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Articles 1 - 30 of 1636

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Lead Poisoning In Maine's Common Loons: Examining Biological And Social Dimensions, Brooke S. Macdonald Dec 2018

Lead Poisoning In Maine's Common Loons: Examining Biological And Social Dimensions, Brooke S. Macdonald

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Lead poisoning from ingested fishing tackle is a well-documented conservation concern for adult common loons in the Northeastern United States. To mitigate this issue, the state of Maine began implementing restrictions on lead tackle use in 2002, with new legislation added in 2016 and 2017. In addition to legislative action there have been various non-regulatory strategies employed in Maine to help raise awareness, such as the Fish Lead Free campaign. Human behavior is the root cause of lead fishing tackle in aquatic environments, and also can determine the success of legislative and educational efforts. Measuring underlying factors that influence behaviors ...


Dorothy J. Jackson Fres Fls, Scottish Entomologist: A Bibliography, Jack R. Mclachlan Oct 2018

Dorothy J. Jackson Fres Fls, Scottish Entomologist: A Bibliography, Jack R. Mclachlan

Biology and Ecology Faculty Scholarship

Dorothy Jean Jackson FRES FLS (1892-1973) should be familiar to anyone interested in water beetles. She published prolifically on the ecology, distribution, flight capacity, and parasites of water beetles, and made especially important contributions to our knowledge of dytiscids. Here I provide a more extensive bibliography of her work that is almost certainly incomplete, but I think includes most of her scientific output between 1907 and 1973. Her first paper was published when she was 14 years old, and her last was completed by Jack Balfour-Browne and published posthumously.


Of Oyster Planting And Oyster Experiments In Maine (1800s-1970s), Randy Lackovic Sep 2018

Of Oyster Planting And Oyster Experiments In Maine (1800s-1970s), Randy Lackovic

Darling Marine Center Historical Documents

This is a history of oyster planting and oyster experiments in Maine from the 1800s to the 1970s.


Broth: Enhancing Market Opportunities And Improving Sustainability Of Maine Farmed Seaweed, Zachary M. Bonelli Aug 2018

Broth: Enhancing Market Opportunities And Improving Sustainability Of Maine Farmed Seaweed, Zachary M. Bonelli

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Seaweed is becoming popular across the world as consumers learn about the variety of seaweed-based products and their health benefits. Sugar kelp is one of Maine’s seaweed varieties that is locally grown each year. Sugar kelp and similar species contain many useful nutrients including iodine, calcium, magnesium, iron, and vitamins A, B, C, and E. Even though the health benefits of seaweed have been proven, locally-sourced seaweed has not yet become any more popular in Maine. Part one of this study identified suitable processing steps for a sugar kelp-based broth. Part two assessed how consumers’ demographics and food neophobia ...


Drivers Of Tree Growth And Mortality In An Uneven-Aged, Mixed-Species Conifer Forest Of Northeastern United States, Erin Fien Aug 2018

Drivers Of Tree Growth And Mortality In An Uneven-Aged, Mixed-Species Conifer Forest Of Northeastern United States, Erin Fien

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Individual tree growth and mortality drive forest stand dynamics and are important, universal metrics of tree success. Studying the factors that affect growth and mortality is particularly challenging in mixed-species, uneven-aged systems due to their defining heterogeneity and strong temporal and spatial variability. However a better understanding of the factors driving growth and mortality in mixed-species, uneven-aged forest is crucial to managing and maintaining these valuable systems for the future.

The goal of this study was to determine the relative importance of individual tree attributes (e.g., species, size, neighborhood crowding, crown position) and environmental characteristics (e.g., soil moisture ...


Nitrogen Cycling During A Period Of Environmental Change, Kaizad Patel Aug 2018

Nitrogen Cycling During A Period Of Environmental Change, Kaizad Patel

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Natural and anthropogenic disturbances have altered the N cycle on the regional to global scale. Although numerous studies have examined the effects of chronic atmospheric N deposition on ecosystem processes, less is known about intra-annual variability of these processes, or how these responses might be altered under conditions of changing climate. The work described in this dissertation focuses on the effects of a changing chemical and physical climate, particularly terrestrial N processes (a) during Maine’s changing winters, and (b) in response to chronic elevated N additions.

Subnivean winter soil processes were examined at the Dwight B. DeMerritt Forest (DBDF ...


Effect Of Arsenic Exposure On Early Eye Development In Zebrafish (Danio Rerio), Remy S. Babich Aug 2018

Effect Of Arsenic Exposure On Early Eye Development In Zebrafish (Danio Rerio), Remy S. Babich

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Arsenic is a metalloid that contaminates drinking water supplies worldwide. Due to concerns for human health, the World Health Organization (WHO) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) have established a safe level in drinking water of ≤ 10 ppb. Arsenic has been shown to have carcinogenic effects in humans at high and low doses. Chronic exposure may result in dermal conditions such as hyperkeratosis and hyperpigmentation. Recently, arsenic exposure has also been linked to lower IQ values in children. The effect of arsenic on neurogenesis, specifically eye development, has not been widely explored. This study aimed to examine the ...


Forest Disturbance Detection And Aboveground Biomass Modeling Using Moderate-Resolution, Time-Series Satellite Imagery, John B. Kilbride Aug 2018

Forest Disturbance Detection And Aboveground Biomass Modeling Using Moderate-Resolution, Time-Series Satellite Imagery, John B. Kilbride

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Human-induced and natural disturbances are an important feature of forest ecosystems. Disturbances influence forest structure and composition and can impact crucial ecosystem services. However, deriving spatially explicit estimates of past forest disturbance across a large region can prove challenging. Researchers have recognized that remote sensing is an important tool for monitoring forest ecosystems and mapping land use and land cover change. One of the most important sources of remotely sensed imagery is the United States Geologic Survey’s Landsat program which has continuously acquired earth observations since 1972. This repository of imagery has the spatial, spectral, and temporal resolution necessary ...


Flower Visitation In Relation To Pollen And Nectar Nutrition: Implications For Pollinator Habitat And Conservation, Megan E. Leach Aug 2018

Flower Visitation In Relation To Pollen And Nectar Nutrition: Implications For Pollinator Habitat And Conservation, Megan E. Leach

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Pollination of both wild and crop plants is at a crossroads; honey bee populations are experiencing losses at a higher rate than ever before, and some native bee species are declining in abundance to the point of being listed as endangered species. A few examples of these threats include pesticide exposure, habitat loss, and climate change. In response to bee population declines, conservation efforts have been initiated to increase habitat quality for bees by planting pollinator reservoirs or gardens. Plants provide nutrition to bees in the form of pollen and nectar. Several studies have shown links between higher nutritional quality ...


Propagation Of The Native North American Shrub Lonicera Villosa And Trait Comparisons With Nonnative Congeneric Taxa, Darren J. Hayes Aug 2018

Propagation Of The Native North American Shrub Lonicera Villosa And Trait Comparisons With Nonnative Congeneric Taxa, Darren J. Hayes

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The honeysuckles, or Lonicera, represent a circumboreally-distributed genus in the Caprifoliaceae family. A diverse assortment of vines, lianas, and shrubs comprise the genus, and honeysuckles have long been a staple of the horticultural industry, prized for their robustness as much as their sweet-scented flowers and colorful fruits. However, many cultivated honeysuckles of Eurasian origin have proven invasive outside of their native range, displacing native species and reducing overall diversity and ecosystem health. Planting of Eurasian Lonicera taxa is now often discouraged or banned throughout much of North America. Conversely, native North American Lonicera species are often sparsely distributed and of ...


Factors Affecting Survival And Carpogenic Germination Of Pseudosclerotia Of Monilinia Vaccinii-Corymbosi, The Causal Agent Of Mummy Berry, On Vaccinium Angustifolium In Maine, Tyler L. Case Aug 2018

Factors Affecting Survival And Carpogenic Germination Of Pseudosclerotia Of Monilinia Vaccinii-Corymbosi, The Causal Agent Of Mummy Berry, On Vaccinium Angustifolium In Maine, Tyler L. Case

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The primary focus of this research project was to identify factors in the field affecting survival and the environmental conditions affecting carpogenic germination of pseudosclerotia of Monilinia vaccinii-corymbosi (MVC) which is a common fungal pathogen of lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium) in Maine. The interactions between biological oranisms, such as fungi and insects with pseudosclerotia prior to and during the overwintering process were investigated in the research outlined below. Fungi from the surfaces of pseudosclerotia were screened as potential antagonists in a co-plate experiment. Most of the potentially antagonistic fungi tested reduced the width of the MVC reference cultures. These potential ...


Development Of Kefir Products Using Aronia Or Elderberries And The Impacts Of Fermentation On The Health-Promoting Characteristics Of Aronia Polyphenols, Xue Du Aug 2018

Development Of Kefir Products Using Aronia Or Elderberries And The Impacts Of Fermentation On The Health-Promoting Characteristics Of Aronia Polyphenols, Xue Du

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Diabetes is a global health problem. The consumption of dietary polyphenols may help to decrease the risk of type 2 diabetes and slow the progression of diabetic complications. Aronia (Aronia melanocarpa) and elderberry (Sambucus nigra L. ssp. canadensis) fruits are rich in polyphenols and exhibit health-promoting properties, but they are underutilized. Aronia and elderberries are rarely consumed raw due to the astringent mouth feel. New food products are needed to increase their consumption. Kefir, a fermented dairy beverage, was chosen to be the matrix for incorporating berries due to: 1) the protein matrix can help mask the astringency; 2) an ...


Consumer Acceptance And Phytonutrient Assessment Of Cold Hardy, Locally Grown Plums, Amber L. Elwell Aug 2018

Consumer Acceptance And Phytonutrient Assessment Of Cold Hardy, Locally Grown Plums, Amber L. Elwell

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Prunus salicina, Japanese plums, and Prunus domestica, European plums, are naturally rich in fiber, minerals, vitamins and phytonutrients. Consuming plums can increase overall fruit intake and can be incorporated into part of a healthy diet. Through local plum production, harvesting can be completed without the need for cross-country shipping, which can increase overall acceptability and nutritional quality of the fruit. Furthermore, the increase in local production can help to boost Maine’s economy and creates a market for new plum product production.

The first objective of this study was to determine consumer acceptance of locally grown plum cultivars at a ...


Band-Sowing With Hoeing For Weed Management In Organic Grains, Margaret R. Mccollough Aug 2018

Band-Sowing With Hoeing For Weed Management In Organic Grains, Margaret R. Mccollough

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Weeds remain the foremost production challenge for organic small grain growers in the Northeastern United States. Instead of sowing crops in narrow, single-line rows, band-sowing with inter-band hoeing is a cropping strategy that could provide superior weed control. In theory, band-sowing suppresses weeds in the intra-band zone by improving the spatial arrangement of the crop from that of typical rows to a more uniform pattern within the planted bands, maximizing interspecific and reducing intraspecific competition. Weeds in the inter-band zone are controlled by cultivating with aggressive sweeps; tine harrowing can target weeds in the intra- and inter-band zones.

Chapter one ...


Development And Shelf Life Evaluation Of A Novel Fermented Seaweed Sauerkraut Utilizing Commercially Important Maine Seaweeds, Sarah M. Brochu Aug 2018

Development And Shelf Life Evaluation Of A Novel Fermented Seaweed Sauerkraut Utilizing Commercially Important Maine Seaweeds, Sarah M. Brochu

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Fermented vegetables can provide consumers with important health benefits, particularly due to the presence of probiotics. These fermented products have gained popularity with American consumers over the past decade. Therefore, a lacto-fermented seaweed sauerkraut, containing seaweed and cabbage, was developed to address this trend and to create a value-added seaweed product with extended refrigerated shelf life. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of kelp species and seaweed incorporation level on the fermentative success, microbial safety, consumer acceptability, and refrigerated shelf life of seaweed sauerkraut for 60 days post inoculation.

Six treatments with varying levels (25%, 50 ...


Notes On Contributors Jul 2018

Notes On Contributors

The Catch

No abstract provided.


On How A Fisherman Supports Fishermen: Oral History With Patrick Shepard, Natalie Springuel Jul 2018

On How A Fisherman Supports Fishermen: Oral History With Patrick Shepard, Natalie Springuel

The Catch

No abstract provided.


Catching Up With Robin Alden, Kathleen Ellis Jul 2018

Catching Up With Robin Alden, Kathleen Ellis

The Catch

No abstract provided.


Reflections On The Water, Patricia S. Ranzoni Jul 2018

Reflections On The Water, Patricia S. Ranzoni

The Catch

No abstract provided.


The World Is Your Oyster, Aliya Uteuova Jul 2018

The World Is Your Oyster, Aliya Uteuova

The Catch

No abstract provided.


Editor's Note: The Catch Volume Vi, Catherine Schmitt Jul 2018

Editor's Note: The Catch Volume Vi, Catherine Schmitt

The Catch

No abstract provided.


Full Issue Volume Vi Jul 2018

Full Issue Volume Vi

The Catch

No abstract provided.


Investigating Present-Day Health Issues Of The American Lobster (Homarus Americanus), Deborah A. Bouchard May 2018

Investigating Present-Day Health Issues Of The American Lobster (Homarus Americanus), Deborah A. Bouchard

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The American lobster, Homarus americanus, H. Milne Edwards, 1837, supports the most economically valuable fishery along the North Atlantic coast of North America. A collapse in lobster populations in Southern New England (SNE) has coincided with increasing ocean temperatures and emerging diseases. This research investigated the etiologies of limp lobster disease (LLD) and epizootic shell disease (ESD), two diseases that continue to cause significant mortality in natural lobster populations. Mortality from LLD is associated with the bacteria Photobacterium indicum and is more intense in impounded lobsters. To more clearly define the community ecology of this suspected opportunistic pathogen, the microbial ...


Marine-Derived Nutrient Cycling In The St. Croix River, Maine, Betsy Barber May 2018

Marine-Derived Nutrient Cycling In The St. Croix River, Maine, Betsy Barber

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Anadromous species can boost freshwater productivity through nutrient subsidies. Along the Maine coast of the northeast United States, several alewife populations are recovering after freshwater connectivity is restored. Iteroparity in this part of their range may reduce their role as nutrient subsidies. Stable isotope analysis was used to detect marine-derived nutrient input. Spatial and temporal trends were characterized in the St. Croix as a baseline before alewife recovery, and nutrient-diffusing substrates indicated nutrient co-limitation. A reference watershed was used to compare nutrient dynamics when alewives were present versus absent. Results indicated isotope shifts within particular functional feeding groups, but not ...


Extraction And Purification Of (E)-Resveratrol From The Bark Of Maine's Native Spruces, Panduka S. Piyaratne May 2018

Extraction And Purification Of (E)-Resveratrol From The Bark Of Maine's Native Spruces, Panduka S. Piyaratne

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Resveratrol is a plant secondary metabolite which protects plants from pathogenic invasions and acts as a remedial agent against injury, stress, and tissue damage by UV radiation. With its characteristic stilbene structure, resveratrol adopts (E) and (Z) isomeric forms. However, the (E) isomer is the most biologically active and abundant form of resveratrol in nature.

(E)- Resveratrol confers a variety of benefits to human health and well-being. Besides its antioxidant activity, the role of (E)-resveratrol as an anti-inflammatory, anti-aging, cardioprotection, and anticancer agent has been a widely explored research interest. Many plant species including mulberry, peanut, and grape are ...


Developing A Risk Assessment Protocol To Quantify Distribution And Uptake Of Persistent Organic Pollutants In Glacial Outflows, Kimberley Rain Miner May 2018

Developing A Risk Assessment Protocol To Quantify Distribution And Uptake Of Persistent Organic Pollutants In Glacial Outflows, Kimberley Rain Miner

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Pollutants released by industrialized nations between 1960 and 2004 have been transported northward through atmospheric processes and deposited into glaciated alpine ecosystems. Many of these chemicals retain their original structure and are absorbed into the biota thousands of miles away from where they were originally utilized. With a warming climate increasing the melt of alpine glaciers, these glaciers may be introducing growing amounts of toxins into the watershed. While studies have demonstrated the existence of resident pollutants within glaciated ecosystems, no one has developed a risk assessment to identify sources and quantity of risk posed by these compounds when released ...


Precision Gene Therapy For Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease: From Identifying Genetic Modifiers To Developing Allele-Specific Therapies, Kathryn H. Morelli Ph.D. May 2018

Precision Gene Therapy For Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease: From Identifying Genetic Modifiers To Developing Allele-Specific Therapies, Kathryn H. Morelli Ph.D.

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease (CMT) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous collection of inherited peripheral neuropathies generally characterized by progressive muscle atrophy, weakness, and loss of sensation in the distal extremities. This inherited disorder, for which there is currently no curative treatment, is the most common inherited disease of the peripheral nervous system, affecting 1:2,500 individuals worldwide.

Clinically, CMT is broadly divided into demyelinating (type 1) and axonal (type 2) forms. Although the clinical presentation can vary greatly in severity and progression within individual patients. Genetically, over 1,000 mutations in over 80 loci in the human genome have been ...


Spatio-Temporal Dynamics Of Atlantic Cod Bycatch In The Maine Lobster Fishery And Its Impacts On Stock Assessment, Robert E. Boenish May 2018

Spatio-Temporal Dynamics Of Atlantic Cod Bycatch In The Maine Lobster Fishery And Its Impacts On Stock Assessment, Robert E. Boenish

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Of the most iconic fish species in the world, the Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua, hereafter, cod) has been a mainstay in the North Atlantic for centuries. While many global fish stocks have received increased pressure with the advent of new, more efficient fishing technology in the mid-20th century, exceptional pressure has been placed on this prized gadoid. Bycatch, or the unintended catch of organisms, is one of the biggest global fisheries issues. Directly resulting from the failed recovery of cod in the GoM, attention has been placed as to possible sources of unaccounted catch. Among the most prominent is ...


Modeling And Simulation Of American Lobster In The Gulf Of Maine: Spatial Distribution, Monitoring, And Conservation, Bai Li May 2018

Modeling And Simulation Of American Lobster In The Gulf Of Maine: Spatial Distribution, Monitoring, And Conservation, Bai Li

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

In spite of the high fishing pressure and landings, the Gulf of Maine (GOM) American lobster (Homarus americanus) population abundance has increased dramatically since the early 1990s. Various hypotheses have been developed to explain such an increase, ranging from improved habitat to conservation measures that protect female spawners. However, no systematic study has been done to evaluate these hypotheses. This study aims to examine roles of environmental drivers and conservation measures in regulating the dynamics of lobster population, and evaluate the performance of monitoring programs. A geographical weighted regression model was developed to examine the non-stationary environmental effects on the ...


Tarbp2 -Mediated Post-Transcriptional Regulation Of Gene Expression During Murine Embryonic Development And Spermatogenesis, Sri Ramulu N. Pullagura May 2018

Tarbp2 -Mediated Post-Transcriptional Regulation Of Gene Expression During Murine Embryonic Development And Spermatogenesis, Sri Ramulu N. Pullagura

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Micro RNAs (miRNAs), which are ~22 nucleotide (nt) long RNA molecules and several RNA binding proteins (RBPs) engage in an RNA dependent post-transcriptional gene silencing process known as RNA interference (RNAi). In the canonical miRNA biogenesis pathway, an enzyme known as DICER cleaves the ~70nt pre-miRNA to a ~22nt long miRNA that is loaded into the RNAi effector mechanism, the RNA induced silencing complex (RISC).

Several in vitro studies provide suggestive evidence that mammalian double stranded RNA binding proteins (dsRBPs), such as TARBP2, act as DICER cofactors in miRNA processing and RISC loading to promote RNAi activity. A screen attempting ...