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Old Dominion University

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Articles 1 - 30 of 1953

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Investigation Of Magnesium Cation-Proton Exchange With Transmembrane Electrostatically Localized Protons (Telp) At A Liquid-Membrane Interface: Fundamental To Bioenergetics, Gyanendra Kharel, Andrew J. Evans, Christopher M. Russo, Michael Eason, James W. Lee Apr 2022

Investigation Of Magnesium Cation-Proton Exchange With Transmembrane Electrostatically Localized Protons (Telp) At A Liquid-Membrane Interface: Fundamental To Bioenergetics, Gyanendra Kharel, Andrew J. Evans, Christopher M. Russo, Michael Eason, James W. Lee

College of Sciences Posters

The Lee transmembrane electrostatic proton localization (TELP) theory is a revolutionary scientific theory that has successfully explained decades long-standing quandary in the field of bioenergetics in regards to ATP synthesis in biological systems, specifically alkalophilic bacteria. This study provides experimental support for the TELP theory by further demonstrating evidence of a localized proton layer existing at the liquid-membrane interface in a simulated biological membrane apparatus. Whilst monovalent cations have been studied extensively, divalent cation exchange has not been studied experimentally.

A previous study determined equilibrium constant for Na+ and K+ to exchange with localized H+ layer to be (5.07 ...


A Pathway To Solving The Structure Of Cl-Par-4 Tumor Suppressor Protein: Challenges & Findings, Krishna Raut, Samjhana Pandey, Andrea M. Clark, Komala Ponniah, Steven M. Pascal Apr 2022

A Pathway To Solving The Structure Of Cl-Par-4 Tumor Suppressor Protein: Challenges & Findings, Krishna Raut, Samjhana Pandey, Andrea M. Clark, Komala Ponniah, Steven M. Pascal

College of Sciences Posters

Prostate apoptosis response-4 (Par-4) is a pro-apoptotic tumor suppressor protein. Down-regulation of this protein has been reported in a myriad of cancers. Conversely, up-regulation of Par-4 is found to be associated with several neurodegenerative disorders. Par-4 is unique in the sense it can selectively induce apoptosis in cancer cells. For this, caspase-dependent intracellular cleavage of Par-4 is essential to produce the functionally active fragment, cl-Par-4 (caspase-cleaved Par-4). The cl-Par-4 protein inhibits the NF-κB-mediated cell survival pathway and causes selective apoptosis in various tumor cells.

Our laboratory is interested in determining the structure of cl-Par-4 and understanding it’s interaction with ...


Understanding The Natural History Of Juvenile Amblyomma Maculatum In Southeastern Virginia, Christina Espada, Holly Gaff Apr 2022

Understanding The Natural History Of Juvenile Amblyomma Maculatum In Southeastern Virginia, Christina Espada, Holly Gaff

College of Sciences Posters

Amblyomma maculatum, the Gulf Coast tick, is a species of increasing public health concern. Adult A. maculatum is a known vector of several pathogens including Rickettsia parkeri, the causative agent of Rickettsia parkeri rickettsiosis. Amblyomma maculatum has expanded northward from its historic range along the Gulf Coast, with populations reportedly establishing in southeastern Virginia in 2010. Recently established populations of A. maculatum tend to have higher R. parkeri infection prevalence compared to longer established populations. This pattern holds for all populations found so far in southeastern Virginia, with a prevalence of R. parkeri in about 60% of A. maculatum compared ...


Summer Food Habits Of Myotis Leibii In The Central Appalachians Ecoregion And Comparison To Similar Studies, John O. Whitaker Jr., Virgil Brack Jr., James D. Kiser Jr. Apr 2022

Summer Food Habits Of Myotis Leibii In The Central Appalachians Ecoregion And Comparison To Similar Studies, John O. Whitaker Jr., Virgil Brack Jr., James D. Kiser Jr.

Virginia Journal of Science

Food habits of Myotis leibii, Eastern Small-footed Myotis, were studied during summer in the Central Appalachians Ecoregion. Moths were 70.0% of the diet by volume and were in 97.7% of samples (percent frequency). Beetles, flies, and spiders comprised much of the remaining diet. Percent volume and percent frequency metrics produce similar results. These data and past studies indicate this bat eats a relatively low-diversity diet centered on terrestrial-based arthropod prey across a broad geographical area, irrespective of season, sex, or age. The presence of spiders in the diet may indicate gleaning.


The Influence Of Particle Concentration And Bulk Characteristics On Polarized Oceanographic Lidar Measurements, Brian L. Collister, Richard C. Zimmerman, Charles I. Sukenik, William M. Balch, Victoria J. Hill Apr 2022

The Influence Of Particle Concentration And Bulk Characteristics On Polarized Oceanographic Lidar Measurements, Brian L. Collister, Richard C. Zimmerman, Charles I. Sukenik, William M. Balch, Victoria J. Hill

OES Faculty Publications

Oceanographic lidar measurements of the linear depolarization ratio, δ, contain information on the bulk characteristics of marine particles that could improve our ability to study ocean biogeochemistry. However, a scarcity of information on the polarized light-scattering properties of marine particles and the lack of a framework for separating single and multiple scattering effects on δ have hindered the development of polarization-based retrievals of bulk particle properties. To address these knowledge gaps, we made single scattering measurements of δ for several compositionally and morphologically distinct marine particle assemblages. We then used a bio-optical model to explore the influence of multiple scattering ...


Hsp90 Inhibitors Modulate Sars-Cov-2 Spike Protein Subunit 1-Induced Human Pulmonary Microvascular Endothelial Activation And Barrier Dysfunction, Ruben Manuel Luciano Colunga Biancatelli, Pavel Solopov, Betsy W. Gregory, Yara Khodour, John D. Catravas Mar 2022

Hsp90 Inhibitors Modulate Sars-Cov-2 Spike Protein Subunit 1-Induced Human Pulmonary Microvascular Endothelial Activation And Barrier Dysfunction, Ruben Manuel Luciano Colunga Biancatelli, Pavel Solopov, Betsy W. Gregory, Yara Khodour, John D. Catravas

Bioelectrics Publications

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused more than 5 million deaths worldwide. Multiple reports indicate that the endothelium is involved during SARS-Cov-2-related disease (COVID-19). Indeed, COVID-19 patients display increased thrombophilia with arterial and venous embolism and lung microcapillary thrombotic disease as major determinants of deaths. The pathophysiology of endothelial dysfunction in COVID-19 is not completely understood. We have investigated the role of subunit 1 of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (S1SP) in eliciting endothelial barrier dysfunction, characterized dose and time relationships, and tested the hypothesis that heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) inhibitors would prevent and repair such injury. S1SP ...


Natural Phaeosphaeride A Derivatives Overcome Drug Resistance Of Tumor Cells And Modulate Signaling Pathways, Victoria Abzianidze, Natalia Moiseeva, Diana Suponina, Sofya Zakharenkova, Nadezhda Rogovskaya, Lidia Laletina, Alvin A. Holder, Denis Krivorotov, Alexander Bogachenkov, Alexander Garabadzhiu, Anton Ukolov, Vyacheslav Kosorukov Mar 2022

Natural Phaeosphaeride A Derivatives Overcome Drug Resistance Of Tumor Cells And Modulate Signaling Pathways, Victoria Abzianidze, Natalia Moiseeva, Diana Suponina, Sofya Zakharenkova, Nadezhda Rogovskaya, Lidia Laletina, Alvin A. Holder, Denis Krivorotov, Alexander Bogachenkov, Alexander Garabadzhiu, Anton Ukolov, Vyacheslav Kosorukov

Chemistry & Biochemistry Faculty Publications

n the present study, natural phaeosphaeride A (PPA) derivatives are synthesized. Anti-tumor studies are carried out on the PC3, K562, HCT-116, THP-1, MCF-7, A549, NCI-H929, Jurkat, and RPMI8226 tumor cell lines, and on the human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cell line. All the compounds synthesized turned out to have better efficacy than PPA towards the tumor cell lines listed. Among them, three compounds exhibited an ability to overcome the drug resistance of tumor cells associated with the overexpression of the P-glycoprotein by modulating the work of this transporter. Luminex xMAP technology was used to assess the effect of five synthesized compounds ...


Habitat Restoration Restores Underwater Soundscapes And Larval Recruitment, Jack Butler, Emily R. Anderson, Mark J. Butler Mar 2022

Habitat Restoration Restores Underwater Soundscapes And Larval Recruitment, Jack Butler, Emily R. Anderson, Mark J. Butler

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Habitat degradation alters many ecosystem processes, and the potential for the reestablishment of ecosystem function through restoration is an area of active research. Among marine systems, coastal habitats are particularly vulnerable to anthropogenic degradation and, in response, are the focus of marine ecological restoration. One of the crucial functions of structurally complex coastal habitats (e.g., saltmarshes, seagrass meadows, kelp forests, coral reefs) are as nurseries to coastal and offshore species, many of whose larvae utilize sound to locate suitable nursery habitat. However, the effect of habitat degradation and subsequent restoration on underwater soundscapes and their function as navigational cues ...


The Impact Of Muscular Strength On Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors, Joel E. Harden, Leryn J. Reynolds, Patrick B. Wilson, Gena R. Gerstner Jan 2022

The Impact Of Muscular Strength On Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors, Joel E. Harden, Leryn J. Reynolds, Patrick B. Wilson, Gena R. Gerstner

College of Education & Professional Studies (Darden) Posters

The purpose of this study was to determine the associations between isokinetic leg muscular strength and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor characterizations in Americans aged 50 and older. Using a publicly available dataset from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), a secondary analysis was conducted on participants (males ≥50 yrs; females ≥55 yrs; N=10,858) pooled from 1999 to 2002. CVD risk factors were determined using the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) cutoff values. CVD risk factor characterization was determined by creating CVD risk factor profiles (i.e., the total number of CVD risk factors an ...


Exercise Interventions For Relieving Anxiety Symptoms For People With Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Systematic Review, Kathryn Riis Jan 2022

Exercise Interventions For Relieving Anxiety Symptoms For People With Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Systematic Review, Kathryn Riis

College of Health Sciences Posters

Background: Clinical anxiety is a common comorbidity in people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The focus of interventional therapies tends to be activities which improve gross motor function, communication, social interactions, and other behavioral skills. Certain forms of exercise have been successful in lowering anxiety levels while improving physical function.

Objective: The purpose of this systematic review was to examine the effectiveness of the use of exercise as an intervention to reduce anxiety in people with ASD.

Methods: Two databases, PubMed and Medline, were searched utilizing key terms. This yielded 35 articles for review. PRISMA systematic search procedures identified 9 ...


3d Bioprinting And Implantation Of Mouse Mammary Epithelial Structures Using A Custom Accessible 3d Bioprinting Platform, Xavier-Lewis Palmer, Saad Jafri, Patrick C. Sachs, Robert D. Bruno Jan 2022

3d Bioprinting And Implantation Of Mouse Mammary Epithelial Structures Using A Custom Accessible 3d Bioprinting Platform, Xavier-Lewis Palmer, Saad Jafri, Patrick C. Sachs, Robert D. Bruno

College of Engineering & Technology (Batten) Posters

Prior work has shown that our bioprinting system can reliably produce human mammary organoids and tumoroids with high precision. However, this was not previously applied to mouse models, which are also important with respect to translational research in cancer drug development. To address this, we have produced protocols for the development of in vitro structures from murine mammary epithelial and tumor cells. Additionally, we assessed the translatability of both human and murine bioprinted organoids into mouse mammary fat pads over a period of 6 weeks. Our lab found that our produced organoids are reliable, they can survive in vivo, and ...


3d Bioprinted Structures From Cells Of Non-Epithelial Mesodermal And Endodermal Lineage Using A Custom Accessible 3d Bioprinting Platform, Xavier-Lewis Palmer, Annette Berkin, Patrick C. Sachs, Robert D. Bruno Jan 2022

3d Bioprinted Structures From Cells Of Non-Epithelial Mesodermal And Endodermal Lineage Using A Custom Accessible 3d Bioprinting Platform, Xavier-Lewis Palmer, Annette Berkin, Patrick C. Sachs, Robert D. Bruno

College of Engineering & Technology (Batten) Posters

Prior work within our lab has demonstrated the ability to print both murine and human mammary organoids and tumoroids in vitro that can also be reliably transplanted into a murine host for translational studies. Peripherally, this bioprinting system has also been used for 3D printing neurons, stem cells, cancer cells, and a primary cell line rich with fibroblasts, but each of these efforts were with cells of ectodermal lineage. Thus, the system's capacity for use on cells of other origins had been untested. To address this, we have now developed protocols for cells of endodermal and non-epithelial mesodermal/mesenchymal ...


Robust Meta-Analysis For Large-Scale Genomic Experiments Based On An Empirical Approach, Sinjini Sikdar Jan 2022

Robust Meta-Analysis For Large-Scale Genomic Experiments Based On An Empirical Approach, Sinjini Sikdar

Mathematics & Statistics Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: Recent high-throughput technologies have opened avenues for simultaneous analyses of thousands of genes. With the availability of a multitude of public databases, one can easily access multiple genomic study results where each study comprises of significance testing results of thousands of genes. Researchers currently tend to combine this genomic information from these multiple studies in the form of a meta-analysis. As the number of genes involved is very large, the classical meta-analysis approaches need to be updated to acknowledge this large-scale aspect of the data.

METHODS: In this article, we discuss how application of standard theoretical null distributional assumptions ...


Plasmonic-Based Biosensor For The Early Diagnosis Of Prostate Cancer, Thakshila Liyanage, Bayan Alharbi, Linh Quan, Aurora Esquela-Kerscher, Gymama Slaughter Jan 2022

Plasmonic-Based Biosensor For The Early Diagnosis Of Prostate Cancer, Thakshila Liyanage, Bayan Alharbi, Linh Quan, Aurora Esquela-Kerscher, Gymama Slaughter

Bioelectrics Publications

A tapered optical fiber (TOF) plasmonic biosensor was fabricated and used for the sensitive detection of a panel of microRNAs (miRNAs) in human serum obtained from noncancer and prostate cancer (PCa) patients. Oncogenic and tumor suppressor miRNAs let7a, let-7c, miR-200b, miR-141, and miR-21 were tested as predictive cancer biomarkers since multianalyte detection minimizes false-positive and false-negative rates and establishes a strong foundation for early PCa diagnosis. The biosensing platform integrates metallic gold triangular nanoprisms (AuTNPs) laminated on the TOF to excite surface plasmon waves in the supporting metallic layer and enhance the evanescent mode of the fiber surface. This sensitive ...


Drivers Of 20th Century Sea-Level Change In Southern New Zealand Determined From Proxy And Instrumental Records, Ed Garrett, W. Roland Gehrels, Bruce W. Hayward, Rewi Newnham, Maria J. Gehrels, Craig J. Morey, Sönke Dangendorf Jan 2022

Drivers Of 20th Century Sea-Level Change In Southern New Zealand Determined From Proxy And Instrumental Records, Ed Garrett, W. Roland Gehrels, Bruce W. Hayward, Rewi Newnham, Maria J. Gehrels, Craig J. Morey, Sönke Dangendorf

CCPO Publications

In this paper we present new proxy-based sea-level reconstructions for southern New Zealand spanning the last millennium. These palaeo sea-level records usefully complement sparse Southern Hemisphere proxy and tide-gauge sea-level datasets and, in combination with instrumental observations, can test hypotheses about the drivers of 20th century global sea-level change, including land-based ice melt and regional sterodynamics. We develop sea-level transfer functions from regional datasets of salt-marsh foraminifera to establish a new proxy-based sea-level record at Mokomoko Inlet, at the southern tip of the South Island, and to improve the previously published sea-level reconstruction at Pounawea, located about 110 km to ...


Electroporation And Cell Killing By Milli- To Nanosecond Pulses And Avoiding Neuromuscular Stimulation In Cancer Ablation, Emily Gudvangen, Vitalii Kim, Vitalij Novickij, Federico Battista, Andrei G. Pakhomov Jan 2022

Electroporation And Cell Killing By Milli- To Nanosecond Pulses And Avoiding Neuromuscular Stimulation In Cancer Ablation, Emily Gudvangen, Vitalii Kim, Vitalij Novickij, Federico Battista, Andrei G. Pakhomov

Bioelectrics Publications

Ablation therapies aim at eradication of tumors with minimal impact on surrounding healthy tissues. Conventional pulsed electric field (PEF) treatments cause pain and muscle contractions far beyond the ablation area. The ongoing quest is to identify PEF parameters efficient at ablation but not at stimulation. We measured electroporation and cell killing thresholds for 150 ns–1 ms PEF, uni- and bipolar, delivered in 10- to 300-pulse trains at up to 1 MHz rates. Monolayers of murine colon carcinoma cells exposed to PEF were stained with YO-PRO-1 dye to detect electroporation. In 2–4 h, dead cells were labeled with propidium ...


Pulmonary Capillary Recruitment And Distention In Mammalian Lungs: Species Similarities, David Langleben, Benjamin D. Fox, Stylianos E. Orfanos, Michele Giovinazzo, John D. Catravas Jan 2022

Pulmonary Capillary Recruitment And Distention In Mammalian Lungs: Species Similarities, David Langleben, Benjamin D. Fox, Stylianos E. Orfanos, Michele Giovinazzo, John D. Catravas

Bioelectrics Publications

Pulmonary arterial pressure rises minimally during exercise. The pulmonary microcirculation accommodates increasing blood flow via recruitment of pulmonary capillaries and, at higher flows, by distention of already perfused capillaries. The flow transition range between recruitment and distention has not been studied or compared across mammalian species, including humans. We hypothesised that the range would be similar. Functional pulmonary capillary surface area (FCSA) can be estimated using validated metabolic techniques. We reviewed data from previous studies in three mammalian species (perfused rabbit lungs and dog lung lobes, and exercising humans) and generated blood flow-FCSA curves over a range of flows. We ...


Bone Morphogenetic Proteins Shape TReg Cells, Piotr Kraj Jan 2022

Bone Morphogenetic Proteins Shape TReg Cells, Piotr Kraj

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

The transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) family includes cytokines controlling cell behavior, differentiation and homeostasis of various tissues including components of the immune system. Despite well recognized importance of TGF-β in controlling T cell functions, the immunomodulatory roles of many other members of the TGF-β cytokine family, especially bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), start to emerge. Bone Morphogenic Protein Receptor 1α (BMPR1α) is upregulated by activated effector and Foxp3+ regulatory CD4+ T cells (Treg cells) and modulates functions of both of these cell types. BMPR1α inhibits generation of proinflammatory Th17 cells and sustains peripheral Treg cells. This finding underscores the importance of ...


Nutrient Improvements In Chesapeake Bay: Direct Effect Of Load Reductions And Implications For Coastal Management, Rebecca R. Murphy, Jennifer Keisman, Jon Harcum, Renee R. Karrh, Mike Lane, Elgin S. Perry, Qian Zhang Jan 2022

Nutrient Improvements In Chesapeake Bay: Direct Effect Of Load Reductions And Implications For Coastal Management, Rebecca R. Murphy, Jennifer Keisman, Jon Harcum, Renee R. Karrh, Mike Lane, Elgin S. Perry, Qian Zhang

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

In Chesapeake Bay in the United States, decades of management efforts have resulted in modest reductions of nutrient loads from the watershed, but the corresponding improvements in estuarine water quality have not consistently followed. Generalized additive models were used to directly link river flows and nutrient loads from the watershed to nutrient trends in the estuary on a station-by-station basis, which allowed for identification of exactly when and where responses are happening. Results show that Chesapeake Bay’s total nitrogen and total phosphorus conditions are mostly improving after accounting for variation in freshwater flow. Almost all of these improving nutrient ...


Investigating Public Support For Biosecurity Measures To Mitigate Pathogen Transmission Through The Herpetological Trade, Elizabeth F. Pienaar, Diane J. Episcopio-Sturgeon, Zachary T. Steele Jan 2022

Investigating Public Support For Biosecurity Measures To Mitigate Pathogen Transmission Through The Herpetological Trade, Elizabeth F. Pienaar, Diane J. Episcopio-Sturgeon, Zachary T. Steele

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

The expanding global trade in herpetofauna has contributed to new infectious disease dynamics and pathways that allow for the rapid spread of pathogens geographically. Improved biosecurity is needed to mitigate adverse biodiversity, economic and human health impacts associated with pathogen transmission through the herpetological trade. However, general lack of knowledge of the pathogen transmission risks associated with the global trade in herpetofauna and public opposition to biosecurity measures are critical obstacles to successfully preventing pathogen transmission. In 2019 we administered a survey to 2,007 members of the public in the United States of America to ascertain their support for ...


A Trait‐Based Framework For Assessing The Vulnerability Of Marine Species To Human Impacts, Nathalie Butt, Benjamin S. Halpern, Casey S. O'Hara, A. Louise Allcock, Beth Polidoro, Samantha Sherman, Maria Byrne, Charles Birkeland, Ross G. Dwyer, Melanie Frazier, Bradley K. Woodworth, Claudia P. Arango, Michael J. Kingsford, Vinay Udyawer, Pat Hutchings, Elliot Scanes, Emily Jane Mcclaren, Sara M. Maxwell, Guillermo Diaz-Pulido, Emma Dugan, Blake Alexander Simmons, Amelia S. Wenger, Christi Linardich, Carissa J. Klein Jan 2022

A Trait‐Based Framework For Assessing The Vulnerability Of Marine Species To Human Impacts, Nathalie Butt, Benjamin S. Halpern, Casey S. O'Hara, A. Louise Allcock, Beth Polidoro, Samantha Sherman, Maria Byrne, Charles Birkeland, Ross G. Dwyer, Melanie Frazier, Bradley K. Woodworth, Claudia P. Arango, Michael J. Kingsford, Vinay Udyawer, Pat Hutchings, Elliot Scanes, Emily Jane Mcclaren, Sara M. Maxwell, Guillermo Diaz-Pulido, Emma Dugan, Blake Alexander Simmons, Amelia S. Wenger, Christi Linardich, Carissa J. Klein

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Marine species and ecosystems are widely affected by anthropogenic stressors, ranging from pollution and fishing to climate change. Comprehensive assessments of how species and ecosystems are impacted by anthropogenic stressors are critical for guiding conservation and management investments. Previous global risk or vulnerability assessments have focused on marine habitats, or on limited taxa or specific regions. However, information about the susceptibility of marine species across a range of taxa to different stressors everywhere is required to predict how marine biodiversity will respond to human pressures. We present a novel framework that uses life-history traits to assess species’ vulnerability to a ...


Geomorphic Gradients In Shallow Seagrass Carbon Stocks, Jahson Berhane Alemu, Siti Maryam Yaakub, Erik S. Yando, Rachel Yu San Lau, Cheng Chang Lim, Jun Yu Puah, Daniel A. Friess Jan 2022

Geomorphic Gradients In Shallow Seagrass Carbon Stocks, Jahson Berhane Alemu, Siti Maryam Yaakub, Erik S. Yando, Rachel Yu San Lau, Cheng Chang Lim, Jun Yu Puah, Daniel A. Friess

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Seagrass meadows are important sinks of organic carbon (Corg), in particular the near-surface Corg pool (≤ 15 cm) compared to deeper sediments. Near-surface carbon is highly susceptible to disturbance and loss to the atmosphere, however, inadequate accounting for variability in this pool of carbon limits their uptake into carbon accounting frameworks. We therefore investigated the spatial variability in seagrass near-surface Corg and biomass Corg across different geomorphic (estuary, lagoonal and reef-associated) and community typologies (pioneer and persistent). Near-surface Corg stock in vegetated areas (25.78 Mg Corg ha−1 ± 26.64) was twice that from ...


Assessment Of Temperature Optimum Signatures Of Corals At Both Latitudinal Extremes Of The Red Sea, Guilhem Banc-Prandi, Nicolas R. Evensen, Daniel J. Barshis, Gabriela Perna, Youssouf Moussa Omar, Maoz Fine Jan 2022

Assessment Of Temperature Optimum Signatures Of Corals At Both Latitudinal Extremes Of The Red Sea, Guilhem Banc-Prandi, Nicolas R. Evensen, Daniel J. Barshis, Gabriela Perna, Youssouf Moussa Omar, Maoz Fine

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Rising ocean temperatures are pushing reef-building corals beyond their temperature optima (Topt), resulting in reduced physiological performances and increased risk of bleaching. Identifying refugia with thermally resistant corals and understanding their thermal adaptation strategy is therefore urgent to guide conservation actions. The Gulf of Aqaba (GoA, northern Red Sea) is considered a climate refuge, hosting corals that may originate from populations selected for thermal resistance in the warmer waters of the Gulf of Tadjoura (GoT, entrance to the Red Sea and 2000 km south of the GoA). To better understand the thermal adaptation strategy of GoA corals, we compared ...


Editorial: Tick Saliva: Secret To Blood Feeding Success, Daniel E. Sonenshine, Patricia A. Nuttall, Sukanya Narasimhan Jan 2022

Editorial: Tick Saliva: Secret To Blood Feeding Success, Daniel E. Sonenshine, Patricia A. Nuttall, Sukanya Narasimhan

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Empirically Derived Thermal Thresholds Of Four Coral Species Along The Red Sea Using A Portable And Standardized Experimental Approach, Nicolas R. Evensen, Christian R. Voolstra, Maoz Fine, Gabriela Perna, Carol Buitrago-López, Anny Cárdenas, Guilhem Banc-Prandi, Katherine Rowe, Daniel J. Barshis Jan 2022

Empirically Derived Thermal Thresholds Of Four Coral Species Along The Red Sea Using A Portable And Standardized Experimental Approach, Nicolas R. Evensen, Christian R. Voolstra, Maoz Fine, Gabriela Perna, Carol Buitrago-López, Anny Cárdenas, Guilhem Banc-Prandi, Katherine Rowe, Daniel J. Barshis

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Global warming is causing an unprecedented loss of species and habitats worldwide. This is particularly apparent for tropical coral reefs, with an increasing number of reefs experiencing mass bleaching and mortality on an annual basis. As such, there is a growing need for a standardized experimental approach to rapidly assess the thermal limits of corals and predict the survival of coral species across reefs and regions. Using a portable experimental system, the Coral Bleaching Automated Stress System (CBASS), we conducted standardized 18 h acute thermal stress assays to quantitively determine the upper thermal limits of four coral species across the ...


Rickettsial Pathogen Perturbs Tick Circadian Gene To Infect The Vertebrate Host, Supreet Khanal, Vikas Taank, John F. Anderson, Hameeda Sultana, Girish Neelakanta Jan 2022

Rickettsial Pathogen Perturbs Tick Circadian Gene To Infect The Vertebrate Host, Supreet Khanal, Vikas Taank, John F. Anderson, Hameeda Sultana, Girish Neelakanta

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Ixodes scapularis is a medically important tick that transmits several microbes to humans, including rickettsial pathogen Anaplasma phagocytophilum. In nature, these ticks encounter several abiotic factors including changes in temperature, humidity, and light. Many organisms use endogenously generated circadian pathways to encounter abiotic factors. In this study, we provide evidence for the first time to show that A. phagocytophilum modulates the arthropod circadian gene for its transmission to the vertebrate host. We noted a circadian oscillation in the expression of arthropod clock, bmal1, period and timeless genes when ticks or tick cells were exposed to alternate 12 h light: 12 ...


Monitoring Extinction Risk And Threats Of The World's Fishes Based On The Sampled Red List Index, Rafael Miranda, Imanol Miqueleiz, William Darwall, Catherine Sayer, Nicholas K. Dulvy, Kent E. Carpenter, Beth Polidoro, Nadia Dewhurst-Richman, Caroline Pollock, Craig Hilton-Taylor, Robin Freeman, Ben Collen, Monika Böhm Jan 2022

Monitoring Extinction Risk And Threats Of The World's Fishes Based On The Sampled Red List Index, Rafael Miranda, Imanol Miqueleiz, William Darwall, Catherine Sayer, Nicholas K. Dulvy, Kent E. Carpenter, Beth Polidoro, Nadia Dewhurst-Richman, Caroline Pollock, Craig Hilton-Taylor, Robin Freeman, Ben Collen, Monika Böhm

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Global biodiversitytargets require us to identify species at risk of extinction and quantify status and trends of biodiversity. The Red List Index (RLI) tracks trends in the conservation status of entire species groups over time by monitoring changes in categories assigned to species. Here, we calculate this index for the world’s fishes in 2010, using a sampled approach to the RLI based on a randomly selected sample of 1,500 species, and also present RLI splits for freshwater and marine systems separately. We further compare specific traits of a worldwide fish list to our sample to assess its representativeness ...


Reduction Of Plasmid Vector Backbone Length Enhances Reporter Gene Expression, Carly Boye, Sezgi Arpag, Michael Francis, Scott Declemente, Aislin West, Richard Heller, Anna Bulysheva Jan 2022

Reduction Of Plasmid Vector Backbone Length Enhances Reporter Gene Expression, Carly Boye, Sezgi Arpag, Michael Francis, Scott Declemente, Aislin West, Richard Heller, Anna Bulysheva

Electrical & Computer Engineering Faculty Publications

Gene therapy has a wide range of applications for various types of pathologies. Viral methods of gene delivery provide high levels of gene expression but have various safety concerns. Non-viral methods are largely known to provide lower levels of expression. We aim to address this issue by using plasmid DNA with smaller backbones to increase gene expression levels when delivered using non-viral methods. In this study we compare gene expression levels between two vectors with firefly luciferase encoding gene insert using liposome complexes and gene electrotransfer as delivery methods. A 2-fold reduction in plasmid vector backbone size, disproportionately enhanced gene ...


Using Skeleton Correction To Improve Flash Lidar-Based Gait Recognition, Nasrin Sadeghzadehyazdi, Tamal Batabyal, Alexander Glandon, Nibir Dhar, Babajide Familoni, Khan Iftekharuddin, Scott T. Acton Jan 2022

Using Skeleton Correction To Improve Flash Lidar-Based Gait Recognition, Nasrin Sadeghzadehyazdi, Tamal Batabyal, Alexander Glandon, Nibir Dhar, Babajide Familoni, Khan Iftekharuddin, Scott T. Acton

Electrical & Computer Engineering Faculty Publications

This paper presents GlidarPoly, an efficacious pipeline of 3D gait recognition for flash lidar data based on pose estimation and robust correction of erroneous and missing joint measurements. A flash lidar can provide new opportunities for gait recognition through a fast acquisition of depth and intensity data over an extended range of distance. However, the flash lidar data are plagued by artifacts, outliers, noise, and sometimes missing measurements, which negatively affects the performance of existing analytics solutions. We present a filtering mechanism that corrects noisy and missing skeleton joint measurements to improve gait recognition. Furthermore, robust statistics are integrated with ...


In Vivo Metabolic Analysis Of The Anticancer Effects Of Plasma-Activated Saline In Three Tumor Animal Models, Miao Qi, Dehui Xu, Shuai Wang, Bing Li, Sansan Peng, Qiaosong Li, Hao Zhang, Runze Fan, Hai-Lan Chen, Michael G. Kong Jan 2022

In Vivo Metabolic Analysis Of The Anticancer Effects Of Plasma-Activated Saline In Three Tumor Animal Models, Miao Qi, Dehui Xu, Shuai Wang, Bing Li, Sansan Peng, Qiaosong Li, Hao Zhang, Runze Fan, Hai-Lan Chen, Michael G. Kong

Bioelectrics Publications

In recent years, the emerging technology of cold atmospheric pressure plasma (CAP) has grown rapidly along with the many medical applications of cold plasma (e.g., cancer, skin disease, tissue repair, etc.). Plasma-activated liquids (e.g., culture media, water, or normal saline, previously exposed to plasma) are being studied as cancer treatments, and due to their advantages, many researchers prefer plasma-activated liquids as an alternative to CAP in the treatment of cancer. In this study, we showed that plasma-activated-saline (PAS) treatment significantly inhibited tumor growth, as compared with saline, in melanoma, and a low-pH environment had little effect on tumor ...