 2010. The great majority found no associations between the intake of refined grain foods and cardiovascular disease, diabetes, weight gain or overall mortality. A few studies found that very high intakes might be associated with some types of cancers, but at moderate levels of consumption the risks were not significant. The totality of evidence shows that consumption of up to 50% of all grain foods as ...


The Influence Of Prescribed Fire On The Extent Of Wildfire In Savanna Landscapes Of Western Arnhem Land, Australia, Owen F. Price, Jeremy Russell-Smith, Felicity Watt Jan 2012

The Influence Of Prescribed Fire On The Extent Of Wildfire In Savanna Landscapes Of Western Arnhem Land, Australia, Owen F. Price, Jeremy Russell-Smith, Felicity Watt

Faculty of Science - Papers (Archive)

Fire regimes in many north Australian savanna regions are today characterised by frequent wildfires occurring in the latter part of the 7-month dry season. A fire management program instigated from 2005 over 24 000 km2 of biodiversity-rich Western Arnhem Land aims to reduce the area and severity of late dry-season fires, and associated greenhouse gas emissions, through targeted early dry-season prescribed burning. This study used fire history mapping derived mostly from Landsat imagery over the period 1990-2009 and statistical modelling to quantify the mitigation of late dry-season wildfire through prescribed burning. From 2005, there has been a reduction in mean ...


Synthesis And Anti-Leukaemic Activity Of Pyrrolo[3,2,1-Hi]Indole-1,2- Diones, Pyrrolo[3,2,1-Ij]Quinoline-1,2-Diones And Other Polycyclic Isatin Derivatives, Lidia Matesic, Julie M. Locke, Kara Vine, Marie Ranson, John B. Bremner, Danielle Skropeta Jan 2012

Synthesis And Anti-Leukaemic Activity Of Pyrrolo[3,2,1-Hi]Indole-1,2- Diones, Pyrrolo[3,2,1-Ij]Quinoline-1,2-Diones And Other Polycyclic Isatin Derivatives, Lidia Matesic, Julie M. Locke, Kara Vine, Marie Ranson, John B. Bremner, Danielle Skropeta

Faculty of Science - Papers (Archive)

To further expand the structure–cytotoxic activity relationships of isatin derivatives and to reduce flexibility in substituent groups at nitrogen, 20 analogues incorporating a ring system between the N1 and C7 atoms of isatin were prepared using a variety of synthetic strategies. This yielded pyrroloindole-, pyrroloquinoline-, pyrroloacridine-, pyrrolophenanthridine- and benzopyrrolophenanthridine-based systems with embedded isatin moieties, the latter possessing a novel carbon skeleton. These compounds were subsequently assessed for their in vitro cytotoxicity against human U937 lymphoma cells, with the brominated pyrroloacridine dione 27 showing the most promising activity (IC50 3.01 μM) after 24 h.


Telomere Dynamics And Homeostasis In A Transmissible Cancer, Beata Ujvari, Anne-Maree Pearse, Robyn Taylor, Stephen Pyecroft, Cassandra Flanagan, Sara Gombert, Anthony T. Papenfuss, Thomas R. Madsen, Katherine Belov Jan 2012

Telomere Dynamics And Homeostasis In A Transmissible Cancer, Beata Ujvari, Anne-Maree Pearse, Robyn Taylor, Stephen Pyecroft, Cassandra Flanagan, Sara Gombert, Anthony T. Papenfuss, Thomas R. Madsen, Katherine Belov

Faculty of Science - Papers (Archive)

Background: Devil Facial Tumour Disease (DFTD) is a unique clonal cancer that threatens the world's largest carnivorous marsupial, the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii) with extinction. This transmissible cancer is passed between individual devils by cell implantation during social interactions. The tumour arose in a Schwann cell of a single devil over 15 years ago and since then has expanded clonally, without showing signs of replicative senescence; in stark contrast to a somatic cell that displays a finite capacity for replication, known as the "Hayflick limit". Methodology/Principal Findings: In the present study we investigate the role of telomere length ...


From Ecophysiology To Phenomics: Some Implications Of Photoprotection And Shade-Sun Acclimation In Situ For Dynamics Of Thylakoids In Vitro, Shizue Matsubara, Britta Forster, Melinda Waterman, Sharon A. Robinson, Barry J. Pogson, Brian Gunning, Barry Osmond Jan 2012

From Ecophysiology To Phenomics: Some Implications Of Photoprotection And Shade-Sun Acclimation In Situ For Dynamics Of Thylakoids In Vitro, Shizue Matsubara, Britta Forster, Melinda Waterman, Sharon A. Robinson, Barry J. Pogson, Brian Gunning, Barry Osmond

Faculty of Science - Papers (Archive)

Half a century of research into the physiology and biochemistry of sun–shade acclimation in diverse plants has provided reality checks for contemporary understanding of thylakoid membrane dynamics. This paper reviews recent insights into photosynthetic efficiency and photoprotection from studies of two xanthophyll cycles in old shade leaves from the inner canopy of the tropical trees Inga sapindoides and Persea americana (avocado). It then presents new physiological data from avocado on the time frames of the slow coordinated photosynthetic development of sink leaves in sunlight and on the slow renovation of photosynthetic properties in old leaves during sun to shade ...


The Relationship Between Particulate Pollution Levels In Australian Cities, Meteorology, And Landscape Fire Activity Detected From Modis Hotspots, Owen F. Price, Grant J. Williamson, Sarah B. Henderson, Fay Johnston, David M. J. S Bowman Jan 2012

The Relationship Between Particulate Pollution Levels In Australian Cities, Meteorology, And Landscape Fire Activity Detected From Modis Hotspots, Owen F. Price, Grant J. Williamson, Sarah B. Henderson, Fay Johnston, David M. J. S Bowman

Faculty of Science - Papers (Archive)

Generally, sigmoid curves are used to describe the growth of animals over their lifetime. However, because growth rates often differ over an animal's lifetime a single curve may not accurately capture the growth. Broken-stick models constrained to pass through a common point have been proposed to describe the different growth phases, but these are often unsatisfactory because essentially there are still two functions that describe the lifetime growth. To provide a single, converged model to age animals with disparate growth phases we developed a smoothly joining two-phase nonlinear function (SJ2P), tailored to provide a more accurate description of lifetime ...


Reinforced Materials Based On Chitosan, Tio2 And Ag Composites, Khairul Anuar Mat Amin, Marc In Het Panhuis Jan 2012

Reinforced Materials Based On Chitosan, Tio2 And Ag Composites, Khairul Anuar Mat Amin, Marc In Het Panhuis

Faculty of Science - Papers (Archive)

This study investigates the mechanical reinforcement of chitosan with TiO2 and Ag nanoparticles, as well as their water vapour transmission rates and water resistance behaviour. The mechanical properties of chitosan were improved by addition of TiO2 or Ag, with significant increases in Young’s modulus (from 25 MPa to ~300 MPa), tensile strength (from 6 MPa to 18–35 MPa) and toughness (from 1.3 J g−1 to 7–8 J g−1). The water vapour transmission rates (368–413 g m−2 d−1) were found to be similar for both materials. Inclusion of Ag reduced the water ...


Synchrotron Radiation Spectroscopic Techniques As Tools For The Medicinal Chemist: Microprobe X-Ray Fluorescence Imaging, X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy, And Infrared Microspectroscopy, Carolyn Therese Dillon Jan 2012

Synchrotron Radiation Spectroscopic Techniques As Tools For The Medicinal Chemist: Microprobe X-Ray Fluorescence Imaging, X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy, And Infrared Microspectroscopy, Carolyn Therese Dillon

Faculty of Science - Papers (Archive)

This review updates the recent advances and applications of three prominent synchrotron radiation techniques, microprobe X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy/imaging, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and infrared microspectroscopy, and highlights how these tools are useful to the medicinal chemist. A brief description of the principles of the techniques is given with emphasis on the advantages of using synchrotron radiation-based instrumentation rather than instruments using typical laboratory radiation sources. This review focuses on several recent applications of these techniques to solve inorganic medicinal chemistry problems, focusing on studies of cellular uptake, distribution, and biotransformation of established and potential therapeutic agents. The importance of using ...


The Acos Co2 Retrieval Algorithm - Part Ii: Global Xco2 Data Characterization, D Crisp, B Fisher, C O'Dell, C Frankenberg, R Basilio, H Bosch, L R. Brown, R Castano, B Connor, N M. Deutscher, A Eldering, D Griffith, M Gunson, A Kuze, L Mandrake, J Mcduffie, J Messerschmidt, C E. Miller, I Morino, V Natraj, J Notholt, D M. O'Brien, F Oyafuso, I Polonsky, J Robinson, R Salawitch, V Sherlock, M Smyth, H Suto, T E. Taylor, D R. Thompson, P O. Wennberg, D Wunch, Y L. Yung Jan 2012

The Acos Co2 Retrieval Algorithm - Part Ii: Global Xco2 Data Characterization, D Crisp, B Fisher, C O'Dell, C Frankenberg, R Basilio, H Bosch, L R. Brown, R Castano, B Connor, N M. Deutscher, A Eldering, D Griffith, M Gunson, A Kuze, L Mandrake, J Mcduffie, J Messerschmidt, C E. Miller, I Morino, V Natraj, J Notholt, D M. O'Brien, F Oyafuso, I Polonsky, J Robinson, R Salawitch, V Sherlock, M Smyth, H Suto, T E. Taylor, D R. Thompson, P O. Wennberg, D Wunch, Y L. Yung

Faculty of Science - Papers (Archive)

Here, we report preliminary estimates of the column averaged carbon dioxide (CO2) dry air mole fraction, XCO2, retrieved from spectra recorded over land by the Greenhouse gases Observing Satellite, GOSAT (nicknamed "Ibuki"), using retrieval methods originally developed for the NASA Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) mission. After screening for clouds and other known error sources, these retrievals reproduce much of the expected structure in the global XCO2 field, including its variation with latitude and season. However, low yields of retrieved XCO2 over persistently cloudy areas and ice covered surfaces at high latitudes limit the coverage of some geographic regions, even on ...


Phytochemical And Biological Activity Studies Of The Bhutanese Medicinal Plant Corydalis Crispa, Phurpa Wangchuk, Paul A. Keller, Stephen G. Pyne, Thanapat Sastraruji, Malai Taweechotipatr, Roonglawan Rattanajak, Aunchalee Tonsomboon, Sumalee Kamchonwongpaisan Jan 2012

Phytochemical And Biological Activity Studies Of The Bhutanese Medicinal Plant Corydalis Crispa, Phurpa Wangchuk, Paul A. Keller, Stephen G. Pyne, Thanapat Sastraruji, Malai Taweechotipatr, Roonglawan Rattanajak, Aunchalee Tonsomboon, Sumalee Kamchonwongpaisan

Faculty of Science - Papers (Archive)

The chemical constituents and biological activities of Corydalis crispa (Fumariaceae) were investigated for the first time. The phytochemical study resulted in the isolation of nine known isoquinoline alkaloids: protopine (1), 13-oxoprotopine (2), 13-oxocryptopine (3), stylopine (4), coreximine (5), rheagenine (6), ochrobirine (7), sibiricine (8) and bicuculline (9), with complete NMR data for 2 and 3 provided here for the first time. Crude extracts exhibitedsignificant anti-inflammatory (p < 0.01) activity against TNF-alpha production in LPS activated THP-1 cells. The acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of compounds 2, 4 and 7 and the antiplasmodial activity of compound 5 against P. falciparum strains TM4/8.2 and K1CB1 (multidrug resistant strain) are reported here for the first time. Stylopine (4) did not show antimalarial activity against the K1CB1 strain in contrast to a previous report. This study generated a scientific basis for the use of this plant in Bhutanese traditional medicine, either individually or in combination with other medicinal ingredients to treat a broad range of disorders. This study also identified compound 5 as potential new antimalarial lead compound.


Remote Sensing Of Co2 And Ch4 Using Solar Absorption Spectrometry With A Low Resolution Spectrometer, C Petri, T Warneke, N Jones, T Ridder, J Messerschmidt, T Weinzierl, M Geibel, J Notholt Jan 2012

Remote Sensing Of Co2 And Ch4 Using Solar Absorption Spectrometry With A Low Resolution Spectrometer, C Petri, T Warneke, N Jones, T Ridder, J Messerschmidt, T Weinzierl, M Geibel, J Notholt

Faculty of Science - Papers (Archive)

Throughout the last few years solar absorption Fourier Transform Spectrometry (FTS) has been further developed to measure the total columns of CO2 and CH4. The observations are performed at high spectral resolution, typically at 0.02 cm(-1). The precision currently achieved is generally better than 0.25%. However, these high resolution instruments are quite large and need a dedicated room or container for installation. We performed these observations using a smaller commercial interferometer at its maximum possible resolution of 0.11 cm(-1). The measurements have been performed at Bremen and have been compared to observations using our high ...


Trends And Variations In Co, C2h6, And Hcn In The Southern Hemisphere Point To The Declining Anthropogenic Emissions Of Co And C2h6, G Zeng, S W. Wood, O Morgenstern, N B. Jones, J Robinson, D Smale Jan 2012

Trends And Variations In Co, C2h6, And Hcn In The Southern Hemisphere Point To The Declining Anthropogenic Emissions Of Co And C2h6, G Zeng, S W. Wood, O Morgenstern, N B. Jones, J Robinson, D Smale

Faculty of Science - Papers (Archive)

We analyse the carbon monoxide (CO), ethane (C2H6) and hydrogen cyanide (HCN) partial columns (from the ground to 12 km) derived from measurements by ground-based solar Fourier Transform Spectroscopy at Lauder, New Zealand (45° S, 170° E), and at Arrival Heights, Antarctica (78° S, 167° E), from 1997 to 2009. Significant negative trends are calculated for all species at both locations, based on the daily-mean observed time series, namely CO (−0.94 ± 0.47% yr−1), C2H6 (−2.37 ± 1.18% yr−1) and HCN (−0.93 ± 0.47% yr−1) at Lauder and CO (−0.92 ± 0.46% yr ...


Properties Of The B+-H2 And B+-D2 Complexes: A Theoretical And Spectroscopic Study, B L. J Poad, V Dryza, A A. Buchachenko, J Kos, E J. Bieske Jan 2012

Properties Of The B+-H2 And B+-D2 Complexes: A Theoretical And Spectroscopic Study, B L. J Poad, V Dryza, A A. Buchachenko, J Kos, E J. Bieske

Faculty of Science - Papers (Archive)

The rotationally resolved infrared spectrum of the B+-D2 ion-neutral complex is recorded in the D-D stretch vibration region (2805–2875  cm−1) by detecting B+ photofragments. Analysis of the spectrum confirms a T-shaped equilibrium geometry for the B+-D2 complex with a vibrationally averaged intermolecular bond length of 2.247 Å, around 0.02 Å shorter than for the previously characterised B+-H2 complex [V. Dryza, B. L. J. Poad, and E. J. Bieske, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130, 12986 (2008)10.1021/ja8018302]. The D-D stretch band centre occurs at 2839.76 ± 0.10 cm−1, representing a ...


Sustained Solar Hydrogen Generation Using A Dye-Sensitised Nio Photocathode/Bivo4 Tandem Photo-Electrochemical Device, Lei Tong, Akihide Iwase, Andrew Nattestad, Udo Bach, Martin Weidelener, Gunther Gotz, Amaresh Mishra, Peter Bauerle, Rose Amal, Gordon G. Wallace, Attila J. Mozer Jan 2012

Sustained Solar Hydrogen Generation Using A Dye-Sensitised Nio Photocathode/Bivo4 Tandem Photo-Electrochemical Device, Lei Tong, Akihide Iwase, Andrew Nattestad, Udo Bach, Martin Weidelener, Gunther Gotz, Amaresh Mishra, Peter Bauerle, Rose Amal, Gordon G. Wallace, Attila J. Mozer

Faculty of Science - Papers (Archive)

Solar hydrogen generation sustained for at least several hours is demonstrated using a dye-sensitised nickel(II) oxide photocathode and BiVO4 photoanode connected in a tandem configuration. H2 evolution rate is 120 nmol h−1 (>80% faradaic efficiency) without electrical bias or sacrificial oxidant/reductant, at pH = 7 using visible light (>420 nm).