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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Blood Pressure Awareness Among University Of Northern Iowa Students, Abigail Weekley, Theresa Spradling, Robert Good Jul 2020

Blood Pressure Awareness Among University Of Northern Iowa Students, Abigail Weekley, Theresa Spradling, Robert Good

Summer Undergraduate Research Program (SURP)

No abstract provided.


Sacrificial Seed’S Impact On Native Seedling Establishment In Prairie Restoration, Jacey Meier, Isabella Betzer, Laura Jackson Jul 2020

Sacrificial Seed’S Impact On Native Seedling Establishment In Prairie Restoration, Jacey Meier, Isabella Betzer, Laura Jackson

Summer Undergraduate Research Program (SURP)

No abstract provided.


Editing Fusarium Graminearum Using Crispr/Cas9, Grace Marie Sack May 2020

Editing Fusarium Graminearum Using Crispr/Cas9, Grace Marie Sack

Honors Program Theses

Fusarium graminearum is a pathogenic fungus that causes scab or Fusarium head blight disease in barley and wheat. Alternative approaches to protect barley from this devastating disease are badly needed. In recent years, an RNA-guided genome-editing system known as clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat and CRISPR-associated protein 9 (CRISPR/Cas9), has become a popular method for genome modification (Jinek et al., 2012). We applied CRISPR/Cas9 technology in an effort to make F. graminearum less infectious. We used CRISPR/Cas9 plasmids constructed by a former UNI student (Akers, 2019) to mutate three genes in F. graminearum. One of the ...


Association Between Wild Bee Communities And Floral Resources In The Conservation Reserve Program, Allison Eagan May 2020

Association Between Wild Bee Communities And Floral Resources In The Conservation Reserve Program, Allison Eagan

Honors Program Theses

Due to the significance of the plant-pollinator relationship, the loss of pollinators may impose widespread effects on plant communities. Pollinator declines raise questions for the future of agricultural productivity, food security, and human health. Due to the large diversity of the wild bee population and their essential role as pollinators of natural land and agricultural crops, implementing conservation practices are necessary to preserve decreasing populations. Previous conservation efforts have been limited to planting native flowering forbs in unused fields or hedgerows bordering farms and roadsides in order to establish sufficient floral resources. However, restored prairies have the ability to support ...


Identification Of Genome-Linked Bacillus Bacteriophage Proteins, Katherine Dyer May 2020

Identification Of Genome-Linked Bacillus Bacteriophage Proteins, Katherine Dyer

Honors Program Theses

Small viruses that can infect bacteria, called bacteriophages, can be found in the soil. These viruses are being examined as a potential treatment against bacterial infections when antibiotics are not available or non-effective. Before viruses can be used as a medical treatment, they must be studied extensively. Previous attempts to sequence the terminal end of the genome of a bacteriophage QCM-11 (Quartz-Crystal-Microbalance-11: Q11) resulted in error. It is thought that a covalently bound protein may be attached to Q11’s DNA, blocking sequencing of the genome from the 5’ end. Proteins bound to the DNA of phages is not unheard ...


Literature Review: The Role Of Inflammatory Biomarkers In The Connections Between Sleep And Chronic Health Conditions, Madeline Walker May 2020

Literature Review: The Role Of Inflammatory Biomarkers In The Connections Between Sleep And Chronic Health Conditions, Madeline Walker

Honors Program Theses

Decades of research has shown that sleep plays a vital role in our health, and disruptions in sleep can have long term detrimental effects on our lives (Yoo, 2007). The recommended amount of sleep by the National Sleep Foundation (NSF) for adults is between 7-9 hours each night (NSF, 2020). It is common knowledge that too few hours of sleep are unhealthy, but scientists are only beginning to understand the mechanisms that explain the connections between sleep patterns and health outcomes (CDC, 2011). Additionally, recent research has shown that excess sleep can be just as detrimental, if not more, to ...


Seasonal Habitat Usage Of Iowa Wood Turtles (Glyptemys Insculpta), Amanda Stewart May 2020

Seasonal Habitat Usage Of Iowa Wood Turtles (Glyptemys Insculpta), Amanda Stewart

Honors Program Theses

Iowa wood turtles (Glyptemys insculpta) were tracked using radio telemetry to compare juvenile, male, and female habitat usage during specific seasonal activity periods. Field data collected included: time, geographic location, habitat type, surrounding vegetation type and abundance, ambient weather conditions, turtle body temperature and mass, water depth (when aquatic), distance from water, behavior category, and amount of exposure to UV light. While active in 2017 – 2019, the wood turtle population at three Iowa sites was 53% terrestrial and 47% aquatic, with the most frequent respective habitats being emergent clearings (grasses, forbs, saplings) and lotic (river, stream, creek). Females were more ...


Construction Of A Target-Specific Crispr-Cas9 Vector For The Purpose Of Introducing Mutations Into The Fum1 Gene Of Fusarium Verticillioides, Jennifer Petsche May 2020

Construction Of A Target-Specific Crispr-Cas9 Vector For The Purpose Of Introducing Mutations Into The Fum1 Gene Of Fusarium Verticillioides, Jennifer Petsche

Honors Program Theses

In molecular biology, CRISPR-Cas9 is a useful gene editing tool that takes advantage of a powerful cleaving enzyme and DNA sequences found in prokaryotes. In this study, a target-specific CRISPR-Cas9 vector containing an RNA-guided Cas9 nuclease specific for the FUM1 gene was constructed for the purpose of introducing mutations into the FUM1 gene of Fusarium verticillioides. Plasmids pFC332 and pFC334 were isolated. A guide RNA sequence was designed and amplified using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) with pFC334 as the template. Sticky ends were created through restriction enzyme digestion of pFC332. These pieces were combined using Uracil-Specific Excision Reagent (USER) fusion ...


Levels Of Cyclin B In Thp-1 Cells Incubated In Hibernating And Non-Hibernating Bullfrog Plasma, Lithobates Catesbeianus, Tharuka D. Pathmaperuma May 2020

Levels Of Cyclin B In Thp-1 Cells Incubated In Hibernating And Non-Hibernating Bullfrog Plasma, Lithobates Catesbeianus, Tharuka D. Pathmaperuma

Dissertations and Theses @ UNI

Hibernation is a process that occurs in nature where organisms undergo dormancy for long periods of time in order to improve their survival during extreme environmental conditions. During this time, organisms undergo physiological changes such as reduction in core body temperature and metabolic rate, as well as cells being impeded from going into mitosis. Alvarado et al. (2015) discovered that genomic DNA methylation is dynamic across torpor-arousal bouts during winter hibernation in thirteen lined ground squirrels (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus), indicating that physiological changes during hibernation are the results of more than simply cold temperatures slowing down metabolism and that there are ...


Young Athletes' Perceptions Of Playing Through Pain, Aubri Keesee May 2020

Young Athletes' Perceptions Of Playing Through Pain, Aubri Keesee

Dissertations and Theses @ UNI

Throughout the early career of an athlete, they are introduced and socialized into the sport ethic culture of risk of playing through pain. The purpose of this paper was to examine factors thought to influence young athletes’ conformity to the sport ethic by playing through pain. These factors included: athletic identity, fear of failure, and perceived pressure from important others to play through pain (Jessiman-Perreault & Godley, 2016; Nixon, 1994). The researcher contacted sport club organizations, recreational clubs, and school principals to seek cooperation. Participants included 140 male and female athletes aged 11-18 years old. Participants completed the Risk of Pain and Injury ...


Carbon Sequestration And Weedy Invasion In Crp Fields, Destiny Danielle Magee May 2020

Carbon Sequestration And Weedy Invasion In Crp Fields, Destiny Danielle Magee

Dissertations and Theses @ UNI

No abstract provided.


Richard Walther Darré, National Socialism, And Bauernpolitik, Andrew P. Harnois May 2020

Richard Walther Darré, National Socialism, And Bauernpolitik, Andrew P. Harnois

Dissertations and Theses @ UNI

Richard Walther Darré joined the National Socialist German Workers Party in 1930 at the behest of Adolf Hitler and was Germany’s Reichsminister of Agriculture from 1933 to 1942. Darré was recruited by Hitler because of his Blood and Soil ideology. This ideology was peasant-centric and argued that the German peasant embodied the ideal racial form and pushed for a rebirth of German agriculture.

This thesis examines the career of Richard Walther Darré and focuses on two questions: first, what role did Darré’s Blood and Soil ideology play in his rise and removal from power; and, second, does Darré ...


Assessing Cp - 42 Habitat Value For Bees Using The Floral Resource Index, Allison Eagan Mar 2020

Assessing Cp - 42 Habitat Value For Bees Using The Floral Resource Index, Allison Eagan

Research in the Capitol

The large portion of native prairies in Iowa has been drastically reduced to 0.01%. Habitat loss is one of the main contributors to the massive decline in the native bee population. Native pollinators are essential to the ecosystem and pollination of row crops. The Conservation Reserve Program launched the CP-42 program for forbs and grasses to be planted to increase pollinator habitat. We assessed CP-42 habitat value by analyzing the correlation of the sites’ floral resources with bee density. Floral resources were recorded from live flowers, and bees were captured using sweep netting techniques. The data suggests that a ...


Characterization Of A New Mtdna Minicircle In A Chewing Louse, Geomydoecus Aurei, Ashley L. Campbell, Dino Bolic, James W. Demastes, Theresa A. Spradling Mar 2020

Characterization Of A New Mtdna Minicircle In A Chewing Louse, Geomydoecus Aurei, Ashley L. Campbell, Dino Bolic, James W. Demastes, Theresa A. Spradling

Research in the Capitol

The mitochondrion, an organelle responsible for generating cellular energy, is unlike the majority of organelles in animal cells. Because of its symbiotic origins, the mitochondrion contains its own genetic information (mtDNA) that is predominantly maternally inherited. In most animals, the mitochondrial DNA is arranged in one circular chromosome containing 13 protein coding genes, 22 tRNAs and two rRNAs. In Geomydoecus aurei, a chewing louse, these same genes have been disbursed among at least 13 independent minicircle chromosomes. We have worked to map this atypical genome to gain insights into its development and to further understanding of genomic rearrangements in this ...


Genetic Variation Within A Broadly Distributed Chewing Louse Genus (Thomomydoecus), Clarissa Elizabeth Bruns Jan 2020

Genetic Variation Within A Broadly Distributed Chewing Louse Genus (Thomomydoecus), Clarissa Elizabeth Bruns

Honors Program Theses

No broad study has been conducted to examine the genetics of Thomomydoecus species and their patterns of geographic variation. Chewing lice and their parasite-host relationships with pocket gophers have been studied as a key example of cophylogeny (Demastes et al., 2012). Despite this, genetic data on interspecific and intraspecific variation in Thomomydoecus is unexplored, and prior studies consisted within the narrow frame of one complex or species and its relative host gopher. This project collected, and analyzed genetic data, then generated phylogenetic trees. Many of the existing relationships between Thomomydoecus species was confirmed, and there were a number of unexpected ...


Evaluation Of The Csr1-2 Allele From Arabidopsis Thaliana Cs3102 As An Imazapyr Herbicide Resistance Marker For Biolistic Transformation Of The Shoot Apical Meristem, Amanda J. Stump Jan 2020

Evaluation Of The Csr1-2 Allele From Arabidopsis Thaliana Cs3102 As An Imazapyr Herbicide Resistance Marker For Biolistic Transformation Of The Shoot Apical Meristem, Amanda J. Stump

Dissertations and Theses @ UNI

Plant genetic engineering requires a marker gene to differentiate transformed cells. To test the csr1-2 allele as a selectable marker for the shoot apical meristem (SAM), we cloned a genomic fragment from Arabidopsis thaliana mutant CS3102 which contained the coding sequence and promoter. We then evaluated the utility of this allele on two model systems, Arabidopsis and tobacco, with soybean as the positive control. Initial dose-response experiments were conducted using a seedling plate assay to determine the lethal dose of imazapyr. For the mutant Arabidopsis thaliana CS3102, a concentration of 500 μM imazapyr was required to overcome the resistance phenotype ...


Recoverability Of Large Vs Small Muscle Groups, Jacob Alan Clark Jan 2020

Recoverability Of Large Vs Small Muscle Groups, Jacob Alan Clark

Dissertations and Theses @ UNI

The purpose of this study was to assess differences in recovery between muscles with larger cross-sectional area (Quadriceps) compared to muscles with smaller cross-sectional area (Biceps). Recreationally trained male weight lifters aged 18-30 (n = 9) volunteered in this muscle recovery study. All participants were asked to attend two testing sessions in addition to an initial meeting, all of which took no more than 45-mintues per session to complete. After this initial session where the 10 RM in the biceps curl and quadricep extension were determined, participants were scheduled to perform the biceps curl and quad extension for four sets to ...


Sown And Unsown Floral Resources Both Support Bee Abundance, Pryce Johnson, Kenneth Elgersma, Ai Wen Aug 2019

Sown And Unsown Floral Resources Both Support Bee Abundance, Pryce Johnson, Kenneth Elgersma, Ai Wen

Summer Undergraduate Research Program (SURP)

The recent decline in native bee populations across the Midwest has been linked to the drastic decrease of prairie habitats and pollinator floral resources. Since the agricultural revolution, grassland areas have been removed and replaced with row crops to meet the needs of expanding markets, including the production of ethanol. In response to the loss of these (and other) essential pollinators, the Conservation Reserve Program administered by the USDA initiated a pollinator habitat initiative called CP-42. Despite efforts to assess the program's success, there is still much that needs to be learned about restoring prairie habitats for bees. With ...


Effects Of Seed Mix And Surrounding Land Cover On Asclepias Syriaca Density In The Conservation Reserve Program's Pollinator Habitat Plantings, Kate Sinnott, Emma Simpson, Kathleen Madsen, Laura Jackson Aug 2019

Effects Of Seed Mix And Surrounding Land Cover On Asclepias Syriaca Density In The Conservation Reserve Program's Pollinator Habitat Plantings, Kate Sinnott, Emma Simpson, Kathleen Madsen, Laura Jackson

Summer Undergraduate Research Program (SURP)

Due to the importance of Asclepias syriaca (common milkweed) to the eastern population of the monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus), it is usually recommended for planting by federal conservation programs and state monarch recovery plans. However, A. syriaca has long been considered a weed, and is commonly found in roadsides and other disturbed landscapes where it has not been deliberately introduced. We wanted to determine if seeding A. syriaca is necessary for its establishment, or if milkweed populations in the surrounding landscape could spread into the plantings. In this study, we examined the density of A. syriaca in relation to the ...


Local And Landscape Effects On Butterfly Abundance In Cp-42 Plantings, Emma Simpson, Kate Sinnott, Mark Myers Aug 2019

Local And Landscape Effects On Butterfly Abundance In Cp-42 Plantings, Emma Simpson, Kate Sinnott, Mark Myers

Summer Undergraduate Research Program (SURP)

No abstract provided.


Assessing Cp - 42 Habitat Value For Bees Using The Floral Resource Index, Allison Eagan, Gabrielle Brown, Ai Wen Aug 2019

Assessing Cp - 42 Habitat Value For Bees Using The Floral Resource Index, Allison Eagan, Gabrielle Brown, Ai Wen

Summer Undergraduate Research Program (SURP)

Prairies once dominated 85% of Iowa. Sadly, that large portion of native prairie has been drastically reduced to 0.01% because of agricultural expansion. Habitat loss is one of the main contributors to the massive decline in the native bee population and its biodiversity. Native pollinators are essential to the ecosystem and play a large role in the pollination of row crops. The Conservation Reserve Program (CRP), administered by the US Department of Agriculture Farm Service Agency, launched the CP-42 program specifically as a Pollinator Habitat Initiative for forbs and grasses to be planted to increase pollinator habitat. However, no ...


Editing Fusarium Graminearum Genome With Crispr/Cas9, Grace Sack, Tilahun Abebe Aug 2019

Editing Fusarium Graminearum Genome With Crispr/Cas9, Grace Sack, Tilahun Abebe

Summer Undergraduate Research Program (SURP)

Fusarium graminearum is a pathogenic fungus that causes scab or Fusarium head blight disease in barley and wheat. The disease not only reduces yield, but it also contaminates the kernel with harmful toxins. Therefore, the disease causes economic loss and poses a health risk to humans and animals (McMullen et al., 2012). There is no natural resistance to scab disease in barley and there are no effective fungicides to control it. Alternative approaches to protect barley from this devastating disease are badly needed. In recent years, an RNA-guided genome-editing system known as clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat and CRISPR-associated ...


The Impact Of Soil Water Storage Capacity On Species-Specific Forb Establishment In Cp42 Fields, Ervina Tabakovic, Mark Sherrard, Kathleen Madsen, Allison Eagan Aug 2019

The Impact Of Soil Water Storage Capacity On Species-Specific Forb Establishment In Cp42 Fields, Ervina Tabakovic, Mark Sherrard, Kathleen Madsen, Allison Eagan

Summer Undergraduate Research Program (SURP)

The loss of tallgrass prairie habitat has negatively impacted North American pollinator communities. To combat this loss, the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) created Conservation Practice (CP) 42 to establish new pollinator habitat on the landscape. A two-year vegetation survey of CP42 sites in Iowa revealed high variability in overall quality (e.g., the ratio of sown forb-to-weed stems ranged from 9:1 to 1:9 across sites ). To examine potential causes of this variability, we assessed whether soil water storage capacity and corn suitability rating influence species-specific forb establishment in 35 surveyed CP42 fields. We estimated forb establishment for the ...


Tallgrass Prairie Center Newsletter, Summer 2019, Tallgrass Prairie Center Jul 2019

Tallgrass Prairie Center Newsletter, Summer 2019, Tallgrass Prairie Center

Tallgrass Prairie Center Newsletter

Inside This Issue:
-- Irvine Prairie
-- Friends of the Tallgrass Prairie Center
-- 2019 Prairie on Farms Field Days
-- Prairie Root Banners
-- County Seed Pick Up
-- Student Research
-- New Staff at the TPC
-- Green Iowa Americorps Land & Water Stewards
-- Iowa's Noxious Weed Law Updated & Improved
-- Honors & Awards
-- Visitors & Community Meetings
-- Ensuring Access to High Quality Native Seed: Lessons Learned from the CRP Pollinator Initiative
-- Save the Date
-- Tallgrass Prairie Center Celebrates 20 Years!


Temporal And Spatial Dynamics Of Competitive Parapatry In Chewing Lice, David J. Hafner, Mark S. Hafner, Theresa A. Spradling, Jessica E. Light, James W. Demastes Jul 2019

Temporal And Spatial Dynamics Of Competitive Parapatry In Chewing Lice, David J. Hafner, Mark S. Hafner, Theresa A. Spradling, Jessica E. Light, James W. Demastes

Faculty Publications

We synthesize observations from 1979 to 2016 of a contact zone involving two subspecies of pocket gophers (Thomomys bottae connectens and T. b. opulentus) and their respective chewing lice (Geomydoecus aurei and G. centralis) along the Rio Grande Valley in New Mexico, U.S.A., to test predictions about the dynamics of the zone. Historically, the natural flood cycle of the Rio Grande prevented contact between the two subspecies of pocket gophers. Flood control measures completed in the 1930s permitted contact, thus establishing the hybrid zone between the pocket gophers and the contact zone between their lice (without hybridization). Since ...


Species Composition Influences Soil Nutrient Depletion And Plantphysiology In Prairie Agroenergy Feedstocks, Mark E. Sherrard, Kenneth Elgersma, Jordan M.A. Koos, Catherine M. Kokemuller, Hannah E. Dietz, Alec J. Glidden, Christina M. Carr, Cynthia A. Cambardella Jul 2019

Species Composition Influences Soil Nutrient Depletion And Plantphysiology In Prairie Agroenergy Feedstocks, Mark E. Sherrard, Kenneth Elgersma, Jordan M.A. Koos, Catherine M. Kokemuller, Hannah E. Dietz, Alec J. Glidden, Christina M. Carr, Cynthia A. Cambardella

Faculty Publications

High-diversity mixtures of perennial tallgrass prairie vegetation could be useful biomass feed-stocks for marginal farmland in the Midwestern United States. These agroenergy crops can help meet cel-lulosic agrofuel targets while also enhancing other ecosystem services on the landscape. One proposedadvantage of high-diversity prairie biomass feedstocks is that they should become nutrient limited at aslower rate than monoculture feedstocks. In this study, we examine rates of soil nutrient depletion and thephysiology and performance of a focal species (switchgrass,Panicum virgatumL.) in four prairie agroen-ergy feedstocks with different species composition and diversity. The feedstocks in this study were a1-species switchgrass monoculture, a ...


Oral Glutamine Supplement Reduces Subjective Fatigue Ratings During Repeated Bouts Of Firefighting Simulations, Mary Moore, Terence A. Moriarty, Gavin Connolly, Christine Mermier, Fabiano Amorim, Kevin Miller, Micah Zuhl Jun 2019

Oral Glutamine Supplement Reduces Subjective Fatigue Ratings During Repeated Bouts Of Firefighting Simulations, Mary Moore, Terence A. Moriarty, Gavin Connolly, Christine Mermier, Fabiano Amorim, Kevin Miller, Micah Zuhl

Kinesiology Faculty Publications

Wildland firefighting requires repetitive (e.g., consecutive work shifts) physical work in dangerous conditions (e.g., heat and pollution). Workers commonly enter these environments in a nonacclimated state, leading to fatigue and heightened injury risk. Strategies to improve tolerance to these stressors are lacking. Purpose: To determine if glutamine ingestion prior to and after consecutive days of firefighting simulations in the heat attenuates subjective ratings of fatigue, and evaluate if results were supported by glutamine-induced upregulation of biological stress responses. Methods: Participants (5 male, 3 female) ingested glutamine (0.15 g/kg/day) or a placebo before and after two ...


Recommendations For Measurement And Management Of An Elite Athlete, William Sands, Marco Cardinale, Jeni Mcneal, Steven Murray, Christopher Sole, Jacob Reed, Nikos Apostolopoulos, Michael Stone May 2019

Recommendations For Measurement And Management Of An Elite Athlete, William Sands, Marco Cardinale, Jeni Mcneal, Steven Murray, Christopher Sole, Jacob Reed, Nikos Apostolopoulos, Michael Stone

Kinesiology Faculty Publications

Athletes who merit the title elite' are rare and differ both quantitatively and qualitatively from athletes of lower qualifications. Serving and studying elite athletes may demand non-traditional approaches. Research involving elite athletes suffers because of the typical nomothetic requirements for large sample sizes and other statistical assumptions that do not apply to this population. Ideographic research uses single-athlete study designs, trend analyses, and statistical process control. Single-athlete designs seek to measure differences in repeated measurements under prescribed conditions, and trend analyses may permit systematic monitoring and prediction of future outcomes. Statistical process control uses control charting and other methods from ...


Host-Parasite Associations Of The Cratogeomys Fumosus Species Group And Their Chewing Lice, Geomydoecus, Alex Popinga, James W. Demastes, Theresa A. Spradling, David J. Hafner, Mark S. Hafner Mar 2019

Host-Parasite Associations Of The Cratogeomys Fumosus Species Group And Their Chewing Lice, Geomydoecus, Alex Popinga, James W. Demastes, Theresa A. Spradling, David J. Hafner, Mark S. Hafner

Faculty Publications

Chewing lice (Phthiraptera: Trichodectidae) and the pocket gophers (Rodentia: Geomyidae) that they inhabit have shared an intimate historical association that has made them a textbook study for cophylogeny. Herein, we examine the chewing lice found on pocket gophers of the Cratogeomys fumosus species group using DNA sequence data from the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene to determine relationships among lice for comparison to published host phylogeny. Although matrix approaches indicate a correlation between host and parasite genetic distances, cophylogenetic reconstruction methods fail to detect a pattern of widespread cophylogeny. In conclusion, this study provides an exception to the ...


Genetic Analysis Of A Parasite Contact Zone In The Southwestern United States, Tanner Storbeck Jan 2019

Genetic Analysis Of A Parasite Contact Zone In The Southwestern United States, Tanner Storbeck

Honors Program Theses

Studies of cophylogeny (the mirroring of the evolutionary histories of two independent species) lies at the interface of ecology and evolution and therefore is inherently interesting to biologists. The actual mechanisms that lead to patterns cophylogeny are poorly understood. Chewing lice (Trichodectidae) and pocket gophers (Geomyidae) are a model system for the study of cophylogeny. The question to be addressed in this study centers around the fine-scale interactions between pocket gophers and chewing lice in the Southwest United States and whether different louse species actually hybridize within a zone of potential contact. DNA microsatellite techniques, DNA sequencing, PCR, and gel ...