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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

How Do Food And Physical Activity Policies Affect Our Health?, Chris Long May 2021

How Do Food And Physical Activity Policies Affect Our Health?, Chris Long

Diet, Food, Exercise, and Nutrition (D-FEND)

Policy is generally defined and then tied into how food and physical health policies affect our everyday lives.


Determinants Of Female Bargaining Power In Northern Mozambican Households, Sara Marilyn Gardner May 2021

Determinants Of Female Bargaining Power In Northern Mozambican Households, Sara Marilyn Gardner

Agricultural Economics and Agribusiness Undergraduate Honors Theses

Melinda Gates stated, “If you search for poverty, you will find women who don’t have power. If you explore prosperity, you will find women who do have power and use it.” Throughout Sub-Saharan Africa, women are expected to perform disproportional amounts of labor but are often ignored in household decision-making regarding social and economic matters. The United Nations Development Program (UNDP) states that women in Mozambique are highly disadvantaged, relative to men, due to low levels of education, maternal health risks, restricted economic prospects, and cultural norms. This study aims to better understand the causes of female empowerment in ...


Long-Term Changes In Soil Surface Properties As Affected By Management Practices In A Wheat-Soybean, Double-Crop System, Machaela Morrison May 2021

Long-Term Changes In Soil Surface Properties As Affected By Management Practices In A Wheat-Soybean, Double-Crop System, Machaela Morrison

Crop, Soil and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

Long-term agricultural sustainability and productivity are controlled by the integrative effects of different management practices on the soil. Many Arkansas producers use the double-crop system to grow soybeans [Glycine max (L.) Merr] and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Studying combinations of different, non-traditional, alternative agricultural techniques may help producers better understand the long-term implications of various management practice options on sustainability and productivity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of agricultural management practices, including residue level, tillage, irrigation, and burning, and soil depth on the change in various soil properties from 2010 to 2020 in a long-term ...


Effects Of A Low Crude Protein Diet With And Without Spirulina Platensis Inclusion On The Concentrations And Proportions Of Circulating Immune Cells In Broilers, Heather Glenn May 2021

Effects Of A Low Crude Protein Diet With And Without Spirulina Platensis Inclusion On The Concentrations And Proportions Of Circulating Immune Cells In Broilers, Heather Glenn

Poultry Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

Immune system health is an important aspect of broiler production, especially with the reduction of the use of antibiotics. Nutritional aspects, like crude protein percentage, and natural alternatives to antibiotics are being investigated to see the effect they have on immunity. Spirulina is an alternative proteinaceous ingredient that producers are looking into, not only due to its high nutritional value, but also its immune boosting properties. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a low crude protein diet (LCP) and a Spirulina-supplemented low crude protein (LCP-SP) diet on broiler blood cell measurements, including, concentrations and proportions ...


Validation Of Anti-Oxidative Stress Genes From Genome-Wide Screening Of Escherichia Coli, Carson Ercanbrack May 2021

Validation Of Anti-Oxidative Stress Genes From Genome-Wide Screening Of Escherichia Coli, Carson Ercanbrack

Chemistry & Biochemistry Undergraduate Honors Theses

The primary purpose of this project is to evaluate the genes that play a role in the oxidative stress response in Escherichia coli. In doing so, the entire genome of E. coli was subject to throughput in which individual genes were determined to have a role in the bacteria’s oxidative stress response. Moreover, this project focused on the validation of the genes that were able to pass the initial throughput stage. The genes were subject to two forms of validation. In the first validation technique, candidate genes were overexpressed and minimum inhibitory concentrations of hypochlorous acid were taken. Following ...


A Systematic Literature Review Of Sanitizer Efficacy To Remove Listeria Monocytogenes, Salmonella Spp., And Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia Coli Biofilms From Food Processing Surfaces, Ashlynn Robinson May 2021

A Systematic Literature Review Of Sanitizer Efficacy To Remove Listeria Monocytogenes, Salmonella Spp., And Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia Coli Biofilms From Food Processing Surfaces, Ashlynn Robinson

Food Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

Sanitizing in food production environments is essential to prevent, reduce, and/or eliminate foodborne pathogens. Biofilms consist of one or more different types of microorganisms and can grow on numerous types of surfaces (Costerton,1999). SLRs provide transparency about what steps were taken to acquire the sources included in the analysis (Liberati et al.,2009; Moher et al., 2009). The references obtained from the databases were based on specific eligibility criteria to ensure reproducible results. The inclusion criteria included six surface types (stainless steel, glass, plastic, polyurethane, PVC, rubber), seven sanitizer types (anionic acid, benzalkonium chloride, iodine, iodophor, peracetic acid ...


The Effect Of Whey Protein Supplementation At Breakfast On Tryptophan Levels, Food Intake, And Mood In Postmenopausal Women In A 16-Week Randomized Controlled Trial, Danielle Warren May 2021

The Effect Of Whey Protein Supplementation At Breakfast On Tryptophan Levels, Food Intake, And Mood In Postmenopausal Women In A 16-Week Randomized Controlled Trial, Danielle Warren

Human Nutrition and Hospitality Management Undergraduate Honors Theses

Whey protein isolate supplementation has been recognized as having potential for regulating appetite, thereby potentially improving mood and food intake.

The objectives of this project were to 1) analyze the effects of high-quality whey protein intake on overall diet, and 2) identify and examine a correlation between tryptophan levels and mood regulation.

This research was conducted using a randomized experimental design. A total of 13 post-menopausal women (12+ months after last reported menstrual cycle) were recruited and allocated to one of two dietary intervention (DI) groups: 1) control (maintain current lifestyle; CON; n = 6), and 2) whey protein isolate (WPI ...


Evaluating Silicon Foliar Sprays As A Strategy To Improve Postproduction Performance Of Potted Basil (Ocimum Basilicum L.), Joshua Tebow May 2021

Evaluating Silicon Foliar Sprays As A Strategy To Improve Postproduction Performance Of Potted Basil (Ocimum Basilicum L.), Joshua Tebow

Horticulture Undergraduate Honors Theses

The objective of the study was to evaluate foliar silicon (Si) applications for effects on the growth and performance of container-grown basil during production and resistance to postproduction wilt in retail. Basil (Ocimum basilicum ‘Genovese’ L.) seedling plugs were transplanted into 10-cm diameter plastic containers with peat-based substrate and grown for 42 d in a polycarbonate greenhouse. Plants were irrigated with fertilizer solution consisting of a 17.0 nitrogen (N)-1.3 phosphorus-14.1 potassium water-soluble fertilizer dissolved in tap water at 150 mg∙L-1 N. Foliar sprays containing sodium silicate at 0, 50, 100, 200, and 400 mg∙L-1 ...


How Background Factors Affect Culinary Skills And Knowledge, Mackenzie Harrell May 2021

How Background Factors Affect Culinary Skills And Knowledge, Mackenzie Harrell

Human Nutrition and Hospitality Management Undergraduate Honors Theses

Students preparing to be registered dietitians must learn and retain culinary skills and knowledge so they can use it in their future career. If dietitians’ nutritional knowledge is limited to medical situations, they cannot educate the public about planning and preparing healthy meals. The purpose of this study was to determine if a student’s history of cooking, shopping for groceries, and other background factors affect culinary skills and knowledge, and to determine the appropriate curriculum for undergraduate students to prepare them for their career as a dietitian. This study was in part a continuation of an assessment conducted by ...


Comparative Analysis Of Azo Dye Restriction In The International Textile Industry, Kayla Demark May 2021

Comparative Analysis Of Azo Dye Restriction In The International Textile Industry, Kayla Demark

Apparel Merchandising and Product Development Undergraduate Honors Theses

Azo dyes are the most used type of dye in the textile industry. Some of these dyes have the potential to be extremely toxic to both human health and the environment. While regulations of these dyes vary across the world, it is suggested that not enough is being done to protect consumers and the environment from potentially harmful azo dyes (Rawat et al., 2016). It is the responsibility of apparel companies to ensure that their products that contain azo dyes are safe for consumers.

The purpose of this study was to understand how azo dyes and their by-products are restricted ...


Sublethal Effects Of Red Imported Fire Ant Envenomation On Hatchlings Of North American Oviparous Snakes, Hannah Warner, Meredith Swartwout May 2021

Sublethal Effects Of Red Imported Fire Ant Envenomation On Hatchlings Of North American Oviparous Snakes, Hannah Warner, Meredith Swartwout

Crop, Soil and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

Invasive species cause major ecological and economic damage. The Red Imported Fire Ant (RIFA; Solenopsis invicta) has successfully invaded much of the southeastern United States and has caused both widespread economic damage and is suspected to be the driver of enigmatic declines of several oviparous snake species. This study aimed to determine the sublethal effects of RIFA on hatchlings of six species of oviparous snakes (Coluber constrictor, Lampropeltis calligaster, L. holbrooki, Opheodrys aestivus, Pantherophis emoryi, and P. obsoletus) by exposing hatchlings to envenomation by RIFA and then measuring two performance metrics: righting response and swimming speed. We found a slight ...


Baseline Sensitivity To Dmi Fungicides In Cercospora Spp. And Corynespora Spp. In Arkansas Soybeans, Evan Buckner May 2021

Baseline Sensitivity To Dmi Fungicides In Cercospora Spp. And Corynespora Spp. In Arkansas Soybeans, Evan Buckner

Crop, Soil and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

Cercospora spp. and Corynespora spp. are two common foliar fungal pathogens in Arkansas amongst other soybean producing areas. Two primary diseases caused by Cercospora spp. are Cercospora Leaf Blight (CLB, caused mainly by C. kikuchii) and Frogeye Leaf Spot (C. sojina). Both diseases affect foliage, and when lesions collapse, leaves may fall prematurely resulting in yield loss. In the specific case of CLB, this is a disease on the rise since 2000, and also causes seed infection reducing seed quality. Target spot is a disease caused by Corynespora cassiicola, and is of less damaging for farmers in larger soybean producing ...


Using Deep Learning For Children Brain Image Analysis, Rafael Toche Pizano May 2021

Using Deep Learning For Children Brain Image Analysis, Rafael Toche Pizano

Computer Science and Computer Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Analyzing the correlation between brain volumetric/morphometry features and cognition/behavior in children is important in the field of pediatrics as identifying such relationships can help identify children who may be at risk for illnesses. Understanding these relationships can not only help identify children who may be at risk of illnesses, but it can also help evaluate strategies that promote brain development in children. Currently, one way to do this is to use traditional statistical methods such as a correlation analysis, but such an approach does not make it easy to generalize and predict how brain volumetric/morphometry will impact ...


Combatting Inefficient Food Waste In Nwa With Food Loops, Davis Ehlers May 2021

Combatting Inefficient Food Waste In Nwa With Food Loops, Davis Ehlers

Economics Undergraduate Honors Theses

It is no longer a speculation that the actions of the human race have had detrimental impacts on the environment. As consumers become increasingly aware of this fact- and the fact that many of the issues are caused by bad business and environmental management, many individuals are wondering what they can do about it. This growing area of demand is where many businesses have begun to take on the challenge of being profitable while benefiting the environment at the same time, and some have even found ways to create a profit by engaging in activities that directly benefit the environment ...


Involvement Of The Ino80 Chromatin Remodeling Complex In Cell Division And Genomic Stability, Ethan Chen May 2021

Involvement Of The Ino80 Chromatin Remodeling Complex In Cell Division And Genomic Stability, Ethan Chen

Biomedical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Cell division is a vital biological process for growth and development in both single and multi-cellular organisms—whereby the cell must duplicate its organelles and genome in entirety and appropriately distribute the copied contents to the daughter cells. Cells undergo a cycle of two distinct phases: interphase and mitosis. During interphase, the cell replicates its genomic DNA (in the form of chromosomes) located within the nucleus. DNA replication is carried out in a euchromatin state, where the chromosome structure is loose and easily accessible by DNA polymerase and other replication enzymes. Upon the completion of replication, chromatin is condensed into ...


Leading During Covid-19: Women In The Agricultural Industry, Kathryn Gardner May 2021

Leading During Covid-19: Women In The Agricultural Industry, Kathryn Gardner

Agricultural Education, Communications and Technology Undergraduate Honors Theses

There is no doubt COVID-19 has forever shaped the way our organizations operate, and leaders emerge in times of crisis. However, women uniquely face challenges and obstacles in the workplace during non-pandemic circumstances that were amplified in the past year as the lines between work and life were blurred. Literature and historical evidence show that women face significant barriers and bias compared to their male counterparts when pursuing leadership roles. This study sought to identify how women in agriculture, a male dominated industry, have encountered circumstances of obstacles or bias in their careers as leaders, as well as how they ...


Regression Analysis Of Pacing When Running A Marathon, Hawkin Starke May 2021

Regression Analysis Of Pacing When Running A Marathon, Hawkin Starke

Industrial Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Regression analysis can be an effective way of examining performance in the marathon event. By splitting up the race into segments or in runner terminology “splits” the significance of each segment as it relates to the total finish time can be explored. Because the idea of splits is already ingrained into the minds of runners, it makes intuitive sense to use these as the metrics to define a race. Additionally, marathons generally make participant age and gender date publicly available which can then be used to find trends within specific demographics. This tailors trends to smaller groups of people, making ...


The Effects Of Common Stressors On Poultry Production: A Case Study In Northern Mozambique, Grace Lehfeldt May 2021

The Effects Of Common Stressors On Poultry Production: A Case Study In Northern Mozambique, Grace Lehfeldt

Finance Undergraduate Honors Theses

Chicken is one of the main proteins that feeds the world. For centuries, the human race has relied on chickens to eat. Therefore, as food science becomes more relevant, the way that chickens are raised has become a science. However, this is not true in every part of the world. In Mozambique the process for raising chickens for consumption is not the same as it would be in America. This is a study of two specific “stressors” (feed and temperature) and how they impacted chicken growth and development on a live production poultry farm in Northern Mozambique. In addition, it ...


How The Covid-19 Pandemic Has Affected Physical Activity, Sleep And Mental Health In University Students, Faculty And Staff And To Examine The Relationship Between These Variables, Zachary Parisi May 2021

How The Covid-19 Pandemic Has Affected Physical Activity, Sleep And Mental Health In University Students, Faculty And Staff And To Examine The Relationship Between These Variables, Zachary Parisi

Health, Human Performance and Recreation Undergraduate Honors Theses

Background: Increased physical activity has been shown to be beneficial in decreasing stress. This project will expand on this knowledge while also studying college students, a demographic that has been less studied. This study will also examine the impact of COVID-19 on these variables. COVID-19 changed many peoples’ activities of daily life, and possibly physically activity levels, due to public health measures such as lockdowns and remote learning. Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine how the COVID-19 pandemic has affected physical activity, sleep, and mental health in university students, faculty and staff and to examine the relationship ...


Estimating Irrigation In Rice Fields With A Water Balance Approach, Kristen Trinh May 2021

Estimating Irrigation In Rice Fields With A Water Balance Approach, Kristen Trinh

Biological and Agricultural Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Global food production must increase to meet the demand associated with increased population growth, so irrigation water use will continue to rise. Therefore, it is important to monitor water usage particularly when an irrigation flowmeter is unavailable. A field water balance was created for a selection of rice fields in East-central Arkansas under observation in 2018 and 2019. From those, irrigation inputs are deduced from the water balance alone. First, each field had sensors that collected water table level (WTL) data. Next, other water inputs and outputs such as precipitation and evapotranspiration (ET) were collected from two modeled sources. The ...


Light Intensity Control For Plc-Based Hydroponic Demonstration System, Christian Hitt May 2021

Light Intensity Control For Plc-Based Hydroponic Demonstration System, Christian Hitt

Biological and Agricultural Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

In order to demonstrate a skill set obtained through the University of Arkansas Biological Engineering, a group of students and I developed a hydroponic system where plants could be grown in a chamber. System parameters such as air quality, irrigation, and lighting were controlled by a Programmable Logic Computer (PLC) and an array of sensors and actuators. Each student focused on a certain aspect of this system, mine being the lighting. Developing this system involved researching the relationship between light intensity and plant growth, designing a system to suspend the lights above the growth chamber, and develop a system to ...


Trunctrimmer: A First Step Towards Automating Standard Bioinformatic Analysis, Z. Gunner Lawless, Dana Dittoe, Dale R. Thompson, Steven C. Ricke May 2021

Trunctrimmer: A First Step Towards Automating Standard Bioinformatic Analysis, Z. Gunner Lawless, Dana Dittoe, Dale R. Thompson, Steven C. Ricke

Computer Science and Computer Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Bioinformatic analysis is a time-consuming process for labs performing research on various microbiomes. Researchers use tools like Qiime2 to help standardize the bioinformatic analysis methods, but even large, extensible platforms like Qiime2 have drawbacks due to the attention required by researchers. In this project, we propose to automate additional standard lab bioinformatic procedures by eliminating the existing manual process of determining the trim and truncate locations for paired end 2 sequences. We introduce a new Qiime2 plugin called TruncTrimmer to automate the process that usually requires the researcher to make a decision on where to trim and truncate manually after ...


Comparing Cognition In Women Between The Ages Of (18-40) And (40-70), Annalyn Smith May 2021

Comparing Cognition In Women Between The Ages Of (18-40) And (40-70), Annalyn Smith

Biological Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

Currently, 5.8 million Americans are living with Alzheimer’s disease (AD), which is a degenerative brain disease. It is currently the sixth-leading cause of death in the United States (Alzheimer’s Association, 2019). AD also possesses a financial burned on the United States, estimated to cost $290 billion in 2019. Sufferers of AD insidiously lose their memory, personality, and judgment abilities until there are no longer recognizable by their loved ones. Currently, the best chance suffers of AD have is to catch the disease early on to slow its effects. This is due to the fact that treatment can ...


“The Role Of Poultry On Food Insecurity In Mozambique”, Austin Heinisch May 2021

“The Role Of Poultry On Food Insecurity In Mozambique”, Austin Heinisch

Finance Undergraduate Honors Theses

Hunger, poverty, and starvation in developing countries are some of the most prevalent challenges facing the world today but many people outside of these areas are not fully aware as to just how bad it is. In the country of Mozambique, where the following research took place, food insecurity levels are rampant, and many different groups/companies are trying to change that. Through a service-learning study abroad program in the summer of 2019, my group and I worked with the local company New Horizons to research ways in which poultry production for both the company and their rural out growers ...


How Acetylation Regulates Metabolic Enzyme Function During Environmental Shifts, Jared Canonigo May 2021

How Acetylation Regulates Metabolic Enzyme Function During Environmental Shifts, Jared Canonigo

Biological Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

Organisms such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae can regulate the mechanisms of proteins through post-translational modification. These modifications play a vital role in functional proteomic activity because they can regulate protein activity, localization, and interaction with other cellular molecules. Such modifications include phosphorylation, methylation, and acetylation. The metabolic mechanisms of yeast became of keen interest to our lab because our lab noticed many stress defense proteins were being acetylated during stress heat shock. Notably, Adh1p and Adh2p showed both an increase and a decrease in acetylation at two lysine residues (K315 and K314) overtime during heat shock respectively, though the exact function ...


Temperature-Dependent Macrophage Activity In Rainbow Trout, Danica Mcgrevey May 2021

Temperature-Dependent Macrophage Activity In Rainbow Trout, Danica Mcgrevey

Biological Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

Fever is an essential component of the immune response. Fever enhances immune responses as well as creates an environment in which the body has advantages over pathogens. Macrophages are often the first cells that come in contact with pathogens, as they reside in tissues. They are important for their engulfment of pathogens that results in the digestion of the pathogen, but they also produce nitric oxide and cytokines that contribute to immune response in a variety of ways, including initiating adaptive immunity and directing the production and activity of other immune cells. We were curious about macrophages from other temperature ...


Exploring How Maternal Phosphorus Status Affects Calf Growth And Performance, Elizabeth Lafferty May 2021

Exploring How Maternal Phosphorus Status Affects Calf Growth And Performance, Elizabeth Lafferty

Animal Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

This study will focus on how maternal phosphorus status of beef heifers affects the growth and performance of their calves. Heifers have been offered free-choice mineral with either 0 or 4% supplemental phosphorus from 30 days after weaning until calving. A study by H. Hilfiker, a University of Arkansas honors student, investigated the effects of these treatments from 30 days after weaning until 60 days after the breeding season when heifers were confirmed to be bred or open. For this developing heifer project 64 crossbred Angus heifers were assigned randomly into 8 groups (8 heifers/ group) before assigning each group ...


Can Small-Scale Poultry Initiatives Alleviate Food Insecurity And Increase Empowerment For Women In Economically Disadvantaged Areas?, Patrick Daniels May 2021

Can Small-Scale Poultry Initiatives Alleviate Food Insecurity And Increase Empowerment For Women In Economically Disadvantaged Areas?, Patrick Daniels

Accounting Undergraduate Honors Theses

In the summer of 2019, I, along with 8 other students from the University of Arkansas departed the United States for the Central American country of Belize. Despite our limited knowledge of what Belize held in store for us, we were enthusiastic about the coming months. While we had different projects, we all set out with the same universal question in mind. How can we use the knowledge we have gained through education to make a positive impact on the lives of people living in an impoverished town? Some of the members of our team worked alongside local businesses to ...


Leaders Of The Pack: The Effect Of Companion And Livestock Animal Ownership And/Or Management On Leadership Skills In College Students, Laurel E. Dhority May 2021

Leaders Of The Pack: The Effect Of Companion And Livestock Animal Ownership And/Or Management On Leadership Skills In College Students, Laurel E. Dhority

Animal Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

Having and maintaining good leadership skills should be an important way of life for most college students. As these individuals search for their first jobs and employment outside of the university experience, many businesses and employers will utilize these leadership traits and officer positions within specific clubs and organizations to select who to extend a job offer. Many student associations which place their focus on animals, both agriculturally raised livestock and companion animals, take pride in the skills and proficiencies they teach their members. This study utilized a survey of both multiple choice and Likert Scale styled questions in order ...


Effects Of Retail Case Environment And Led Lighting Temperature On Color Of Ground Beef Patties, Mesa Kutz May 2021

Effects Of Retail Case Environment And Led Lighting Temperature On Color Of Ground Beef Patties, Mesa Kutz

Animal Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

The objective of this study was to explore different type of retail cases and case environments, primarily lighting, to quantify the impact on shelf life. Coarse ground 80:20 beef from a local retail establishment was acquired between 7 and 10 d from the box date and fine ground through a 9.5 mm grinder plate, and then formed into 150.25 g patties with an automatic patty forming machine. Each patty was then individually packaged in PVC-overwrap packages and randomly assigned to one of the four different treatments: open, multideck cases with 3000 K lighting (OPEN3000),open 3500 K ...