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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Using Poultry To Enhance Food Security In Stann Creek, Belize, Emily Spatz Aug 2022

Using Poultry To Enhance Food Security In Stann Creek, Belize, Emily Spatz

Poultry Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

Food insecurity is a growing issue in developing and developed countries alike, and in countries like Belize, the prevalence of hunger has soared in recent years. Not having access to diets with sufficient calories and nutrients leads to a host of developmental issues, including stunting and cognitive delays. The purpose of this work was to create an all-encompassing manual for small-scale broiler production, with the intention of another honors student overseeing the implementation of the ideas set forth in the manual, in order to provide nourishment for the students and staff of a school in Belize. After determining that the ...


Determining The Full-Length Structure Of Collagenase H Using Small-Angle X-Ray Scattering, Josie Carson Aug 2022

Determining The Full-Length Structure Of Collagenase H Using Small-Angle X-Ray Scattering, Josie Carson

Chemistry & Biochemistry Undergraduate Honors Theses

Known to cause gas gangrene, Hathewaya histolytica secretes two sister collagenases, collagenase G (Col G) and collagenase H (Col H), to degrade the triple helical structure of collagen to further infection in a host. Individual domains of Col H have been crystalized in previous studies, but methods in x-ray crystallization of full-length Col H have been unsuccessful. Using Small Angle X-Ray Scattering (SAXS) data, atomistic modeling was used to generate multiple conformations of Col H while accounting for flexibility between domains. Full-length Col H was found to adopt a two-state conformational model exhibiting a majority compact and a minority elongated ...


Economic Viability Of Weed Management Strategies In High-Tunnel Tomato, Gracie Morrison May 2022

Economic Viability Of Weed Management Strategies In High-Tunnel Tomato, Gracie Morrison

Crop, Soil and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

Cost-effective weed suppression is an important consideration for tomato growers. Growers often choose methods which minimize hand labor, as hand weeding can be prohibitively expensive. This project determined economic viability of high tunnel tomatoes treated with several methods of weed control, both organic and chemical. These methods included: 2-week hand weeding, 1-week hand weeding, preemergent, straw, landscape fabric, and untreated weedy control plots. These treatments were applied to randomized blocks in a high-tunnel. Weeding, planting, and harvest were all timed to determine labor and material costs of weed management strategy implementation. After harvest, marketable yield was weighed to determine revenue ...


Effects Of Sunrise/Sunset Lighting On Corticosterone Levels In Coturnix Quail (Coturnix Coturnix), Hannah Feuerborn May 2022

Effects Of Sunrise/Sunset Lighting On Corticosterone Levels In Coturnix Quail (Coturnix Coturnix), Hannah Feuerborn

Poultry Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

Both genetics and environment play an important role in the growth, performance and overall welfare of poultry species. Current commercial production practices typically do not mimic the natural environmental conditions of ancestral poultry species, specifically lighting requirements. In nature, poultry species are subjected to natural day length and the slow rising and setting of the sun. This is compared to commercial conditions in which lights are sudden on/off, not mimicking the natural trajectory of the sun in terms of light intensity and exposure. The current study aimed to evaluate the impact of genetics and the effect of sunrise/sunset ...


Comparison Of Carbon Footprints Of School Lunches In Dangriga, Belize, And Northwest Arkansas, Lauren Greenwood May 2022

Comparison Of Carbon Footprints Of School Lunches In Dangriga, Belize, And Northwest Arkansas, Lauren Greenwood

Crop, Soil and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

The original purpose of this study was to investigate differences in carbon footprints of school lunches by comparing a school in Arkansas, USA, and a school in Belize. Due to complications imposed by the COVID-19 pandemic, the purpose was revised to gathering preliminary data about the school lunch program at a school in Northwest Arkansas; data were to be used to estimate CO2-equivalent emissions for cafeteria energy use, meal ingredients from the two most popular meals served, and food transportation at the last point in the supply chain (food service delivery to school). This study highlights the intersection of food ...


Quantifying The Relationship Between Pond Size And Water Quality, Rebekah Mason May 2022

Quantifying The Relationship Between Pond Size And Water Quality, Rebekah Mason

Crop, Soil and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

The water quality of ponds, streams, and groundwater is at risk due to agricultural and urban development. Implementation of ponds near developmental areas can act as catchment sites to reduce further water pollution (Bichsel et al., 2015). However, maintenance of pond water quality is necessary for continued water supply to livestock and general recreational use. The present study aimed to determine the relationship between pond size (surface area range from 142 to 5336 m2) and water quality. Analysis of water quality parameters, including dissolved oxygen, nitrate, phosphate, and chlorophyll-a, were conducted during the summer of 2021 and winter of ...


Time Course Investigation Of The Dermal Leukocyte Response To Lipoteichoic Acid In Chickens, Ian Gilbert May 2022

Time Course Investigation Of The Dermal Leukocyte Response To Lipoteichoic Acid In Chickens, Ian Gilbert

Animal Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

Lipoteichoic acid (LTA) is component of the cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria that stimulates inflammation during bacterial infection. However, few studies have investigated the in vivo immune response to LTA, and none of the in vivo studies done have been performed in birds. For this project, the pulp (a skin-derivative) of growing feathers (GFs) of chickens were used as a test site to investigate the in vivo effects of intradermally injected LTA. In Study 1, the pulp of 12 GFs of 11-week-old Light-brown Leghorn (LBL) males were injected with 10 μL of differing concentrations of LTA (0.1, 1.0 ...


Using Community Science To Assess The Effect Of Wing Pattern And Weather On Butterfly Behavior, Abbigail Merrill May 2022

Using Community Science To Assess The Effect Of Wing Pattern And Weather On Butterfly Behavior, Abbigail Merrill

Animal Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

Signaling in insects is used as communication and for attraction of mates. The physical appearance of the insect as well as conditions such as weather can play a role in visual signaling, by influencing the wavelengths of light available, and subsequent signal detection. We do not know, however, whether signals butterflies present broadly correlate with how they behave. In this study, we looked at the wing patterns and behavior of butterflies in Northwest Arkansas over a 3.5-year period to assess the relationship between wing pattern, weather, and behavior. We used observational data collected by hundreds of University of Arkansas ...


Effects Of Retail Case Environment And Led Lighting Temperature On Color And Oxidation Of Previously Frozen Ground Beef Patties, Devin Elaine Whiteside May 2022

Effects Of Retail Case Environment And Led Lighting Temperature On Color And Oxidation Of Previously Frozen Ground Beef Patties, Devin Elaine Whiteside

Animal Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

The purpose of this study was to investigate different environments of retail cases and LED lighting temperatures to observe how these conditions affect oxidation of previously frozen ground beef patties. Coarse ground beef (85% lean) was purchased from a commercial beef processor, fine ground through a 10 mm grinder plate, and then formed into 1/3-pound patties with an automatic patty forming machine. Patties were then randomly assigned to four different treatments: open-front display cases with 3000 K lighting (OPEN3000), open-front cases 3500 K lighting (OPEN3500), reach-in door display with 3000 K lighting (CLOSED3000), and reach-in door display at 3500 ...


Broiler Efficiency As Affected By Dietary Protein Supply And Grain Source, Victoria Reid May 2022

Broiler Efficiency As Affected By Dietary Protein Supply And Grain Source, Victoria Reid

Animal Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

This experiment was conducted to compare the effects of different diet compositions on performance and carcass yield of male broilers from 15 to 36 days of age. In total, 593 male birds were divided across a randomized design that consisted of 6 dietary treatments, each with 8 replications. The treatments included pelleted diets that varied in grain type and crude protein (CP) value: 3 sorghum-based diets at 20%, 18.75%, and 17.5% CP and 3 corn-sorghum blended diets at the same CP levels. CP amounts impacted only body weight gain and feed conversion rate while feed intake only differed ...


Pandemics And Animal Welfare: A Quantitative Inquiry Into How The Covid-19 Pandemic Has Affected The Companion Animal Industry In Northwest Arkansas, Kayla N. Desmet May 2022

Pandemics And Animal Welfare: A Quantitative Inquiry Into How The Covid-19 Pandemic Has Affected The Companion Animal Industry In Northwest Arkansas, Kayla N. Desmet

Animal Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

Since the emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic in late 2019, industries have been impacted globally. The companion animal care industry has not received much recognition in mainstream news, and though multiple grants have been allocated (Nolen, 2020), limited resources were available to individual facilities such as animal shelters, animal day cares, and boarding facilities. Little is known about the long-term effects of the pandemic on these facilities and how companion animal care may have changed. The purpose of this study was to explore the day-to-day impacts and long-term effects of COVID-19 on the companion animal industry in Northwest Arkansas from ...


Pandemics And Animal Welfare: How The Covid-19 Pandemic Has Affected The Companion Animal Industry In Northwest Arkansas, Sabrina Cox May 2022

Pandemics And Animal Welfare: How The Covid-19 Pandemic Has Affected The Companion Animal Industry In Northwest Arkansas, Sabrina Cox

Animal Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

The first cases of coronavirus reported in the United States came in January 2020 (World Health Organization, 2020). In the two years since then, countries around the world have been affected by COVID-19 and the subsequent social, economic, and mental health issues. Previous research shows that the animal healthcare field is already overrun with burnout, substance abuse, depression, and increased levels of stress (Gardner & Hini, 2006), and the pandemic has only compounded these issues (Mair et al., 2020). Observing a lack of meaningful reporting on the issues affecting veterinary staff led the researchers to investigate staff members’ practices, day- to-day ...


Impact Of A Cattle Crossing On Water Quality Along A Tributary Of The Muddy Fork Of The Illinois River, Northwest Arkansas, Nicholas Valentini May 2022

Impact Of A Cattle Crossing On Water Quality Along A Tributary Of The Muddy Fork Of The Illinois River, Northwest Arkansas, Nicholas Valentini

Animal Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

Cattle are known to have an effect on water quality in various bodies of water. Studying how cattle impact water quality along various streams and tributaries is important to understanding how certain water parameters may be affected at the individual farm level. It is known that unrestricted access to a cattle crossing has been shown to increase the occurrence of downstream pollutants such as E. coli, ammonium, total kjeldahl nitrogen, total suspended solids, total phosphorus, and turbidity. However, many studies focus on large-scale operations and neglect the individual farm level. In this study, samples were collected twice for each parameter ...


Synthesis, Structural Characterization, And In Vitro Biological Assessment Of Trans- Platinum (Ii) Thionate Complexes As Potent Anticancer Agents, Mia Alshami May 2022

Synthesis, Structural Characterization, And In Vitro Biological Assessment Of Trans- Platinum (Ii) Thionate Complexes As Potent Anticancer Agents, Mia Alshami

Chemistry & Biochemistry Undergraduate Honors Theses

The content of this thesis has been originally reported in our published paper, “trans-Platinum (II) Thionate Complexes: Synthesis, Structural Characterization, and in vitro Biological Assessment as Potent Anticancer Agents” ChemPlusChem 2019 84, 1525-1535, DOI: 10.1002/cplu.201900394, in which I served as coauthor. Cancer caused 9.6 million deaths in 2018 worldwide, with 18.1 million new diagnoses during that same year.The most widely used metal in anticancer drugs is platinum (Pt), and these drugs are used to treat almost 50% of cancer patients. To optimize drug effectiveness, trans-configured Pt(II) complexes have been introduced as ...


Effects Of Cottonseed Meal Containing Gossypol On Testis Physiology In Boars, Kristin Ryan May 2022

Effects Of Cottonseed Meal Containing Gossypol On Testis Physiology In Boars, Kristin Ryan

Animal Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

Feral hogs are an invasive species found in 35 U.S. states without an effective control method to limit their population growth. According to a 2019 survey of 467 landowners in Arkansas, feral hogs caused an estimated $12 million in damages (Cook, 2019). While there are current control methods such as hunting and trapping, 65% of the feral hog population must be eliminated in a specific area to prohibit population growth (Cook, 2019). It is theorized that gossypol, a phenolic compound known to negatively impact reproductive function in other species, could cause sterility in boars. In this preliminary research study ...


Are Some Analysts Superior At Forecasting World Grain Supplies?, Emmie M. Noyes May 2022

Are Some Analysts Superior At Forecasting World Grain Supplies?, Emmie M. Noyes

Agricultural Economics and Agribusiness Undergraduate Honors Theses

Whether agriculture is how you make your living or simply a means of putting food on your table, the prices of agricultural commodities and products affect us all. When buying and selling agricultural commodities, both farmers and firms use futures markets. Futures markets help minimize price risk, which is important to both sides of the transaction.

Recently, private analysis firms have started to forecast the information contained in the USDA’s WASDE report. This is relevant because future prices react to new information contained in WASDE reports. These firms will release their information a few days before the WASDE comes ...


Food Allergy Education In The Hospitality Industry, Hayley Stull May 2022

Food Allergy Education In The Hospitality Industry, Hayley Stull

Human Nutrition and Hospitality Management Undergraduate Honors Theses

Food allergies affect thousands of people, because hospitality foodservice workers come into contact with the public, it is necessary that they need to be fully trained to ensure the safety of the public. This is especially important for those who possess food allergies. Previous research has shown major gaps in knowledge amongst these workers, which can lead to the potential to harm individuals with a food allergy. There is a lack in the consistency of training specifically concerning food allergies for food service workers across all states in the U.S. There are previous forms of educational tools concerning food ...


Recipe Modification For Cardiovascular Health, Meg Tolbert May 2022

Recipe Modification For Cardiovascular Health, Meg Tolbert

Human Nutrition and Hospitality Management Undergraduate Honors Theses

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death globally. CVDs affect the heart and blood vessels. The most prominent CVDs are coronary artery disease, cerebrovascular disease, rheumatic heart disease, and other conditions. More than four out of five CVD deaths are due to heart attacks and strokes.

The most important behavioral risk factors of heart disease and stroke are unhealthy diet and physical inactivity, but also include harmful abuse of tobacco and alcohol. These lifestyle factors display themselves as phenotypes like high blood pressure, high blood glucose and blood lipids, diabetes, and obesity. These risk factors, outside of genotype ...


Factors Affecting Graduation With Honors: A Case Study In Business, William Litzinger May 2022

Factors Affecting Graduation With Honors: A Case Study In Business, William Litzinger

Agricultural Economics and Agribusiness Undergraduate Honors Theses

Many first-year college students elect to enroll in their university’s honors program. These programs offer students many educational benefits not provided to non-honors students, such as smaller class sizes, priority registration, and added faculty interaction. However, of the students that enter the university as an honors student, many fail to complete their honors program. Researchers have documented completion rates as low as 18.45% (Campbell and Fuqua, 2008). So why are honors graduation rates so low? In this study, variables were examined that the literature suggests affects honors graduation rates (High School GPA, ACT/SAT scores, AP credits, GPA ...


The Art Of Nutrition, Kylanna Hardaway May 2022

The Art Of Nutrition, Kylanna Hardaway

Human Nutrition and Hospitality Management Undergraduate Honors Theses

Many colleges and universities offer students access to on-campus food pantries, yet very few students utilize these services despite reporting high rates of food insecurity. Considering the importance of a healthy diet on the developing minds of young adults, it is pertinent that colleges and universities find innovative ways to reach food insecure students. The purpose of this hybrid creative-research project was to creatively address commonly cited barriers of seeking food assistance (i.e., negative stigma, embarrassment, unknown location, awareness of resource, etc.) using public art. A mural was designed to encourage healthy eating behaviors and provide signage for the ...


Camp: Children’S Acceptance Of Muffins With Different Proteins, Amber Knoernschild May 2022

Camp: Children’S Acceptance Of Muffins With Different Proteins, Amber Knoernschild

Human Nutrition and Hospitality Management Undergraduate Honors Theses

In 2019, around 40% of school-aged children in Arkansas were classified as overweight (~17%) and obese (~23%), according to BMI data collected. Children with obesity have an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. Unhealthy eating habits, such as skipping breakfast, have been strongly associated with overeating, weight gain and obesity. Breakfast is a key component of a healthy diet and can positively impact children’s health and well-being. However, there has been a steady decline in breakfast consumption in US children over the past 40 years. Specifically, breakfast consumption declined among 8–10-yearold children by 9 ...


Consumer Preferences For Lab Grown Meat: The Effect Of Information On Consumer Choice, Aryn Blumenberg May 2022

Consumer Preferences For Lab Grown Meat: The Effect Of Information On Consumer Choice, Aryn Blumenberg

Food Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

Global population growth and increased meat demand present challenges for the agricultural industry to produce meat sustainably. In-vitro meat (IVM) is an alternative that could reduce negative impacts associated with livestock production. The goal of this study was to examine consumers’ preferences for IVM. A choice experiment was created with twelve choice tasks that varied across five attributes: production method (IVM or conventional), carbon trust label, organic label, animal welfare label, and price. 1,120 US consumers were randomly assigned to one of four information treatments, differing by information presented regarding IVM: 1) neutral (baseline), 2) positive, 3) negative, and ...


Effects Of One-Pass Microwave Drying On Rice’S Utilization In The Brewing Process., Christopher Stuckey May 2022

Effects Of One-Pass Microwave Drying On Rice’S Utilization In The Brewing Process., Christopher Stuckey

Food Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

Rice is utilized as an adjunct grain by the beer manufacturing industry. Before utilization, the rice has to be dried to a desired moisture content. The drying process employed may have an impact on the rice’s physicochemical properties which influence the rice’s performance in the brewing process. This study focused on investigating the impact of microwave drying on rice’s physicochemical properties and utilization in the brewing process. Rough rice samples at an initial moisture content of 19.7% wet basis were exposed to microwave dryer set to deliver 525 kJ/kg of energy in a single drying ...


Structural Formation And Functionality Of The Spoiie Protein In Clostridium Difficile, Rachel Siebenmorgen May 2022

Structural Formation And Functionality Of The Spoiie Protein In Clostridium Difficile, Rachel Siebenmorgen

Biological Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

My research efforts were directed toward the structure and functionality of a protein, designated SpoIIE [11], which previously has been shown to regulate C. difficile peptide utilization in addition to sporulation and toxin release. The SpoIIE protein is found in all spore-forming gram-positive bacteria and is a crucial component in activation of transcription factors and septum formation thus affecting the regulation and timing of spore development [11,12]. A truncated form of the SpoIIE protein named SpoIIE∆TM was used in an effort to determine the structure of an important but uncharacterized linker domain of the protein. If the structure ...


Exploring The Effects Of Varied Land Use On Elemental Concentrations Within Streams, Logan Jennings May 2022

Exploring The Effects Of Varied Land Use On Elemental Concentrations Within Streams, Logan Jennings

Biological and Agricultural Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

It is well documented that human activity influences the chemistry of surrounding waters. As such, it is possible that there is a link between land use within a watershed and the chemical composition of the stream. The objectives of this study are to determine if varied land use does affect the concentrations of macronutrients and trace elements present in the streams of Northwest Arkansas, and if so, to determine what extent urban and agricultural development are responsible for these changes. Water samples were collected across 19 streams in the Northwest Arkansas region between January and March of 2022. Water samples ...


Quantification Of Dental Fissures Through Occlusal Topography Analysis, Duru Erkan May 2022

Quantification Of Dental Fissures Through Occlusal Topography Analysis, Duru Erkan

Biological Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

Narrow, deep, and elaborate dental fissures are widely believed to increase the predisposition of enamel to develop carious lesions as these surfaces are thought to be ideal for cariogenic bacteria to adhere to. Therefore, dentists prescribe sealants as a preventative measure for patients with such fissures to avoid tooth decay. Yet to date, there is no objective data supporting the notion that fissure morphology actually affects caries susceptibility, nor is there a quantifiable, clinically practical method to characterize fissure patterns expected to increase risk of caries disease.

In this study, three new methods to quantitatively characterize fissure pattern in mandibular ...


Exploring Nitrogen Fixation In Methanosarcina Acetivorans, Rylee Cook May 2022

Exploring Nitrogen Fixation In Methanosarcina Acetivorans, Rylee Cook

Biological Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

As of 2016, the genomes of over sixty species of methanogenic archaea have been sequenced.4 Research on the genomes of methanogens such as M. acetivorans led to the characterization of numerous genes with unknown functions. Genes similar to those of nitrogenase have been shown to possess functions unrelated to nitrogen fixation, such as F430 biosynthesis genes. 5,6,7 My research focused on the uncharacterized gene clusters ma2032-33 and ma1631-33 (Figure 1). These genes have conserved nitrogenase domains: ma2032 has fused nifH and nifD domains, while ma2033 has a nifD domain. The ma1631-33 gene cluster contains two nitrogenase homologs ...


The Effect Of A Health Educational Program On Sleep Related Health Outcomes, Swetha Sirigineedi May 2022

The Effect Of A Health Educational Program On Sleep Related Health Outcomes, Swetha Sirigineedi

Biological Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

Sleep quality has effects on both physical and mental health. Because of this, sleep hygiene is an important health goal. Participation in health programs promoting healthy behaviors has helped people reach their health goals and elicited positive behavior change. Because of this, it was of interest to determine if participation in a virtual, multi-media health education program improved health and wellbeing outcomes of Arkansans. The main objective of this study was to determine the effect of a 20-week behavior and health educational program on the ability of participants to achieve their health goals and improve their health behaviors related to ...


Examining The Invasion Of Bush Honeysuckle Through A Phylogenetic Analysis, Phoebe Bruffett May 2022

Examining The Invasion Of Bush Honeysuckle Through A Phylogenetic Analysis, Phoebe Bruffett

Biological Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

The mechanisms underlying the continual spread of invasive plants within their respective non-native ranges is a major focal point to invasion research. Many theories have been proposed to understand these invasions, each with different implications for the predicted range for invasive plants. Lonicera maackii provides an exceptional opportunity to examine the effectiveness of these theories to explain the trends of invasive plants. Lonicera maackii is native to eastern Asia, but has invaded much of the eastern United States, presenting a severe threat to the health of forest and other natural areas. Recent analysis of the climatic envelopes uncovered a significant ...


Student Perceptions Of Agriculture Messages Delivered Using Creative Media, Faith Mills May 2022

Student Perceptions Of Agriculture Messages Delivered Using Creative Media, Faith Mills

Agricultural Education, Communications and Technology Undergraduate Honors Theses

The purpose of this study was determine how communicating authentical agricultural information using an infographic affect millennial and generation z students’ perceptions on the agriculture industry and to determine the perceptions of college students regarding the infographic used to convey agricultural messages. This study used a qualitative and quantitative approach in a questionnaire format through Qualtrics. The questionnaire was designed with five sections including a pre-questionnaire, content presentation, post-questionnaire, infographic perception questionnaire, and demographics section. All questions in the pre- and post- questionnaire were focused on the subjects found in the infographic presented in the content presentation. Overall, participants had ...