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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Mechanisms And Immunogenicity Of Nspef-Induced Cell Death In B16f10 Melanoma Tumors, Alessandra Rossi, Olga N. Pakhomova, Andrei G. Pakhomov, Samantha Weygandt, Anna A. Bulysheva, Len E. Murray, Peter A. Mollica, Claudia Muratori Jan 2019

Mechanisms And Immunogenicity Of Nspef-Induced Cell Death In B16f10 Melanoma Tumors, Alessandra Rossi, Olga N. Pakhomova, Andrei G. Pakhomov, Samantha Weygandt, Anna A. Bulysheva, Len E. Murray, Peter A. Mollica, Claudia Muratori

Bioelectrics Publications

Accumulating data indicates that some cancer treatments can restore anticancer immunosurveillance through the induction of tumor immunogenic cell death (ICD). Nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEF) have been shown to efficiently ablate melanoma tumors. In this study we investigated the mechanisms and immunogenicity of nsPEF-induced cell death in B16F10 melanoma tumors. Our data show that in vitro nsPEF (20-200, 200-ns pulses, 7 kV/cm, 2 Hz) caused a rapid dose-dependent cell death which was not accompanied by caspase activation or PARP cleavage. The lack of nsPEF-induced apoptosis was confirmed in vivo in B16F10 tumors. NsPEF also failed to trigger ICD-linked responses ...


Along-Shelf Connectivity And Circumpolar Gene Flow In Antarctic Silverfish (Pleuragramma Antarctica), Jilda Alicia Caccavo, Chiara Papetti, Maj Wetjen, Rainer Knust, Julian R. Ashford, Lorenzo Zane Dec 2018

Along-Shelf Connectivity And Circumpolar Gene Flow In Antarctic Silverfish (Pleuragramma Antarctica), Jilda Alicia Caccavo, Chiara Papetti, Maj Wetjen, Rainer Knust, Julian R. Ashford, Lorenzo Zane

OEAS Faculty Publications

The Antarctic silverfish (Pleuragramma antarctica) is a critically important forage species with a circumpolar distribution and is unique among other notothenioid species for its wholly pelagic life cycle. Previous studies have provided mixed evidence of population structure over regional and circumpolar scales. The aim of the present study was to test the recent population hypothesis for Antarctic silverfish, which emphasizes the interplay between life history and hydrography in shaping connectivity. A total of 1067 individuals were collected over 25 years from different locations on a circumpolar scale. Samples were genotyped at fifteen microsatellites to assess population differentiation and genetic structuring ...


Investigation Of Electrolytic Flocculation For Microalga Scenedesmus Sp Using Aluminum And Graphite Electrodes, Shihong Liu, Husam A. Abu Hajar, Guy Riefler, Ben J. Stuart Dec 2018

Investigation Of Electrolytic Flocculation For Microalga Scenedesmus Sp Using Aluminum And Graphite Electrodes, Shihong Liu, Husam A. Abu Hajar, Guy Riefler, Ben J. Stuart

Civil & Environmental Engineering Faculty Publications

Electrolytic flocculation using non-sacrificial electrodes with flocculants added was studied on harvesting Scenedesmus sp. In order to optimize the operating conditions of the electrolytic flocculation process and to quantify the amount of flocculants added, aluminum electrodes were first used in the process. It was found that under optimal conditions, the microalgae removal efficiency using aluminum electrodes could reach 98.5%, while 34.2 mg L-1 of aluminum ions were released during the process. Different metal electrodes were also studied, but high microalgae removal efficiency was witnessed only using aluminum electrodes, indicating the influence of the aluminum ion in flocculation ...


Lipid Extraction From Spirulina Sp. And Schizochytrium Sp. Using Supercritical Co2 With Methanol, Shihong Liu, Husam A. Abu Hajar, Guy Riefler, Ben J. Stuart Dec 2018

Lipid Extraction From Spirulina Sp. And Schizochytrium Sp. Using Supercritical Co2 With Methanol, Shihong Liu, Husam A. Abu Hajar, Guy Riefler, Ben J. Stuart

Civil & Environmental Engineering Faculty Publications

Microalgae are one of the most promising feedstocks for biodiesel production due to their high lipid content and easy farming. However, the extraction of lipids from microalgae is energy intensive and costly and involves the use of toxic organic solvents. Compared with organic solvent extraction, supercritical CO2 (SCCO2) has demonstrated advantages through lower toxicity and no solvent-liquid separation. Due to the nonpolar nature of SCCO2, polar organic solvents such as methanol may need to be added as a modifier in order to increase the extraction ability of SCCO2. In this paper, pilot scale lipid extraction using ...


Il-12 Gene Electrotransfer Triggers A Change In Immune Response Within Mouse Tumors, Guilan Shi, Chelsea Edelblute, Sezgi Arpag, Cathryn Lundberg, Richard Heller Dec 2018

Il-12 Gene Electrotransfer Triggers A Change In Immune Response Within Mouse Tumors, Guilan Shi, Chelsea Edelblute, Sezgi Arpag, Cathryn Lundberg, Richard Heller

Bioelectrics Publications

Metastatic melanoma is an aggressive skin cancer with a relatively low survival rate. Immune-based therapies have shown promise in the treatment of melanoma, but overall complete response rates are still low. Previous studies have demonstrated the potential of plasmid IL-12 (pIL-12) delivered by gene electrotransfer (GET) to be an effective immunotherapy for melanoma. However, events occurring in the tumor microenvironment following delivery have not been delineated. Therefore, utilizing a B16F10 mouse melanoma model, we evaluated changes in the tumor microenvironment following delivery of pIL-12 using different GET parameters or injection of plasmid alone. The results revealed a unique immune cell ...


Ph-Induced Folding Of The Caspase-Cleaved Par-4 Tumor Suppressor: Evidence Of Structure Outside Of The Coiled Coil Domain, Andrea M. Clark, Komala Ponniah, Meghan S. Warden, Emily M. Raitt, Andrea C. Yawn, Stephen M. Pascal Dec 2018

Ph-Induced Folding Of The Caspase-Cleaved Par-4 Tumor Suppressor: Evidence Of Structure Outside Of The Coiled Coil Domain, Andrea M. Clark, Komala Ponniah, Meghan S. Warden, Emily M. Raitt, Andrea C. Yawn, Stephen M. Pascal

Chemistry & Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Prostate apoptosis response-4 (Par-4) is a 38 kDa largely intrinsically disordered tumor suppressor protein that functions in cancer cell apoptosis. Par-4 down-regulation is often observed in cancer while up-regulation is characteristic of neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer’s disease. Cleavage of Par-4 by caspase-3 activates tumor suppression via formation of an approximately 25 kDa fragment (cl-Par-4) that enters the nucleus and inhibits Bcl-2 and NF-ƙB, which function in pro-survival pathways. Here, we have investigated the structure of cl-Par-4 using biophysical techniques including circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS), and intrinsic tyrosine fluorescence. The results demonstrate pH-dependent folding of ...


Carnivorous Pitcher Plants Eat A Diet Of Certain Spiders, Regardless Of What's On The Menu, Marc A. Milne, Deborah A. Waller Nov 2018

Carnivorous Pitcher Plants Eat A Diet Of Certain Spiders, Regardless Of What's On The Menu, Marc A. Milne, Deborah A. Waller

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

The purple pitcher plant, Sarracenia purpurea, is a low-lying carnivorous plant that uses pitcher-shaped leaves to catch arthropod prey for nutrition. Spiders make up a significant portion of these prey. To determine the tendency of specific spider taxa to be captured by the plant, we compared the composition (by taxonomic family) of three spider assemblages: those captured by the plant, those residing on or over the plant, and those found nearby in the local environment. Although there were some broad similarities within the three spider assemblages, significant differences existed when specific families and guilds were considered. While some families (e ...


Troubled Waters: Threats And Extinction Risk Of The Sharks, Rays And Chimaeras Of The Arabian Sea And Adjacent Waters, Rima W. Jabado, Peter M. Kyne, Riley A. Pollom, David A. Ebert, Colin A. Simpfendorfer, Gina M. Ralph, Shakha S. Al Dhaheri, K. V. Akhilesh, Khadeeja Ali, Mohamud Hassan Ali Nov 2018

Troubled Waters: Threats And Extinction Risk Of The Sharks, Rays And Chimaeras Of The Arabian Sea And Adjacent Waters, Rima W. Jabado, Peter M. Kyne, Riley A. Pollom, David A. Ebert, Colin A. Simpfendorfer, Gina M. Ralph, Shakha S. Al Dhaheri, K. V. Akhilesh, Khadeeja Ali, Mohamud Hassan Ali

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

The extinction risk of sharks, rays and chimaeras is higher than that for most other vertebrates due to low intrinsic population growth rates of many species and the fishing intensity they face. The Arabian Sea and adjacent waters border some of the most important chondrichthyan fishing and trading nations globally, yet there has been no previous attempt to assess the conservation status of species occurring here. Using IUCN Red List of Threatened Species Categories and Criteria and their guidelines for application at the regional level, we present the first assessment of extinction risk for 153 species of sharks, rays and ...


Characterization Of Tick Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptides (Oatps) Upon Bacterial And Viral Infections, Vikas Taank, Wenshou Zhou, Xuran Zhuang, John F. Anderson, Utpal Pal, Hameeda Sultana, Girish Neelakanta Nov 2018

Characterization Of Tick Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptides (Oatps) Upon Bacterial And Viral Infections, Vikas Taank, Wenshou Zhou, Xuran Zhuang, John F. Anderson, Utpal Pal, Hameeda Sultana, Girish Neelakanta

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Background: Ixodes scapularis organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs) play important roles in tickrickettsial pathogen interactions. In this report, we characterized the role of these conserved molecules in ticks infected with either Lyme disease agent Borrelia burgdorferi or tick-borne Langat virus (LGTV), a pathogen closely related to tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV).

Results: Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed no significant changes in oatps gene expression upon infection with B. burgdorferi in unfed ticks. Synchronous infection of unfed nymphal ticks with LGTV in vitro revealed no significant changes in oatps gene expression. However, expression of specific oatps was significantly downregulated upon ...


Emerging Roles Of The Membrane Potential: Action Beyond The Action Potential, Lina Abdul Kadir, Michael Stacey, Richard Barrett-Jolley Nov 2018

Emerging Roles Of The Membrane Potential: Action Beyond The Action Potential, Lina Abdul Kadir, Michael Stacey, Richard Barrett-Jolley

Bioelectrics Publications

Whilst the phenomenon of an electrical resting membrane potential (RMP) is a central tenet of biology, it is nearly always discussed as a phenomenon that facilitates the propagation of action potentials in excitable tissue, muscle, and nerve. However, as ion channel research shifts beyond these tissues, it became clear that the RMP is a feature of virtually all cells studied. The RMP is maintained by the cell's compliment of ion channels. Transcriptome sequencing is increasingly revealing that equally rich compliments of ion channels exist in both excitable and non-excitable tissue. In this review, we discuss a range of critical ...


Synthesis And Biological Evaluation Of Phaeosphaeride A Derivatives As Antitumor Agents, Victoria Abzianidze, Petr Beltyukov, Sofya Zakharenkova, Natalia Moiseeva, Jennifer Mejia, Alvin Holder, Yuri Trishin, Alexander Berestetskiy, Victor Kuznetsov Nov 2018

Synthesis And Biological Evaluation Of Phaeosphaeride A Derivatives As Antitumor Agents, Victoria Abzianidze, Petr Beltyukov, Sofya Zakharenkova, Natalia Moiseeva, Jennifer Mejia, Alvin Holder, Yuri Trishin, Alexander Berestetskiy, Victor Kuznetsov

Chemistry & Biochemistry Faculty Publications

New derivatives of phaeosphaeride A (PPA) were synthesized and characterized. Anti-tumor activity studies were carried out on the HCT-116, PC3, MCF-7, A549, К562, NCI-Н929, Jurkat, THP-1, RPMI8228 tumor cell lines, and on the HEF cell line. All of the compounds synthesized were found to have better efficacy than PPA towards the tumor cell lines mentioned. Compound 6 was potent against six cancer cell lines, HCT-116, PC-3, K562, NCI-H929, Jurkat, and RPMI8226, showing a 47, 13.5, 16, 4, 1.5, and 7-fold increase in anticancer activity comparative to those of etoposide, respectively. Compound 1 possessed selectivity toward the NCI-H929 cell ...


Consistent And Reproducible Cultures Of Large-Scale 3d Mammary Epithelial Structures Using An Accessible Bioprinting Platform, John A. Reid, Peter M. Mollica, Robert D. Bruno, Patrick C. Sachs Oct 2018

Consistent And Reproducible Cultures Of Large-Scale 3d Mammary Epithelial Structures Using An Accessible Bioprinting Platform, John A. Reid, Peter M. Mollica, Robert D. Bruno, Patrick C. Sachs

Medical Diagnostics & Translational Sciences Faculty Publications

Background: Standard three-dimensional (3D) in vitro culture techniques, such as those used for mammary epithelial cells, rely on random distribution of cells within hydrogels. Although these systems offer advantages over traditional 2D models, limitations persist owing to the lack of control over cellular placement within the hydrogel. This results in experimental inconsistencies and random organoid morphology. Robust, high-throughput experimentation requires greater standardization of 3D epithelial culture techniques.

Methods: Here, we detail the use of a 3D bioprinting platform as an investigative tool to control the 3D formation of organoids through the "self-assembly" of human mammary epithelial cells. Experimental bioprinting procedures ...


Genetic Patterns In Peripheral Marine Populations Of The Fusilier Fish Caesio Cuning Within The Kuroshio Current, Amanda S. Ackiss, Christopher E. Bird, Yuichi Akita, Mudjekeewis D. Santos, Katsunori Tachihara, Kent E. Carpenter Sep 2018

Genetic Patterns In Peripheral Marine Populations Of The Fusilier Fish Caesio Cuning Within The Kuroshio Current, Amanda S. Ackiss, Christopher E. Bird, Yuichi Akita, Mudjekeewis D. Santos, Katsunori Tachihara, Kent E. Carpenter

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Aim: Mayr’s central‐peripheral population model (CCPM) describes the marked differences between central and peripheral populations in genetic diversity, gene flow, and census size. When isolation leads to genetic divergence, these peripheral populations have high evolutionary value and can influence biogeographic patterns. In tropical marine species with pelagic larvae, powerful western‐boundary currents have great potential to shape the genetic characteristics of peripheral populations at latitudinal extremes. We tested for the genetic patterns expected by the CCPM in peripheral populations that are located within the Kuroshio Current for the Indo‐Pacific reef fish, Caesio cuning.

Methods: We used a ...


Macrophages But Not Astrocytes Harbor Hiv Dna In The Brains Of Hiv-1-Infected Aviremic Individuals On Suppressive Antiretroviral Therapy, Allen Ko, Guobin Kang, Julian B. Hattler, Hadiza I. Galadima, Junfeng Zhang, Qingsheng Li, Woong-Ki Kim Sep 2018

Macrophages But Not Astrocytes Harbor Hiv Dna In The Brains Of Hiv-1-Infected Aviremic Individuals On Suppressive Antiretroviral Therapy, Allen Ko, Guobin Kang, Julian B. Hattler, Hadiza I. Galadima, Junfeng Zhang, Qingsheng Li, Woong-Ki Kim

Community & Environmental Health Faculty Publications

The question of whether the human brain is an anatomical site of persistent HIV-1 infection during suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART) is critical, but remains unanswered. The presence of virus in the brains of HIV patients whose viral load is effectively suppressed would demonstrate not only the potential for CNS to act as an anatomical HIV reservoir, but also the urgent need to understand the factors contributing to persistent HIV behind the blood-brain barrier. Here, we investigated for the first time the presence of cells harboring HIV DNA and RNA in the brains from subjects with undetectable plasma viral load and ...


Accurate Flexible Refinement Of Atomic Models Against Medium-Resolution Cryo-Em Maps Using Damped Dynamics, Julio A. Kovacs, Vitold E. Galkin, Willy Wriggers Sep 2018

Accurate Flexible Refinement Of Atomic Models Against Medium-Resolution Cryo-Em Maps Using Damped Dynamics, Julio A. Kovacs, Vitold E. Galkin, Willy Wriggers

Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering Faculty Publications

Background: Dramatic progress has recently been made in cryo-electron microscopy technologies, which now make possible the reconstruction of a growing number of biomolecular structures to near-atomic resolution. However, the need persists for fitting and refinement approaches that address those cases that require modeling assistance.

Methods: In this paper, we describe algorithms to optimize the performance of such medium-resolution refinement methods. These algorithms aim to automatically optimize the parameters that define the density shape of the flexibly fitted model, as well as the time-dependent damper cutoff distance. Atomic distance constraints can be prescribed for cases where extra containment of parts of ...


Dermal Mycobacteriosis And Warming Sea Surface Temperatures Are Associated With Elevated Mortality Of Striped Bass In Chesapeake Bay, Maya L. Groner, John M. Hoenig, Roger Pradel, Rémi Choquet, Wolfgang K. Vogelbein, David T. Gauthier, Marjorie A. M. Friedrichs Sep 2018

Dermal Mycobacteriosis And Warming Sea Surface Temperatures Are Associated With Elevated Mortality Of Striped Bass In Chesapeake Bay, Maya L. Groner, John M. Hoenig, Roger Pradel, Rémi Choquet, Wolfgang K. Vogelbein, David T. Gauthier, Marjorie A. M. Friedrichs

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Temperature is hypothesized to alter disease dynamics, particularly when species are living at or near their thermal limits. When disease occurs in marine systems, this can go undetected, particularly if the disease is chronic and progresses slowly. As a result, population-level impacts of diseases can be grossly underestimated. Complex migratory patterns, stochasticity in recruitment, and data and knowledge gaps can hinder collection and analysis of data on marine diseases. New tools enabling quantification of disease impacts in marine environments include coupled biogeochemical hydrodynamic models (to hindcast key environmental data), and multievent, multistate mark-recapture (MMSMR) (to quantify the effects of environmental ...


Voltage Effects On Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor-Mediated Contractions Of Airway Smooth Muscle, Iurii Semenov, Robert Brenner Sep 2018

Voltage Effects On Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor-Mediated Contractions Of Airway Smooth Muscle, Iurii Semenov, Robert Brenner

Bioelectrics Publications

Studies have shown that the activity of muscarinic receptors and their affinity to agonists are sensitive to membrane potential. It was reported that in airway smooth muscle (ASM) depolarization evoked by high K+ solution increases contractility through direct effects on M3 muscarinic receptors. In this study, we assessed the physiological relevance of voltage sensitivity of muscarinic receptors on ASM contractility. Our findings reveal that depolarization by high K+ solution induces contraction in intact mouse trachea predominantly through activation of acetylcholine release from embedded nerves, and to a lesser extent by direct effects on M3 receptors. We therefore devised a pharmacological ...


Moderate Heat Application Enhances The Efficacy Of Nanosecond Pulse Stimulation For The Treatment Of Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Chelsea M. Edelblute, Sigi Guo, Embo Yang, Chunqi Jiang, Karl Schoenbach, Richard Heller Sep 2018

Moderate Heat Application Enhances The Efficacy Of Nanosecond Pulse Stimulation For The Treatment Of Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Chelsea M. Edelblute, Sigi Guo, Embo Yang, Chunqi Jiang, Karl Schoenbach, Richard Heller

Bioelectrics Publications

Nanosecond pulse stimulation as a tumor ablation therapy has been studied for the treatment of various carcinomas in animal models and has shown a significant survival benefit. In the current study, we found that moderate heating at 43°C for 2 minutes significantly enhanced in vitro nanosecond pulse stimulation-induced cell death of KLN205 murine squamous cell carcinoma cells by 2.43-fold at 600 V and by 2.32-fold at 900 V, as evidenced by propidium iodide uptake. Furthermore, the ablation zone in KLN205 cells placed in a 3-dimensional cell-culture model and pulsed at a voltage of 900 V at 43 ...


Antimicrobial Efficacy And Safety Of A Novel Gas Plasma-Activated Catheter Lock Solution, Sudhir Bhatt, Poonam Mehta, Chen Chen, Dayle A. Daines, Leonard A. Mermel, Hai-Lan Chen, Michael G. Kong Aug 2018

Antimicrobial Efficacy And Safety Of A Novel Gas Plasma-Activated Catheter Lock Solution, Sudhir Bhatt, Poonam Mehta, Chen Chen, Dayle A. Daines, Leonard A. Mermel, Hai-Lan Chen, Michael G. Kong

Bioelectrics Publications

Antimicrobial lock solutions are important for prevention of microbial colonization and infection of long-term central venous catheters. We investigated the efficacy and safety of a novel antibiotic-free lock solution formed from gas plasma-activated disinfectant (PAD). Using a luminal biofilm model, viable cells of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans in mature biofilms were reduced by 6 to 8 orders of magnitude with a PAD lock for 60 min. Subsequent 24-h incubation of PAD-treated samples resulted in no detectable regrowth of viable bacteria or fungi. As a comparison, the use of a minocycline-EDTA-ethanol lock solution for 60 ...


Fisheries Bycatch Risk To Marine Megafauna Is Intensified In Lagrangian Coherent Structures, Kylie L. Scales, Elliot L. Hazen, Michael G. Jacox, Frederic Castruccio, Sara M. Maxwell, Rebecca L. Lewison, Steven J. Bograd Jul 2018

Fisheries Bycatch Risk To Marine Megafauna Is Intensified In Lagrangian Coherent Structures, Kylie L. Scales, Elliot L. Hazen, Michael G. Jacox, Frederic Castruccio, Sara M. Maxwell, Rebecca L. Lewison, Steven J. Bograd

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Incidental catch of nontarget species (bycatch) is a major barrier to ecological and economic sustainability in marine capture fisheries. Key to mitigating bycatch is an understanding of the habitat requirements of target and nontarget species and the influence of heterogeneity and variability in the dynamic marine environment. While patterns of overlap among marine capture fisheries and habitats of a taxonomically diverse range of marine vertebrates have been reported, a mechanistic understanding of the real-time physical drivers of bycatch events is lacking. Moving from describing patterns toward understanding processes, we apply a Lagrangian analysis to a high-resolution ocean model output to ...


Evaluation Of A Concept-Based Physical Education Unit For Energy Balance Education, Senlin Chen, Xihe Zhu, Jared Androzzi, Yoon Ho Nam Jul 2018

Evaluation Of A Concept-Based Physical Education Unit For Energy Balance Education, Senlin Chen, Xihe Zhu, Jared Androzzi, Yoon Ho Nam

Human Movement Sciences Faculty Publications

Background: Physical education (PE) is a key channel that impacts children’s decisions and behaviors for healthful living. This study evaluated the effects of a concept-based PE (CBPE) instructional unit, featured by energy balance (EB) education, on students’ knowledge learning, situational interest, cognitive, and physical engagements as well as teachers’ perceptions.

Methods: Fourth and 5th grade students (n = 468) in a mid-western state of the United States were recruited as the participants. Four elementary schools were randomized to the CBPE or control groups. Students’ EB knowledge, situational interest, cognitive engagement, and physical engagement were measured by a knowledge test, the ...


Arthropod Transcriptional Activator Protein-1 (Ap-1) Aids Tick-Rickettsial Pathogen Survival In The Cold, Supreet Khanal, Vikas Taank, John F. Anderson, Hameeda Sultana, Girish Neelakanta Jul 2018

Arthropod Transcriptional Activator Protein-1 (Ap-1) Aids Tick-Rickettsial Pathogen Survival In The Cold, Supreet Khanal, Vikas Taank, John F. Anderson, Hameeda Sultana, Girish Neelakanta

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Ixodes scapularis ticks transmit several pathogens to humans including rickettsial bacterium, Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Here, we report that A. phagocytophilum uses tick transcriptional activator protein-1 (AP-1) as a molecular switch in the regulation of arthropod antifreeze gene, iafgp. RNAi-mediated silencing of ap-1 expression significantly affected iafgp gene expression and A. phagocytophilum burden in ticks upon acquisition from the murine host. Gel shift assays provide evidence that both the bacterium and AP-1 influences iafgp promoter and expression. The luciferase assays revealed that a region of approximately 700 bp upstream of the antifreeze gene is sufficient for AP-1 binding to promote iafgp gene ...


Biotime: A Database Of Biodiversity Time Series For The Anthropocene, Maria Dornelas, Laura H. Antão, Faye Moyes, Amanda E. Bates, Anne E. Magurran, Dušan Adams, Asem A. Akhmetzhanova, Ward Appeltans, José Manuel Adam, Frank P. Day Jul 2018

Biotime: A Database Of Biodiversity Time Series For The Anthropocene, Maria Dornelas, Laura H. Antão, Faye Moyes, Amanda E. Bates, Anne E. Magurran, Dušan Adams, Asem A. Akhmetzhanova, Ward Appeltans, José Manuel Adam, Frank P. Day

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Motivation: The BioTIME database contains raw data on species identities and abundances in ecological assemblages through time. These data enable users to calculate temporal trends in biodiversity within and amongst assemblages using a broad range of metrics. BioTIME is being developed as a community-led open-source database of biodiversity time series. Our goal is to accelerate and facilitate quantitative analysis of temporal patterns of biodiversity in the Anthropocene.

Main types of variables included: The database contains 8,777,413 species abundance records, from assemblages consistently sampled for a minimum of 2 years, which need not necessarily be consecutive. In addition, the ...


Local Adaptation Signatures In Thermal Performance Of The Temperate Coral Astrangia Poculata, Hannah Elise Aichelman Jul 2018

Local Adaptation Signatures In Thermal Performance Of The Temperate Coral Astrangia Poculata, Hannah Elise Aichelman

Biological Sciences Theses & Dissertations

The Northern Star Coral (Astrangia poculata) is an understudied temperate scleractinian coral that provides unique opportunities to understand the roles of phenotypic plasticity and local adaptation in coral physiological tolerance limits. Astrangia poculata inhabits hard bottom ecosystems from the northwestern Atlantic to the Gulf of Mexico and withstands an annual temperature range up to 20°C. Additionally, A. poculata is facultatively symbiotic and co-occurs in both symbiotic (“brown”) and aposymbiotic (“white”) states. Here, brown and white A. poculata were collected from Virginia (VA) and Rhode Island (RI), USA and exposed to heat (18-32°C) and cold (18-6°C) temperature assays ...


Potential Interaction Analysis Of Offshore Wind Energy Areas And Breeding Avian Species On The Us Mid-Atlantic Coast, Jeri Lynn Wisman Jul 2018

Potential Interaction Analysis Of Offshore Wind Energy Areas And Breeding Avian Species On The Us Mid-Atlantic Coast, Jeri Lynn Wisman

Biological Sciences Theses & Dissertations

Due to increasing US interest in developing wind energy sites in offshore waters, we synthesized existing data on colonial breeding seabird populations with the potential risk of interacting with lease areas in the mid-Atlantic. Previous efforts by BOEM and NOAA have predicted avian density using at-sea survey data; we seek to complement this work by focusing specifically on birds during the critical and energetically demanding breeding life history stage. We combined colony size and location for each species along the mid-Atlantic coast with buffers around the colonies that correlate with the species’ foraging range. We integrated population size, vulnerability to ...


Advances In Amino Acid Analysis For Marine Related Matrices And Its Application To Coastal Shelf Settings In The Canadian Arctic, Rachel M. Mcmahon Jul 2018

Advances In Amino Acid Analysis For Marine Related Matrices And Its Application To Coastal Shelf Settings In The Canadian Arctic, Rachel M. Mcmahon

OEAS Theses and Dissertations

Amino acids comprise up to 50% of organic matter in cellular material and are a major fraction of oceanic organic carbon. Amino acids are also considered highly labile during organic matter recycling, making them useful proxies for organic carbon cycling. Nevertheless, analysis of individual amino acids has been burdened by lengthy derivatization and complex analysis since the 1950s. In this thesis, I describe the modification of advanced analytical techniques, developed in the biomedical field, for analysis of marine matrices which allow the determination of at least 40 amino acids without the need for lengthy sample preparation and derivatization, twice the ...


Self-Reported Oral Health Assessment And Attitudes Toward Oral Health For Adults With Cystic Fibrosis, Ahmed Ali Almuntashiri Jul 2018

Self-Reported Oral Health Assessment And Attitudes Toward Oral Health For Adults With Cystic Fibrosis, Ahmed Ali Almuntashiri

Dental Hygiene Theses & Dissertations

Purpose: Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a chronic genetic disorder that an individual has at birth. Cystic fibrosis impacts equally all races, gender and becomes worse over time. The aim of this current study was to evaluate oral health status, interaction with the oral health system, and oral health awareness in adults with cystic fibrosis. Methods: A validated survey consisting of 27 questions was distributed online through cystic fibrosis Facebook pages. Individuals with CF who were 18 years old or older, residing in the U.S. and having English as their primary language were asked to respond to the survey. Independent ...


Characterizing The Activity Of Antimicrobial Peptides Against The Pathogenic Bacterium Clostridium Difficile In An Anaerobic Environment, Adenrele Mojeed Oludiran Jul 2018

Characterizing The Activity Of Antimicrobial Peptides Against The Pathogenic Bacterium Clostridium Difficile In An Anaerobic Environment, Adenrele Mojeed Oludiran

Chemistry & Biochemistry Theses & Dissertations

Clostridium difficile is an anaerobic Gram-positive pathogen with high treatment costs and mortality and very high antibiotic tolerance. Antimicrobial host-defense peptides (HDPs) produced naturally by animal immune systems are promising candidates to develop novel therapies for bacterial infection because they cause oxidative stress that damages multiple targets in bacterial cells, so it is difficult for bacteria to evolve resistance to these attacks.

Piscidins, fish-derived HDPs that can also form complexes with copper (Cu) to enhance their activities, are very active against multiple bacterial species in an aerobic environment. We examined their activity against C. difficile and other species in an ...


Deep Learning For Segmentation Of 3d Cryo-Em Images, Devin Reid Haslam Jul 2018

Deep Learning For Segmentation Of 3d Cryo-Em Images, Devin Reid Haslam

Computer Science Theses & Dissertations

Cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) is an emerging biophysical technique for structural determination of protein complexes. However, accurate detection of secondary structures is still challenging when cryo-EM density maps are at medium resolutions (5-10 Å). Most existing methods are image processing methods that do not fully utilize available images in the cryo-EM database. In this paper, we present a deep learning approach to segment secondary structure elements as helices and β-sheets from medium- resolution density maps. The proposed 3D convolutional neural network is shown to detect secondary structure locations with an F1 score between 0.79 and 0.88 for six simulated ...


Arthropod Evs Mediate Dengue Virus Transmission Through Interaction With A Tetraspanin Domain Containing Glycoprotein Tsp29fb, Ashish Vora, Wenshuo Zhou, Berlin Londono-Renteria, Michael Woodson, Michael B. Sherman, Tonya M. Collpitts, Girish Neelakanta, Hameeda Sultana Jun 2018

Arthropod Evs Mediate Dengue Virus Transmission Through Interaction With A Tetraspanin Domain Containing Glycoprotein Tsp29fb, Ashish Vora, Wenshuo Zhou, Berlin Londono-Renteria, Michael Woodson, Michael B. Sherman, Tonya M. Collpitts, Girish Neelakanta, Hameeda Sultana

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Dengue virus (DENV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that causes dengue fever in humans, worldwide. Using in vitro cell lines derived from Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti, the primary vectors of DENV, we report that DENV2/DENV3-infected cells secrete extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes, containing infectious viral RNA and proteins. A full-length DENV2 genome, detected in arthropod EVs, was infectious to naïve mosquito and mammalian cells, including human-skin keratinocytes and blood endothelial cells. Cryo-electron microscopy showed mosquito EVs with a size range from 30 to 250 nm. Treatments with RNase A, Triton X-100, and 4G2 antibody-bead binding assays showed that infectious ...