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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

The Effects Of Gall Formation Due To Gall-Inducing Insects On Solidago Altissima’S Stem Height, Sarah Mummel Apr 2020

The Effects Of Gall Formation Due To Gall-Inducing Insects On Solidago Altissima’S Stem Height, Sarah Mummel

2020 Awards for Excellence in Student Research and Creative Activity

Gall-inducing insects are an old evolutionary member of our world, but little is known about their impact on goldenrod, Solidago altissima’s growth and development. We tested the relationship between gall diameter and stem height and the effects of gall presence on stem height. We sampled 20 random 1m2 plots along a 30 meter long transect in a goldenrod field to find rosette and ball galls growing upon goldenrod. This transect was one of five other parallel transects, totaling approximately 150 m2 of land. We measured heights of galled plants, heights of healthy nearby plants, and the diameter ...


Dam Effects On Freshwater Mussel Growth And Recruitment In A Midwestern Stream, Taylor Lyndon Fagin Jan 2020

Dam Effects On Freshwater Mussel Growth And Recruitment In A Midwestern Stream, Taylor Lyndon Fagin

Masters Theses

There have been many studies that examine the negative impact of dams on freshwater mussel populations. However, recent studies suggest that some dams may create more suitable growing conditions immediately below some dams. This study’s main objectives were to 1) document where faster growth of mussels is found in relation to the Charleston Dam, 2) determine if sites with faster growth have higher recruitment and 3) investigate which water quality variable(s) could be correlated with faster growth. Live Corbicula sp. were set in cages in multiple sites at varying distances from the dam and shells of two native ...


Seasonal Variation In Mitochondrial Bioenergetics Of The Bluegill Sunfish, Lepomis Macrochirus, From A Shallow Midwest River, Derick Isaac Lamptey Jan 2020

Seasonal Variation In Mitochondrial Bioenergetics Of The Bluegill Sunfish, Lepomis Macrochirus, From A Shallow Midwest River, Derick Isaac Lamptey

Masters Theses

As average global temperature increase, the frequency and magnitude of extreme temperatures in shallow aquatic ecosystems are more ubiquitous. In order to understand how these changing thermal regimes affect aquatic ectotherms, it is essential to develop studies evaluating the response of ectotherms to seasonal fluctuating thermal regimes. Previous studies on fluctuating temperature regimes have reported an increased physiological stress leading to morphological, behavioral and biochemical adaptations. From the latter, the adaptive capacity and seasonal performance associated with optimal function of the oxidative phosphorylation system (OXPHOS) are key for species persistence. However, studies on this matter are scarce. This study explores ...


2019 Celebration Of Scholarship, Creativity, And Engagement, Beth Heldebrandt, Todd Bruns, Seth Yeakel, Matthew Eifrid Oct 2019

2019 Celebration Of Scholarship, Creativity, And Engagement, Beth Heldebrandt, Todd Bruns, Seth Yeakel, Matthew Eifrid

Programs

Scholarship, creativity, innovation, and the many forms of collaborative engagement that shape faculty life and student learning are central to the mission of Eastern Illinois University. For that reason, our faculty, department chairs, college deans, the Provost, and the entire campus community celebrate the achievements and outstanding contributions of our colleagues and students to their disciplines and professions every year. And, as the following pages illustrate, faculty engaged in continuing scholarly and creative activities that have provided outstanding mentoring experiences for our undergraduate and graduate students.

In addition to recognizing faculty performances, shows, publications, grants and other professional efforts, the ...


Quick And Easy Guide To Common Butterflies: An Introduction To The 25 Most Commonly Encountered Butterflies In The Midwest, Paul Switzer Jan 2019

Quick And Easy Guide To Common Butterflies: An Introduction To The 25 Most Commonly Encountered Butterflies In The Midwest, Paul Switzer

Faculty Research & Creative Activity

If you are new to butterfly watching, this is the book for you! It covers 25 of the most commonly encountered butterflies in the Midwestern U.S. Learning these common species will give you a great start in your discovery of the more than 100 butterfly species in our region, many of which look very similar to those included in this guide.


Quick And Easy Guide To Common Butterflies: An Introduction To The 25 Most Commonly Encountered Butterflies In The Midwest (Reduced File Size), Paul Switzer Jan 2019

Quick And Easy Guide To Common Butterflies: An Introduction To The 25 Most Commonly Encountered Butterflies In The Midwest (Reduced File Size), Paul Switzer

Faculty Research & Creative Activity

If you are new to butterfly watching, this is the book for you! It covers 25 of the most commonly encountered butterflies in the Midwestern U.S. Learning these common species will give you a great start in your discovery of the more than 100 butterfly species in our region, many of which look very similar to those included in this guide.


Reduced File Size: Quick And Easy Guide To Common Butterflies: An Introduction To The 25 Most Commonly Encountered Butterflies In The Midwest, Paul Switzer Jan 2019

Reduced File Size: Quick And Easy Guide To Common Butterflies: An Introduction To The 25 Most Commonly Encountered Butterflies In The Midwest, Paul Switzer

Faculty Research & Creative Activity

If you are new to butterfly watching, this is the book for you! It covers 25 of the most commonly encountered butterflies in the Midwestern U.S. Learning these common species will give you a great start in your discovery of the more than 100 butterfly species in our region, many of which look very similar to those included in this guide.


Reprogramming Of Rat Hepatoma Cells With Fibroblast-Specific Protein Twist1, Kezban Ucar Cifci Jan 2019

Reprogramming Of Rat Hepatoma Cells With Fibroblast-Specific Protein Twist1, Kezban Ucar Cifci

Masters Theses

In mammalian development, a complex system comprised of regulatory signals causes tissue distinction with unique structures as well as functions. Gene expression controls these functions through specific combinations of transcription factors and cofactors that influence cell differentiation by both activation and repression of genes.

Whole genome microarray studies of fibroblasts have identified candidate genes that can serve as master regulators of fibroblast identity. A previous study showed that Prrx1 and Snai2 play important roles in activating expression of fibroblast identity, and Snai2 overexpression in hepatoma cells (Fg14) activated expression of fibroblast specific genes. Moreover, Snai2 overexpression resulted in repression of ...


Creg1: Its Role As A Master Regulator Of Liver Function, Iffat Jahan Jan 2019

Creg1: Its Role As A Master Regulator Of Liver Function, Iffat Jahan

Masters Theses

Mammalian development involves a complex system of regulatory signals and reactions resulting in highly differentiated cell types with specific structure and function. The liver is a major organ that has been studied extensively to understand underlying genetic processes responsible for specification, establishment and maintenance of tissue identity. Hepatoma and hepatoma variant cell lines have been used as models to understand genetic networks responsible for liver function. Whole genome microarray analysis of hepatocyte cell lines has revealed candidate genes that may serve as regulators or master regulators of liver specificity. In two previous studies in our lab, the role of candidate ...


Context Dependency Of Invasion Impacts On The Controllers Of Invasibility In Microstegium Vimineum, Scott Vincent Janis Jan 2019

Context Dependency Of Invasion Impacts On The Controllers Of Invasibility In Microstegium Vimineum, Scott Vincent Janis

Masters Theses

Although plant invasions are of major conservation concern, understanding of the natural controls on invasion and their impacts is largely limited to static observational studies or artificially manipulated systems. Linking patterns of invasion with subsequent impacts in natural systems is necessary to fully assess invasion causes and consequences. Therefore, I employed a long-term approach to sequentially assess the controls on invasion and their subsequent impacts in a self-assembled system for the highly invasive annual grass Microstegium vimineum. I modeled likely factors contributing to the probability of invasion and local invasion success of a natural invasion of M. vimineum in a ...


A Pipeline For Exogenous Gene Expression And Biomass Analysis In Plants, Bijay Bisunke Jan 2019

A Pipeline For Exogenous Gene Expression And Biomass Analysis In Plants, Bijay Bisunke

Masters Theses

Biological pretreatment of biomass is typically required for the production of liquid biofuels, which are viable alternatives to traditional fossil fuels. While traditional thermomechanical pretreatments are effective at helping to deconstruct lignocellulose, they are often expensive and tend to generate environmentally dangerous waste materials. An alternative to traditional pretreatment strategies is biological pretreatment, which has focused on lignocellulose-degrading organisms, such as white-rot fungi. While direct pretreatment of biomass with white-rot fungi has shown great promise, directly expressing functional white-rot fungi genes in plants (i.e. in planta expression) has the potential to be even more efficient because the biomass itself ...


Waist Circumference And The Relation To Aerobic Exercise And Perception Of Illness In Adults With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, Bailey J. Huebner Jan 2019

Waist Circumference And The Relation To Aerobic Exercise And Perception Of Illness In Adults With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, Bailey J. Huebner

Masters Theses

The purpose of this study was to observe the relationship between waist circumference (WC), amount of aerobic exercise performed weekly and overall Health Belief Model (HBM) score in adults with diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Members from a local Midwest adult fitness program (n = 5) who had been diagnosed T2DM participated in this study. Participants ranged in age from 70 to 80 years with an average age of 74 years. Four of the participants were female and one participant was male. The questions included in this study were 1 .) in those with diagnosed T2DM, was a low overall HBM ...


Haplotype Diversity And Population Genetic Structure Of Antistrophus Gall Wasps Associated With Two Silphium Species And Implication For Host Mediated Speciation, Jiaxin Deng Jan 2019

Haplotype Diversity And Population Genetic Structure Of Antistrophus Gall Wasps Associated With Two Silphium Species And Implication For Host Mediated Speciation, Jiaxin Deng

Masters Theses

Gall making insects form a special feeding guild of phytophagous animals, and by manipulating host plant tissue differentiation, are able to avoid plant chemical defenses and thus have no need for counter defense mechanisms. Host plant selection is crucial to the evolution of these insects because successful gall formation is largely dependent on host plant ability to respond to stimuli. In Illinois and neighboring states, Antistrophus gall wasps associated with the rosin weed (S. integrifolium) and the cup plant (S. perfoliatum) are morphologically indistinguishable and thus have been treated as belonging to single species. However, the wasps from the host ...


Assessment And Recovery Of Stream Restoration Efforts On Fish Communities, Jessica Marie Rohr Jan 2019

Assessment And Recovery Of Stream Restoration Efforts On Fish Communities, Jessica Marie Rohr

Masters Theses

Aquatic systems are subjected to disturbances of various types, including natural and anthropogenic, or can deteriorate due to accumulating unfavorable conditions, including receding banks, decreasing riparian vegetation, and disrupted flow patterns. An analysis was done on a variety of streams in central Illinois that experienced one or multiple anthropogenic disturbances without remediation to determine the natural recovery dynamics of each system. A separate analysis was performed on a multi-site restored stream with a complex restoration project with a variety of restoration methods. This data were collected over at periods of time spanning from 5-15 years, including time prior to disturbance ...


Medicinal Properties Of The Araliaceae, With Emphasis On Chemicals Affecting Nerve Cells, Rana Alharbi Jan 2019

Medicinal Properties Of The Araliaceae, With Emphasis On Chemicals Affecting Nerve Cells, Rana Alharbi

Masters Theses

In recent times, medicinal plants have become the focus of scientists and research. However, many have used traditional medicine to take advantage of plant extracts to treat many diseases, especially neurological diseases. Various central nervous system receptors have been shown to associate with plant extracts influencing the pharmacology and in this manner conceivably assuming a role in human sickness and treatment. For instance, extracts from Cussonia paniculata Eckl. & Zeyh targeted several early nervous and mental disease, and Kalopanax pictus has been traditionally used for the treatment of rheumatoidal arthritis, nerve pain and diabetes mellitus.

In the present study, we investigated ...


Impacts Of Plant-Microbe Interactions On Seedling Performance In A Riparian Forest Invaded By Lonicera Maackii, Taylor E. K. Strehl Jan 2019

Impacts Of Plant-Microbe Interactions On Seedling Performance In A Riparian Forest Invaded By Lonicera Maackii, Taylor E. K. Strehl

Masters Theses

Soil microbes have profound impacts on plant growth and survival and can either promote or inhibit plant dominance. Exotic plants are often strongly invasive because they have escaped their natural enemies, potentially including antagonistic soil microbes. I examined how the invasive shrub Lonicera maackii and a common native tree, Acer negundo, responded to soil microbial communities to determine the role of soil microbes in regulating invasion success. This was done by growing both species with microbes from invaded (L. maackii) and uninvaded (A. negundo) soils collected from three locations within a riparian forest. Seedlings were grown both in isolation (Experiment ...


Investigating The Prevalence Of An Insecticide Resistance Gene In Culex Mosquito Populations Of Central Illinois, Kylee R. Noel Jan 2019

Investigating The Prevalence Of An Insecticide Resistance Gene In Culex Mosquito Populations Of Central Illinois, Kylee R. Noel

Masters Theses

The globalization of society has led to the spread of the vectors, mosquitoes, and diseases. Each year millions of people are killed by diseases vectored by mosquitoes. For example, West Nile Virus alone killed over 2,000 people in North America in 2017; 8 of those deaths being in Illinois. Two prominent vectors of West Nile Virus are Culex pipiens and Culex restuans; which are difficult to differentiate based upon morphological features. In this study, mosquitoes collected from two Illinois counties, Coles County and Champaign County, were first identified based upon morphology and this identification was then compared to probe-based ...


An Assessment Of Night Time And Seasonal Electrofishing In The Lower Wabash River, Eric Christopher Hine Jan 2019

An Assessment Of Night Time And Seasonal Electrofishing In The Lower Wabash River, Eric Christopher Hine

Masters Theses

Large rivers are highly important systems; being exploited both commercially and recreationally. Because of this usage by humans, close monitoring of the ecology of theses rivers is of the utmost importance. The Long-Term Electrofishing project (LTEF) monitors the fish communities of the Illinois, Mississippi, Wabash, and Ohio rivers using day time, pulsed-DC electrofishing during the late Spring through the early Fall each year. Given that previous studies have noted diel and seasonal changes in catch and composition of fish communities, the addition of night time electrofishing may be beneficial to the overarching goals of the LTEF. This study sought to ...


Detection Of Beta-Lactamase Variants In Municipal Wastewater And Fresh Water, Sunil Pandey Jan 2019

Detection Of Beta-Lactamase Variants In Municipal Wastewater And Fresh Water, Sunil Pandey

Masters Theses

The occurrence and spread of antibiotic-resistant genes (ARGs) are pressing public health problems worldwide. A key factor contributing to the spread of ARGs is lateral gene transfer. Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are measured hot spots of microbial diversity and resistance because they receive polluted wastewater from diverse sources and contain a variety of different environments with dense bacterial loads. Due to the overuse of antibiotics the genetic capacities of microbes have profited. This helps every source of resistance gene and every means of horizontal gene transmission to develop the multiple mechanism of resistance to each antibiotic used clinically, agriculturally, or ...


The Impact Of School Nutrition Education And Physical Education Programs On Weight Status Of Obese Children Aged 5-12 Years, Lamia Alotaibi Jan 2019

The Impact Of School Nutrition Education And Physical Education Programs On Weight Status Of Obese Children Aged 5-12 Years, Lamia Alotaibi

Masters Theses

Epidemiological studies indicate that 12.5 million children and adolescents are considered obese (Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 2017). Obesity is on the rise globally, and while it affects both children and adults, early measures can be taken to reduce the number of children who are obese, and therefore, come into adulthood at a higher risk for obesity-related diseases, such as hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and sleep apnea. There are many studies in which programs are implemented and tested for effectiveness; therefore, a systematic review of these studies that examine which factors play into overall obesity prevention and health improvements ...


Variation In Leaf Morphology Of An Alpine Shrub Community Along Environmental Gradients, Abdulssalam Khafsha Jan 2019

Variation In Leaf Morphology Of An Alpine Shrub Community Along Environmental Gradients, Abdulssalam Khafsha

Masters Theses

Mountains represent complex environment gradients which strongly affect local temperature regimes and rainfall. These changes in climate conditions drive a diversity of plant responses. As alpine environments are expected to change dramatically in response to climate change, understanding plant responses to environmental variation is critical in these environments. Although they are a critical component of alpine communities, the environmental responses of shrubs have been much less examined than trees, representing an important knowledge gap. Leaves, as the primary photosynthetic organs on plants, would be expected to respond strongly to local climate conditions. In this study, I documented how the leaf ...


White Grub In Bluegill In The Sangamon River: Impact Of Sewage Effluent And Flow Regime On Infection Parameters, Miranda White Jan 2019

White Grub In Bluegill In The Sangamon River: Impact Of Sewage Effluent And Flow Regime On Infection Parameters, Miranda White

Masters Theses

White grub (Posthodiplostomum minimum) is a digenetic trematode that uses a piscivorous bird, a pulmonate snail, and a centrarchid fish to complete its life cycle. To assess the impact of impoundment and sewage effluent on white grub infection parameters, infections in bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) were monitored in 3 reaches of the Sangamon River near Decatur, Illinois: Reach 1- free-flowing river upstream of Lake Decatur Dam, unimpacted by sewage effluent, Reach 2- impounded flow below Lake Decatur Dam, unimpacted by sewage effluent, and Reach 3- free-flowing river downstream of Sanitary District of Decatur, impacted by sewage effluent. Liver and kidney abundances ...


2018 Celebration Of Scholarship, Creativity And Engagement, Eastern Illinois University Oct 2018

2018 Celebration Of Scholarship, Creativity And Engagement, Eastern Illinois University

Programs

Scholarship, creativity, innovation, and the many forms of collaborative engagement that shape faculty life and student learning are central to the mission of Eastern Illinois University. For that reason, our faculty, department chairs, college deans, the provost, and the entire campus community celebrate the achievements and outstanding contributions of our colleagues and students to their disciplines and professions every year.

And, as the following pages illustrate, faculty engaged in continuing scholarly and creative activities provide outstanding mentoring experiences for our undergraduate and graduate students.

In addition to recognizing faculty performances, shows, publications, grants and other professional efforts, the University will ...


When The Cure Kills—Cbd Limits Biodiversity Research, Zhiwei Liu, Kaniyarikkal Divakaran Prathapan, Rohan Pethiyagoda, Kamaljit Bawa, Peter Raven, Priyadarsanan Rajan Jun 2018

When The Cure Kills—Cbd Limits Biodiversity Research, Zhiwei Liu, Kaniyarikkal Divakaran Prathapan, Rohan Pethiyagoda, Kamaljit Bawa, Peter Raven, Priyadarsanan Rajan

Faculty Research & Creative Activity

The Convention on Biological Diversity(CBD) commits its 196 nation partiesto conserve biological diversity, useits components sustainably, and sharefairly and equitably the benefits fromthe utilization of genetic resources. Thelast of these objectives was further codifiedin the Convention’s Nagoya Protocol (NP),which came into effect in 2014. Althoughthese aspirations are laudable, the NP andresulting national ambitions on Access andBenefit Sharing (ABS) of genetic resourceshave generated several national regulatoryregimes fraught with unintended consequences(1). Anticipated benefits from thecommercial use of genetic resources, especiallythose that might flow to local or indigenouscommunities because of regulatedaccess to those resources, have largely beenexaggerated and not ...


The Role Of Red Leaf Coloration In Prey Capture For Pinguicula Planifolia, Jenna Annis, Janice Coons, Charles Helm, Brenda Molano-Flores Jan 2018

The Role Of Red Leaf Coloration In Prey Capture For Pinguicula Planifolia, Jenna Annis, Janice Coons, Charles Helm, Brenda Molano-Flores

Faculty Research & Creative Activity

Anthocyanins in the leaves of carnivorous plants are suggested to play a role inprey capture. In this study, we investigated the role of red leaf coloration (an indicator of anthocyanins)on prey capture using Pinguicula planifolia (Chapman’s Butterwort). Overall,red leaves had less prey (i.e., Collembola) than green leaves, suggesting that red colorationdoes not enhance prey capture for Chapman’s Butterwort. However, the frequent presenceof Collembola on leaves suggests that this plant species could be relying on other cues toattract prey (e.g., olfactory cues).


Biotransformation Of Oxo-Bile Acids Derivatives By Human Gut Bacteria, Laina Sallam Jan 2018

Biotransformation Of Oxo-Bile Acids Derivatives By Human Gut Bacteria, Laina Sallam

Masters Theses

Bile acids are one group of steroids that can be metabolically transformed by human gut anaerobes. One of these transformations is the conversion of primary bile acids to secondary bile acids by 7α-dehydroxylating gut bacteria such as Clostridium scindens, Clostridium hylemonae, and Clostridium hiranonis. These anaerobes metabolize bile acid derivatives via 3α- and 7α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (HSDH). Studies to date have not reported if these organisms are capable of converting 12-oxolithocholic acid (12-oxoLCA) to deoxycholic acid (DCA). The emphasis of this study was to determine the ability of C. scindens ATCC 35704, C. hiranonis DSM 13275, and C. hylemonae DSM 15053 ...


Medicinal Properties Of Cyperus Species (Sedge Family, Cyperaceae), Lata Maishaya Udari Jan 2018

Medicinal Properties Of Cyperus Species (Sedge Family, Cyperaceae), Lata Maishaya Udari

Masters Theses

The grasses that yield therapeutically important products are among the least studied in the Cyperaceae family. Herb-based medicine from ancient times have played a vital role in ailments of various disease and nowadays it has been a particular area of interest in medicine. Phytochemicals are inherent compounds derived from plants that are biologically active, non-nutritive chemicals that act as a defensive or prophylactic medicine in humans. Their extracts have proven to show inhibition properties against different microbes. Despite the prevalence of Cyperus species and their traditional use in medicine, the chemical components responsible for their attributes remain largely unknown. This ...


Co-Product Potential Of Algae Biocake, Elizabeth J. Nixon Jan 2018

Co-Product Potential Of Algae Biocake, Elizabeth J. Nixon

Masters Theses

Society needs to find replacements for fossil fuels, which are finite resources that may be fully depleted within a few generations. While solar and wind have great potential as alternative energy sources, they are unlikely to completely replace all of the current fuel sources, particularly liquid fuels. Plant biomass has great potential for this market, and is already used in many forms for heat energy (e.g. direct combustion). However, the bulk density of important bioenergy crops, particularly grasses, is often low, which necessitates the use of binders in densification strategies. In the present study, waste algae biocake from a ...


Bigheaded Carp Reproduction In Large River Tributaries With Evaluation Of Sampling Gear Performance, Daniel R. Roth Jan 2018

Bigheaded Carp Reproduction In Large River Tributaries With Evaluation Of Sampling Gear Performance, Daniel R. Roth

Masters Theses

No abstract provided.


Distiphallus Morphology And Its Role In Copulation Dynamics In Anastrepha Suspensa (Loew), Taylor J. Inboden Jan 2018

Distiphallus Morphology And Its Role In Copulation Dynamics In Anastrepha Suspensa (Loew), Taylor J. Inboden

Masters Theses

Anastrepha suspensa (Diptera; Tephritidae) is an agricultural pest species

causing severe economic damage and is controlled, in part, by applying knowledge

of this species' reproduction (e.g., disrupting fertile copulations by SIT). During

copulation, males transfer sperm as well as protein rich fluids through an aedeagus

and distiphallus, which females then store in three spermathecae and one ventral

receptacle. Within the female reproductive tract, the ventral receptacle and the

three spermathecae are strategically separated from each other. I hypothesized

males' ability to direct sperm transfer within the female reproductive tract is

through the structures found in the distiphallus. Utilizing scanning ...