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Articles 1 - 30 of 3961

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Forage News [2019-02], University Of Kentucky Department Of Plant And Soil Sciences Feb 2019

Grazing Myths That Reduce Profitability, Greg S. Halich Jan 2019

Grazing Myths That Reduce Profitability, Greg S. Halich

Forage Symposium at the Kentucky Cattlemen’s Convention

Many cattle farms have moved to rotational grazing in the past decade, and there are significant benefits associated with this grazing technique. However, one thing that I have noticed is that costs are not always accounted for when it comes to recommended rotational grazing practices. If you ignore costs, partially or fully, you will invariably do too much of whatever you are considering. In this light, I will highlight four grazing recommendations (myths) that many folks are often taking to extremes related to rotational grazing, and one additional myth (generic to grazing style) that is reducing the overall profitability of ...


Economics Of Grazing Cover Crops, Ed Ballard Jan 2019

Economics Of Grazing Cover Crops, Ed Ballard

Forage Symposium at the Kentucky Cattlemen’s Convention

Feed costs represent the major cost in most livestock production systems. A completed analysis of 225 Standardized Performance Analysis (SPA) Beef Cow Records on herds in Illinois and Iowa showed that feed cost was the overriding factor determining profitability, explaining over 57 percent of the herd-to-herd variation.


Profitability At Eldon Farms: Guiding Principles, John Genho Jan 2019

Profitability At Eldon Farms: Guiding Principles, John Genho

Forage Symposium at the Kentucky Cattlemen’s Convention

Eldon Farms is a 7,000-acre farm in the Northern Piedmont of Virginia. Over the past 15 years, we have adopted a grazing program based on three principles. While the specifics of each operation are different, I believe these principles can be applied across a host of situations.


2018 Long-Term Summary Of Kentucky Forage Variety Trials, Gene L. Olson, S. Ray Smith, Jimmy C. Henning Jan 2019

2018 Long-Term Summary Of Kentucky Forage Variety Trials, Gene L. Olson, S. Ray Smith, Jimmy C. Henning

Forage Symposium at the Kentucky Cattlemen’s Convention

Forage crops occupy approximately 7 million acres in Kentucky. Forages provide a majority of the nutrition for beef, dairy, horse, goat, sheep, and wildlife in the state. In addition, forage crops play an environmentally friendly role in soil conservation, water quality, and air quality. There are over 60 forage species adapted to the climate and soil conditions of Kentucky. Only 10 to 12 of these species occupy the majority of the acreage, but within these species there is a tremendous variation in varieties.

This publication was developed to provide a user-friendly guide to choosing the best variety for producers based ...


Forages At Kca Foreword [2019], Christopher D. Teutsch, Christi L. Forsythe, Rehanon Pampell Jan 2019

Forages At Kca Foreword [2019], Christopher D. Teutsch, Christi L. Forsythe, Rehanon Pampell

Forage Symposium at the Kentucky Cattlemen’s Convention

No abstract provided.


Automated Body Condition Scoring: Progression Across Lactation And Its Association With Disease And Reproduction In Dairy Cattle, Carissa Marie Truman Jan 2019

Automated Body Condition Scoring: Progression Across Lactation And Its Association With Disease And Reproduction In Dairy Cattle, Carissa Marie Truman

Theses and Dissertations--Animal and Food Sciences

Body condition scoring is a technique used to noninvasively assess fat reserves. It provides an objective estimate to describe the current and past nutritional status of the dairy cow and has been associated with increased disease risk and breeding success. Traditionally body condition scores are taken manually by visual appraisal on a 1 to 5 scale, in one-quarter increments. However, recent studies have shown the potential of automating the body condition scoring of cows using images. The first objective was to estimate the likelihood of disease development and breeding success, using odds ratios, associated with body condition score scored automatically ...


Forage Quality Of Cool Season Perennial Grass Horse Pastures In The Transition Zone, Annmarie Christine Riley Jan 2019

Forage Quality Of Cool Season Perennial Grass Horse Pastures In The Transition Zone, Annmarie Christine Riley

Theses and Dissertations--Plant and Soil Sciences

Cool season perennial grasses are the foundation of equine nutrition in the transition zone. The objective of this study was to evaluate forage quality using ADF, NDF, IVTDMD, CP, WSC, and ESC and changes in vegetative swards seasonally, diurnally, across species (Kentucky bluegrass, tall fescue, orchardgrass, and perennial ryegrass) and cultivar. This study was conducted in 2015 and 2017 and plots were maintained vegetatively with two to four week mowing. Morning and afternoon sample collection occurred monthly during the growing season. Samples were flash frozen; freeze dried, ground, and scanned using Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy (NIRS) to predict forage quality ...


Strain-Specific Protein Interaction And Localization Of Two Strains Of Potato Yellow Dwarf Virus And Functional Domains Of Their Matrix Protein, Chanyong Jang Jan 2019

Strain-Specific Protein Interaction And Localization Of Two Strains Of Potato Yellow Dwarf Virus And Functional Domains Of Their Matrix Protein, Chanyong Jang

Theses and Dissertations--Plant Pathology

Potato yellow dwarf virus (PYDV) is the type species of the genus nucleorhabdovirus which is typified by its nucleotropic characters of the members. The virus accomplishes its replication and morphogenesis in the nuclei of infected cells. Two strains, Constricta strain (CYDV) and Sanguinolenta strain (SYDV) have been described at the level of vector-specificity. CYDV is vectored by Agallia constricta and SYDV is transmitted by Aceratagllia sanguinolenta. The full-length genome of CYDV was sequenced. The 12,792 nt antisense genome encodes seven open reading frames in the order of, nucleocapsid protein (N), unknown protein (X), phosphoprotein (P), movement protein (Y), matrix ...


Forage News [2019-01], University Of Kentucky Department Of Plant And Soil Sciences Jan 2019

Investigation Of Amyloid Β Oligomer Dissociation Mechanisms By Single Molecule Fluorescence Techniques, Hope Cook Abdalla Jan 2019

Investigation Of Amyloid Β Oligomer Dissociation Mechanisms By Single Molecule Fluorescence Techniques, Hope Cook Abdalla

Theses and Dissertations--Chemistry

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is currently considered the most prevalent neurodegenerative disease and places a large financial burden on society as healthcare resources are limited and the disease does not have a cure. Alzheimer’s disease is characterized by the presence of amyloid beta (Aβ) plaques and neurofibrillary tangles; however current literature suggests Aβ oligomers are the main aggregating species leading to AD symptoms. Therefore, the underlying cause of Alzheimer’s, accumulation of amyloid beta, is currently being studied in hopes of developing treatment options. Our research aims at determining the mechanism and kinetics of Aβ oligomer dissociation into non-toxic ...


Effect Of Temperature Change On Synaptic Transmission At Crayfish Neuromuscular Junctions, Yuechen Zhu, Leo De Castro, Robin L. Cooper Dec 2018

Effect Of Temperature Change On Synaptic Transmission At Crayfish Neuromuscular Junctions, Yuechen Zhu, Leo De Castro, Robin L. Cooper

Biology Faculty Publications

Ectothermic animals in areas characterised by seasonal changes are susceptible to extreme fluctuations in temperature. To survive through varied temperatures, ectotherms have developed unique strategies. This study focuses on synaptic transmission function at cold temperatures, as it is a vital component of ectothermic animals' survival. For determining how synaptic transmission is influenced by an acute change in temperature (20°C to 10°C within a minute) and chronic cold (10°C), the crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) neuromuscular junction (NMJ) was used as a model. To simulate chronic cold conditions, crayfish were acclimated to 15°C for 1 week and then to ...


Forage News [2018-12], University Of Kentucky Department Of Plant And Soil Sciences Dec 2018

The Effect Of Coronal Prosthetic Alignment Changes On Socket Reaction Moments, Spatiotemporal Parameters, And Perception Of Alignment During Gait In Individuals With Transtibial Amputation, Hiroshi Hashimoto, Toshiki Kobayashi, Fan Gao, Masataka Kataoka, Kuniharu Okuda Nov 2018

The Effect Of Coronal Prosthetic Alignment Changes On Socket Reaction Moments, Spatiotemporal Parameters, And Perception Of Alignment During Gait In Individuals With Transtibial Amputation, Hiroshi Hashimoto, Toshiki Kobayashi, Fan Gao, Masataka Kataoka, Kuniharu Okuda

Kinesiology and Health Promotion Faculty Publications

Introduction: The alignment of a prosthesis is clinically determined based on observations by clinicians and the subjective perception of amputees during gait. However, this process has been reported to be unreliable. Socket reaction moment has been reported to be significantly impacted by alignment changes, but the impact of these alignment changes on other gait parameters is unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of coronal alignment changes of a transtibial prosthesis on socket reaction moment, spatiotemporal parameters, and perceptions of alignment during gait in amputees.

Methods: Nine individuals with transtibial amputation participated in this study. Socket ...


Fractionation And Characterization Of Lignin Streams From Unique High-Lignin Content Endocarp Feedstocks, Wenqi Li, Kirtley Amos, Mi Li, Yunqiao Pu, Seth Debolt, Arthur J. Ragauskas, Jian Shi Nov 2018

Fractionation And Characterization Of Lignin Streams From Unique High-Lignin Content Endocarp Feedstocks, Wenqi Li, Kirtley Amos, Mi Li, Yunqiao Pu, Seth Debolt, Arthur J. Ragauskas, Jian Shi

Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering Faculty Publications

Background: Lignin is a promising source of building blocks for upgrading to valuable aromatic chemicals and materials. Endocarp biomass represents a non-edible crop residue in an existing agricultural setting which cannot be used as animal feed nor soil amendment. With significantly higher lignin content and bulk energy density, endo-carps have significant advantages to be converted into both biofuel and bioproducts as compared to other biomass resources. Deep eutectic solvent (DES) is highly effective in fractionating lignin from a variety of biomass feedstocks with high yield and purity while at lower cost comparing to certain ionic liquids.

Results: In the present ...


2018 – 2019 Kentucky Agricultural Economic Situation And Outlook, Kenneth H. Burdine, Todd D. Davis, Jerry Pierce, William M. Snell, Timothy A. Woods, Jeffrey W. Stringer Nov 2018

2018 – 2019 Kentucky Agricultural Economic Situation And Outlook, Kenneth H. Burdine, Todd D. Davis, Jerry Pierce, William M. Snell, Timothy A. Woods, Jeffrey W. Stringer

Agricultural Situation and Outlook

This publication covers the situation and outlook for 2018-2019 in the following areas:

  • U.S. Agricultural Economy;
  • Kentucky’s Agricultural Economy;
  • Selected Commodity Profiles - Cattle; Poultry; Hogs; Equine; Dairy; Corn; Soybeans; Wheat; Tobacco; Fruits, Vegetables and Greenhouse; and
  • Forestry.


Forage News [2018-11], University Of Kentucky Department Of Plant And Soil Sciences Nov 2018

Managing Risk In Grazing Operations, Christopher D. Teutsch, Kenneth H. Burdine Oct 2018

Managing Risk In Grazing Operations, Christopher D. Teutsch, Kenneth H. Burdine

Kentucky Grazing Conference

Risk is an inherent part of agricultural production systems. Crane and coworkers (2013) identified five primary areas of risk in grazing operations: 1) MARKETING risk, 2) PRODUCTION risk, 3) LEGAL risk, 4) HUMAN risk, and FINANCIAL risk. These types of risk are described in the accompanying publication entitled “Controlling Risk in Grazing-Based Production Systems” by J. Parsons. This article will discuss the risk associated with “production” in grazing systems, focusing specifically on managing drought in grass based production operations.


Keys To Optimizing Profitability In Cow-Calf Production -- Rooster's Beef, 3 Generations Of Farming & Beef, William Slaton, Becky Slaton Oct 2018

Keys To Optimizing Profitability In Cow-Calf Production -- Rooster's Beef, 3 Generations Of Farming & Beef, William Slaton, Becky Slaton

Kentucky Grazing Conference

Rooster's Beef ultimately began with our family farm -Rocky Bluff Farm - now owned by William and Becky Slaton. It is the cattle producer for our beef sold. The farm is named after two Natural Rock Formations on our property. We have several acres of pasture and including some wooded acres. With rotational grazing and intense management, we are able to have 65 cows in a spring calving group, 15 cows in a fall calving group, 3 bulls, 13 replacement heifers, unweaned calves and 12 calves on finisher feed. We also rent ground to raise and put up our own ...


Grass Finished Beef: Melding Production And Marketing [1], Michael Palmer, Stacie Palmer Oct 2018

Grass Finished Beef: Melding Production And Marketing [1], Michael Palmer, Stacie Palmer

Kentucky Grazing Conference

Palmer Farms Beef is a family farm near Murray KY, owned by Michael and Stacie Palmer. We produce, and retail around 40 beef per year.


Grass Finished Beef: Melding Production And Marketing [2], Todd Clark Oct 2018

Grass Finished Beef: Melding Production And Marketing [2], Todd Clark

Kentucky Grazing Conference

No abstract provided.


Turning Grass Into Cash With Small Ruminants, Kenneth Andries Oct 2018

Turning Grass Into Cash With Small Ruminants, Kenneth Andries

Kentucky Grazing Conference

As agriculture continues to change, it is important to consider sustainability before starting or expanding any enterprise. One critical factor in any animal agriculture enterprise is controlling feeding costs. Most research indicates feeding is the largest expenses in any livestock enterprise. However, nutrition is critical to overall productivity and the income of the enterprise. Because of this, producers need to find ways to improve nutrient availability while minimizing costs to optimize production and profitability for their livestock enterprise.


Grazing Dairies: Challenges And Opportunities, Howard Straub Iii Oct 2018

Grazing Dairies: Challenges And Opportunities, Howard Straub Iii

Kentucky Grazing Conference

No abstract provided.


Considerations For Making A Profit With Stocker Cattle, Jeff Lehmkuhler Oct 2018

Considerations For Making A Profit With Stocker Cattle, Jeff Lehmkuhler

Kentucky Grazing Conference

The southeast is home to more than 7.3 million beef cows (USDA 2018). At an estimated 80% weaning rate and 20% heifer retention, the southeast region would be expected to produce more than 4.6 million feeder calves that would go to market in 2018. The cow-calf industry in the region provides an opportunity for the stocker and backgrounding operations to co-exist. Much of the land in the region is best suited for forage and pasture production, which at the current moment, provides a low cost feed for adding pounds to light weight feeder cattle. Yet, the stocker and ...


Measuring Profitability In Grazing Operations, Kenneth H. Burdine Oct 2018

Measuring Profitability In Grazing Operations, Kenneth H. Burdine

Kentucky Grazing Conference

When producers make investments in extending their grazing season, they do so in order to obtain an economic benefit. These benefits usually include a reduction in the number of days that stored feed (typically hay) is fed, an increase in carry capacity or stocking rate, or an increase in production level (rates of gain, weaning weights, etc). While all of these are potential benefits of improved grazing systems, a reduction in winter feeding days is often the simplest way to start. When the grazing season is extended, winter feeding days are reduced, and this cost savings can be weighed against ...


Foreword And Conference Information [2018], S. Ray Smith, Christopher D. Teutsch Oct 2018

Foreword And Conference Information [2018], S. Ray Smith, Christopher D. Teutsch

Kentucky Grazing Conference

No abstract provided.


Forage News [2018-10], University Of Kentucky Department Of Plant And Soil Sciences Oct 2018

Forage News [2018-10], University Of Kentucky Department Of Plant And Soil Sciences

Forage News

  • Profitability is focus of Kentucky Grazing Conference
  • Bale Grazing: A Solution to the Mud in 2018?
  • Poison Hemlock – Be Aware


Physiological Changes As A Measure Of Crustacean Welfare Under Different Standardized Stunning Techniques: Cooling And Electroshock, Kristin Weineck, Andrew J. Ray, Leo J. Fleckenstein, Meagan Medley, Nicole Dzubuk, Elena Piana, Robin L. Cooper Sep 2018

Physiological Changes As A Measure Of Crustacean Welfare Under Different Standardized Stunning Techniques: Cooling And Electroshock, Kristin Weineck, Andrew J. Ray, Leo J. Fleckenstein, Meagan Medley, Nicole Dzubuk, Elena Piana, Robin L. Cooper

Biology Faculty Publications

Stunning of edible crustaceans to reduce sensory perception prior and during slaughter is an important topic in animal welfare. The purpose of this project was to determine how neural circuits were affected during stunning by examining the physiological function of neural circuits. The central nervous system circuit to a cardiac or skeletal muscle response was examined. Three commercially important crustacean species were utilized for stunning by immersion in an ice slurry below 4 °C and by electrocution; both practices are used in the seafood industry. The blue crab (Callinectes sapidus), the red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii), and the whiteleg shrimp ...


Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors Prevent Persistent Hypersensitivity In An Orofacial Neuropathic Pain Model, Robert J. Danaher, Liping Zhang, Connor J. Donley, Nashwin A. Laungani, S. Elise Hui, Craig S. Miller, Karin N. Westlund Sep 2018

Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors Prevent Persistent Hypersensitivity In An Orofacial Neuropathic Pain Model, Robert J. Danaher, Liping Zhang, Connor J. Donley, Nashwin A. Laungani, S. Elise Hui, Craig S. Miller, Karin N. Westlund

Oral Health Practice Faculty Publications

Chronic orofacial pain is a significant health problem requiring identification of regulating processes. Involvement of epigenetic modifications that is reported for hindlimb neuropathic pain experimental models, however, is less well studied in cranial nerve pain models. Three independent observations reported here are the (1) epigenetic profile in mouse trigeminal ganglia (TG) after trigeminal inflammatory compression (TIC) nerve injury mouse model determined by gene expression microarray, (2) H3K9 acetylation pattern in TG by immunohistochemistry, and (3) efficacy of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors to attenuate development of hypersensitivity. After TIC injury, ipsilateral whisker pad mechanical sensitization develops by day 3 and persists ...


Forage News [2018-09], University Of Kentucky Department Of Plant And Soil Sciences Sep 2018

Forage News [2018-09], University Of Kentucky Department Of Plant And Soil Sciences

Forage News

  • Dealing with high nitrates in forage
  • New crimson clover, Kentucky Pride, available
  • Horse farm sees success from pasture renovations