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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

It’S Art About Water Treatment! An Interview With Mallory Chaput, The Artist Inspiring Future Water Leaders-One Artwork At A Time, Swati Hegde Apr 2022

It’S Art About Water Treatment! An Interview With Mallory Chaput, The Artist Inspiring Future Water Leaders-One Artwork At A Time, Swati Hegde

wH2O: The Journal of Gender and Water

This article throws a spotlight on Mallory Chaput, an artist inspiring future water leaders to take up water careers. Through her coloring pages, paintings, and comics about the water treatment, Mallory is helping children re-imagine the water sector. Originally a landscaper, Mallory developed a profound interest in water and wastewater treatment and learned about it by visiting plants, talking to professionals, and studying engineering books. This article is a transcript of an interview with Mallory, featuring her background, her imaginative creations and her future goals.


Where There Are No Sewers: The Toilet Cleaners Of Lucknow, Sharada Prasad, Isha Ray Apr 2022

Where There Are No Sewers: The Toilet Cleaners Of Lucknow, Sharada Prasad, Isha Ray

wH2O: The Journal of Gender and Water

Enormous progress has been made in the global effort to provide safe and affordable toilets for the world’s poorest citizens since World Toilet Day was first declared in 2001. Significant strides have been made in “reinventing” toilet designs for low-income, water-short, un-sewered urban zones; celebrities such as Bill Gates and Matt Damon have brought this once-taboo topic into the open; and the Prime Minister of India – the country with the highest number of people still practicing open defecation – has publicly declared that his country needs toilets over temples.

Well over 2 billion people today lack access to basic sanitation ...


El Agua Es Oro: A Human Centered Solution For The City Of Cochabamba, Bolivia, Natalia Mendoza, Camilia Olmedo Apr 2022

El Agua Es Oro: A Human Centered Solution For The City Of Cochabamba, Bolivia, Natalia Mendoza, Camilia Olmedo

wH2O: The Journal of Gender and Water

The purpose of El Agua Es Oro (The Water is Gold) is to satisfy social needs, specifically for women living in peri-urban areas, with a more advanced efficiency. El Agua Es Oro creates an added value for people’s well-being by maximizing socio-environmental context and not just focusing on for-profit economics. Nevertheless, it is noteworthy to generate economic resources to sustain the impact that the organization seeks to achieve. El Agua Es Oro is a social enterprise based on the application of social innovation with the methodology and tools of a people-centered design, focusing on teenage girls and women. The ...


Climate Change, Differential Impacts On Women And Gender Mainstreaming: A Case Study Of East Rapti Watershed, Nepal, Anupama Ray Apr 2022

Climate Change, Differential Impacts On Women And Gender Mainstreaming: A Case Study Of East Rapti Watershed, Nepal, Anupama Ray

wH2O: The Journal of Gender and Water

Women and water share a great deal of nexus in several ways. However, women have still minimal control over the management of water resources, making them more vulnerable to climate change. This paper assesses how climate change impacts differently across different women groups using an intersectionality lens, thereby exploring the situation of gender mainstreaming in water sector in three communities, namely, Karaiya, Basauli, and Dadagaun in Khairahani Municipality located in the East Rapti watershed, Nepal. In this perception- based study, we conducted three key informant interviews and household interviews with 45 women of different castes, ages, communities, education levels, and ...


Gender In The Water Industry One Man Of Transgender Experience’S Story, Ari Copeland Apr 2022

Gender In The Water Industry One Man Of Transgender Experience’S Story, Ari Copeland

wH2O: The Journal of Gender and Water

is a complex topic Most people often confuse gender and sex; Most folks don’t realize that there are at least 57 genders and gender is a spectrum Some people within our workplace and the water industry don’t identify as a man or a woman, and/or their gender is more fluid (gender-expansive. In our day-to-day interactions with others, we often assume someone’s gender based on their appearance, mannerisms, and other social cues that vary depending on the culture Additionally, assuming everyone fits into the gender binary (just men and women is often-times a barrier to being inclusive ...


Exploring Sustainable Degrowth-Based Adaptation To Climate Change-Aggravated Water Insecurity In Parts Of Rural India: A Gender Relations Approach, Nairita Roy Chaudhuri Apr 2022

Exploring Sustainable Degrowth-Based Adaptation To Climate Change-Aggravated Water Insecurity In Parts Of Rural India: A Gender Relations Approach, Nairita Roy Chaudhuri

wH2O: The Journal of Gender and Water

This article reviews the theoretical concept of ‘sustainable adaptation’ to climate change and water scarcity using a gender-relations approach by answering the following questions: i) What is a sustainable adaptation to climate change? ii) Based on a literature review, how does gender interact with climate change adaptation to water scarcity and droughts in rural India? (iii) How do the concepts of sustainable adaptation, degrowth, and gender relations interact on the ground, pertaining to water justice?

The paper argues that climate change adaptation and development goals can harmonize only if they rectify root causes of vulnerabilities. For adaptation actions to yield ...


Access To Clean Water For Women In Iraq: Accorded Rights, Bakir H. Amin Feb 2022

Access To Clean Water For Women In Iraq: Accorded Rights, Bakir H. Amin

wH2O: The Journal of Gender and Water

After the Iraqi government was established in 1921, it had a little problem receiving a sufficient quantity of high-quality water from the Euphrates and Tigris Rivers. However, the upstream countries of Turkey, Syria, and Iran soon built dams and canal on the shared rivers in the latter half of the 20th century. Furthermore, engaged in prolonged military conflicts such as the Iranian-Iraq War of the 1980s, the Gulf War of the 1990s, the US-led invasion of Iraq in 2003, and the ongoing ISIS occupation in the region, Iraq’s political, economic, and social infrastructures have been crippled in the wake ...


Fake Data, Nicky Agate Jan 2022

Fake Data, Nicky Agate

Research Data

No abstract provided.


Physical Models Of Living Systems Prologue: A Breakthrough On Hiv, Philip C. Nelson Nov 2021

Physical Models Of Living Systems Prologue: A Breakthrough On Hiv, Philip C. Nelson

Department of Physics Papers

No abstract provided.


Improving Healthspan Through Patient-Derived Artificial Organs From Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells And Two-Photon Polymerization, Connor Espenshade Sep 2021

Improving Healthspan Through Patient-Derived Artificial Organs From Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells And Two-Photon Polymerization, Connor Espenshade

Protocols and Reports

Senescence, from the shortening of telomeres, accumulation of mutations, epigenetic hypomethylation, and other causes, begins an eventual cycle of decline in every patient. Stem cells disappear as a function of age, which in turn impairs cellular replication. Moreover, when fully differentiated cells are induced back into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), they not only revert to a state of pre-differentiation, but also to a younger cellular age. Their aging clocks turn back: their telomeres become longer and DNA methylation reverts back to an earlier age. It should therefore be possible to use iPSCs to replace the missing stem cells from ...


Physical Models Of Living Systems New Chapter: Single Particle Reconstruction In Cryo-Electron Microscopy, Philip C. Nelson Jun 2021

Physical Models Of Living Systems New Chapter: Single Particle Reconstruction In Cryo-Electron Microscopy, Philip C. Nelson

Department of Physics Papers

This chapter extends Part III of the book Physical Models of Living Systems (WH Freeman 2015). This preliminary version is made freely available as-is in the hope that it will be useful.


Women Water Leaders In The Making: South Asian Water Leadership Programme On Climate Change, Sreenita Mondal, Mansee Bal Bhargava, Mélanie Robertson Mar 2021

Women Water Leaders In The Making: South Asian Water Leadership Programme On Climate Change, Sreenita Mondal, Mansee Bal Bhargava, Mélanie Robertson

wH2O: The Journal of Gender and Water

The South Asia Consortium for Interdisciplinary Water Resources Studies (Saci- WATERs) a water policy research institute based in Hyderabad, India, launched the South Asian Water (SAWA) Leadership Programme on climate change in 2017. The SaciWATERs is hosting the programme in collaboration with four partner engineering institutes from four South Asian countries, and with funding support from the International Development Research Centre (IDRC), Canada. This academic-oriented programme is aimed at facilitating the creation of a group of interdisciplinary women leaders in South Asia that share a common understanding of the crosscutting scientific and societal issues of water resource management. The four-year ...


Eleanor Allen: On A Mission To Provide Safe Water For Everyone, Forever, Wh2o Staff Mar 2021

Eleanor Allen: On A Mission To Provide Safe Water For Everyone, Forever, Wh2o Staff

wH2O: The Journal of Gender and Water

Eleanor Allen is a global water expert dedicated to helping millions of people access the safe and sustainable water and sanitation services needed to save lives, stay healthy, earn more money, and thrive. Eleanor is fiercely passionate about improving the state of the world with respect to water and sanitation. She has dedicated her career to this goal, first as a Peace Corps volunteer in the Dominican Republic, then as a consulting engineer (at CH2M/Jacobs and Arcadis), and now as the CEO of Water For People. Eleanor has lived and worked all over the world. As a professional civil ...


Addressing Women’S Sanitation-Related Safety Concerns In Slums Of Maharashtra, India, Mehul Banka, Pratima Joshi, Smita Kale Mar 2021

Addressing Women’S Sanitation-Related Safety Concerns In Slums Of Maharashtra, India, Mehul Banka, Pratima Joshi, Smita Kale

wH2O: The Journal of Gender and Water

Through this paper we explore women’s vulnerability during sanitation activities and the impact that household toilets have on women’s safety-related concerns. This study covers 4 cities in the state of Maharashtra– Pune, Pimpri- Chinchwad, Thane, and Kolhapur - where Shelter Associates has provided many slum households with toilets under its One Home One Toilet (OHOT) programme. A good part of the programme’s intention is to offer women an alternative to using their existing, inadequate public sanitation facilities, a problem that was highlighted during discussions with slum women themselves. Shelter Associates is a Maharashtra-based NGO established in 1993 that ...


Pushing Forward In The Changing Water Sector: An Interview With Kishia L. Powell, Coo, Dc Water, Abigail Drabick Mar 2021

Pushing Forward In The Changing Water Sector: An Interview With Kishia L. Powell, Coo, Dc Water, Abigail Drabick

wH2O: The Journal of Gender and Water

Kishia Powell is a licensed Professional Engineer in the District of Columbia, Virginia and Maryland. She holds a Bachelor of Science degree in Civil Engineering from Morgan State University’s Clarence M. Mitchell, Jr. School of Engineering. Currently, Powell is Chief Operating Officer at DC Water, where she manages 80% of the water authority’s resources. With over 22 years of experience, Kishia Powell sheds light on the value of water, her experience as a leader and a woman in the water utilities industry, the COVID-19 pandemic, and climate change in this interview with The Journal of Gender and Water ...


Here, There, And Everywhere: The Problem With Microplastics In Water And What Women Scientists Are Doing To Solve It, Pamela Lazos Mar 2021

Here, There, And Everywhere: The Problem With Microplastics In Water And What Women Scientists Are Doing To Solve It, Pamela Lazos

wH2O: The Journal of Gender and Water

Plastics — ubiquitous material we cannot seem to live without — are everywhere, but sadly we cannot live with plastics either, at least not peaceably, especially when you consider there will be more plastics in the ocean than fish by 2050. In the intervening years, the photodegradation of plastic resulting in microplastics pollution will be an even bigger problem, affecting every living creature in the ocean, and by extrapolation, mankind. The choices we make and the steps we take to combat the overabundance of plastics in our environment will dictate not just the next 30 years, but the fate of the world ...


Brianna Huber On Women In Leadership, Her2o™, And The Future Of Water, Wh2o Staff Mar 2021

Brianna Huber On Women In Leadership, Her2o™, And The Future Of Water, Wh2o Staff

wH2O: The Journal of Gender and Water

Brianna is both the founder/executive director of Her 2O™ and director of Water Filtration at a municipal drinking water utility. She achieves her primary goal of #buildingthefutureofwater by focusing on four important facets of the water industry: women in water, internships & mentoring, smart water & analytics, and emergency management. Her 2O™ is an international 501c3 nonprofit with the vision of women equitably involved in water management in every corner of the globe. This transcript provides an interview with Brianna about her inspirational journey in the water sector.


Overcoming Barriers To Women’S Participation In Water Supply Through Innovative Technology, Gillian Winkler, Nisha Chakravarty Mar 2021

Overcoming Barriers To Women’S Participation In Water Supply Through Innovative Technology, Gillian Winkler, Nisha Chakravarty

wH2O: The Journal of Gender and Water

Research from the global development sector repeatedly shows that convenient access to safe water improves women’s quality of life. Similarly, digital technology is increasingly highlighted as an essential component for increasing women’s educational, economic, and civic opportunities—yet a gender divide exists. As digital technology becomes more prevalent in managing effective and reliable safe water services, the water sector has the opportunity to both create new channels for women to engage with technology and use technology to make safe water supply more responsive to women’s needs. In this article, we will explore how technology is deployed within ...


Contributions Of The Women Groups Of West Bengal, India For Solving Rural Water Challenges, Mina Das Mar 2021

Contributions Of The Women Groups Of West Bengal, India For Solving Rural Water Challenges, Mina Das

wH2O: The Journal of Gender and Water

Poor rural communities suffer from many socio-economic issues; however, the availability of clean and safe water is the fundamental challenge amongst all other hindrances confronted by these communities. This article focuses on the non-profit organization, Nishtha (meaning dedication) and their intervention in women empowerment for better water accessibility in rural communities of West Bengal, India. The paper will further highlight the so-called “rural ignorant women’s endeavour” in innovative thought and strategy to protect their own families and the community. The article also discusses Nishtha’s intervention during water crises and disasters using a participatory approach involving women.


Irrigation In Agriculture: A Driver Of Social Differentiation And An Empowering Livelihood Option For Rural Women, Laura Imburgia, Henny Osbahr, Sarah Cardey, Janet Momsen Mar 2021

Irrigation In Agriculture: A Driver Of Social Differentiation And An Empowering Livelihood Option For Rural Women, Laura Imburgia, Henny Osbahr, Sarah Cardey, Janet Momsen

wH2O: The Journal of Gender and Water

This paper presents empirical evidence on issues of gender roles, agricultural livelihoods, and social differentiation in communal small-scale irrigation studied in Ethiopia and Argentina. Findings revealed that irrespective of the cultural setting, many women in irrigation remain constrained by structural inequalities regarding access to secure, reliable and affordable irrigation water. These constraints are driven by entrenched power dynamics, social relations and wealth handicaps. These findings contrast with long-standing efforts to devise agricultural policies aimed at reducing gender asymmetries and improving conditions for women in agriculture. In this paper, the case for strengthening irrigation as an empowering livelihood option for rural ...


Community Effort For Drinking Water Management Near India- China Border At Jamak Village District Uttarkashi, Uttarakhand, India, Kamlesh Gururani Mar 2021

Community Effort For Drinking Water Management Near India- China Border At Jamak Village District Uttarkashi, Uttarakhand, India, Kamlesh Gururani

wH2O: The Journal of Gender and Water

In Uttarakhand, drinking water is a major problem and a burning issue for the last decade. Many natural springs that dotted the hillside have been damaged due to the climate conditions and other unplanned or illegal activities such as deforestation and human-made forest fires have affected spring catchments, resulting in reduced discharge from springs. To tackle this major problem of drinking water security, the community of mountain village Jamak, district Uttarkashi came together for community-led drinking water supply by adopting participatory planning and ownership. The village community’s participation and ownership improved the village’s drinking water situation, and villagers ...


Insights Into Functional Noncoding Rna Elements Through The Analysis Of Human Genetic Variation, David Sheng Ming Lee Jan 2021

Insights Into Functional Noncoding Rna Elements Through The Analysis Of Human Genetic Variation, David Sheng Ming Lee

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Most of the human genome is noncoding but knowing how and when genetic variation in noncoding regions of the genome can impact biology and disease susceptibility remains challenging. Here, we apply an integrated genomics approach towards understanding and elucidating new patterns of functional genetic variation in untranslated regions of protein-coding messenger RNAs.

G-quadruplex (G4) sequences are abundant in untranslated regions (UTRs) of human messenger RNAs, but their functional importance remains unclear. In Part 1 of this dissertation, we integrate multiple sources of genetic and genomic data to show that putative G-quadruplex forming sequences (pG4) in 5’ and 3’ UTRs are ...


Modeling Genetic, Neural And Behavioral Correlates Of Substance Use Disorders In Mice, Julia Katherine Brynildsen Jan 2021

Modeling Genetic, Neural And Behavioral Correlates Of Substance Use Disorders In Mice, Julia Katherine Brynildsen

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Over the past several decades, research in animal models has advanced our understanding of the neurobiological underpinnings of substance use disorders. Influences on drug abuse liability are broad and multifaceted, and include environmental, genetic and epigenetic factors. A history of chronic drug use may also induce persistent changes in the brain that contribute to high rates of relapse.

The collection of studies described herein serves to further our understanding of substance dependence across genetic, neural and behavioral scales. First, we apply systems approaches to characterize changes in the functional architecture of the brain following chronic opiate exposure. We relate these ...


A Scalable, Point-Of-Care, Microfluidic Approach For Assessing Thrombosis And Hemostasis, Jason M. Rossi Jan 2021

A Scalable, Point-Of-Care, Microfluidic Approach For Assessing Thrombosis And Hemostasis, Jason M. Rossi

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Coagulation testing is an important diagnostic tool for the detection of excessive bleeding risk or obstructive clot formation (thrombosis), using blood samples from patients. Microfluidic flow devices have been well established to provide insights on the impacts of shear rate, drug action, and disease state on coagulation and platelet biology. The bulk of the microfluidic devices and assays used in the past have relied upon manual assembly using poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), a material and construction method not well suited to use in a clinical setting. This thesis describes the design and testing of a single-use, storage stable evolution of previous ...


Imaging Glutamate In The Human Brain At Ultra-High Magnetic Field: Advances And Applications, Abigail Talya Jordan Cember Jan 2021

Imaging Glutamate In The Human Brain At Ultra-High Magnetic Field: Advances And Applications, Abigail Talya Jordan Cember

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Glutamate is one of the primary neurotransmitters in the human brain, and many unanswered questions in neuroscience, psychiatry and medicine revolve around this molecule: its production, transport, conversion or degradation, regulation and effects. Yet, to date, methods for actually measuring glutamate within the human body are extremely limited. Amongst the few options in the medical imaging toolbox are magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and a recently introduced specialized form of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) known as glutamate-weighted chemical exchange saturation transfer imaging, or gluCEST. MRS, while providing good specificity at high field strengths, lacks spatial or temporal resolution. GluCEST has the ...


Interactions Of Highly Pathogenic Human Coronaviruses With Dsrna-Induced Innate Immune Pathways, Courtney Elizabeth Comar Jan 2021

Interactions Of Highly Pathogenic Human Coronaviruses With Dsrna-Induced Innate Immune Pathways, Courtney Elizabeth Comar

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

In the last decade, two novel coronaviruses have emerged from zoonotic sources to humans. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) emerged in 2012 causing several outbreaks of severe respiratory illness with a high case fatality ratio of 35%. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in late 2019 causing a devastating pandemic that has caused over 2.7 million deaths in over 124 million cases as of March 2021. Coronaviruses are positive sense single-stranded RNA viruses and are adept at delaying or suppressing activation of innate immune responses in their hosts, despite detectable double-stranded (ds)RNA production during infection ...


Essays On Networks In Macroeconomics And Finance, Wu Zhu Jan 2021

Essays On Networks In Macroeconomics And Finance, Wu Zhu

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

This thesis consists of three essays that examine theoretically and empirically the implications of networks in business cycles, economic recovery, systemic risk, corporate finance and governance, and asset pricing.

This first chapter emphasizes the role of networks in driving economic recovery from recessions and its role in asset pricing. It is based on a joint work with Yucheng Yang. The speed at which the US economy has recovered from recessions ranges from months to years. We propose a model incorporating the innovation network, the production network, and cross-sectional shocks and show that their interactions jointly explain large variations in the ...


The Integrator Complex: A Multi-Tool For Metazoan Transcription, Sarah A. Welsh Jan 2021

The Integrator Complex: A Multi-Tool For Metazoan Transcription, Sarah A. Welsh

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Transcriptional regulation is fundamental for the function and proliferation of eukaryotic cells. Since the discovery of RNA Polymerase II (RNAPII), our understanding of the mechanisms of transcription has transformed what we know about basic cell biology and its impact on disease. Precise timing and coordination of gene expression is vital for the proper development of eukaryotes, and dysregulation of transcription is a hallmark of tumorigenesis. To translate our knowledge of cellular processes into innovations for cancer and developmental disease, a comprehensive understanding of transcription is essential. The Integrator Complex is a transcriptional co-regulator complex found only in metazoa. Integrator has ...


Response To Stress By The Tumor Microenvironment, Kerry Carl Roby Jan 2021

Response To Stress By The Tumor Microenvironment, Kerry Carl Roby

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Fibroblasts are typically quiescent and tumor suppressive in adult mammals but secrete factors upon activation in benign and malignant diseases such as wound healing and tumor growth1. As residents of the tumor microenvironment (TME), fibroblasts are subjected to the same stresses that tumor cells experience including nutrient deprivation that activates the integrated stress response (ISR) pathway. This eventually leads to either apoptosis due to intense or prolonged stress or autophagy to promote cellular survival in the absence of essential nutrients2–5. Studies have shown that nutrient deprivation also activates the tumor suppressor p53 in fibroblasts. However, little is known about ...


Mutant P53 Mechanisms And Functions In Esophageal Cancer, Qiaosi Tang Jan 2021

Mutant P53 Mechanisms And Functions In Esophageal Cancer, Qiaosi Tang

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is the major subtype of esophageal cancer and one of the most lethal cancers worldwide. Invasion and lung metastasis frequently occur in ESCC, thereby leading to poor prognosis. The most frequently mutated gene in ESCC is TP53. P53R175H (homologous to Trp53R172H in mice) is a common “hot spot” mutation. How p53R175H regulates invasion and metastasis in ESCC remains to be investigated. To address this fundamental question in ESCC and possibly applicable to other cancers, we modeled ESCC with a carcinogen exposure toTrp53R172H/- mice. In the primary Trp53R172H/- tumor cell lines, depletion of Trp53R172H reduced cell ...