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Articles 1 - 30 of 28528

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

In Vivo Efficacy Of Pyrantel Pamoate As A Post-Exposure Prophylactic For Rat Lungworm (Angiostrongylus Cantonensis), John Jacob, Argon Steel, Lisa Kaluna, Steven Hess, Israel Leinbach, Carmen Antaky, Robert Sugihara, Lindsey Hamilton, Peter Follett, Kathleen Howe, Steven Jacquier, Supakit Wongwiwatthananukit, Susan Jarvi Aug 2022

In Vivo Efficacy Of Pyrantel Pamoate As A Post-Exposure Prophylactic For Rat Lungworm (Angiostrongylus Cantonensis), John Jacob, Argon Steel, Lisa Kaluna, Steven Hess, Israel Leinbach, Carmen Antaky, Robert Sugihara, Lindsey Hamilton, Peter Follett, Kathleen Howe, Steven Jacquier, Supakit Wongwiwatthananukit, Susan Jarvi

USDA Wildlife Services - Staff Publications

Rat lungworm (Angiostrongylus cantonensis) is a neurotropic nematode, and the leading cause of eosinophilic meningitis worldwide. The parasite is usually contracted through ingestion of infected gastropods, often hidden in raw or partially cooked produce. Pharmaceutical grade pyrantel pamoate was evaluated as a post-exposure prophylactic against A. cantonensis. Pyrantel pamoate is readily available over-the-counter in most pharmacies in the USA and possesses anthelmintic activity exclusive to the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Administering pyrantel pamoate immediately after exposure should theoretically paralyze the larvae in the GIT, causing the larvae to be expelled via peristalsis without entering the systemic circulation. In this study, pyrantel ...


Site-Specific Pest Management In Nebraska Corn And Soybean Production Systems, Zachary D. Rystrom May 2022

Site-Specific Pest Management In Nebraska Corn And Soybean Production Systems, Zachary D. Rystrom

Doctoral Documents from Doctor of Plant Health Program

Site-specific management (SSM) is widely used by farm producers to fertilize their fields. However, whole field management is currently practiced in integrated pest management (IPM). Site-specific management and agricultural technology can improve IPM especially when precision application of inputs can reduce selection pressure on pest populations, benefit the environment, or save costs of inputs. There is potential for site-specific pest management (SSPM) where pests, or environments vary spatially, and recommended management practices can be applied with precision. Three case studies are evaluated for SSPM to be applied in Nebraska corn and soybean production systems including corn rootworm, preemergence herbicides, and ...


Assessing The Role Of Biology Undergraduates' Metacognitive Calibration And Neural Activity During Model-Based Reasoning, Mei Grace Behrendt May 2022

Assessing The Role Of Biology Undergraduates' Metacognitive Calibration And Neural Activity During Model-Based Reasoning, Mei Grace Behrendt

Public Access Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research from the College of Education and Human Sciences

Metacognition refers to the critical awareness of or ability to monitor, regulate, control, and sequence of one's thoughts and performance. There is limited research that examines the relationship between metacognition and (a) academic performance and (b) general cognition among undergraduates. Moreover, there is an even greater paucity of literature that focuses more specifically on undergraduate biology students’ neural activity in relation to their metacognition.

This study aimed to examine the relationship between undergraduate life sciences students' metacognitive calibration, i.e., their capacity to self-evaluate their own performance, and their behavioral performance and brain activity during a biological error reasoning ...


A Comprehensive Bison Management And Research Plan For The Crane Trust, Joshua D. Wiese May 2022

A Comprehensive Bison Management And Research Plan For The Crane Trust, Joshua D. Wiese

Other Publications in Wildlife Management

The Great Plains were once a vast grassland ecosystem, but, due to agricultural and human development, are one of the most endangered ecosystems in North America. What remains is generally fragmented, threatened by invasive species, and lacks the natural ecosystem processes that shaped these grasslands such as periodic wildfire and bison grazing. Since 1978, the Platte River Whooping Crane Maintenance Trust, Inc. (dba “Crane Trust”) has worked to maintain the function of grassland and riparian habitats to benefit endangered Whooping Cranes, Sandhill Cranes, and other migratory bird species. They protect ~8,100 acres, including the largest contiguous portion of lowland ...


Targeting Inflammation In Heat-Stressed Wethers Improves Growth And Efficiency And Alters Body Composition; A Brief Exploration And Application Of Extension Principles, Micah Most May 2022

Targeting Inflammation In Heat-Stressed Wethers Improves Growth And Efficiency And Alters Body Composition; A Brief Exploration And Application Of Extension Principles, Micah Most

Theses and Dissertations in Animal Science

The objective of our first study was to determine how administering anti-inflammatory dexamethasone and ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)-rich fish oil affects growth efficiency and body composition in heat-stressed finishing lambs. Commercial wethers were randomly assigned to be fed under heat stress (35°-40℃) or thermoneutral (19℃, n = 10) conditions for 30 d, and controls were pair-fed to eliminate differential feed intake. Heat-stressed wethers were randomly assigned to receive clinical-dose dexamethasone IM injections every 72 h, twice daily fish oil capsule oral boluses, or placebos. Heat stress decreased (P < 0.05) growth and efficiency, but dexamethasone and fish oil supplementation recovered these performance measures. Heat stress also decreased (P < 0.05) predictive body composition metrics that were at least partially improved by administration of dexamethasone and fish oil. Proximate analyses of muscles showed that heat stress decreased (P < 0.05) percentage of protein and increased (P < 0.05) percentage of intramuscular fat, neither of which was improved by dexamethasone or fish oil. Immunohistochemistry revealed that heat stress decreased (P < 0.05) myoblast differentiation and muscle fiber size, but anti-inflammatory supplementation recovered differentiation only. Plasma IGF-1 concentrations were not different among groups throughout the study. These findings demonstrate how heat stress-induced inflammation contributes to impaired growth, efficiency, and body composition observed in heat-stressed feeder lambs. However, targeting inflammation with dexamethasone or fish oil recovers many of these deficits.

The Cooperative Extension Service, created in ...


Evaluation Of Corn Processing Method And Sweet Bran Inclusion On Beef Cattle Performance And Nutrient Digestion And Individual Sweet Bran Components On Nutrient Digestion, Rebecca L. Sjostrand May 2022

Evaluation Of Corn Processing Method And Sweet Bran Inclusion On Beef Cattle Performance And Nutrient Digestion And Individual Sweet Bran Components On Nutrient Digestion, Rebecca L. Sjostrand

Theses and Dissertations in Animal Science

One feedlot trial (Exp. 1) and one digestion trial (Exp. 2) were conducted to evaluate the interaction of corn processing method and Sweet Bran inclusion on nutrient digestion, ruminal fermentation parameters, and feedlot performance. In Exp. 1 when no Sweet Bran was fed, cattle fed steam-flaked corn (SFC) had greater ADG, HCW and a 12.4% improvement in feed efficiency compared to cattle fed a high-moisture corn/ dry-rolled corn (HMC/DRC) blend. However, as Sweet Bran increased in the diet to 40%, cattle fed HMC/DRC had greater improvements in ADG and HCW than cattle fed SFC resulting in similar ...


First Line Of Defense: Role Of Surface Waxes In Sorghum Defense Against Aphids, Juan David Betancurt Cardona May 2022

First Line Of Defense: Role Of Surface Waxes In Sorghum Defense Against Aphids, Juan David Betancurt Cardona

Dissertations and Student Research in Entomology

Since 2013, the sugarcane aphid (SCA; Melanaphis sacchari) has become a devastating pest in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) in the United States. Efforts to mitigate this pest and contain its rapid population growth have increased recently. Host plant resistance (HPR) is an effective and environmentally friendly strategy to reduce aphid populations in this crop. Many factors make SCA a challenging pest to control. For example, SCA can overcome drastic climatic changes, which allows them to successfully colonize sorghum plants at different developmental stages.

Epicuticular waxes (EW) constitute the first point of contact between plants and their environment. EW differ in their ...


Interactions Between Resistance Genes In Wheat Triticum Aestivum L. And Wheat Curl Mite Populations Aceria Tosichella Keifer (Eriophyidae), Tran Kim Ngan Luong May 2022

Interactions Between Resistance Genes In Wheat Triticum Aestivum L. And Wheat Curl Mite Populations Aceria Tosichella Keifer (Eriophyidae), Tran Kim Ngan Luong

Dissertations and Student Research in Entomology

Wheat curl mite (WCM) (Aceria tosichella Keifer) is a major pest of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), being the only known vector of three damaging plant viruses, Wheat streak mosaic virus, Triticum mosaic virus, and High Plains wheat mosaic virus. This wheat-mite-virus complex causes significant yield loss globally. Management has been mostly through cultural practices to reduce mite build up in volunteer wheat, thereby reducing the spread of viruses. Host plant resistance to WCM has also been used as an important management strategy for this wheat-mite-virus complex. However, WCM is a cryptic species complex, resulting in great variability in WCM ...


Inactivation Of Salmonella In Black Peppercorn By Fluidization With Hydrogen Peroxide Vapor, Edel Summers May 2022

Inactivation Of Salmonella In Black Peppercorn By Fluidization With Hydrogen Peroxide Vapor, Edel Summers

Biological Systems Engineering--Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

The purpose of the present study was to assess the effectiveness of hydrogen peroxide vapor (HPV) at inactivating Salmonella inoculated in whole black pepper when used as fluidizing gas media. HPV treatment was conducted at two different temperatures (45°C and 60°C) and two dwell times (30 min and 60 min). Microbial reduction and residual hydrogen peroxide were measured at three storage times: 0 h (immediately after treatment), 24 h and 48 h post-treatment. The effect of HPV on the quality of whole black peppercorn was evaluated 48 h post-treatment based on changes in piperine content, total phenolics, antioxidant ...


Comparative Analyses Of De Novo Transcriptome Assembly Pipelines For Diploid Wheat, Natasha Pavlovikj May 2022

Comparative Analyses Of De Novo Transcriptome Assembly Pipelines For Diploid Wheat, Natasha Pavlovikj

Computer Science and Engineering: Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research

Gene expression and transcriptome analysis are currently one of the main focuses of research for a great number of scientists. However, the assembly of raw sequence data to obtain a draft transcriptome of an organism is a complex multi-stage process usually composed of pre-processing, assembling, and post-processing. Each of these stages includes multiple steps such as data cleaning, error correction and assembly validation. Different combinations of steps, as well as different computational methods for the same step, generate transcriptome assemblies with different accuracy. Thus, using a combination that generates more accurate assemblies is crucial for any novel biological discoveries. Implementing ...


Linking Soil Microbial Community Structure To Potential Carbon Mineralization: A Continental Scale Assessment Of Reduced Tillage, Elizabeth L. Rieke, Shannon B. Cappellazzi, Michael Cope, Daniel Liptzin, G. Mac Bean, Kelsey L.H. Greub, Charlotte E. Norris, Paul W. Tracy, Ezra Aberle, Amanda Ashworth, Oscar Bañuelos Tavarez, Andy I. Bary, R. L. Baumhardt, Alberto Borbón Gracia, Daniel C. Brainard, Jameson R. Brennan, Dolores Briones Reyes, Darren Bruhjell, Cameron N. Carlyle, James J.W. Crawford, Cody F. Creech, Steve W. Culman, Bill Deen, Curtis J. Dell, Justin D. Derner, Thomas F. Ducey, Sjoerd W. Duiker, Miles F. Dyck, Benjamin H. Ellert, Avelino Espinosa Solorio, Steven J. Fonte, Simon Fonteyne, Ann Marie Fortuna, Jamie L. Foster, Lisa M. Fultz, Audrey V. Gamble, Charles M. Geddes, Deirdre Griffin-Lahue, John H. Grove, Stephen K. Hamilton May 2022

Linking Soil Microbial Community Structure To Potential Carbon Mineralization: A Continental Scale Assessment Of Reduced Tillage, Elizabeth L. Rieke, Shannon B. Cappellazzi, Michael Cope, Daniel Liptzin, G. Mac Bean, Kelsey L.H. Greub, Charlotte E. Norris, Paul W. Tracy, Ezra Aberle, Amanda Ashworth, Oscar Bañuelos Tavarez, Andy I. Bary, R. L. Baumhardt, Alberto Borbón Gracia, Daniel C. Brainard, Jameson R. Brennan, Dolores Briones Reyes, Darren Bruhjell, Cameron N. Carlyle, James J.W. Crawford, Cody F. Creech, Steve W. Culman, Bill Deen, Curtis J. Dell, Justin D. Derner, Thomas F. Ducey, Sjoerd W. Duiker, Miles F. Dyck, Benjamin H. Ellert, Avelino Espinosa Solorio, Steven J. Fonte, Simon Fonteyne, Ann Marie Fortuna, Jamie L. Foster, Lisa M. Fultz, Audrey V. Gamble, Charles M. Geddes, Deirdre Griffin-Lahue, John H. Grove, Stephen K. Hamilton

Publications from USDA-ARS / UNL Faculty

Potential carbon mineralization (Cmin) is a commonly used indicator of soil health, with greater Cmin values interpreted as healthier soil. While Cmin values are typically greater in agricultural soils managed with minimal physical disturbance, the mechanisms driving the increases remain poorly understood. This study assessed bacterial and archaeal community structure and potential microbial drivers of Cmin in soils maintained under various degrees of physical disturbance. Potential carbon mineralization, 16S rRNA sequences, and soil characterization data were collected as part of the North American Project to Evaluate Soil Health Measurements (NAPESHM). Results showed that type of cropping system, intensity of physical ...


Relative Palatability And Efficacy Of Brodifacoum-25d Conservation Rodenticide Pellets For Mouse Eradication On Midway Atoll, Peter J. Kappes, Shane R. Siers, Israel L. Leinbach, Robert T. Sugihara, Wesley J. Jolley, Jonathan H. Plissner, Elizabeth N. Flint, Kelly L. Goodale, Gregg R. Howald May 2022

Relative Palatability And Efficacy Of Brodifacoum-25d Conservation Rodenticide Pellets For Mouse Eradication On Midway Atoll, Peter J. Kappes, Shane R. Siers, Israel L. Leinbach, Robert T. Sugihara, Wesley J. Jolley, Jonathan H. Plissner, Elizabeth N. Flint, Kelly L. Goodale, Gregg R. Howald

USDA Wildlife Services - Staff Publications

Invasive mice (Mus spp.) can negatively impact island species and ecosystems. Because fewer island rodent eradications have been attempted for mice compared to rats (Rattus spp.), less is known about efficacy and palatability of rodenticide baits for mouse eradications. We performed a series of bait acceptance and efficacy cage trials using a standard formulation of brodifacoum-based rodenticide on wild-caught mice from Sand Island, Midway Atoll, to help inform a proposed eradication there. Mice were offered ad libitum brodifacoum pellets along with various alternative food sources, and a “no choice” treatment group received only bait pellets. Mortality in the no choice ...


Regional Plant Community Differences In The Nebraska Sandhills, Travis Millikan May 2022

Regional Plant Community Differences In The Nebraska Sandhills, Travis Millikan

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

The Nebraska Sandhills is very valuable to the state of Nebraska, representing one of the most in-tact and largest grassland ecosystems in temperate regions in the world. Rangeland managers must understand plant community dynamics across the Sandhills to better inform management decisions. The first objective of this study was to evaluate plant community variability on upland Sands ecological sites across different precipitation zones in the Nebraska Sandhills. The second objective of our study was to utilize the Rangeland Analysis Platform (RAP) to examine spatial and temporal variability in biomass production and cover on pastures of ranches analyzed in the first ...


A New Species And New Records For Two Other Exotic Species Of Dirrhagofarsus Fleutiaux, 1935 (Coleoptera: Eucnemidae: Melasinae: Dirhagini) In The United States, Robert L. Otto Apr 2022

A New Species And New Records For Two Other Exotic Species Of Dirrhagofarsus Fleutiaux, 1935 (Coleoptera: Eucnemidae: Melasinae: Dirhagini) In The United States, Robert L. Otto

Insecta Mundi

New records for a new species and other exotic Dirrhagofarsus Fleutiaux (Coleoptera: Eucnemidae: Melasinae: Dirhagini) species are reported from throughout much of the northeastern and southern areas of the United States. Dirrhagofarsus brevis, new species, is hereby described in this study. Two other exotic spe­cies, Dirrhagofarsus modestus (Fleutiaux) and Dirrhagofarsus unicolor (Hisamatsu), new country records, are redescribed and diagnosed as they were compared with other Dirrhagofarsus species present in the Nearctic region. All Dirrhagofarsus species in this study are imaged, highlighting essential character states to facilitate better diagnosis in conjunction to the new identification key provided in this study ...


New Species, Synonymy, New Records, And Taxonomic Notes In American Cerambycidae (Coleoptera), Juan Pablo Botero, Antonio Santos-Silva Apr 2022

New Species, Synonymy, New Records, And Taxonomic Notes In American Cerambycidae (Coleoptera), Juan Pablo Botero, Antonio Santos-Silva

Insecta Mundi

Cotyclytus parumnotatus (Zajciw, 1963) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Cerambycinae: Clytini) is revalidated and a neotype is designated. Anatinomma Bates, 1892 (Cerambycinae: Hesperophanini) is reported as a neuter gender and two species-group names are corrected: A. brevicorne Fisher, 1944 and A. in­sulare Chemsak and Linsley, 1964; the latter is newly recorded from Honduras. Pachymerola vitticollis Bates, 1892 (Cerambycinae: Hyboderini) is recorded for the first time in the Mexican state of Jalisco, and chromatic variation is reported. Smodicum dinellii Bruch, 1911 (Cerambycinae: Smodicini) is recorded from Bolivia; and Corcovado bezarki Martins and Galileo, 2008 (Lamiinae: Hemilophini) is recorded from Belize. Parhip­popsis Breuning ...


A New Genus For Stromatium Chilensis Cerda, 1968 (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Cerambycinae: Hesperophanini) From Chile, José Mondaca, Marcos Beéche Apr 2022

A New Genus For Stromatium Chilensis Cerda, 1968 (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Cerambycinae: Hesperophanini) From Chile, José Mondaca, Marcos Beéche

Insecta Mundi

Stromatium chilensis Cerda, 1968, an endemic species from Chile, is placed in Malcho Mondaca and Beéche, new genus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Cerambycinae: Hesperophanini). The new genus is compared with Stromatium Audinet-Serville, included in a previous key to Hesperophanini, and a diagnosis and illustrations of the species are provided.

Stromatium chilensis Cerda, 1968, especie endémica de Chile, es ubicada en Malcho Mondaca y Beéche, nuevo género (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Cerambycinae: Hesperophanini). El nuevo género es comparado con Stromatium Audinet-Serville, e incluido en la clave anterior de Hesperophanini. Se aporta una diagnosis e ilustraciones de la especie.

The genus Stromatium Audinet-Serville, 1834, considered to ...


Descripción De Dos Especies Nuevas De Mesoplia Lepeletier (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Apidae) Para Cuba Y Las Bahamas, Con Notas Sobre Taxonomía Y Distribución Del Género En Las Antillas, Julio A. Genaro, Dayron Breto Apr 2022

Descripción De Dos Especies Nuevas De Mesoplia Lepeletier (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Apidae) Para Cuba Y Las Bahamas, Con Notas Sobre Taxonomía Y Distribución Del Género En Las Antillas, Julio A. Genaro, Dayron Breto

Insecta Mundi

Se describen e ilustran dos especies nuevas de Mesoplia Lepeletier (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Api­dae) para las Antillas: M. bahamensis Genaro y Breto, nueva especie, conocida solamente del cayo Castaway, Las Bahamas y M. cubensis Genaro y Breto, nueva especie, bien distribuida en toda Cuba e Isla de La Juven­tud. Mesoplia cubensis nueva especie fue una especie multivoltina, que se relacionó con el área de nidos de especies de Centris Fabricius (Apidae), su posible hospedero. Se presentan las características taxonómicas diferenciales y la distribución de las otras cuatro especies antillanas conocidas: Mesoplia sp., no descrita, M. azurea (Lepeletier y Serville ...


Additional New And Unusual Host Records For Western Hemisphere Spider Wasps (Hymenoptera: Pompilidae), Frank E. Kurczewski, Rick C. West, Cecilia Waichert, James P. Pitts Apr 2022

Additional New And Unusual Host Records For Western Hemisphere Spider Wasps (Hymenoptera: Pompilidae), Frank E. Kurczewski, Rick C. West, Cecilia Waichert, James P. Pitts

Insecta Mundi

We present 112 new and unusual host records for 63 species and subspecies of Pompilidae (Hy­menoptera) from the Western Hemisphere in modified taxonomic order according to the Synoptic Catalog of Hymenoptera (Krombein 1979). These records supplement those reported in a recent study by Kurcze­wski et al. (2020b). New and atypical genus and species host records are given for the genera Calopompilus Ashmead, Herbstellus Wahis, Pepsis Fabricius, Priocnessus Banks, Entypus Dahlbom, Pompilocalus Roig-Alsina, Sphictostethus Kohl, Priocnemis Schiødte, Caliadurgus Fabricius, Epipompilus Kohl, Auplopus Spinola, Ageniella Banks, Eragenia Banks, Agenioideus Ashmead, Sericopompilus Howard, Poecilopompilus Ashmead, Tachypompilus Ashmead, and Priochilus (Fabricius). New ...


New Species And New Combinations In Afrotropical Eucosmocydia Diakonoff, 1988 (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae: Olethreutinae), John W. Brown, Jozef Razowski, Leif Aarvik, Alicia E. Timm, Robert S. Copeland Apr 2022

New Species And New Combinations In Afrotropical Eucosmocydia Diakonoff, 1988 (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae: Olethreutinae), John W. Brown, Jozef Razowski, Leif Aarvik, Alicia E. Timm, Robert S. Copeland

Insecta Mundi

Eight new species of Eucosmocydia Diakonoff are described and illustrated from the Afrotropical region: E. pappeana Brown and Razowski, new species (TL: Kenya); E. deinbolliana Brown and Razowski, new species (TL: Kenya); E. ugandensis Aarvik, new species (TL: Uganda); E. lecaniodiscana Brown and Razowski, new species (TL: Kenya); E. nigeriana Brown and Razowski, new species (TL: Nigeria); E. pan­coviana Brown and Razowski, new species (TL: Kenya); E. kirimiriana Brown and Razowski, new species (TL: Kenya); and E. macabensis Brown and Razowski, new species (TL: Mauritius). Three additional species are transferred to the genus: E. hymenosa (Razowski, 2013), new combination ...


Identification Of A Potential Pathway Of The Exotic Black Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) In South Korea, Sohee Kim, Seon Woo Lee, Soo-Jung Suh Apr 2022

Identification Of A Potential Pathway Of The Exotic Black Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) In South Korea, Sohee Kim, Seon Woo Lee, Soo-Jung Suh

Insecta Mundi

The black weevil, Aclees taiwanensis Kôno (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is one of the primary pests of fig trees in southeastern Asia and southern Europe. Thought to be of subtropical and tropical Asian origin, including China, the weevil was first found in southern areas of South Korea in July 2020. Subsequently, it was found in the following five cities: Haenam, Hampyeong, Jindo, Sinan, and Tongyeong (RDA 2020). Attempts to trace a possible pathway for the exotic black weevil suggested that this species probably followed pathways of illegal importation of infested plants from Taiwan and was unintentionally introduced into South Korea based on ...


Evaluating The Microbial Quality And Use Of Antimicrobials In Raw Pet Foods, Leslie Pearl Cancio Apr 2022

Evaluating The Microbial Quality And Use Of Antimicrobials In Raw Pet Foods, Leslie Pearl Cancio

Dissertations, Theses, & Student Research in Food Science and Technology

Raw meat-based diets (RMBDs) are emerging pet foods that pose food safety risks because of the potential presence of pathogens that could cause illness to humans. In this research, the microbial quality of select RMBD products sold by pet food companies online and the use of chemical antimicrobials to reduce the microbial load in chicken liver, a common RMBD ingredient, were evaluated.

Ground meat blends and livers from four animal species (beef, pork, chicken, turkey) were purchased from four online companies that delivers directly to consumers through parcel businesses. Products were procured at three different times during one year and ...


Exploration Of Genes Controlling Grain Yield Heterosis In Hybrid Wheat (Triticum Aestivum L.) Utilizing 3ʹ Rna Sequencing, Nichole Miller Apr 2022

Exploration Of Genes Controlling Grain Yield Heterosis In Hybrid Wheat (Triticum Aestivum L.) Utilizing 3ʹ Rna Sequencing, Nichole Miller

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

The implementation and future success of hybrid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is impacted by breeders’ inability to create consistent high yielding, high heterosis hybrids. This research addresses this problem by conducting an exploration of transcriptomes from hybrids and parent lines to determine what genes are active in heterotic or non-heterotic hybrids and how their level of expression can explain the phenotype of grain yield heterosis. Using hybrids that showed positive mid-parent heterosis (MPH), classified as heterotic in our study, and negative or no difference MPH hybrids, classified as non-heterotic, differentially expressed genes (DEGs) potentially related to heterosis and hybrid yield ...


Evaluating Traits Influencing Hybrid Wheat Seed Production Using A Double Haploid Population Derived From Freeman X Camelot, Emre Karahan Apr 2022

Evaluating Traits Influencing Hybrid Wheat Seed Production Using A Double Haploid Population Derived From Freeman X Camelot, Emre Karahan

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

Hybrid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars are preferred for their advanced agronomic traits such as a yield improvement increase up to 20%. However, hybrid cultivars remain difficult to produce on a commercial scale due to inadequate pollen dispersal, the closed nature of the wheat floret and the high cost of inducing sterility or restoring fertility in cleistogamous wheat. Redesigning parent-specific traits and understanding their potential interactions with related agronomic traits are needed to breed improved male lines in hybrid seed production fields. To better understand the genetic control of anther extrusion (AE), 174 double haploid lines derived from Freeman (excellent ...


Genomic Analysis Of Metabolic Differences Found In Clostridium Perfringens That Cause Necrotic Enteritis In Poultry, Connor Aylor Apr 2022

Genomic Analysis Of Metabolic Differences Found In Clostridium Perfringens That Cause Necrotic Enteritis In Poultry, Connor Aylor

Dissertations & Theses in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Clostridium perfringens is a common member of gut microbiota in healthy animals, but can also be an important pathogen in human and veterinary medicine. It produces several protein toxins that contribute to both histotoxic and enteric diseases in animals. Necrotic enteritis in poultry has been associated with the NetB toxin of C. perfringens; however, this toxin alone is insufficient to cause disease in infected chickens. While considerable research has focused on the presence of toxins and virulence factors, little has been done to assess the function of metabolic factors on the ability of the bacteria to cause disease. In this ...


The Impact Of Plant Cell Wall Lignin On Energy Utilization In Lactating Jersey Cows., Jason Stypinski Apr 2022

The Impact Of Plant Cell Wall Lignin On Energy Utilization In Lactating Jersey Cows., Jason Stypinski

Theses and Dissertations in Animal Science

Fiber from forages comprises a significant proportion of dairy cattle rations and by extension, it contributes largely to the energy concentration of the diet. While the proportion of fiber in the diet is important, the composition of fiber is probably more important as the different constituents of this fraction vary in their contributions to the nutritive value of the feed. Lignin has been described as an important factor limiting the digestion of NDF, reducing intake, and compromising milk production. Although lignin’s effects on these responses have been well characterized, the literature lacks data on the use of indirect calorimetry ...


Investigation Of The Role Of Overexpression Of Psbs Under Stress Inducible And Constitutive Promoters To Improve Water Use Efficiency., Annie Nelson Apr 2022

Investigation Of The Role Of Overexpression Of Psbs Under Stress Inducible And Constitutive Promoters To Improve Water Use Efficiency., Annie Nelson

Honors Theses, University of Nebraska-Lincoln

As climate change continues to impact environmental growth conditions, it has become increasingly more important to identify potential mechanisms of crop development to resist these changes. Previous studies have identified the role of PsbS in the non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) mechanism in the plant by identifying its direct effect on the rate in which excitation energy absorbed by photosystem II is dissipated as heat. It was identified also that PsbS via NPQ oxidizes chloroplastic quinone A (QA) which is a signal for stomatal opening in response to light. By identifying this relationship between PsbS and the signal for stomatal opening in ...


A Cookbook For The Trendy Chef, Katja Roberts Apr 2022

A Cookbook For The Trendy Chef, Katja Roberts

Honors Theses, University of Nebraska-Lincoln

A Cookbook for the Trendy Chef contains a compilation of recipes which fall under 8 major food trends for 2021. These trends were determined to be vegan, keto, and gluten-free diets, along with “viral foods”, easy recipes, functional foods, international flavors, and comfort foods. These trends were selected based on predictions made by the Institute of Food Technologists (IFT) and the Washington Post.


First Reproductive Evidence For The Slender Glass Lizard (Ophisaurus Attenuatus) In Nebraska, Keith Geluso Apr 2022

First Reproductive Evidence For The Slender Glass Lizard (Ophisaurus Attenuatus) In Nebraska, Keith Geluso

Transactions of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences and Affiliated Societies

The Slender Glass Lizard (Ophisaurus attenuatus) reproduces across parts of northern and central Kansas, but its distribution extends into southern Nebraska. In Nebraska, not a single aspect of reproductive activity has been reported for this species in the state. Herein, we report on the first documentation of reproduction in Nebraska. On 22 September 2021, we captured two hatchling Slender Glass Lizards at the Ash Grove Wildlife Management Area in Franklin County, Nebraska. We calculated that those individuals likely hatched around the first week of September. Presence and reproduction of Slender Glass Lizards at the study site likely was associated with ...


Knowledge-Informed Data-Driven Modeling Of Microbial Inactivation In Food, Steve Zhang, Firnaaz Ahamed, Hyun-Seob Song Apr 2022

Knowledge-Informed Data-Driven Modeling Of Microbial Inactivation In Food, Steve Zhang, Firnaaz Ahamed, Hyun-Seob Song

UNL Student Research Days Posters, Graduate

Prevention of the growth of harmful microorganisms in food products is an important requirement for ensuring food safety and quality. Mathematical models to predict the quantitative changes in microbial populations in food to the variations of environmental conditions are useful tools in this regard. Current approaches that use empirical formulation generate arbitrary forms of model equations, impeding systematic analysis towards identifying key factors governing microbial growth and inactivation in food. To address this challenge, we present a data-driven modeling pipeline that enables automatic discovery of model equations (through parsimonious selection of relevant terms in a pre-built library) without having to ...


Soybean Gall Midge (Resseliella Maxima Gagné): Insecticide Efficacy And Seasonal Larval Abundance, Vilma Maria Montenegro Castro Apr 2022

Soybean Gall Midge (Resseliella Maxima Gagné): Insecticide Efficacy And Seasonal Larval Abundance, Vilma Maria Montenegro Castro

Dissertations and Student Research in Entomology

Soybean gall midge, Resseliella maxima Gagné was recently identified as a new species injuring soybean in Nebraska, Iowa, South Dakota, Minnesota, and Missouri. Resseliella maxima injury is caused by its three instars that feed on tissues within the soybean stem. Infested plants exhibit a darkening of the stem, disrupting nutrient flow within the plant and can lead to wilting or death of plants. Total yield losses can occur in the first 30 m of the field in heavily infested sites. The biology and behavior of this newly described insects is not well understood and management strategies for the management of ...