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Articles 1 - 30 of 2552

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

The Effect Of Gap Spacing Between Solar Panel Clusters On Crop Biomass Yields, Nutrients, And The Microenvironment In A Dual-Use Agrivoltaic System, Kristen Oleskewicz Apr 2020

The Effect Of Gap Spacing Between Solar Panel Clusters On Crop Biomass Yields, Nutrients, And The Microenvironment In A Dual-Use Agrivoltaic System, Kristen Oleskewicz

Masters Theses

Agrivoltaic (AV) systems are dual-use land systems that consist of elevated solar panels with crops grown underneath. They offer a solution to the increasing demand for food production and clean renewable energy. The main concern regarding AV systems is the reduced availability of light to crops below the panels. Research to date shows that AV systems are quite productive with total energy and crop production exceeding the outputs of either solar farms or crop production alone. Research also shows that solar panels affect the microenvironment below the panels. The research on AV systems so far considers altering panel density to ...


Utilization Of Emulsion Chemistries For Delivery And Antiviral Application Of Carvacrol, Hao-Yuan Hsu Apr 2020

Utilization Of Emulsion Chemistries For Delivery And Antiviral Application Of Carvacrol, Hao-Yuan Hsu

Masters Theses

Human norovirus (HuNoVs) are the most common enteric pathogen around the world that cause ~50% of foodborne illness of disease outbreaks annually. HuNoVs are the member of the Caliciviridae family, which consist of small (38 nm), unenveloped, single stranded RNA (ssRNA) viruses. Norovirus are divided into 5 genogroup (GI, GII, GIII, GIV, GV, GVI and GVII). The GI, GII, and GIV cause human illness, in addition, GII.4 genotype cause the most human disease. Due to HuNoVs are difficult cultured in vitro, the cultivable HuNoVs surrogates have been widely studied. Recently, some studies have been conducted with HuNoVs surrogates, for ...


Developing New Natural Plant Products From The Spice Xylopia Aethiopica From Ghana And Liberia, Larry Hwang, Laura Merja Merja, Jim Simon, Hector R. Juliani Mar 2020

Developing New Natural Plant Products From The Spice Xylopia Aethiopica From Ghana And Liberia, Larry Hwang, Laura Merja Merja, Jim Simon, Hector R. Juliani

Journal of Medicinally Active Plants

No abstract provided.


About The Cover Mar 2020

About The Cover

Journal of Medicinally Active Plants

No abstract provided.


Antioxidant Capacity And Antimicrobial Activity Of Commercial Samples Of Guava Leaves (Psidium Guajava), Claudia Melo, Nadjet Cornejal, Victor Cruz, Sahar Alsaidi, Gearoff Cruz Rodriguez, Aned Gomez Ramirez, Victor Sorel, Thierry Bonnaire, Thomas M. Zydowsky, Christine Priano, Jose Fernandez Romero, Adolfina Koroch Mar 2020

Antioxidant Capacity And Antimicrobial Activity Of Commercial Samples Of Guava Leaves (Psidium Guajava), Claudia Melo, Nadjet Cornejal, Victor Cruz, Sahar Alsaidi, Gearoff Cruz Rodriguez, Aned Gomez Ramirez, Victor Sorel, Thierry Bonnaire, Thomas M. Zydowsky, Christine Priano, Jose Fernandez Romero, Adolfina Koroch

Journal of Medicinally Active Plants

No abstract provided.


Essential Oil Yield And Aromatic Profile Of Lemon Catnip And Lemon-Scented Catnip Selections At Different Harvesting Times, Erik N. Gomes, William Reichert, Ariane A. Vasilatis, Kirsten A. Allen, Qingli Wu, James E. Simon Professor Mar 2020

Essential Oil Yield And Aromatic Profile Of Lemon Catnip And Lemon-Scented Catnip Selections At Different Harvesting Times, Erik N. Gomes, William Reichert, Ariane A. Vasilatis, Kirsten A. Allen, Qingli Wu, James E. Simon Professor

Journal of Medicinally Active Plants

No abstract provided.


Characterization Of Biodistribution Of Transferrin And Receptor Binding Mechanism By Mass Spectrometry, Hanwei Zhao Mar 2020

Characterization Of Biodistribution Of Transferrin And Receptor Binding Mechanism By Mass Spectrometry, Hanwei Zhao

Doctoral Dissertations

Protein-based therapeutics have emerged as a key driver of rapid growth in drug development pipelines. However, developing such protein drugs is not straightforward in most cases, the existence of physiological barriers greatly restricts the efficient delivery of many therapeutic molecules, and therefore limits their clinical applications. A promising way to address this challenge takes advantage of certain transport protein which can effectively across and enhance the permeability of these barriers, such as transferrin (Tf) which can be internalized by malignant cells and cross physiological barriers via transferrin receptor (TfR)-mediated endocytosis and transcytosis. However, developing such products is impossible without ...


Developing Alternative Forage Production Strategies For Enhanced Environmental And Economic Resilience On New England Dairy Farms, Samantha Glaze-Corcoran Mar 2020

Developing Alternative Forage Production Strategies For Enhanced Environmental And Economic Resilience On New England Dairy Farms, Samantha Glaze-Corcoran

Doctoral Dissertations

Cover crops are prized for their array of well documented and widely respected ecosystem services. Cover crops are an intrinsic part of building and sustaining soil health and thus the long term productive capacity of agricultural soils. However, effective cover crop adoption on New England dairy farms is lacking, and the benefits of traditional cover crops may be somewhat mismatched to the needs of dairy farms. Harvesting winter hardy small cereal grains for forage can provide practical incentive to farmers to incorporate effective cover crop management as well as provide an economic benefit in the form of additional on-farm forage ...


Investigating The Effects Of Winter Drawdowns On The Ecological Character Of Littoral Zones In Massachusetts Lakes, Jason R. Carmignani Mar 2020

Investigating The Effects Of Winter Drawdowns On The Ecological Character Of Littoral Zones In Massachusetts Lakes, Jason R. Carmignani

Doctoral Dissertations

Anthropogenic alteration of water levels in lakes is a major stressor to the ecological integrity of littoral zones, which provide critical heterogenous resources that support diverse biological communities. Annual winter drawdowns have been practiced in Massachusetts (MA) for several decades; however, few studies have estimated impacts to littoral zone habitat and biological communities, particularly at relatively mild magnitudes (i.e., m) and in lakes that co-occur with other anthropogenic pressures (e.g., lakeshore development) as seen in MA lakes. My dissertation reviewed the winter drawdown literature and collected empirical data in MA lakes to characterize winter drawdown hydrological regimes and ...


Integrative Experience: Soil Microbes And The Sustainability Of Organic Agriculture, Kristen Deangelis, Luiz Domeignoz Horta Jan 2020

Integrative Experience: Soil Microbes And The Sustainability Of Organic Agriculture, Kristen Deangelis, Luiz Domeignoz Horta

Microbiology Educational Materials

This curriculum describes a one-unit course designed to fulfill the University of Massachusetts requirement for Integrative Experience as part of the Gen Ed curriculum for undergraduates.


Modeling Conventionalization And Predictability Within Mwes At The Brain Level, Shohini Bhattasali, Murielle Popa-Fabre, Christophe Pallier, John Hale Jan 2020

Modeling Conventionalization And Predictability Within Mwes At The Brain Level, Shohini Bhattasali, Murielle Popa-Fabre, Christophe Pallier, John Hale

Proceedings of the Society for Computation in Linguistics

While expressions have traditionally been binarized as compositional and noncompositional in linguistic theory, Multiword Expressions (MWEs) demonstrate finer-grained distinctions. Using Association Measures like Pointwise Mutual Information and Dice's Coefficient, MWEs can be characterized as having different degrees of conventionalization and predictability. Our goal is to investigate how these gradiences could reflect cognitive processes. In this study, fMRI recordings of naturalistic narrative comprehension is used to probe to what extent these computational measures and the cognitive processes they could operationalize are observable during on-line sentence processing. Our results show that Dice's Coefficent, representing lexical predictability, is a better predictor ...


Modeling Epidemics, An Introduction, Shubha Tewari Jan 2020

Modeling Epidemics, An Introduction, Shubha Tewari

Science and Engineering Saturday Seminars

  • Group discussion of videos watched – Mainly focus on 3Blue1Brown videos

  • Discussion of known facts about Covid-19/SARS-CoV-2

  • Joint look at news articles and websites – Discussion of exponential growth

  • Introduction to SIR (Susceptible-Infected-Recovered) model

  • Excel demonstration of SIR model

  • Other models: SEIR, others

  • Modeling using python (time-permitting)


From Soap Bubbles To Cell Membranes, Peter Beltramo Jan 2020

From Soap Bubbles To Cell Membranes, Peter Beltramo

Science and Engineering Saturday Seminars

Have you ever blown a soap bubble and wondered - what causes the bubble to be so stable and produces those colorful reflections of light? The answer lies in a class of molecules known as surfactants, and they have remarkable similarities with the molecules that comprise the cell membrane of all living organisms. In this workshop, we will use the analogy of a soap bubble to describe cellular membrane properties such as chemistry, structure, membrane transport, and ion channel formation. The goals of this workshop are to 1) link initially intractable concepts in biology like intracellular transport to the intuitive soap ...


Bubble Lab Exercise, Peter Beltramo Jan 2020

Bubble Lab Exercise, Peter Beltramo

Science and Engineering Saturday Seminars

The cell membrane is a ubiquitous component in mammalian cells which control many vital biological functions. It consists of a phospholipid bilayer with embedded protein molecules which serve to transport molecules between the interior and exterior of the cell. Understanding what makes cell membranes so important and how they function requires concepts from physics, chemistry, and of course biology, but it is difficult to learn and conceptualize the structure and function of membranes due to their nanoscopic size and dynamic nature which can’t be properly appreciated in a static textbook. This activity draws analogies between the chemistry and structure ...


Aronia (Chokeberry): An Underutilized, Highly Nutraceutical Plant, Lubana Shahin, Sheriff S. Phaal, Brajesh N. Vaidya, James E. Brown, Nirmal Joshee Dec 2019

Aronia (Chokeberry): An Underutilized, Highly Nutraceutical Plant, Lubana Shahin, Sheriff S. Phaal, Brajesh N. Vaidya, James E. Brown, Nirmal Joshee

Journal of Medicinally Active Plants

No abstract provided.


About The Cover Dec 2019

About The Cover

Journal of Medicinally Active Plants

No abstract provided.


About The Cover Nov 2019

About The Cover

Journal of Medicinally Active Plants

No abstract provided.


Cytochrome P450 Monooxygenase-Mediated Lipid Metabolism In Obesity And Colon Tumorigenesis, Weicang Wang Oct 2019

Cytochrome P450 Monooxygenase-Mediated Lipid Metabolism In Obesity And Colon Tumorigenesis, Weicang Wang

Doctoral Dissertations

Colon cancer is a major public health issue: it is expected to have 140,250 new cases and 50,630 deaths during 2018, making colon cancer the third most common type of cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death in the United States. Obesity is associated with enhanced colonic inflammation, which is a major risk factor of colorectal cancer. Currently, more than 35% of adults and nearly 17% of children are obese. Considering the obesity and colon cancer epidemic in the United States, there is an urgent need to identify novel therapeutic targets for obesity and colon cancer ...


Protein Detection And Structural Characterization By Mass Spectrometry Using Supramolecular Assemblies And Small Molecules, Bo Zhao Oct 2019

Protein Detection And Structural Characterization By Mass Spectrometry Using Supramolecular Assemblies And Small Molecules, Bo Zhao

Doctoral Dissertations

Mass spectrometry (MS) has played an increasingly prominent role in proteomics and structure biology because it shows superior capabilities in identification, quantification and structural characterization of proteins. To realize its full potential in protein analysis, significant progress has been made in developing innovative techniques and reagents that can couple to MS detection. This dissertation demonstrates the use of polymeric supramolecular assemblies for enhanced protein detection in complex biological mixtures by MS. An amphiphilic random co-polymer scaffold is developed to form functional supramolecular assemblies for protein/ peptide enrichment. The influences of charge density and functional group pKa on host-guest interactions ...


Factors Influencing Spartina Alterniflora Productivity In Relationship To Estuary Inlet Opening Ellisville Marsh, Plymouth, Ma, Ellen K. Russell Oct 2019

Factors Influencing Spartina Alterniflora Productivity In Relationship To Estuary Inlet Opening Ellisville Marsh, Plymouth, Ma, Ellen K. Russell

Doctoral Dissertations

A scientific basis for understanding the health of salt marsh vegetation, primarily Spartina alterniflora, in apposition to dredging of the tidal inlet to Ellisville Marsh in Plymouth, Massachusetts was determined. A three-hectare S. alterniflora loss, and coincident coastal bank erosion occurred; ostensibly due to inlet blockage from sand deposition, prolonged inundation, and meandering of inlet channel into coastal bank. This warranted dredging the tidal inlet, whereby tidal flushing would restore growth or discontinue die-off, and deter coastal bank erosion. A pre- and post dredge study was conducted assessing environmental factors related to plant productivity. Following dredging, an increase in tidal ...


Changes In Soil Microbial Communities After Long-Term Warming Exposure, William G. Rodríguez-Reillo Oct 2019

Changes In Soil Microbial Communities After Long-Term Warming Exposure, William G. Rodríguez-Reillo

Doctoral Dissertations

Microbial metabolism is a key controller of ecosystem processes (e.g., carbon cycling). However, we are only starting to identify the molecular mechanisms and feedback in response to long-term warming. My dissertation integrates multi-omics techniques to capture changes in soil microbial communities after long-term warming exposure. The research projects leverage three warming sites (i.e., SWaN, Barre Woods, and Prospect Hill) located in Western Massachusetts at Harvard Forest. These sites provided a unique experimental setup to better understand microbes in response to long-term temperature change. For the three research projects, we delved into the (i) microbial biodiversity across all three ...


Silver Mirror Substrate And Rolling Method For Improved Surface-Enhanced Raman Spesctroscopic Analysis In Food, Yanqi Qu Oct 2019

Silver Mirror Substrate And Rolling Method For Improved Surface-Enhanced Raman Spesctroscopic Analysis In Food, Yanqi Qu

Doctoral Dissertations

Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy, short for SERS, is an emerging technology with great potential in food analysis due to rapid detection, high sensitivity, portable instrumentation, and simple sample preparation. However, it is always a bottleneck to obtain reproducible SERS measurements in real analytical cases due to the complicity of food systems and inhomogeneous aggregation of colloidal nanoparticles. To improve its performance for practical applications in food analysis, efforts have been made in improving the reproducibility, enhancing the selectivity and reducing the matrix interference to the analyte. Herein, a self-assembly silver nanoparticles mirror substrate was fabricated to improve the and the quantitative ...


Effects Of Ivermectin And Perfluorobutanesulfonic Acid (Pfbs) On Lipid Metabolism, Weipeng Qi Oct 2019

Effects Of Ivermectin And Perfluorobutanesulfonic Acid (Pfbs) On Lipid Metabolism, Weipeng Qi

Doctoral Dissertations

Accumulating evidence has shown a link between environmental contaminants and altered lipid metabolism. There is currently, however, limited knowledge regarding the causal molecular mechanisms. Therefore, we investigated the molecular mechanisms of two environmental contaminants, ivermectin and perfluorobutanesulfonic acid (PFBS), on lipid metabolism in adipocytes and hepatocytes using cell culture models. We first studied the effects of ivermectin, an anti-parasitic agent, on the adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Our current results suggest that ivermectin inhibits adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and the expression of adipogenic genes where these effects were found to be partially via PPARγ-dependent, but not FXR-dependent, pathway. Additionally, ivermectin also ...


Drivers And Consequences Of Carbon Use Efficiency - And Its Measurement In Soil, Grace Pold Oct 2019

Drivers And Consequences Of Carbon Use Efficiency - And Its Measurement In Soil, Grace Pold

Doctoral Dissertations

Soils serve as massive carbon sinks, but their ability to continue this ecological service is contingent on how the resident soil microbial community will respond to the ongoing climate crisis. One key dimension of the microbial response to warming is its carbon use efficiency (CUE), or the fraction of carbon taken up by an organism which is allocated to growth rather than respiration. However, the scientific community is still in the early stages of understanding the drivers, consequences - and even accurate measurements of - CUE. In this dissertation, I first quantified the variability of CUE and its responsiveness to temperature and ...


Ecology And Conservation Of Immature Sea Turtles Across Multiple Scales, Lucas Griffin Oct 2019

Ecology And Conservation Of Immature Sea Turtles Across Multiple Scales, Lucas Griffin

Doctoral Dissertations

Considering many sea turtle populations are a fraction of their historic size and anthropogenic threats within the marine environment are increasing, additional data are imperative to help mitigate anthropogenic disturbances and to build resilience into sea turtle populations. In this dissertation, I present three data chapters focused on immature sea turtle ecology and conservation. These chapters evaluate sea turtle ecology and conservation at varying scales, ranging from mitigating human-wildlife interactions at the individual level, to coastal movements and space use at the ecosystem level, and to large scale climate change impacts at the population level. Ultimately, these chapters provide a ...


Effects Of Fertilization And Drying Conditions On The Quality Of Selected Chinese Medicinal Plants, Zoe Gardner Oct 2019

Effects Of Fertilization And Drying Conditions On The Quality Of Selected Chinese Medicinal Plants, Zoe Gardner

Doctoral Dissertations

Demand for Chinese medicinal herbs in the U.S. is increasing and American acupuncturists and farmers are interested in domestic production of these plants. Little is known about the feasibility of production of these species outside of China. Four species of herbs were selected for cultivation trials. The purposes of this research were to evaluate the feasibility of cultivation of these species in the northeastern United States, to develop basic agronomic data for each species, and to determine the effects of nitrogen fertilizer on plant growth, yield, and secondary metabolites. Agastache rugosa, Schizonepeta tenuifolia, Leonurus japonicus, and Leonurus sibiricus were ...


Function And Dissipation In Finite State Automata - From Computing To Intelligence And Back, Natesh Ganesh Oct 2019

Function And Dissipation In Finite State Automata - From Computing To Intelligence And Back, Natesh Ganesh

Doctoral Dissertations

Society has benefited from the technological revolution and the tremendous growth in computing powered by Moore's law. However, we are fast approaching the ultimate physical limits in terms of both device sizes and the associated energy dissipation. It is important to characterize these limits in a physically grounded and implementation-agnostic manner, in order to capture the fundamental energy dissipation costs associated with performing computing operations with classical information in nano-scale quantum systems. It is also necessary to identify and understand the effect of quantum in-distinguishability, noise, and device variability on these dissipation limits. Identifying these parameters is crucial to ...


Temporal And Spatial Management Tools For Marine Ecosystems: Case Studies From Northern Brazil And Northeastern United States, Beatriz Dos Santos Dias Oct 2019

Temporal And Spatial Management Tools For Marine Ecosystems: Case Studies From Northern Brazil And Northeastern United States, Beatriz Dos Santos Dias

Doctoral Dissertations

Anthropogenic interventions and actions upon the marine habitat pose threats to a range of species of economic and conservation concern. The dynamic nature of marine ecosystems offers a difficult challenge to incorporate spatial and temporal distributions of different species, and the interactions among species and human activities into a formal management framework. Each country has its own priorities when it comes to management of the marine resources (e.g. conservation, food security, sustainable fisheries, and optimization of revenue). Therefore, a key hurdle is to create tools adequate for use within an Ecosystem Approach to Management (EAM) and Ecosystem-based Management (EBM ...


Improving Chinese Mothers’ Health Literacy: A Wechat Intervention, Qiong Chen Oct 2019

Improving Chinese Mothers’ Health Literacy: A Wechat Intervention, Qiong Chen

Doctoral Dissertations

The health literacy and eHealth literacy of women during the reproductive age is crucial, as it can affect their health and the health of their children. Promoting health literacy is essential to achieve mothers’ empowerment by improving access to and capacity of using health information effectively. However, functional, interactive, and critical health literacy and eHealth literacy have never been assessed among Chinese women.

The first study during this dissertation assessed functional, interactive, and critical health literacy and eHealth literacy among 421 of Chinese mothers with children under 3 years old. The results revealed overall less than optimal level of health ...


Multi-Level Barriers To Art Adherence Among Hiv-Infected Women In Rural Eswatini: A Mixed Methods Approach, Nozipho Becker Oct 2019

Multi-Level Barriers To Art Adherence Among Hiv-Infected Women In Rural Eswatini: A Mixed Methods Approach, Nozipho Becker

Doctoral Dissertations

Eswatini has the highest global prevalence of HIV despite universal access to free treatment. Lack of compliance continues to be a significant challenge for HIV care and management programs throughout the country. Studies investigating barriers to antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence, particularly in women, who are the most vulnerable to HIV infections, are limited. The disproportionate impact of HIV on women can be attributed to multiple risk factors at the individual, household, and community/structural levels. Women living in rural settings are particularly at risk as a result of socio-cultural and environmental vulnerabilities such as oppressive traditional practices, intimate partner violence ...