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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Baclofen-Induced Changes In The Resting Brain Modulate Smoking Cue Reactivity: A Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study In Cigarette Smokers, Ariel Ketcherside, Kanchana Jagannathan, Sudipto Dolui, Nathan Hager, Nathaniel Spilka, Chaela Nutor, Hengyi Rao, Teresa Franklin, Reagan Wetherill May 2020

Baclofen-Induced Changes In The Resting Brain Modulate Smoking Cue Reactivity: A Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study In Cigarette Smokers, Ariel Ketcherside, Kanchana Jagannathan, Sudipto Dolui, Nathan Hager, Nathaniel Spilka, Chaela Nutor, Hengyi Rao, Teresa Franklin, Reagan Wetherill

Psychology Faculty Publications

Objective: Smoking cue-(SC) elicited craving can lead to relapse in SC-vulnerable individuals. Thus, identifying treatments that target SC-elicited craving is a top research priority. Reduced drug cue neural activity is associated with recovery and is marked by a profile of greater tonic (resting) activation in executive control regions, and increased connectivity between executive and salience regions. Evidence suggests the GABA-B agonist baclofen can reduce drug cue-elicited neural activity, potentially through its actions on the resting brain. Based on the literature, we hypothesize that baclofen’s effects in the resting brain can predict its effects during SC exposure.

Methods: In ...


Antidepressants Versus Music Therapy: Which Treatment Is Better For Treating Depression In Parkinson's Disease?, Emaan Dawood Apr 2020

Antidepressants Versus Music Therapy: Which Treatment Is Better For Treating Depression In Parkinson's Disease?, Emaan Dawood

Virginias Collegiate Honors Council Conference

Music and medicine are merging to treat depression in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Antidepressants, the current standard, demonstrate mixed effects in clinical trials, warranting other treatment options. Here, I compare music therapy to antidepressants in the treatment of depression in PD via literature review. Studies of depressed PD patients undergoing music therapy and/or antidepressants were reviewed with attention to variables including depression (on a patient-reported outcome) that were measured pre- and post- therapy. In the music studies, improvements were seen in depression. Methodological inconsistencies across these studies, a paucity of studies, and small sample sizes, however, necessitate more research ...


Efficacy Of A Motivational Video On Heart Rate, Rpe, And Total Work Performed During Stationary Cycling, Hannah Angelella Apr 2020

Efficacy Of A Motivational Video On Heart Rate, Rpe, And Total Work Performed During Stationary Cycling, Hannah Angelella

Virginias Collegiate Honors Council Conference

Lack of enjoyment and motivation are factors that deter people from exercising. However, visual stimulation may help motivate or distract from exertion (1–3). The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of watching a motivational video (MV) versus a calming video (PV) while cycling. Ten recreationally-active subjects from the University of Lynchburg population completed two randomized, twenty-minute moderate intensity sessions on a stationary bike at least 48 hours apart. Subjects watched Bob Ross painting (PV) in one session and the Tour de France (MV) in another. The motivational video significantly improved mileage completed (8.01 vs 6 ...


Evaluation Of Balance And A Timed Walk On Ankle Brachial Pressure Index And Potential Blood Measures Of Cardiovascular Health, Hannah M. Twiddy, Patrick B. Wilson, Leyrn Reynolds Apr 2020

Evaluation Of Balance And A Timed Walk On Ankle Brachial Pressure Index And Potential Blood Measures Of Cardiovascular Health, Hannah M. Twiddy, Patrick B. Wilson, Leyrn Reynolds

College of Education & Professional Studies (Darden) Posters

Clinicians are focused on ways to preserve function, independence, and quality of life in the aging adult population. Heart disease is the leading cause of death in the U.S.[1]. Thus, assessing the extent of this disease is a high priority in preserving health throughout the lifespan. When determining risk of cardiovascular (CV) disease, functional assessments are recognized as a way to embed function-focused care into assessing disease risk [2]. Ankle-brachial pressure index (ABPI) is a non-invasive reliable predictor for identifying cardiovascular disease risk and mortality [3]. Thus, the purpose was to evaluate the association between functional assessments and ...


Artificial Perches As A Technique For Enhancing Tropical Forest Restoration: A Case Study From The Dominican Republic, Spencer Schubert, Ally S. Lahey, Ashley R. Weisman, Eric L. Walters Apr 2020

Artificial Perches As A Technique For Enhancing Tropical Forest Restoration: A Case Study From The Dominican Republic, Spencer Schubert, Ally S. Lahey, Ashley R. Weisman, Eric L. Walters

College of Sciences Posters

Recovering secondary forests on degraded agricultural lands represents a promising opportunity to offset global carbon emissions as well as increasing local biodiversity and ecosystem services. In the insular tropical forests of the Caribbean, frugivorous birds are the primary seed dispersers for most native woody plants and have a large influence on regeneration dynamics during forest succession. In 2017, we initiated an experimental forest restoration program incorporating artificial perches on private farms within the Rio Yaque del Norte watershed in La Vega province, Dominican Republic. Five restoration plots (0.15–0.25 ha) were constructed in pastures near deforested streams. In ...


Npgreat: Hybrid Assembly Of Human Subtelomeres With The Use Of Nanopore And Linked-Read Datasets, Eleni Adam, Desh Ranjan, Harold Riethman Apr 2020

Npgreat: Hybrid Assembly Of Human Subtelomeres With The Use Of Nanopore And Linked-Read Datasets, Eleni Adam, Desh Ranjan, Harold Riethman

College of Sciences Posters

The telomeres are vitally important regions that are located at the tips of the chromosomes. Their dysfunction, caused by length shortening can lead to senescent cells, which in turn cause age-related diseases, including cancer. The subtelomeres, located next to the telomeres, possess the critical role of regulating the adjacent telomere lengths. Even after many years of research, human subtelomeres have proven to be very hard to assemble due to their morphology. In order to overcome these problems, the hybrid assembly method we develop utilizes two of the latest available types of data, which complement each other: Linked-Reads and ultralong Nanopore ...


The Effects Of Physical Exercise On Salivary Microrna Levels, Thomas R. Campbell, Jessica C. Martinez, Noah L. Robertson, Felicia G. Clements, Emily N. Valle, Wyclef Etiennet, Audrey C. Ferguson, Klye J. Kelleran Apr 2020

The Effects Of Physical Exercise On Salivary Microrna Levels, Thomas R. Campbell, Jessica C. Martinez, Noah L. Robertson, Felicia G. Clements, Emily N. Valle, Wyclef Etiennet, Audrey C. Ferguson, Klye J. Kelleran

College of Health Sciences Posters

Diagnosing concussions provides challenges for healthcare professionals due to current diagnostic protocols utilizing subjective input from patients. Recent studies have shown relationships between specific salivary microRNA levels and concussions, but it is unknown if this is due to concussive forces or physical exertion. Analysis of this distinction may contribute to further confirming the relationship of concussions and microRNA, improving techniques for objective assessments of concussion. Objective: To measure the effects of physical exertion through exercise on specific salivary microRNA. Methods: Twenty non-intercollegiate athletes (10:M, 10:F) were recruited for this case series. After ensuring the participants received a minimum ...


Cylindrical Similarity Measurement For Helices In Medium-Resolution Cryo-Electron Microscopy Density Maps, Salim Sazzed, Peter Scheible, Maytha Alshammari, Willy Wriggers, Jing He Apr 2020

Cylindrical Similarity Measurement For Helices In Medium-Resolution Cryo-Electron Microscopy Density Maps, Salim Sazzed, Peter Scheible, Maytha Alshammari, Willy Wriggers, Jing He

College of Sciences Posters

Cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) density maps at medium resolution (5-10 Å) reveal secondary structural features such as α-helices and β-sheets, but they lack the side chains details that would enable a direct structure determination. Among the more than 800 entries in the Electron Microscopy Data Bank (EMDB) of medium-resolution density maps that are associated with atomic models, a wide variety of similarities can be observed between maps and models. To validate such atomic models and to classify structural features, a local similarity criterion, the F1 score, is proposed and evaluated in this study. The F1 score is theoretically normalized to a ...


Effects Of Increased Attention Allocation On Postural Stability Related To History Of Concussion, Nicholas Reilly, Jessica Prebor, Jacquelyn Moxey, Eric Schussler Apr 2020

Effects Of Increased Attention Allocation On Postural Stability Related To History Of Concussion, Nicholas Reilly, Jessica Prebor, Jacquelyn Moxey, Eric Schussler

College of Health Sciences Posters

Postural instability is among the most common symptoms associated with concussion. However, clinical screenings for concussion are heavily reliant on self-reports of cognitive symptoms such as nausea and headache to determine if a full recovery has been achieved. The objective of this study was to determine if impairments of postural stability that are associated with the acute stages of concussion persist beyond the current clinical standards for determination of recovery from concussion. Fifty-four healthy participants were recruited for the study and divided based on whether they reported having no history of concussion (n = 27) or whether they had been previously ...


Relationships Between Injury-Related Fear, Balance Self-Efficacy, And Dynamic Balance Performance In Those With Chronic Ankle Instability, Ashley M. B. Suttmiller, Kelly Johnson, Ryan S. Mccann Apr 2020

Relationships Between Injury-Related Fear, Balance Self-Efficacy, And Dynamic Balance Performance In Those With Chronic Ankle Instability, Ashley M. B. Suttmiller, Kelly Johnson, Ryan S. Mccann

College of Health Sciences Posters

Interactions between sensory-perceptual and motor-behavioral impairments in individuals with chronic ankle instability (CAI) are important for successful assessment and treatment of CAI. One of the most consistently reported motor-behavioral impairments is poor reach performance in a dynamic balance task. Injury-related fear is recognized as an important sensory-perceptual impairment, and those with injury-related fears may engage in protective movement strategies found to be associated with reach deficits. Injury-related fear may also impact one’s perception of ability, or self-efficacy, which has demonstrated positive associations with balance performance in other populations, but these relationships have yet to be investigated in the CAI ...


A Halogen Bonding Perspective On Iodothyronine Deiodinase Activity, Eric S. Marsan, Craig A. Bayse Mar 2020

A Halogen Bonding Perspective On Iodothyronine Deiodinase Activity, Eric S. Marsan, Craig A. Bayse

Chemistry & Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Iodothyronine deiodinases (Dios) are involved in the regioselective removal of iodine from thyroid hormones (THs). Deiodination is essential to maintain TH homeostasis, and disruption can have detrimental effects. Halogen bonding (XB) to the selenium of the selenocysteine (Sec) residue in the Dio active site has been proposed to contribute to the mechanism for iodine removal. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are known disruptors of various pathways of the endocrine system. Experimental evidence shows PBDEs and their hydroxylated metabolites (OH-BDEs) can inhibit Dio, while data regarding PCB inhibition are limited. These xenobiotics could inhibit Dio activity by competitively ...


Orofacial Manifestations Of Lyme Disease: A Systematic Review, Kelsey Jones, Brenda Bradshaw Feb 2020

Orofacial Manifestations Of Lyme Disease: A Systematic Review, Kelsey Jones, Brenda Bradshaw

Undergraduate Research Symposium

Purpose: Several orofacial symptoms of Lyme disease can affect anatomical structures of the head and neck which are frequently examined by dental professionals. The purpose of this systematic review was to examine the literature to identify the frequencies of orofacial manifestations documented in U.S. populations with Lyme disease.

Methods: Four electronic databases (Dentistry and Oral Sciences, PubMed, Cinahl Plus, and Medline) were systematically searched from May 2019 until October 2019 using keywords and MeSH terms to identify relevant studies. The review followed guidelines set forth in Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA). A modified version of ...


Using Genetics To Inform Restoration And Predict Resilience In Declining Populations Of A Keystone Marine Sponge, Sarah M. Griffiths, Evelyn D. Taylor-Cox, Donald C. Behringer, Mark J. Butler Iv, Richard F. Preziosi Feb 2020

Using Genetics To Inform Restoration And Predict Resilience In Declining Populations Of A Keystone Marine Sponge, Sarah M. Griffiths, Evelyn D. Taylor-Cox, Donald C. Behringer, Mark J. Butler Iv, Richard F. Preziosi

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Genetic tools can have a key role in informing conservation management of declining populations. Genetic diversity is an important determinant of population fitness and resilience, and can require careful management to ensure sufficient variation is present. In addition, population genetics data reveal patterns of connectivity and gene flow between locations, enabling mangers to predict recovery and resilience, identify areas of local adaptation, and generate restoration plans. Here, we demonstrate a conservation genetics approach to inform restoration and management of the loggerhead sponge (Spheciospongia vesparium) in the Florida Keys, USA. This species is a dominant, habitat-forming component of marine ecosystems in ...


Essential Role Of The Crk Family-Dosage In Digeorge-Like Anomaly And Metabolic Homeostasis, Akira Imamoto, Sewon Ki, Leiming Li, Kazunari Iwamoto, Venkat Maruthamuthu, John Devany, Ocean Lu, Suxiang Zhang, Takuji Yamada, Akiyoshi Hirayama, Shinji Fukuda, Yutaka Suzuki, Mariko Okada Feb 2020

Essential Role Of The Crk Family-Dosage In Digeorge-Like Anomaly And Metabolic Homeostasis, Akira Imamoto, Sewon Ki, Leiming Li, Kazunari Iwamoto, Venkat Maruthamuthu, John Devany, Ocean Lu, Suxiang Zhang, Takuji Yamada, Akiyoshi Hirayama, Shinji Fukuda, Yutaka Suzuki, Mariko Okada

Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering Faculty Publications

CRK and CRKL (CRK-like) encode adapter proteins with similar biochemical properties. Here, we show that a 50% reduction of the family-combined dosage generates developmental defects, including aspects of DiGeorge/del22q11 syndrome in mice. Like the mouse homologs of two 22q11.21 genes CRKL and TBX1, Crk and Tbx1 also genetically interact, thus suggesting that pathways shared by the three genes participate in organogenesis affected in the syndrome. We also show that Crk and Crkl are required during mesoderm development, and Crk/Crkl deficiency results in small cell size and abnormal mesenchyme behavior in primary embryonic fibroblasts. Our systems-wide analyses reveal ...


Interactive Effects Of The Co2 Enrichment And Nitrogen Supply On The Biomass Accumulation, Gas Exchange Properties, And Mineral Elements Concentrations In Cucumber Plants At Different Growth Stages, Xun Li, Jinlong Dong, Nazim S. Gruda, Wenying Chu, Zengqiang Duan Jan 2020

Interactive Effects Of The Co2 Enrichment And Nitrogen Supply On The Biomass Accumulation, Gas Exchange Properties, And Mineral Elements Concentrations In Cucumber Plants At Different Growth Stages, Xun Li, Jinlong Dong, Nazim S. Gruda, Wenying Chu, Zengqiang Duan

Chemistry & Biochemistry Faculty Publications

The concentration changes of mineral elements in plants at different CO2 concentrations ([CO2]) and nitrogen (N) supplies and the mechanisms which control such changes are not clear. Hydroponic trials on cucumber plants with three [CO2] (400, 625, and 1200 µmol mol−1) and five N supply levels (2, 4, 7, 14, and 21 mmol L−1) were conducted. When plants were in high N supply, the increase in total biomass by elevated [CO2] was 51.7% and 70.1% at the seedling and initial fruiting stages, respectively. An increase in net photosynthetic rate (Pn) by more ...


Antibiotic Drug Nanocarriers For Probing Of Multidrug Abc Membrane Transporter Of Bacillus Subtilis, Pavan Kumar Cherukuri, Preeyaporn Songkiatisak, Feng Ding, Jeam-Michel Jault, Xiao-Hong Nancy Xu Jan 2020

Antibiotic Drug Nanocarriers For Probing Of Multidrug Abc Membrane Transporter Of Bacillus Subtilis, Pavan Kumar Cherukuri, Preeyaporn Songkiatisak, Feng Ding, Jeam-Michel Jault, Xiao-Hong Nancy Xu

Chemistry & Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Multidrug membrane transporters can extrude a wide range of substrates, which cause multidrug resistance and ineffective treatment of diseases. In this study, we used three different sized antibiotic drug nanocarriers to study their size-dependent inhibitory effects against Bacillus subtilis. We functionalized 2.4 ± 0.7, 13.0 ± 3.1, and 92.6 ± 4.4 nm silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) with a monolayer of 11-amino-1-undecanethiol and covalently linked them with antibiotics (ofloxacin, Oflx). The labeling ratios of antibiotics with NPs are 8.6 × 102, 9.4 × 103, and 6.5 × 105 Oflx molecules per NP, respectively. We designed ...


Comprehensive Analysis Of Human Subtelomeres By Whole Genome Mapping, Eleanor Young, Heba Z. Abid, Pui-Yan Kwok, Harold Riethman, Ming Xiao Jan 2020

Comprehensive Analysis Of Human Subtelomeres By Whole Genome Mapping, Eleanor Young, Heba Z. Abid, Pui-Yan Kwok, Harold Riethman, Ming Xiao

Medical Diagnostics & Translational Sciences Faculty Publications

Detailed comprehensive knowledge of the structures of individual long-range telomere-terminal haplotypes are needed to understand their impact on telomere function, and to delineate the population structure and evolution of subtelomere regions. However, the abundance of large evolutionarily recent segmental duplications and high levels of large structural variations have complicated both the mapping and sequence characterization of human subtelomere regions. Here, we use high throughput optical mapping of large single DNA molecules in nanochannel arrays for 154 human genomes from 26 populations to present a comprehensive look at human subtelomere structure and variation. The results catalog many novel long-range subtelomere haplotypes ...


Lymesim 2.0: An Updated Simulation Of Blacklegged Tick (Acari: Ixodidae) Population Dynamics And Enzootic Transmission Of Borrelia Burgdorferi (Spirochaetales: Spirochaetaceae), Holly Gaff, Rebecca J. Eisen, Lars Eisen, Robyn Nadolny, Jenna Bjork, Andrew J. Monaghan Jan 2020

Lymesim 2.0: An Updated Simulation Of Blacklegged Tick (Acari: Ixodidae) Population Dynamics And Enzootic Transmission Of Borrelia Burgdorferi (Spirochaetales: Spirochaetaceae), Holly Gaff, Rebecca J. Eisen, Lars Eisen, Robyn Nadolny, Jenna Bjork, Andrew J. Monaghan

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Lyme disease is the most commonly reported vector-borne disease in the United States, and the number of cases reported each year continues to rise. The complex nature of the relationships between the pathogen (Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto), the tick vector (Ixodes scapularis Say), multiple vertebrate hosts, and numerous environmental factors creates challenges for understanding and predicting tick population and pathogen transmission dynamics. LYMESIM is a mechanistic model developed in the late 1990s to simulate the life-history of I. scapularis and transmission dynamics of B. burgdorferi s.s. Here we present LYMESIM 2.0, a modernized version of LYMESIM, that includes ...


In Vitro And In Vivio Evaluation Of A Moisture Treatment Cream Containing Three Critical Elements Of Natural Skin Moisturization, David H. Mcdaniel, Jeffrey S. Dover, Mitchell Wortzman, Diane B. Nelson Jan 2020

In Vitro And In Vivio Evaluation Of A Moisture Treatment Cream Containing Three Critical Elements Of Natural Skin Moisturization, David H. Mcdaniel, Jeffrey S. Dover, Mitchell Wortzman, Diane B. Nelson

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Objectives

To evaluate skin barrier and hydration effects of a new rebalancing moisture treatment (TRMT) and to assess efficacy and tolerability in subjects with photodamaged skin.

Methods

In an epidermal skin model, tissues (n = 5/group) were topically treated with 25 µL of TRMT, 25 µL of a market‐leading moisturizer (MLM), or untreated for 60 minutes. Hydration was measured at 0, 15, and 30 minutes. Tissues were harvested for gene expression analysis of markers associated with skin barrier and hydration: Claudin (CLD), Aquaporin (AQP), Hyaluronic Acid Syntheses (HAS), and Hyaluronidase (HYAL). A clinical study evaluated twice‐daily application of ...


A Genome-Wide Association Study Of Cocaine Use Disorder Accounting For Phenotypic Heterogeneity And Gene–Environment Interaction, Jiangwen Sun, Henry R. Kranzler, Joel Gelernter, Jinbo Bi Jan 2020

A Genome-Wide Association Study Of Cocaine Use Disorder Accounting For Phenotypic Heterogeneity And Gene–Environment Interaction, Jiangwen Sun, Henry R. Kranzler, Joel Gelernter, Jinbo Bi

Computer Science Faculty Publications

Background: Phenotypic heterogeneity and complicated gene-environment interplay in etiology are among the primary factors that hinder the identification of genetic variants associated with cocaine use disorder. Methods: To detect novel genetic variants associated with cocaine use disorder, we derived disease traits with reduced phenotypic heterogeneity using cluster analysis of a study sample (n = 9965). We then used these traits in genome-wide association tests, performed separately for 2070 African Americans and 1570 European Americans, using a new mixed model that accounted for the moderating effects of 5 childhood environmental factors. We used an independent sample (918 African Americans, 1382 European Americans ...


Outlier Profiles Of Atomic Structures Derived From X-Ray Crystallography And From Cryo-Electron Microscopy, Lin Chen, Jing He, Angelo Facchiano Jan 2020

Outlier Profiles Of Atomic Structures Derived From X-Ray Crystallography And From Cryo-Electron Microscopy, Lin Chen, Jing He, Angelo Facchiano

Computer Science Faculty Publications

Background: As more protein atomic structures are determined from cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) density maps, validation of such structures is an important task. Methods: We applied a histogram-based outlier score (HBOS) to six sets of cryo-EM atomic structures and five sets of X-ray atomic structures, including one derived from X-ray data with better than 1.5 Å resolution. Cryo-EM data sets contain structures released by December 2016 and those released between 2017 and 2019, derived from resolution ranges 0–4 Å and 4–6 Å respectively. Results: The distribution of HBOS values in five sets of X-ray structures show that HBOS ...


Metabolic Profiling Reveals Biochemical Pathways Responsible For Eelgrass Response To Elevated Co2 And Temperature, Carmen C. Zayas-Santiago, Albert Rivas-Ubach, Li-Jung Kuo, Nicholas D. Ward, Richard C. Zimmerman Jan 2020

Metabolic Profiling Reveals Biochemical Pathways Responsible For Eelgrass Response To Elevated Co2 And Temperature, Carmen C. Zayas-Santiago, Albert Rivas-Ubach, Li-Jung Kuo, Nicholas D. Ward, Richard C. Zimmerman

OEAS Faculty Publications

As CO2 levels in Earth’s atmosphere and oceans steadily rise, varying organismal responses may produce ecological losers and winners. Increased ocean CO2 can enhance seagrass productivity and thermal tolerance, providing some compensation for climate warming. However, the metabolic shifts driving the positive response to elevated CO2 by these important ecosystem engineers remain unknown. We analyzed whole-plant performance and metabolic profiles of two geographically distinct eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) populations in response to CO2 enrichment. In addition to enhancing overall plant size, growth and survival, CO2 enrichment increased the abundance of Calvin Cycle and nitrogen ...


Insights Into The Feeding Behaviors And Biomechanics Of Varroa Destructor Mites On Honey Bee Pupae Using Electropenetrography And Histology, Andrew Y. Li, Steven C. Cook, Daniel E. Sonenshine, Francisco Pasada-Florez, Noble I.I. Noble, Joseph Mowery, Conner J. Gulbronson, Gary R. Bauchan Dec 2019

Insights Into The Feeding Behaviors And Biomechanics Of Varroa Destructor Mites On Honey Bee Pupae Using Electropenetrography And Histology, Andrew Y. Li, Steven C. Cook, Daniel E. Sonenshine, Francisco Pasada-Florez, Noble I.I. Noble, Joseph Mowery, Conner J. Gulbronson, Gary R. Bauchan

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Feeding behaviors and biomechanics of female Varroa destructor mites are revealed from AC-DC electropenetrography (EPG) recordings of mites feeding from Apis mellifera honey bee pupae and histology of mite internal ingestion apparatus. EPG signals characteristic of arthropod suction feeding (ingestion) were identified for mites that fed on pupae during overnight recordings. Ingestion by these mites was confirmed afterwards by observing internally fluorescent microbeads previously injected into their hosts. Micrographs of internal ingestion apparatus illustrate the connection between a gnathosomal tube and a pharyngeal lumen, which is surrounded by alternating dilator and constrictor muscles. Inspection of EPG signals showed the muscularized ...


The Influence Of Neural Reward Processing On Memory In Depression, Nathan M. Hager Dec 2019

The Influence Of Neural Reward Processing On Memory In Depression, Nathan M. Hager

Psychology Theses & Dissertations

Theories and research suggest that depression involves impaired reward sensitivity and a deficit in memory for rewarding stimuli. Some researchers propose that this memory deficit may result from reduced neural reward sensitivity, which impairs the encoding of reward-related memories, but few studies have directly probed this connection. Such research may benefit from examining the reward positivity (RewP), an event-related potential (ERP) previously linked to reduced reward sensitivity in depression. Undergraduates with high or low self-reported depression completed a task in which they chose one of three doors, revealing a neutral word written in a color which indicated an outcome of ...


Growth Phase Proteomics Of The Heterotrophic Marine Bacterium Ruegeria Pomeroyi, Dasha Krayushkina, Emma Timmins-Schiffman, Jessica Faux, Damon H. May, Michael Riffle, H. Rodger Harvey, Brook L. Nunn Dec 2019

Growth Phase Proteomics Of The Heterotrophic Marine Bacterium Ruegeria Pomeroyi, Dasha Krayushkina, Emma Timmins-Schiffman, Jessica Faux, Damon H. May, Michael Riffle, H. Rodger Harvey, Brook L. Nunn

OEAS Faculty Publications

The heterotrophic marine bacterium, Ruegeria pomeroyi, was experimentally cultured under environmentally realistic carbon conditions and with a tracer-level addition of 13C-labeled leucine to track bacterial protein biosynthesis through growth phases. A combination of methods allowed observation of real-time bacterial protein production to understand metabolic priorities through the different growth phases. Over 2000 proteins were identified in each experimental culture from exponential and stationary growth phases. Within two hours of the 13C-labeled leucine addition, R. pomeroyi significantly assimilated the newly encountered substrate into new proteins. This dataset provides a fundamental baseline for understanding growth phase differences in molecular physiology ...


Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Fields Induce Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Accompanied By Immunogenic Cell Death In Murine Models Of Lymphoma And Colorectal Cancer, Alessandra Rossi, Olga N. Pakhomova, Peter A. Mollica, Maura Casciola, Uma Mangalanathan, Andrei G. Pakhomov, Claudia Muratori Dec 2019

Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Fields Induce Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Accompanied By Immunogenic Cell Death In Murine Models Of Lymphoma And Colorectal Cancer, Alessandra Rossi, Olga N. Pakhomova, Peter A. Mollica, Maura Casciola, Uma Mangalanathan, Andrei G. Pakhomov, Claudia Muratori

Bioelectrics Publications

Depending on the initiating stimulus, cancer cell death can be immunogenic or non-immunogenic. Inducers of immunogenic cell death (ICD) rely on endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress for the trafficking of danger signals such as calreticulin (CRT) and ATP. We found that nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEF), an emerging new modality for tumor ablation, cause the activation of the ER-resident stress sensor PERK in both CT-26 colon carcinoma and EL-4 lymphoma cells. PERK activation correlates with sustained CRT exposure on the cell plasma membrane and apoptosis induction in both nsPEF-treated cell lines. Our results show that, in CT-26 cells, the activity of ...


Electropermeabilization Does Not Correlate With Plasma Membrane Lipid Oxidation, Olga Michel, Andrei G. Pakhomov, Maura Casciola, Jolanta Saczko, Julita Kulbacka, Olga N. Pakhomova Dec 2019

Electropermeabilization Does Not Correlate With Plasma Membrane Lipid Oxidation, Olga Michel, Andrei G. Pakhomov, Maura Casciola, Jolanta Saczko, Julita Kulbacka, Olga N. Pakhomova

Bioelectrics Publications

The permeabilized condition of the cell membrane after electroporation can last minutes but the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Previous studies suggest that lipid peroxidation could be responsible for the lasting leaky state of the membrane. The present study aims to link oxidation within the plasma membrane of live cells to permeabilization by electric pulses. We have introduced a method for the detection of oxidation by ratiometric fluorescence measurements of BODIPY-C11 dye using total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy, limiting the signal to the cell membrane. CHO-K1 cells were cultured on glass coverslips coated with an electroconductive indium tin oxide (ITO ...


Deepep: A Deep Learning Framework For Identifying Essential Proteins, Min Zeng, Min Li, Fang-Xiang Wu, Yaohang Li, Yi Pan Dec 2019

Deepep: A Deep Learning Framework For Identifying Essential Proteins, Min Zeng, Min Li, Fang-Xiang Wu, Yaohang Li, Yi Pan

Computer Science Faculty Publications

Background: Essential proteins are crucial for cellular life and thus, identification of essential proteins is an important topic and a challenging problem for researchers. Recently lots of computational approaches have been proposed to handle this problem. However, traditional centrality methods cannot fully represent the topological features of biological networks. In addition, identifying essential proteins is an imbalanced learning problem; but few current shallow machine learning-based methods are designed to handle the imbalanced characteristics. Results: We develop DeepEP based on a deep learning framework that uses the node2vec technique, multi-scale convolutional neural networks and a sampling technique to identify essential proteins ...


Overlap Matrix Completion For Predicting Drug-Associated Indications, Menhyun Yang, Huimin Luo, Yaohang Li, Fang-Xiang Wu, Jianxin Wang Dec 2019

Overlap Matrix Completion For Predicting Drug-Associated Indications, Menhyun Yang, Huimin Luo, Yaohang Li, Fang-Xiang Wu, Jianxin Wang

Computer Science Faculty Publications

Identification of potential drug-associated indications is critical for either approved or novel drugs in drug repositioning. Current computational methods based on drug similarity and disease similarity have been developed to predict drug-disease associations. When more reliable drug- or disease-related information becomes available and is integrated, the prediction precision can be continuously improved. However, it is a challenging problem to effectively incorporate multiple types of prior information, representing different characteristics of drugs and diseases, to identify promising drug-disease associations. In this study, we propose an overlap matrix completion (OMC) for bilayer networks (OMC2) and tri-layer networks (OMC3) to predict potential drug-associated ...


How Oxygen Availability Affects The Antimicrobial Efficacy Of Host Defense Peptides: Lessons Learned From Studying The Copper-Binding Peptides Piscidins 1 And 3, Adenrele Oludiran, David S. Courson, Malia D. Stuart, Anwar R. Radwan, John C. Putsma, Myriam L. Cotten, Erin B. Purcell Nov 2019

How Oxygen Availability Affects The Antimicrobial Efficacy Of Host Defense Peptides: Lessons Learned From Studying The Copper-Binding Peptides Piscidins 1 And 3, Adenrele Oludiran, David S. Courson, Malia D. Stuart, Anwar R. Radwan, John C. Putsma, Myriam L. Cotten, Erin B. Purcell

Chemistry & Biochemistry Faculty Publications

The development of new therapeutic options against Clostridioides difficile (C. difficile) infection is a critical public health concern, as the causative bacterium is highly resistant to multiple classes of antibiotics. Antimicrobial host-defense peptides (HDPs) are highly effective at simultaneously modulating the immune system function and directly killing bacteria through membrane disruption and oxidative damage. The copper-binding HDPs piscidin 1 and piscidin 3 have previously shown potent antimicrobial activity against a number of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial species but have never been investigated in an anaerobic environment. Synergy between piscidins and metal ions increases bacterial killing aerobically. Here, we performed growth ...