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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Mathematical Modeling Suggests Cooperation Of Plant-Infecting Viruses, Joshua Miller, Vitaly V. Ganusov, Tessa Burch-Smith May 2022

Mathematical Modeling Suggests Cooperation Of Plant-Infecting Viruses, Joshua Miller, Vitaly V. Ganusov, Tessa Burch-Smith

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


Buprenorphine Effects On Anxiety-Like Behavior In B6 Mice, Megan K. Thibert Apr 2022

Buprenorphine Effects On Anxiety-Like Behavior In B6 Mice, Megan K. Thibert

Select or Award-Winning Individual Scholarship

Buprenorphine, a semi-synthetic opioid prescribed for the treatment of opioid use disorder (OUD), has been suggested as a potential pharmacological treatment for anxiety. Some preclinical and clinical studies provide support for the anxiolytic effects of buprenorphine, but research in this area is scarce, and findings to date have been mixed. The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that buprenorphine alters anxiety-like behavior in C57BL/IJ (B6) mice measured using the elevated zero maze (EZM). Adult, male mice (n=10) were given subcutaneous injections of saline (control) and three doses of buprenorphine (0.3, 1, and 10 mg/kg ...


Conservation Status Assessment Of The Egg-Mimic Darter (Percidae: Etheostoma Pseudovulatum) Using A Multi-Faceted Approach, Zachary L. Wolf, John W. Johansen, Rebecca E. Blanton Mar 2022

Conservation Status Assessment Of The Egg-Mimic Darter (Percidae: Etheostoma Pseudovulatum) Using A Multi-Faceted Approach, Zachary L. Wolf, John W. Johansen, Rebecca E. Blanton

Southeastern Fishes Council Proceedings

The imperiled Egg-mimic Darter (Etheostoma pseudovulatum) is a headwater-adapted fish restricted to an area less than 1000 km2 in Tennessee. It is found in only six tributaries of the Duck River and the large, mainstem of this system may act as a barrier to dispersal, restricting population connectivity. The only status assessment of this species was over two decades ago; genetic diversity and the degree of population connectivity have never been evaluated. We conducted a conservation status assessment using a multi-faceted approach to better inform conservation management plans, including examining its current distribution, assessing habitat quality, estimating abundance, population ...


Status And Relative Abundance Of Alabama Shad, Alosa Alabamae, In Alabama, Steven J. Rider, Travis R. Powell, Jason E. Dattilo, Gregory T. Miles Dec 2021

Status And Relative Abundance Of Alabama Shad, Alosa Alabamae, In Alabama, Steven J. Rider, Travis R. Powell, Jason E. Dattilo, Gregory T. Miles

Southeastern Fishes Council Proceedings

Alabama Shad, Alosa alabamae, an anadromous fish found historically from the Mississippi River basin eastward to the Suwanee River, has experienced population declines and even extirpation in some States. In Alabama, A. alabamae have been found in rivers of the Mobile River basin and Conecuh, Yellow, and Choctawhatchee rivers in the coastal Gulf Plain. We report on our directed and targeted efforts to assess the current status and relative abundance of A. alabamae in Alabama and compare our results to past A. alabamae surveys in Alabama. We completed 52 sampling trips and expended 129.5 hours of boat-electrofishing effort targeting ...


Porous Food Microparticles As Carriers Of Lipophilic Bioactive Compounds To Improve Functionalities, Inseob Choi Dec 2021

Porous Food Microparticles As Carriers Of Lipophilic Bioactive Compounds To Improve Functionalities, Inseob Choi

Doctoral Dissertations

Lipophilic bioactive compounds (LBCs) have been gaining attention due to their antioxidation and health-promotion properties. Although many delivery systems have been studied to encapsulate LBCs to increase stability and bioaccessibility of the LBCs, most of delivery systems lack of practicality for application in the food industry due to energy-extensive encapsulation processes and high-cost carrier materials used. Additionally, while a variety of encapsulating systems exist in nanoscale to achieve efficient encapsulation of LBCs, nanoscale systems with encapsulated LBCs may be subjected to reassessment of toxicity. In this dissertation, freeze-dried potato microparticles (FDPMs) and freeze-dried mushroom microparticles (FDMMs) were studied as carrier ...


The Studies Of Effects Of Vitamin A Status On Type 2 Diabetes In Zucker Diabetic Fatty Rats And Retinoic Acid On Glucose Transporter 4 Expression In L6 Cells, Tiannan Wang Dec 2021

The Studies Of Effects Of Vitamin A Status On Type 2 Diabetes In Zucker Diabetic Fatty Rats And Retinoic Acid On Glucose Transporter 4 Expression In L6 Cells, Tiannan Wang

Doctoral Dissertations

The epidemic of metabolic diseases such as diabetes has become a public health concern. Previous research data from our lab have shown that vitamin A (VA) status and retinoic acid (RA), a metabolite of VA, contribute to the glucose and lipid metabolism in the body and cells. As the skeletal muscle contributes to metabolic homeostasis, the effects of VA signaling system on its glucose metabolism are worth to be investigated. Here in this dissertation, the following two projects were carried out to study the VA’s role in the control of metabolism. (1) The effects of VA status on the ...


A Systematic And Biogeographic Study Of Trillium (Melanthiaceae), Jayne A. Lampley Dec 2021

A Systematic And Biogeographic Study Of Trillium (Melanthiaceae), Jayne A. Lampley

Doctoral Dissertations

Trillium (Melanthiaceae, Parideae) has a disjunct distribution occurring in eastern and western North America, and eastern Asia. Past studies have examined the phylogeny and historical biogeography of Melanthiaceae and Parideae, however these studies either did not fully examine these aspects within Trillium or did not employ sufficiently broad taxonomic or character sampling to clarify relationships among taxa. The first phylogenetic analysis presented in this study provides a resolved phylogeny for Trillium s.l. and Paris s.l. by using a dataset of 70 plastid coding genes and by sampling broadly from Trillium s.s., Pseudotrillium, Trillidium, Paris s.s., Daiswa ...


Response Of Soil Viral And Microbial Functional Diversity To Long-Term Agricultural Management In Jackson, West Tennessee, Ning Duan Dec 2021

Response Of Soil Viral And Microbial Functional Diversity To Long-Term Agricultural Management In Jackson, West Tennessee, Ning Duan

Doctoral Dissertations

Soil microbial communities are a critical component for ecosystem stability and function. Viruses, as an important biotic controller, have the potential to regulate the abundance and diversity of bacterial communities through infection. Soil is known to harbor abundant and diverse viral assemblages but their ecological role and influence on microbial processes has not been fully elucidated. Microbes can be influenced by viruses not only from infection but though biogeochemical feedbacks of the “microbial (bacterium–phage–DOC) loop” or “viral shunt”. However, we know relatively little about the microbial community and function under the regulation of viruses in soil and how ...


Determining The Ecological And Physiological Factors Contributing To The Competitive Success Of Prochlorococcus In The Oligotrophic Ocean, Benjamin C. Calfee Dec 2021

Determining The Ecological And Physiological Factors Contributing To The Competitive Success Of Prochlorococcus In The Oligotrophic Ocean, Benjamin C. Calfee

Doctoral Dissertations

Prochlorococcus is a genus of extremely successful marine cyanobacteria. This success is realized through its pervasive biogeographical range and presence in almost all open ocean environments where it usually it the dominant phytoplankton. Limited capabilities of culturing and genetic manipulation of this organism have resulted in assumptions about this success overwhelmingly based on field observations. These studies have assumed adaptations for resource uptake and utilization in nutrient limited environments to cause dominance of Prochlorococcus over other photosynthetic microbes. In an attempt to definitively explain this through laboratory culture, we developed a culturing system to assay questions of nutrient limitation effects ...


High Arctic Permafrost Microbial Characterizations: Siberian And Svalbard Microbiology Of Ancient And Active Layer Permafrost, Katie Sipes Dec 2021

High Arctic Permafrost Microbial Characterizations: Siberian And Svalbard Microbiology Of Ancient And Active Layer Permafrost, Katie Sipes

Doctoral Dissertations

Permafrost is soil that has remained frozen for at least two years. The active layer is a surface portion above the permafrost that experiences seasonal thaw and refreezing. The environmental characteristics of permafrost and active layer are different but are directly related to each other. As the climate continues to warm, the active layer will expand into the permafrost and the continuously frozen soil will be subjected to seasonal thawing. The organisms that inhabit both the active layer and the permafrost soil will respond differently to the climate based on where in the soil they are present and the soil ...


Analytical Considerations And Methods For Comprehensive Analysis Of Bacterial Phospholipidomics Using Hilic-Ms/Ms, David Thomas Reeves Dec 2021

Analytical Considerations And Methods For Comprehensive Analysis Of Bacterial Phospholipidomics Using Hilic-Ms/Ms, David Thomas Reeves

Doctoral Dissertations

Omics technologies have rapidly evolved over the last half century through vast improvements in efficient extraction methodologies, advances in instrumentation for data collection, and a wide assortment of informatics tools to help deconvolute sample data sets. However, there are still untapped pools of molecules that warrant further analytical attention. As the frontline defense of the cell against exterior influences, the phospholipid membrane is key in structure, defense, and signaling, but current omics studies are only just now catching up to the potential hidden within cellular lipid profiles. Examination of shifts in phospholipid speciation and character could provide researchers with a ...


Microbial Community Dynamics Of A Microcystis Bloom, Helena Pound Dec 2021

Microbial Community Dynamics Of A Microcystis Bloom, Helena Pound

Doctoral Dissertations

Harmful algal bloom events are notoriously associated with massive economic and environmental consequences, causing wildlife and human health risks. As these blooms increase in occurrence, duration, and severity around the world, it is essential to understand conditions leading to bloom formation and why they persist. Abiotic factors such as nutrients are commonly considered in bloom dynamics, but biotic interactions with co-occurring microbial species and viruses must also be taken into account. Harmful algal blooms dominated by the cyanobacterial genus Microcystis occur in bodies of water around the world and provide an ideal system in which to study top-down controls on ...


Geographic Patterns Of Genetic Diversity Under Climate Change: Linking Genes And Ecosystems, Shannon L. Bayliss Dec 2021

Geographic Patterns Of Genetic Diversity Under Climate Change: Linking Genes And Ecosystems, Shannon L. Bayliss

Doctoral Dissertations

Climate change is having profound effects on species distributions. However, much less is understood about how climate change may alter the distribution of genetic variation within species across landscapes. Maintaining genetic diversity within populations is essential for the survival of species in the face of rapid climatic changes, but importantly, losses of genetic variation will also have significant consequences on entire ecosystems. The objective of this dissertation is to understand how genetic variation in a riparian cottonwood species, Populus angustifolia, affects mass and energy exchange between the land and atmosphere across ~1700 km of latitude of the western United States ...


Seasonality, Distribution, And Biological Control Of Crapemyrtle Bark Scale, A New Invasive Threat In Tennessee, Amira Cornish Dec 2021

Seasonality, Distribution, And Biological Control Of Crapemyrtle Bark Scale, A New Invasive Threat In Tennessee, Amira Cornish

Masters Theses

Crapemyrtle bark scale, Acanthococcus (= Eriococcus) lagerstroemiae (Kuwana), an invasive pest from Asia, is a threat in the United States. to crape myrtles grown in ornamental nurseries and in landscapes. Although mortality to crape myrtles is rare, its negative effects on aesthetics is considerable. It should affect the sale (valued at >$66 million wholesale) and use of crape myrtle in landscapes. This pest species has been found in numerous states, including Tennessee, where little is known about its state-wide distribution, lifecycle, biology, natural enemies, and impact on crape myrtles. The purpose of this two-year study is to gain additional knowledge to ...


Impacts Of Anthropogenic Change On Plant Reproduction And Fitness, Alexandra S. Faidiga Dec 2021

Impacts Of Anthropogenic Change On Plant Reproduction And Fitness, Alexandra S. Faidiga

Masters Theses

Humans are altering natural systems around the globe in myriad ways. For plant species, such anthropogenic changes have resulted in increasingly fragmented populations, desynchronized interactions with mutualists, and shifted geographic ranges, among other effects. However, despite numerous examples of human impacts on plant populations, the consequences of these changes on plant reproduction remain poorly understood. In my thesis, I investigate the impacts of two forms of anthropogenic change–habitat disturbance and climate warming–on plant reproduction and fitness. I take two distinct approaches to address questions posed at local and regional scales. In Chapter I, I ask how inbreeding depression ...


Feeding Behavior And Influence Of Hemp Varieties And Fertilization Rates On Damage Caused By Corn Earworm, Helicoverpa Zea, Julian Cosner Dec 2021

Feeding Behavior And Influence Of Hemp Varieties And Fertilization Rates On Damage Caused By Corn Earworm, Helicoverpa Zea, Julian Cosner

Masters Theses

Production of industrial hemp, Cannabis sativa L., has increased tremendously in the U.S. after its legalization through the Agricultural Improvement Act of 2018, known as the 2018 Farm Bill, which allowed commercial hemp production. By grower number, in 2020, Tennessee was the nation’s largest hemp program with over 1,800 producers licensed to grow up to 6,500 hectares (16,000 acres) according to the Tennessee Department of Agriculture. Though fiber and seed have a role in the industry, most growers (ca. 98%) concentrate on cannabidiol production because of the expected higher cash value potential per hectare. Introducing ...


Physicochemical Properties And Functionality Of Pardina Lentil, Navy Bean, Garbanzo Bean, And Split Pea Starches, Jenna Laughlin, Vermont Dia, Philipus Pangloli Dec 2021

Physicochemical Properties And Functionality Of Pardina Lentil, Navy Bean, Garbanzo Bean, And Split Pea Starches, Jenna Laughlin, Vermont Dia, Philipus Pangloli

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


Relative Soybean Response To Aminocyclopyrachlor, 2,4-D, Dicamba, And Aminopyralid, Trey I. Clark Dec 2021

Relative Soybean Response To Aminocyclopyrachlor, 2,4-D, Dicamba, And Aminopyralid, Trey I. Clark

Masters Theses

This research compared the visual symptomology of four auxin herbicides applied at three rates to simulate tank contamination on non-auxin tolerant soybeans. The herbicides examined were aminocyclopyrachlor (ACP), 2,4-D, dicamba, and aminopyralid. The standard labeled rates (SLR) used to base the application rates were 0.12 kg ae ha-1 for ACP and aminopyralid while dicamba and 2,4-D used 1.12 kg ae ha-1. These four herbicides exhibit similar symptoms on soybeans which is problematic when diagnosing soybean response. One goal of this project was to obtain high-quality images of the four herbicide’s effect on soybeans ...


Pollinator Community Homogenization And Pollination Services In Agroecosystems, Devon S. Eldridge . Dec 2021

Pollinator Community Homogenization And Pollination Services In Agroecosystems, Devon S. Eldridge .

Masters Theses

Pollination, or the transfer of pollen to plant stigmas, is an essential part of plant reproduction. The term “pollination system” refers to the floral phenotype and pollinator of a given plant. Although angiosperms exhibit a variety of different pollination systems, most rely partially or completely on animals, particularly insects, to vector their pollen. In agricultural systems, understanding the pollination system of the crop species is necessary to produce an economically valuable yield. Moreover, agricultural management may affect pollination systems by altering the abundance, diversity, or function of the pollinator community. In natural ecosystems, there is a great diversity of pollinating ...


Growth, Browsing And Mortality In Mixed Oak And Pine Plantings, Heather Slayton Dec 2021

Growth, Browsing And Mortality In Mixed Oak And Pine Plantings, Heather Slayton

Masters Theses

The purpose of this project was to determine if different oak/pine arrangements elicited potential beneficial interactions that affected seedling growth, mortality and overall protection from deer browsing. Northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) and shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.) were planted together and alone in six different planting patterns and spacings, replicated over three blocks in recent clearcuts in east Tennessee, USA. Each block consisted of two monocultures planted at a 3.0 by 3.0 meter (m) spacing and four multi-cropped treatments planted at varying spatial arrangements (0.3 m, 1.0 m, 1.5 m, and 3 ...


The Factors Influencing The Leader’S Perceptions Of Success Of Dairy Cooperatives: The Case Of Cumbal Nariño’S Dairy Associations, Omar Efren Aza Fuelantala Dec 2021

The Factors Influencing The Leader’S Perceptions Of Success Of Dairy Cooperatives: The Case Of Cumbal Nariño’S Dairy Associations, Omar Efren Aza Fuelantala

Masters Theses

During the last few decades, Colombia’s dairy sector has been affected by economic, social, and political conditions, not only endangering it but also putting at risk the long-term sustainability of the dairy industry. To mitigate these conditions, the dairy farmers have joined cooperatives, which enabled them to gain some strategic advantages and reduce the adverse effects of the economic, political, and social conditions. This study evaluates the influence of economic, financial, membership, management and operational characteristics on the presidents’ perceptions of success of the dairy associations in Cumbal-Nariño. To accomplish this objective, we surveyed the presidents of dairy associations ...


Influence Of Physical Variability Of Highly Weathered Sedimentary Rock On Nitrate In Area 3 Of The Enigma Field Research Site At Y-12, Erin Kelly Dec 2021

Influence Of Physical Variability Of Highly Weathered Sedimentary Rock On Nitrate In Area 3 Of The Enigma Field Research Site At Y-12, Erin Kelly

Masters Theses

Uranium processing and waste storage in unlined waste ponds leached contaminants into the groundwater at Y-12, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, from the 1950s to 1980s. Groundwater wells near the S-3 ponds have had the highest nitrate concentrations of groundwater anywhere in the world (>10,000 mg/L). For reference, the maximum contaminant level for nitrate in drinking water set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is 10 mg/L. Since 2012, the ENIGMA (Ecosystems and Networks Integrated with Genes and Molecular Assemblies) group has been characterizing, monitoring, and conducting field experiments to understand the interactions between contaminants, microbes, and the ...


Medical Illustration As A Tool For Health Literacy, Courtney Anne Wombles Sep 2021

Medical Illustration As A Tool For Health Literacy, Courtney Anne Wombles

EURēCA: Exhibition of Undergraduate Research and Creative Achievement

Health literacy is most commonly described as the ability of an individual to obtain, comprehend, and utilize information related to their health. Including the ability to read, write, speak, and display numeracy in medical situations, rates of health literacy impact the ability of an individual to navigate the healthcare system and make informed decisions. As reported by the National Assessment of Adult Literacy, only 12% of individuals have the proficiency to understand and manage their health. This research identifies problems existing in health literacy and doctor-patient communication, with an emphasis on consumer health information. It explores resources used for science ...


A Novel Approach For Characterizing The Ultra-Micro Size-Fraction Community, Abdullah Ahmed Salim, Priscilla Nicole Pineda, Isabella Alamilla, Andrew Dean Putt Sep 2021

A Novel Approach For Characterizing The Ultra-Micro Size-Fraction Community, Abdullah Ahmed Salim, Priscilla Nicole Pineda, Isabella Alamilla, Andrew Dean Putt

EURēCA: Exhibition of Undergraduate Research and Creative Achievement

A Novel Approach for Characterizing the Ultra-Micro Size-Fraction Community

Students: Abdullah Salim, Priscilla Pineda, Isabella Alamilla

Mentors/Supervisors: Andrew Putt, Terry C. Hazen

ABSTRACT

The ultra-micro size-fraction (UMSF) are bacteria that can pass through the 0.2 µm pore membrane filters employed in environmental surveys. Despite being ubiquitous and having high metabolic activity, UMSF remain elusive and largely uncultured. Investigations of UMSF are skewed by difficulties in culturing and a lack of techniques for measuring UMSF biogeochemical signatures. This study measures surface stream UMSF community diversity, and community response to the addition of the synthetic pharmaceutical and cosmetic carbon product ...


60. Epfl Genes And Their Role In Flower Development In Arabidopsis Thaliana, Rachael Deboe Sep 2021

60. Epfl Genes And Their Role In Flower Development In Arabidopsis Thaliana, Rachael Deboe

EURēCA: Exhibition of Undergraduate Research and Creative Achievement

Flowers are composed of four floral organ types: sepals, petals, stamens, and a pistil. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the ERECTA family leucine rich repeat receptor like kinases (LRR-RLKs) have been shown to regulate plant morphology. Epidermal Patterning Factor-Like (EPFL) genes encode for small secretory proteins that are ligands for ERECTA Family (ERf) receptors. It is suspected that EPFL’s act as a signal to coordinate proper lateral organ number, patterning, and spacing. ERf mutants have significant defects in flower development, including difficulty forming anther lobes and pistils, yet little is known about how individual EPFL ligands contribute to ERf signaling. In ...


Professor Edward Drinker Cope’S Travels Through North Carolina, August–December 1869: Insights From The Transcriptions And Annotations Of Letters To His Father And His Contributions To North Carolina Ichthyology, Bryn H. Tracy, Robert E. Jenkins Aug 2021

Professor Edward Drinker Cope’S Travels Through North Carolina, August–December 1869: Insights From The Transcriptions And Annotations Of Letters To His Father And His Contributions To North Carolina Ichthyology, Bryn H. Tracy, Robert E. Jenkins

Southeastern Fishes Council Proceedings

Since 1870, ichthyologists have pondered Edward Drinker Cope’s two publications: “On some Etheostomine Perch from Tennessee and North Carolina” and “A Partial Synopsis of the Fishes of the Fresh Waters of North Carolina”, along with correspondences to his father while traveling in North Carolina. We transcribed and annotated four of his letters searching for further knowledge regarding his field notebook(s) and original data (meristics, morphometrics, life coloration, etc.) from his travels across NC during Summer and Fall of 1869. However, unresolved questions remained - many related to unaccounted for periods of time. We did not achieve insights into who ...


The Histone Variant H2av Regulates Stress Responses And Tissue Development Through Interactions With Chromatin Insulator Proteins In Drosophila Melanogaster, James Ryan Simmons Aug 2021

The Histone Variant H2av Regulates Stress Responses And Tissue Development Through Interactions With Chromatin Insulator Proteins In Drosophila Melanogaster, James Ryan Simmons

Doctoral Dissertations

The ability of a cell to sense and respond to various forms of stress is essential to maintain integrity of the genome. Numerous pathways have been implicated in cellular responses to environmental and genotoxic stresses, often involving proteins and complexes that bind DNA directly to orchestrate changes in transcription and genome organization. Chromatin insulators describe a class of protein complex that bind specific sequences in the genome and work through two classically described functions: to restrict communication between enhancers and promoters through physical separation into different genomic domains and to prevent the spread of heterochromatin into euchromatic regions of the ...


Insights Into Steinernema Carpocapsae-Xenorhabdus Nematophila Specificity And The Role Of Adult Nematode Colonization, Erin Mans Aug 2021

Insights Into Steinernema Carpocapsae-Xenorhabdus Nematophila Specificity And The Role Of Adult Nematode Colonization, Erin Mans

Doctoral Dissertations

The gut microbiota can provide the host with several benefits such as the production of secondary metabolites, essential amino acids, as well as the breakdown of food or protection from pathogens. The host in turn provides the microbiota with shelter and nutrients. Given the benefits that the host and microbiota receive from their association, humans and the microbiota have evolved mechanisms of selection and specificity to assure the proper symbionts colonize a host with high fidelity. Chapter two will explore mechanisms by which Xenorhabdus nematophila nematode intestinal localization (nil) genes interact with and adhere to the nematode intestinal cell surface ...


Birds And Bioenergy: A Modeling Framework For Managed Landscapes At Multiple Spatial Scales, Jasmine Asha Kreig Aug 2021

Birds And Bioenergy: A Modeling Framework For Managed Landscapes At Multiple Spatial Scales, Jasmine Asha Kreig

Doctoral Dissertations

This dissertation examines the design and management of bioenergy landscapes at multiple spatial scales given numerous objectives. Objectives include biodiversity outcomes, biomass feedstock yields, and economic value.

Our study examined biodiversity metrics for 25 avian species in Iowa, including subsets of these species related to ecosystem services. We used our species distribution model (SDM) framework to determine the importance of predictors related to switchgrass production on species richness. We found that distance to water, mean diurnal temperature range, and herbicide application rate were the three most important predictors of biodiversity overall. We found that 76% of species responded positively to ...


The Effects Of Maturation On Acl Loading, Muscle Coordination, And Metabolic Cost In Adolescent Female Soccer Players, Lauren E. Schroeder Aug 2021

The Effects Of Maturation On Acl Loading, Muscle Coordination, And Metabolic Cost In Adolescent Female Soccer Players, Lauren E. Schroeder

Doctoral Dissertations

Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries remain a significant, season-ending injury in youth soccer, with young female athletes exhibiting higher incidence rates compared to young male athletes. ACL injury rates increase with older ages, with female soccer players 15 years or older being at an almost twofold increased rate of injury compared to young female soccer players. Several biomechanical and neuromuscular changes occur during the maturation process, becoming more prevalent in young females, that can place them at an increased risk for ACL injury. These biomechanical and neuromuscular changes can affect how efficient young females are when completing high-risk, dynamic tasks ...