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Articles 1 - 30 of 2957

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Current Status Of Research On Medicinal Plant Scutellaria Lateriflora: A Review, Samantha H. Sherman, Nirmal Joshee Mar 2022

Current Status Of Research On Medicinal Plant Scutellaria Lateriflora: A Review, Samantha H. Sherman, Nirmal Joshee

Journal of Medicinally Active Plants

No abstract provided.


Biology, Chemistry, And Pharmacological Activity Of Kigelia Africana (Bignoniaceae) And Garcinia Kola (Clusiaceae) - A Review, Giulia Assanti, Rajvinder Kaur, Shanon Nizard, Evian Pollack, Brian Rafferty, Christine Priano, José A. Fernández Romero, Adolfina R. Koroch Mar 2022

Biology, Chemistry, And Pharmacological Activity Of Kigelia Africana (Bignoniaceae) And Garcinia Kola (Clusiaceae) - A Review, Giulia Assanti, Rajvinder Kaur, Shanon Nizard, Evian Pollack, Brian Rafferty, Christine Priano, José A. Fernández Romero, Adolfina R. Koroch

Journal of Medicinally Active Plants

No abstract provided.


About The Cover Mar 2022

About The Cover

Journal of Medicinally Active Plants

No abstract provided.


Songbird-Mediated Insect Pest Control In Low Intensity New England Agriculture, Samuel J. Mayne Mar 2022

Songbird-Mediated Insect Pest Control In Low Intensity New England Agriculture, Samuel J. Mayne

Masters Theses

Global agricultural intensification has caused large-scale wildlife declines, but agricultural lands that maintain natural habitats can support healthy wildlife populations and receive significant ecosystem services from these natural communities. However, how on-farm biodiversity results in beneficial ecosystem services is highly variable and is reported to differ among taxa and guilds. One group that has attracted attention for their potential beneficial role in reducing pest abundance are birds. Understanding the role of bird communities and individual species in pest control could be important for managing farms under a low intensity agroecological framework. In New England, farmers are increasingly applying low intensity ...


Detection Of Benzoyl Peroxide In Flour Using Raman Spectroscopy, Yu Ho Mar 2022

Detection Of Benzoyl Peroxide In Flour Using Raman Spectroscopy, Yu Ho

Masters Theses

Benzoyl peroxide (BPO) is a common bleaching agent used in wheat flour. Due to its ability to damage existing nutrients in food and potential adverse effect to health, BPO have been strictly banned as a food additive in several countries and regions, such as China and Europe. However, the United States specifies that BPO is generally recognized as safe (GRAS). So, the WHO/FAO created a Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC) to regulate the international BPO usage standard. According to the CAC, it is restricted at 75 mg/kg or parts per million (ppm). BPO is very unstable and easily converts ...


Sex Differences In Myelin Deficits And Neuroinflammatory Responses To Adolescent Drinking In Rats, Andrea Silva-Gotay Mar 2022

Sex Differences In Myelin Deficits And Neuroinflammatory Responses To Adolescent Drinking In Rats, Andrea Silva-Gotay

Doctoral Dissertations

Alcohol binge drinking during adolescence is associated with higher risk of developing alcohol use disorders later in life. Alcohol can lead to decreased white matter volume, myelin damage, and neuroinflammation in animal models of adolescent binge alcohol exposure. These deficits in turn are associated with cognitive disfunctions that are long-lasting and could contribute to alcohol abuse and alcoholism later in life. Importantly, human males are more likely to develop alcohol use disorders than females, thus the mechanisms underlying this might be different between the sexes. Understanding how alcohol impacts the developing adolescent brain can help us identify molecular and cellular ...


Wc1 And Tcr Interactions For Γδ T Cell Activation, Alexandria Gillespie Mar 2022

Wc1 And Tcr Interactions For Γδ T Cell Activation, Alexandria Gillespie

Doctoral Dissertations

Major subpopulations of gamma delta T cells within ruminant and pigs are defined by expression of WC1, a hybrid pattern recognition receptor/co-receptor to the T cell receptor (TCR). It is known that when WC1 is knocked down cells fail to respond. Showing that WC1 plays an active role in the stimulation of bovine gamma delta T cells. Here we explored the spatio-temporal dynamics of WC1 and TCR interaction using imaging flow cytometry and stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy. We found that in quiescent gamma delta T cells both WC1 and TCR existed in separate protein domains (protein islands) but after ...


Double Emulsions Relevant To Food Systems: Fabrication, Characterization, And Applications, Jinning Liu Mar 2022

Double Emulsions Relevant To Food Systems: Fabrication, Characterization, And Applications, Jinning Liu

Doctoral Dissertations

Systems of the W/O/W type continue to be of growing interest to food scientists and technologists for two main reasons. First, there is the possibility of preparing a reduced-fat emulsion product by the replacement of a conventional oil-in-water emulsion by the equivalent W/O/W emulsion having a lower actual oil content but a similar in-mouth perceived texture. Second, there is the capability to encapsulate and protect a sensitive hydrophilic bioactive compound. However, it is always a bottleneck to obtain robust formulations using economically viable ingredients and processing operations. To improve its performance for practical applications in food ...


Characterizing Mechanical Regulation Of Bone Metastatic Breast Cancer Cells, Boyuan Liu Mar 2022

Characterizing Mechanical Regulation Of Bone Metastatic Breast Cancer Cells, Boyuan Liu

Doctoral Dissertations

Breast cancer most frequently metastasizes to the skeleton. Bone metastatic cancer is incurable and induces wide-spread bone osteolysis, resulting in significant patient morbidity and mortality. Mechanical stimuli in the skeleton are an important microenvironmental parameter that modulates tumor formation, osteolysis, and tumor cell-bone cell signaling, but which mechanical signals are the most beneficial and the corresponding molecular mechanisms are unknown. This work focused on bone matrix deformation and interstitial fluid flow based on their well-known roles in bone remodeling and in primary breast cancer. The goal of our research was to establish a platform that could define the relationship between ...


Genomic Organization And Expression Of The Wc1 Hybrid Coreceptor And Pattern Recognition Receptor On Porcine Gamma Delta T Cells, Lauren Le Page Mar 2022

Genomic Organization And Expression Of The Wc1 Hybrid Coreceptor And Pattern Recognition Receptor On Porcine Gamma Delta T Cells, Lauren Le Page

Doctoral Dissertations

gd T cells are a crucial component of the immune response to a number of increasingly relevant and largely zoonotic pathogens to which efficacious vaccination is lacking. In ruminants and swine, gd T cells represent a major population of peripheral blood and epithelial tissue-resident lymphocytes. gdT cells respond to both protein and non-protein antigens independently of MHC presentation and possess immunological memory. Upon activation, gamma delta T cells illicit a variety of effector functions and play an indispensable role of orchestrating the downstream immune response. These characteristics make gamma delta T cells a promising candidate for recruitment by vaccination, however ...


Vitamin A Rich Foods Consumption Of Women And Children From Selected Region In Uganda, Joyce Nankumbi Mar 2022

Vitamin A Rich Foods Consumption Of Women And Children From Selected Region In Uganda, Joyce Nankumbi

Doctoral Dissertations

Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) remains a public health concern in low- and middle-income countries. Young children and women in the reproductive age group, particularly pregnant and lactating women, continue to experience vitamin A deficiency resulting in the risk of morbidity and mortality. Efforts to combat vitamin A deficiency have been tested with some success especially with school-based vitamin A supplementation programs. However, cost issues and reaching the most vulnerable individuals presents a formidable challenge. Globally, food-based approaches have been identified as a sustainable and effective strategy in improving vitamin A status and alleviating VAD.

This dissertation provides an overview of ...


The Spatial Distribution Of Invasive Plant Presence, Abundance, And Impact, Evelyn M. Beaury Mar 2022

The Spatial Distribution Of Invasive Plant Presence, Abundance, And Impact, Evelyn M. Beaury

Doctoral Dissertations

Across the globe, native ecosystems are increasingly threatened by the spread and negative impacts of non-native, invasive plants. While many hypotheses explore what contributes to the damage caused by invasive species, few studies have tested these hypotheses at the macroscale. My dissertation addresses this knowledge gap by synthesizing thousands of vegetation surveys from ecosystems across the United States. I leverage existing, as well as explore new macroecological methods to deepen our understanding of the spatial ecology of plant invasions.

My dissertation also asks how effective management and policy has been at reducing plant invasions. The primary introduction pathway for invasive ...


Detection Of Mycotoxins Using Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy, Lourdes B. Martinez Rojas Mar 2022

Detection Of Mycotoxins Using Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy, Lourdes B. Martinez Rojas

Doctoral Dissertations

Mycotoxins are toxic metabolites produced by fungus that can be parasites or saprophytes of crops or livestock forage. Consumer demand for plant-based foods and interest in animal-based foods originating from animals fed plant-based feed has been on the rise. Therefore, monitoring mycotoxins occurring in the food supply is more critical than ever. The goal of this project is to improve surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy’s (SERS) ability to identify and detect mycotoxins using label-free SERS substrates. Two simple approaches were designed to enhance the detection of mycotoxins produced by the Aspergillus and Penicillium genera, ochratoxin A and aflatoxin B1. Ochratoxin A ...


Drivers And Direct Impacts Of Lean Mass Dynamics On The Stopover Ecology And Migratory Pace Of Nearctic-Neotropical Migrant Songbirds In Spring, Mariamar Gutierrez Ramirez Mar 2022

Drivers And Direct Impacts Of Lean Mass Dynamics On The Stopover Ecology And Migratory Pace Of Nearctic-Neotropical Migrant Songbirds In Spring, Mariamar Gutierrez Ramirez

Doctoral Dissertations

Annual migration in songbirds is one of the most demanding life-history stages. It represents a period of high mortality, yet there is still much unknown about the ecological correlates that influence its successful completion. After long non-stop migratory flights, birds require a stopover period to rest and replenish depleted energy reserves. Birds use fat as the primary fuel to power long-distance flights. However, birds also burn lean tissue, which results in significant reductions in muscle and organ masses. The discovery and quantification of lean mass catabolism represented a paradigm shift in migration ecology because non-fat components were thought to remain ...


Assessment Of The Economic And Ecosystem Service Contributions Of Usda Forest Service Landowner Assistance Programs In The Conterminous United States, Jacqueline S. Dias Mar 2022

Assessment Of The Economic And Ecosystem Service Contributions Of Usda Forest Service Landowner Assistance Programs In The Conterminous United States, Jacqueline S. Dias

Masters Theses

Forests provide immense goods and services to both local and regional communities. The USDA Forest Service’s, State and Private Forestry program administer multiple landowner assistance programs aimed at helping private forest owners while supporting the continued supply of ecosystem services (e.g., timber harvesting, recreation, carbon sequestration and storage). The two landowner assistance programs assessed in this study are the Forest Legacy Program (FLP) and the Forest Stewardship Program (FSP). A majority of the nation’s forests are privately owned, many of which are facing deleterious impacts like wildfires, invasive species, development pressures, and other adverse effects from climate ...


Analysis Of Plant And Animal Proteins Using Raman Spectroscopy, Noopur Bapardekar Mar 2022

Analysis Of Plant And Animal Proteins Using Raman Spectroscopy, Noopur Bapardekar

Masters Theses

There has been a notable rise in the alternative protein market in the recent years which promotes an interest in the research of both animal and plant proteins to establish better structure-function relationships. Over the years many analytical tools have been used to study proteins and compare them, however Raman Spectroscopy and Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) have not been as much used for this application. SERS consolidates Raman Spectroscopy that primarily measures molecular vibrations and nanostructures that enhance the weak Raman signals. The objective of this study is to explore the capability of the Raman instrumentation in combination with ...


Japanese Knotweed, Phoebe Antonio, Katherine Ghantous, Hilary A. Sandler Jan 2022

Japanese Knotweed, Phoebe Antonio, Katherine Ghantous, Hilary A. Sandler

Cranberry Station Fact Sheets

No abstract provided.


Anaerobic Digestion: Awareness, Implementation, And Simulation, Kieran Tay, Nicholas Sbalbi, Michael Forozis, Flo Sabatini Jan 2022

Anaerobic Digestion: Awareness, Implementation, And Simulation, Kieran Tay, Nicholas Sbalbi, Michael Forozis, Flo Sabatini

Student Showcase

Anaerobic digestion (AD) is the process in which organic matter is fermented in an oxygen-deprived environment to produce renewable biogas. Our project is multi-faceted, with the overall goal of raising public awareness of AD as a transitional energy source. To that end, our group has named itself Undergraduates Raising Awareness for Anaerobic Digestion (URAAD). We are approaching this goal on three fronts, including (i) a website, (ii) a physical lab-scale digester, and (iii) a computer simulation of anaerobic digestion.

The first component, the website, was developed with the aim of serving as a resource for the public. It includes educational ...


About The Cover Dec 2021

About The Cover

Journal of Medicinally Active Plants

No abstract provided.


Targeting Flavone Deglycosylation Improves Formulation Of Whole Celery-Based Apigenin Rich Food, Zach Heeringa, Meenakshi Sudhakaran, Alison M. Gjidoda, Andrea I. Doseff Dec 2021

Targeting Flavone Deglycosylation Improves Formulation Of Whole Celery-Based Apigenin Rich Food, Zach Heeringa, Meenakshi Sudhakaran, Alison M. Gjidoda, Andrea I. Doseff

Journal of Medicinally Active Plants

No abstract provided.


Chemodiversity In Spp.: A Literature Review On Comparative Germplasm Studies With Focus On Iridoids And Other Terpenes, Erik N. Gomes, Martin Zorde, Harna Patel, Weiting Lyu, Qingli Wu, James E. Simon Dec 2021

Chemodiversity In Spp.: A Literature Review On Comparative Germplasm Studies With Focus On Iridoids And Other Terpenes, Erik N. Gomes, Martin Zorde, Harna Patel, Weiting Lyu, Qingli Wu, James E. Simon

Journal of Medicinally Active Plants

No abstract provided.


Phloroglucinol Improves Morphometry, Biochemical Attributes And Ex Vitro Growth Of Micropropagated Plantlets Of Coccoloba Uvifera L., M Manokari, M Cokulraj, S Priyadharshini, Mahesh Kumar Badhepuri, Abhijit Dey, Mahipal S. Shekhawat Dec 2021

Phloroglucinol Improves Morphometry, Biochemical Attributes And Ex Vitro Growth Of Micropropagated Plantlets Of Coccoloba Uvifera L., M Manokari, M Cokulraj, S Priyadharshini, Mahesh Kumar Badhepuri, Abhijit Dey, Mahipal S. Shekhawat

Journal of Medicinally Active Plants

No abstract provided.


Phragmites: Id, Habitat, And Management, Phoebe Antonio, Hilary A. Sandler, Katherine Ghantous Dec 2021

Phragmites: Id, Habitat, And Management, Phoebe Antonio, Hilary A. Sandler, Katherine Ghantous

Cranberry Station Fact Sheets

No abstract provided.


Yellow Loosestrife: Id, Habitat, And Management, Phoebe Antonio, Katherine Ghantous, Hilary A. Sandler Dec 2021

Yellow Loosestrife: Id, Habitat, And Management, Phoebe Antonio, Katherine Ghantous, Hilary A. Sandler

Cranberry Station Fact Sheets

No abstract provided.


Metabolic Modeling Of Cystic Fibrosis Airway Microbiota From Patient Samples, Arsh Vyas Oct 2021

Metabolic Modeling Of Cystic Fibrosis Airway Microbiota From Patient Samples, Arsh Vyas

Masters Theses

Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disorder, found with higher prevalence in the Caucasian population, affecting > 30,000 individuals in the United States and > 70,000 worldwide. Due to the astoundingly high rate of mortality among CF patients being attributed to respiratory failure brought on by chronic bacterial infections and subsequent airway inflammation, there has been a lot of focus on systematically analyzing CF lung airway communities. While it is observed traditionally that Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the most threatening and persistent CF colonizer due to high antibiotic resistance, recent studies have elicited the roles of other pathogens and it has ...


Functional Morphology, Biomechanics, And Evolution Of Ruminant Mammals, Abby Vander Linden Oct 2021

Functional Morphology, Biomechanics, And Evolution Of Ruminant Mammals, Abby Vander Linden

Doctoral Dissertations

Ruminant mammals, including the families Bovidae, Cervidae, Tragulidae, Moschidae, Antilocapridae, and Giraffidae, display incredible past and present diversity in morphology, ecology, and behavior. They inhabit an impressive range of environments across North and South America, Europe, Asia, and Africa, and compel the fascination of naturalists and researchers alike with their charismatic social behavior and conspicuous cranial appendages. I explore the drivers and consequences of this spectacular diversity through a comparative morphological framework, biomechanical modeling approaches, and semi-parametric and likelihood-based methods for estimating state-dependent diversification rates across the ruminant phylogeny. Together, these investigations provide evidence for adaptation via correlated evolution of ...


The Effect Of Disturbance And Invasion On Fungal And Plant Communities Over An Elevational Gradient, Adam N. Trautwig Oct 2021

The Effect Of Disturbance And Invasion On Fungal And Plant Communities Over An Elevational Gradient, Adam N. Trautwig

Doctoral Dissertations

High-elevation ecosystems are at risk of disruption from the future effects of climate change. Sub-alpine meadows are a source of unique plant populations, intraspecific variation of elevationally extreme populations, and vital sources of fresh water resources. We evaluated the whole fungal communities, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) communities, plant communities, and edaphic variables of sub-alpine meadows in undisturbed, disturbed, and disturbed with a non-native member of the Brassicaceae (Thlaspi arvense) plots. In conjunction with measuring the effects of disturbance on native communities we conducted potting experiments on a dominant grass of sub-alpine meadows (Festuca thurberi). We also surveyed T. arvense with ...


Mechanistic Insights Into Diverse Protease Adaptor Functions, Nathan J. Kuhlmann Oct 2021

Mechanistic Insights Into Diverse Protease Adaptor Functions, Nathan J. Kuhlmann

Doctoral Dissertations

Protein degradation is an essential cellular process that helps maintain proper homeostasis. The ClpXP protease broadly regulates bacterial development and quality control during the cell cycle. The range and order of substrates that ClpXP degrades during the cell cycle is dictated by 3 accessory proteins, which are known as adaptors. This thesis will elaborate on how dimerization tightly regulates the stability and activity of the adaptor protein at the center of this hierarchy, RcdA, and show how this affects normal cellular processes in Caulobacter crescentus. I will discuss the mechanism by which dimerization limits RcdA activity and how the dimerization ...


Antibiotic Sensitivity Testing Of Foodborne Bacteria Using Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy, Joshua Gukowsky Oct 2021

Antibiotic Sensitivity Testing Of Foodborne Bacteria Using Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy, Joshua Gukowsky

Doctoral Dissertations

The spread of antibiotic resistant bacteria around the world has become a major public health issue, and it is essential that effective detection methods exist for identifying these organisms and preventing them from spreading throughout our food systems and into the environment. The goal of this research is to develop a novel analytical procedure that is capable of easily identifying antibiotic resistance in bacterial samples, and also provides more information about the biochemical characteristics of the bacteria and their responses to antibiotic exposure. Surface-enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS), an analytical technique that uses light scattering to produce a spectrum based on ...


Attitudes And Interactions Of Indigenous And Non-Indigenous People With Wildlife In The Northern Talamanca Mountains Of Costa Rica, Carolina Saenz-Bolaños Oct 2021

Attitudes And Interactions Of Indigenous And Non-Indigenous People With Wildlife In The Northern Talamanca Mountains Of Costa Rica, Carolina Saenz-Bolaños

Doctoral Dissertations

In this study I investigated wildlife and human use of landscapes in the northern Talamanca Mountains of Costa Rica (Pacuare-Barbilla sector), including three contiguous protected areas (a national park, a forest reserve, and an indigenous territory), as well as surrounding unprotected areas. I describe and compare perceptions of wildlife by different social actors in the Pacuare-Barbilla sector, collecting information with a questionnaire as an instrument. I also inventoried and monitored the abundance and distribution of a variety of wildlife species occurring throughout the area using camera traps. The species with greater abundance or only occurrence in the national park were ...