Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Life Sciences Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Discipline
Keyword
Publication Year
Publication
Publication Type

Articles 1 - 30 of 2473

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Predicting Kidding Date Using Prepartum Milk Calcium Concentrations And Comparing Kid Growth To Colostrum Quality In Goats, Justin Hamm Dec 2018

Predicting Kidding Date Using Prepartum Milk Calcium Concentrations And Comparing Kid Growth To Colostrum Quality In Goats, Justin Hamm

Animal Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

Abstract

Goats have a very long history with mankind and are commonly used as a nutritious red meat source around the world. The supply of goat meat in the United States does not meet the growing demand from ethnic consumers. This provides an economic opportunity in Arkansas agriculture because goats are uniquely adapted to the Ozark environment. There is a wide gap in caprine research which facilitated the conception of the study’s objectives to determine whether prepartum milk in goats showed a sudden rise in calcium levels within 24 to 48 hours of kidding and to ascertain whether an ...


Diversification Across A Dynamic Landscape: Phylogeography And Riverscape Genetics Of Speckled Dace (Rhinichthys Osculus) In Western North America, Steven Michael Mussmann Dec 2018

Diversification Across A Dynamic Landscape: Phylogeography And Riverscape Genetics Of Speckled Dace (Rhinichthys Osculus) In Western North America, Steven Michael Mussmann

Theses and Dissertations

Evolution occurs at various spatial and temporal scales. For example, speciation may occur in historic time, whereas localized adaptation is more contemporary. Each is required to identify and manage biodiversity. However, the relative abundance of Speckled Dace (Rhinichthys osculus), a small cyprinid fish in western North America (WNA) and the study species for this dissertation, establishes it an atypical conservation target, particularly when contrasted with the profusion of narrowly endemic forms it displays. Yet, the juxtaposition of ubiquity versus endemism provides an ideal model against which to test hypotheses regarding the geomorphic evolution of WNA. More specifically, it also allows ...


Genetic And Epigenetic Investigations On Pulmonary Hypertension Syndrome In Meat Type- Chickens, Khaloud Alzahrani Dec 2018

Genetic And Epigenetic Investigations On Pulmonary Hypertension Syndrome In Meat Type- Chickens, Khaloud Alzahrani

Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation presents a collection of studies that investigate the genetic and epigenetic associations to ascites phenotype in broiler chickens. Ascites is a significant metabolic disease associated with fast-growing meat-type chickens (broilers) and is a terminal result of pulmonary hypertension syndrome PHS. It is a multi-factorial syndrome caused by interactions between genetic, physiological, environmental, and managemental factors. It was estimated that ascites accounts for losses of about US$1 billion annually worldwide and for over 25% of broilers mortality. Although traditional and molecular genetic methods in the selection and in performance improvements, has greatly reduced ascites frequency, yet it has ...


Spotted Wing Drosophila (Drosophila Suzukii) In Arkansas: Winter Morphs, Wild Hosts, And Fungal Control, Rosalee Knipp Dec 2018

Spotted Wing Drosophila (Drosophila Suzukii) In Arkansas: Winter Morphs, Wild Hosts, And Fungal Control, Rosalee Knipp

Theses and Dissertations

Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura), or spotted wing drosophila (SWD), is an invasive fruit fly pest that was first found in the United States in 2008. Unlike native Drosophila, SWD females have a serrated ovipositor that allows them to attack ripening fruit. Since its introduction, it is unclear how and where they overwinter in Arkansas, what local hosts they utilize and what potential alternative tactics can be used to combat this pest. In states north of Arkansas, winter morphs (WM) of SWD are larger, darker pigmented, and can survive colder temperatures than SWD flies found in the summer. These WM were found ...


Evolutionary Dynamics Of Brown Treesnake (Boiga Irregularis) Reproductive Ecology, With Implications For Invasive Species Control, Brenna Aaren Levine Dec 2018

Evolutionary Dynamics Of Brown Treesnake (Boiga Irregularis) Reproductive Ecology, With Implications For Invasive Species Control, Brenna Aaren Levine

Theses and Dissertations

Invasive species represent major threats to biodiversity, global economies, and human health. Consequently, extensive research has been directed towards improving methods that restrict and contain them. Yet, control measures can also act as agents of selection by significantly impacting the reproductive capacity of invasives (in the context of “eco-evo” dynamics). The end result is that control measures subsequently alter the fitness landscape of an invasive over ecologically-relevant time, and lose their efficacy by so doing. However, adaptive management can be promoted by investigating the relationships between reproductive ecology, strength of selection, and (additive) genetic variation. In short, effective control can ...


Methanogens, Plausible Extraterrestrial Life Forms On Mars, And Their Tolerance To Increasing Concentrations Of Illite Clay, Chandler Kern Dec 2018

Methanogens, Plausible Extraterrestrial Life Forms On Mars, And Their Tolerance To Increasing Concentrations Of Illite Clay, Chandler Kern

Biological Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

Methanogens, some of Earth’s most primitive prokaryotic organisms, are candidates for possible life forms capable of inhabiting Mars. Specifically, four different species (Methanobacterium formicicum, Methanococcus maripaludis, Methanosarcina barkeri, Methanothermobacter wolfeii) were analyzed for their tolerance to the presence of illite clay. Illite is a crystalline mineral that has been identified from regions of Mars’s surface. Results indicated that all four species grew with some success in the illite at different concentrations. This experimentation with methanogens’ abilities to survive and reproduce in the presence of illite allows for a more accurate understanding of the potential capability of microbial growth ...


Systems To Attract And Feed Pollinators In Warm-Season Lawns, Michelle Wisdom Dec 2018

Systems To Attract And Feed Pollinators In Warm-Season Lawns, Michelle Wisdom

Theses and Dissertations

Pollinating insects are responsible for the production of many agricultural crops and they require floral resources to fulfill their life-cycle. Ideally, pollinating insects will encounter a diversity of floral resources across their entire season of activity, and those floral resources can include both herbaceous and woody plant species. Managed turfgrass areas have been identified as potential locations for creating pollinator-friendly habitats. In the transition zone, where both warm- and cool-season turfgrass species are present, the persistence of herbaceous plants in warm-season turfgrasses such as bermudagrass (Cynodon spp.) and buffalograss (Buchloe dactyloides), may be affected not only by the competitive nature ...


Synthesis Of Dicamba Glucosides For The Study Of Environmental Dicamba Drift Effects On Soybeans, Holly Wallace Dec 2018

Synthesis Of Dicamba Glucosides For The Study Of Environmental Dicamba Drift Effects On Soybeans, Holly Wallace

Theses and Dissertations

The most popular herbicide used for weed control has been glyphosate for many years in the Midwestern United States. Plants have begun to develop a resistance to glyphosate due to over use of the herbicide. This herbicide resistance has pushed farmers to turn to alternative herbicides such as dicamba and 2,4-D. Recently agrochemical companies have developed genetically modified crops that are resistant to herbicides such as dicamba. These modified crops allow farmers to spray their fields with dicamba without fear of crop damage. Farmers of non-genetically modified crops, however, suffer damage and loss of yield from herbicide drift effects ...


Study Of Three Potential Variables That May Impact The Maximum Shear Force And Shear Variation During The Growth And Transport Of Mixed Sex Broilers Grown In Commercial Poultry Houses, Mark Christie Dec 2018

Study Of Three Potential Variables That May Impact The Maximum Shear Force And Shear Variation During The Growth And Transport Of Mixed Sex Broilers Grown In Commercial Poultry Houses, Mark Christie

Theses and Dissertations

Temperature conditions during the transportation to the processing facility of commercial broilers have a direct impact on the meat texture, specifically maximum shear force and shear variation of cooked breast meat. Analysis of a calendar year of flock data (N=346), reveals that the largest impact of transport conditions, specifically temperature, is on the standard deviation of the flocks range of cooked shear values. The optimal transport temperature that yields broiler breast meat with average flock minimum shear and standard deviation values is approximately 60°F. The shear values for flocks at or near 60°F are on average 1 ...


Imperfect Produce Pricing: Relationships Between Price Percent Discount And Demographic Traits Of Customers, April Foster Dec 2018

Imperfect Produce Pricing: Relationships Between Price Percent Discount And Demographic Traits Of Customers, April Foster

Theses and Dissertations

This research sought to understand the impact of price reductions on consumer spending behaviors related to the purchase of imperfect produce. Additionally, the correlation between consumers’ demographics and their willingness to purchase imperfect produce at various price points was evaluated. The data was viewed with mindfulness toward reducing food loss as a function of the world food crisis. More specifically, the purpose of this study was to describe the relationship between Washington County, Arkansas consumers’ demographic traits and the percent discount at which they are willing to alter their behavior to purchase specific imperfect produce items. Using the Theory of ...


Comparison Of Short-Grain Rice Cultivars Grown In Japan And The United States, Michiyo Nishiwaki Dec 2018

Comparison Of Short-Grain Rice Cultivars Grown In Japan And The United States, Michiyo Nishiwaki

Food Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

Although short-grain rice accounts for less than 2% of U.S. rice production, the demand for short-grain rice is expected to increase because of the increasing popularity of sushi and sake. The objective of this study was to compare the physical, chemical and textural properties of short-grain rice cultivars grown in Japan and in the U.S. Seven short-grain rice cultivars from the 2016 crop year were collected, including five cultivars (Hatsushimo, Kinuhikari, Koshihikari, Nanatsuboshi, and Yumepirika) grown and purchased in grocery stores in Japan, one (RU9601099) grown in Arkansas, and one (CH-202) grown in California. The rice cultivars were ...


Ripeness Attributes Of Arkansas-Grown Peaches And Nectarines At Harvest And During Postharvest Storage, Mary Siebenmorgen Dec 2018

Ripeness Attributes Of Arkansas-Grown Peaches And Nectarines At Harvest And During Postharvest Storage, Mary Siebenmorgen

Food Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

Evaluating ripeness attributes of peaches and nectarines helps determine feasibility for commercial markets. Five cultivars (Amoore Sweet, Bowden, Bradley, Effie, and Souvenirs) and five breeding selections (A-663 CN, A-794 CN, A-811 CN, A-819, and A-885) were hand harvested in 2017 from the University of Arkansas System Division of Agriculture’s Fruit Research Station in Clarksville, AR. The tree-ripened fruit was evaluated at harvest (day 0), and commercially-ripened fruit (ripened during storage) was evaluated at 0, 7 and 14 d storage at 4° C. The attributes of tree and commercially-ripened fruit varied at harvest and included chlorophyll (0.04-0.86 abs ...


Allergy Training Or Lack Thereof, Madelyn Freeman, Mary Kate Klenke Dec 2018

Allergy Training Or Lack Thereof, Madelyn Freeman, Mary Kate Klenke

Human Nutrition and Hospitality Innovation Undergraduate Honors Theses

Food allergies affect many people in our society today, and the food service industry must keep up with the demand for allergen-free food from their customers. The objective of this research is to gain insight from the employee’s perspective of the importance of food allergies and what training method would help them learn best. Through this research we intend to learn how we can engage employees during training, increase training retention, and stress the importance to change their behaviors and utilize safe practices in regards to allergens. We compared both quick and full-service restaurants’ food-allergy training methods in this ...


Managing Lake Fertility Within The Guidelines Of A Nutrient Management Plan And Based On Algal Nutrient Limitation, Bradley J. Austin, J. Thad Scott, Brian E. Haggard Nov 2018

Managing Lake Fertility Within The Guidelines Of A Nutrient Management Plan And Based On Algal Nutrient Limitation, Bradley J. Austin, J. Thad Scott, Brian E. Haggard

Technical Reports

The specific objectives were to first, monitor nutrients, algal biomass, and water clarity in lakes Cove, Spring, and Wedington. Second, evaluate whether algal growth in each of the lakes was limited by N, P, or both N and P. This research was conducted to help USFS better manage lake fertilization to maximize algal growth and improve the fisheries within these lakes.


Summaries Of Arkansas Cotton Research 2017, Fred Bourland Oct 2018

Summaries Of Arkansas Cotton Research 2017, Fred Bourland

Research Series

No abstract provided.


Identification And Characterization Of Salinity Tolerance Genes By Activation Tagging In Arabidopsis, Jawaher Alkahtani Aug 2018

Identification And Characterization Of Salinity Tolerance Genes By Activation Tagging In Arabidopsis, Jawaher Alkahtani

Theses and Dissertations

Salinity often affects irrigated areas in arid and semi-arid regions of the world. The existence and accumulation of soluble salts in the soil layers limit the growth of crops essential for our food. Salt stress dramatically affects plant growth, plant development, as well as crop yield. Arabidopsis thaliana is the plant model that provides a comprehensive knowledge of plant development, genetics and physiology, and response to abiotic stresses such as salinity. The redundancy of genes due to duplication, even in the simple model genome of Arabidopsis, limits the value of knockout (KO) mutagenesis to provide complete information on gene function ...


Assessment Of A Nutritional Rehabilitation Model In Two Modern Broilers And Their Jungle Fowl Ancestor: A Model For Better Understanding Childhood Undernutrition, Mikayla Baxter Aug 2018

Assessment Of A Nutritional Rehabilitation Model In Two Modern Broilers And Their Jungle Fowl Ancestor: A Model For Better Understanding Childhood Undernutrition, Mikayla Baxter

Theses and Dissertations

The World Health Organization, estimated that 22.9% of children under the age of 5 are stunted. The etiology of stunting is multifactorial and is associated with poor linear growth, villous atrophy, dysbiosis, and increased intestinal permeability. Inclusion of rye in poultry diets induces nutrient deficiencies and increases intestinal permeability, dysbiosis and decreases growth rates. The objective of this dissertation was to determine if chickens consuming a rye based diet exhibited a similar pathophysiology of stunted children to develop a relevant animal model. Therefore, early or late phase malnutrition was induced determine the effects of malnutrition on performance, bone mineralization ...


Dehydration, Muscle Damage, And Exercise In The Heat: Impacts On Renal Stress, Thermoregulation, And Muscular Damage Recovery, Cory L. Butts Aug 2018

Dehydration, Muscle Damage, And Exercise In The Heat: Impacts On Renal Stress, Thermoregulation, And Muscular Damage Recovery, Cory L. Butts

Theses and Dissertations

Purpose: The purpose was to identify the combined influence of dehydration, muscle damage, and exertional hyperthermia on biological markers of acute kidney injury and renal function. We also investigated the effects of performing muscle damaging exercise during mild hypohydration on muscle damage biomarkers and muscular strength recovery. Methods: Eighteen recreationally-active males (age 24 ± 5 y, body fat 17.3 ± 6.2%) completed a familiarization visit and two experimental trials separated by ≥28 days. The two experimental conditions consisted of either euhydration (EU; maintaining hydration, -1.2 ± 0.8%) or hypohydration (HY; restricting fluid consumption for 24 hours prior to and ...


Anti-Inflammatory Activity Of Phenolic And Volatile Compounds In Cranberries (Vaccinium Macrocarpon L), Katherine Moore Aug 2018

Anti-Inflammatory Activity Of Phenolic And Volatile Compounds In Cranberries (Vaccinium Macrocarpon L), Katherine Moore

Theses and Dissertations

The primary objective of this study was to compare the anti-inflammatory effects of phenolic and volatile compounds extracted from cranberries. The Griess Reagent System assay was used to measure the in vitro anti-inflammatory capabilities of cranberry phenolic and volatile extracts on RAW 264.7 mouse macrophage cells. This study tested the anti-inflammatory capabilities of the cranberry phenolic and volatile extracts before, as a preventative treatment, and after, as a means of treating pre-existing inflammation, inducing inflammation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). All experiments were conducted in the following manner, varying only in whether treated with the extracts before or after LPS: 1 ...


Determining The Effect Of Locally Delivered Bioactive Modulators On Macrophage Activation At The Implantation Site Of Different Biomaterials In Rats, Kamel Alkhatib Aug 2018

Determining The Effect Of Locally Delivered Bioactive Modulators On Macrophage Activation At The Implantation Site Of Different Biomaterials In Rats, Kamel Alkhatib

Theses and Dissertations

Altering the foreign body reaction by targeting macrophages has been of interest in the biomaterials field to improve the integration of longevity of implanted biomedical devices. The objective of this dissertation was to study the effect of locally delivered bioactive modulators on macrophage activation at the implantation site of different biomaterials in rats. Iloprost, a prostacyclin analog, was tested for its ability to direct macrophages to their pro-wound healing phenotype after the implantation of microdialysis probe in the subcutaneous space of male Sprague Dawley rats. This study showed that iloprost can shift macrophage activation states in vivo to the pro-wound ...


Growing Up In Tell El-Amarna: An Examination Of Growth And Non-Specific Stress Indicators In New Kingdom Children., Ashley Elizabeth Shidner Aug 2018

Growing Up In Tell El-Amarna: An Examination Of Growth And Non-Specific Stress Indicators In New Kingdom Children., Ashley Elizabeth Shidner

Theses and Dissertations

The health status of the subadult skeletal remains from the South Tombs Cemetery at Tell el-Amarna were assessed by examining fluctuations in childhood growth and rates of skeletal indicators of physiological stress within a biocultural framework. The long bone standardization method outlined by Goode et al. (1993) was used to compare the South Tombs cemetery’s cross-sectional growth data to subadult samples from other cemeteries during which major social, political, and economic changes were taking place. The comparative subadult samples included the HK43 cemetery from Hierakonpolis (Egypt), the African American Cemetery from Cedar Grove (Arkansas), and the St. Martin’s ...


Dissecting The Mechanism Of Action Of A Novel Antifungal Peptide, Cody Bullock Aug 2018

Dissecting The Mechanism Of Action Of A Novel Antifungal Peptide, Cody Bullock

Theses and Dissertations

There is an urgent need for novel treatments for Candida infections. The utility of antimicrobial peptides for antifungal therapy has garnered interest in recent years. One promising family of peptides is the Histatins, a family of naturally-occurring peptides secreted into the oral cavity that display antimicrobial activity. Histatin 5 is a twenty-four amino acid peptide with strong antifungal activity. Studies from our laboratory have identified a small histatin-derived peptide, KM29, that yields fungicidal activity 10-fold greater than Histatin 5 against multiple Candida species. Our laboratory has focused on understanding the mechanism of action of KM29 to further develop it as ...


Effect Of Morinda Citrifolia (Noni)-Enriched Diet On Hepatic Heat Shock Protein And Lipid Metabolism-Related Genes In Heat Stressed Broiler Chickens, Joshua Flees Aug 2018

Effect Of Morinda Citrifolia (Noni)-Enriched Diet On Hepatic Heat Shock Protein And Lipid Metabolism-Related Genes In Heat Stressed Broiler Chickens, Joshua Flees

Theses and Dissertations

Heat stress (HS) has been reported to alter fat deposition in broilers, however the underlying molecular mechanisms are not well-defined; therefore, the objectives of the current study were to: (1) determine the effects of acute (2 h) and chronic (3 wk) HS on the expression of key molecular signatures involved in hepatic lipogenic and lipolytic programs; and (2) assess if diet supplementation with dried Noni medicinal plant (0.2% of the diet) modulates these effects. Broilers (n=480 males, 1 d) were randomly assigned to 12 environmental chambers, subjected to two environmental conditions (HS at 35°C vs. thermoneutral condition ...


Flow Regime Influences On Stream And Riparian Soil Carbon Dynamics In The Ozark Highlands And Boston Mountains Of Arkansas, Allyn Dodd Aug 2018

Flow Regime Influences On Stream And Riparian Soil Carbon Dynamics In The Ozark Highlands And Boston Mountains Of Arkansas, Allyn Dodd

Theses and Dissertations

The natural flow regime exerts primacy over lotic ecosystem patterns and processes. However, little work has examined the influence of flow regime on instream and riparian carbon (C) dynamics in minimally-impacted, temperate forested systems. To date, most research efforts have focused on characterizing C movement and transformations across biomes and land use categories; however, flow regime represents an overlooked, finer level of detail that may drive differences in ecosystem function. My dissertation objective was to measure C fixation and movement within and across multiple environmental spheres (e.g. within stream channels, between stream surfaces and the atmosphere, and from riparian ...


Assessment Of Melanocyte-Specific Primary And Memory Autoimmune Responses In Vitiligo-Prone Smyth And Vitiligo-Susceptible, Non-Expressing Brown Line Chickens, Daniel Morales Falcon Aug 2018

Assessment Of Melanocyte-Specific Primary And Memory Autoimmune Responses In Vitiligo-Prone Smyth And Vitiligo-Susceptible, Non-Expressing Brown Line Chickens, Daniel Morales Falcon

Theses and Dissertations

Vitiligo is an acquired de-pigmentation disorder characterized by the post-natal loss of epidermal melanocytes (pigment-producing cells) resulting in the appearance of white patches in the skin. The Smyth line of chicken is the only model for vitiligo that shares all the characteristics of the human condition including: spontaneous post-natal loss of melanocytes, interactions between genetic, environmental and immunological factors and associations with other autoimmune diseases. In addition, an avian model for vitiligo has the added benefit of an easily accessible target tissue (a growing feather) that allows for the repeated sampling of an individual and thus the continuous monitoring of ...


Can Social Capital Boost Irrigation Capital: Empirical Evidence From North China, Yefan Nian Aug 2018

Can Social Capital Boost Irrigation Capital: Empirical Evidence From North China, Yefan Nian

Theses and Dissertations

Using data from China Water Institution and Management (CWIM) survey, the study first constructs measures of all three most studied dimensions of social capital: trust, networks, and norms. The study then examines if social capital has any predictive powers of individual farmers’ contribution decisions as well as farmers’ contributions aggregated at the village level. Farmers’ choices between different forms of contributions (labor versus cash) are also analyzed. Our results suggest that all three dimensions of social capital explain farmers’ contribution decisions. Governance quality of local irrigation systems and the norm of cooperation have strong predictive powers of farmers’ decisions to ...


Effect Of Yeast Supplementation During Various Stages Of Beef Production, Elizabeth Palmer Aug 2018

Effect Of Yeast Supplementation During Various Stages Of Beef Production, Elizabeth Palmer

Theses and Dissertations

Supplemental dietary yeast products are beneficial during times of stress. Calves experience increased levels of stress during birth, weaning, and the post-weaning receiving period. Therefore, 3 experiments were conducted to determine how yeast supplementation affects growth performance and health during this time. In experiment 1, 2 truckloads of highly stressed calves (n = 175; initial body weight [BW] = 226 ± 24.5 kg) were assigned randomly to 1 of 3 treatments; unsupplemented control, or supplementation with 2 commercial yeast products (Y1 and Y2). Average daily gain (ADG) was not different (P = 0.99) during the 28 d receiving period; nor was there ...


Aiding Growers’ Decisions: Describing Arkansas Blackberry Growers’ Resources And Needs Regarding Blackberry Production, Lesley Marie Smith Aug 2018

Aiding Growers’ Decisions: Describing Arkansas Blackberry Growers’ Resources And Needs Regarding Blackberry Production, Lesley Marie Smith

Theses and Dissertations

This study was a census of blackberry growers who attended the Blackberry Growers Association informal interest meetings held throughout the state during the month of April. The purpose of this study was to describe blackberry operations in Arkansas, describe the ideal blackberry cultivar growers want to produce, describe resources they use to research production information, and describe what changes to current resources growers would like to have. Questionnaire responses regarding blackberry production of 18 blackberry growers in the state of Arkansas were analyzed. Three growers elected to not participate resulting in an 86% response rate. The researcher hopes that this ...


Investigation Of Bacterial Taxa As Biomarkers Of Fescue Toxicosis And Heat Stress In Grazing Beef Cows, Sarah Katherine Chewning Aug 2018

Investigation Of Bacterial Taxa As Biomarkers Of Fescue Toxicosis And Heat Stress In Grazing Beef Cows, Sarah Katherine Chewning

Theses and Dissertations

Fescue toxicosis in grazing beef cattle is caused by consumption of Ergot alkaloids associated with tall fescue (toxic fescue) and is responsible for substantial economic loss to the U.S. beef industry. Cattle consuming toxic fescue suffer adverse physiological responses, such as: hyperthermia, increased respiration rate (RR), poor reproduction and growth performance. Other adverse responses to fescue toxins include the retention of a winter hair coat and vasoconstriction in the extremities, which can lead to tissue necrosis. Identifying cattle with reduced susceptibility to fescue toxins would allow for efficient use of fescue pastures; thus, the objectives of this thesis was ...


Effect Of Grain Sorghum Polyphenols On Fecal Fermentation, Danielle Marie Ashley Aug 2018

Effect Of Grain Sorghum Polyphenols On Fecal Fermentation, Danielle Marie Ashley

Theses and Dissertations

Obesity is an increasing epidemic which during 2015-2016 afflicted 39.8% of adults and 18.5% of youth in the United States. Not only can obesity affect quality of life, but it can lead to life-threatening diseases such as type 2 diabetes, heart disease, stroke, and some cancers. Animal and human research have demonstrated a pattern of gut microbiota perturbation in overweight and obesity, characterized by a reduction of beneficial bacterial species and increase in harmful species. Diet has been established as a contributing factor in gut ecology, and foods including fiber, resistant starch, and polyphenols have been found to ...