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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Local Adaptation In Mainland Anole Lizards: Integrating Population History And Genome–Environment Associations, Ivan Prates, Anna Penna, Miguel Trefaut Rodrigues, Ana Carolina Carnaval Nov 2018

Local Adaptation In Mainland Anole Lizards: Integrating Population History And Genome–Environment Associations, Ivan Prates, Anna Penna, Miguel Trefaut Rodrigues, Ana Carolina Carnaval

Publications and Research

Environmental gradients constrain physiological performance and thus species’ ranges, suggesting that species occurrence in diverse environments may be associated with local adaptation. Genome–environment association analyses (GEAA) have become central for studies of local adaptation, yet they are sensitive to the spatial orientation of historical range expansions relative to landscape gradients. To test whether potentially adaptive genotypes occur in varied climates in wide‐ranged species, we implemented GEAA on the basis of genomewide data from the anole lizards Anolis ortonii and Anolis punctatus, which expanded from Amazonia, presently dominated by warm and wet settings, into the cooler and less rainy ...


Using Molecular Markers To Trace The Population History Of Volant Organisms At Differing Temporal Scales, Noah A. Burg May 2018

Using Molecular Markers To Trace The Population History Of Volant Organisms At Differing Temporal Scales, Noah A. Burg

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Using molecular markers to test phylogenetic and phylogeographic hypotheses is critical for tracking the population origin of invasive, introduced species (Chapter 2, Chapter 4) and to identify the systematic relationships of disparate lineages at both shallow and deep evolutionary time scales (Chapters 3, Chapter 4). In this thesis, Sanger Sequencing was used to generate datasets based on fresh and preserved tissue from specimens collected in the field, as well as museum tissue vouchers granted from various institutions in the US and Europe. In combining these source materials, data were generated for three focal studies: 1) In the first research section ...


Climate-Driven Habitat Shifts In South America: Biogeography, Historical Demography, And Population Genomics Of Anole Lizards, Ivan Prates Sep 2017

Climate-Driven Habitat Shifts In South America: Biogeography, Historical Demography, And Population Genomics Of Anole Lizards, Ivan Prates

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Shifts in the geographic distribution of habitats over time can promote dispersal and vicariance, thereby influencing large-scale biogeographic patterns and ecological processes. The establishment of corridors of suitable habitat across previously disjunct yet ecologically similar regions has been widely linked to climate change over time. Such climate-mediated habitat changes may have played a key role in the assembly of tropical biotas, including those of Amazonia and the coastal Atlantic Forest in South America, two of the most diverse ecosystems on Earth. The history of biogeographic associations between tropical rainforest habitats in response to former climatic shifts, as well as their ...


A Phylogenetic And Environmental Analysis Of Brazilian Placosoma Lizards, Kai A. Farje-Van Vlack Jan 2017

A Phylogenetic And Environmental Analysis Of Brazilian Placosoma Lizards, Kai A. Farje-Van Vlack

Dissertations and Theses

Placosoma is a genus comprised of the Brazilian spectacled lizards P. champsonotus, P. cipoense, P. cordylinum, P. glabellum, and P. limaverdorum. While P. champsonotus, P. cordylinum, and P. glabellum occupy the southern coast of Brazil, P. cipoense is found in the montane grasslands north of that range, and P. limaverdorum was recently discovered in forest isolates that persist within the semi-arid Caatinga. This study elucidates the ecological and evolutionary relationships among these morphologically similar lizards. Using mitochondrial and nuclear gene sequences, genus-wide phylogenies were inferred through Bayesian inference and a species tree approach, and reconciled with geographical and climate data ...


A Revisited Phylogeography Of Nautilus Pompilius, Lauren E. Vandepas, Frederick D. Dooley, Gregory J. Barord, Billie J. Swalla, Peter D. Ward May 2016

A Revisited Phylogeography Of Nautilus Pompilius, Lauren E. Vandepas, Frederick D. Dooley, Gregory J. Barord, Billie J. Swalla, Peter D. Ward

Publications and Research

The cephalopod genus Nautilus is considered a “living fossil” with a contested number of extant and extinct species, and a benthic lifestyle that limits movement of animals between isolated seamounts and landmasses in the Indo-Pacific. Nautiluses are fished for their shells, most heavily in the Philippines, and these fisheries have little monitoring or regulation. Here, we evaluate the hypothesis that multiple species of Nautilus (e.g., N. belauensis, N. repertus and N. stenomphalus) are in fact one species with a diverse phenotypic and geologic range. Using mitochondrial markers, we show that nautiluses from the Philippines, eastern Australia (Great Barrier Reef ...


Comparative Phylogeography Of Ethiopian Anurans: Impact Of The Great Rift Valley And Pleistocene Climate Change, Xenia Freilich, Jose D. Anadon, Jolanta Bukala, Ordaliza Calderon, Ronveer Chakraborty, Stephanie Boissinot Jan 2016

Comparative Phylogeography Of Ethiopian Anurans: Impact Of The Great Rift Valley And Pleistocene Climate Change, Xenia Freilich, Jose D. Anadon, Jolanta Bukala, Ordaliza Calderon, Ronveer Chakraborty, Stephanie Boissinot

Publications and Research

Background: The Ethiopian highlands are a biodiversity hotspot, split by the Great Rift Valley into two distinct systems of plateaus and mountains. The Rift Valley is currently hot and dry and acts as a barrier to gene flow for highland-adapted species. It is however unlikely that the conditions in the Rift were inhospitable to highland species during the entire Pleistocene. To assess the significance of the Ethiopian Rift as a biogeographic barrier as well as the impact Pleistocene climatic changes have had on the evolution of Ethiopian organisms, we performed phylogeographic analyses and developed present and past niche models on ...


The Widespread Skink Mabuya Dorsivittata Reveals Complex Patterns Of Genetic Diversity In South America, Danielle Rivera Jan 2015

The Widespread Skink Mabuya Dorsivittata Reveals Complex Patterns Of Genetic Diversity In South America, Danielle Rivera

Dissertations and Theses

No abstract provided.


Comparative Phylogeography, Phylogenetics, And Population Genomics Of East African Montane Small Mammals, Terrence Constant Demos Jun 2014

Comparative Phylogeography, Phylogenetics, And Population Genomics Of East African Montane Small Mammals, Terrence Constant Demos

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The Eastern Afromontane region of Africa is characterized by striking levels of endemism and species richness which rank it as a global biodiversity hotspot for diverse plants and animals including mammals, but has been poorly sampled and little studied to date. Using mtDNA and multi-locus nDNA sequence data, genome-wide RAD-Seq SNP data, and morphological data, I identify major cryptic biogeographic patterns within and between 11 co-distributed small mammal species/species groups across the Eastern Afromontane region. I focus on two endemic montane small mammal species complexes, Hylomyscus mice and Sylvisorex shrews, co-distributed across the Albertine Rift (AR) and Kenya Highlands ...


Edges And Overlaps In Northwest Atlantic Phylogeography, Safra Altman, John D. Robinson, James M. Pringle, James E. Byers, John P. Wares Apr 2013

Edges And Overlaps In Northwest Atlantic Phylogeography, Safra Altman, John D. Robinson, James M. Pringle, James E. Byers, John P. Wares

Publications and Research

As marine environments change, the greatest ecological shifts—including resource usage and species interactions—are likely to take place in or near regions of biogeographic and phylogeographic transition. However, our understanding of where these transitional regions exist depends on the defining criteria. Here we evaluate phylogeographic transitions using a bootstrapping procedure that allows us to focus on either the strongest genetic transitions between a pair of contiguous populations, versus evaluation of transitions inclusive of the entire overlap between two intraspecific genetic lineages. We compiled data for the Atlantic coast of the United States, and evaluate taxa with short- and long-dispersing ...


The Effects Of Pleistocene Climatic Change On The Phylogeography Of Euploea Mulciber (Lepidoptera; Nymphalidae; Danainae), Elva Yang Jan 2012

The Effects Of Pleistocene Climatic Change On The Phylogeography Of Euploea Mulciber (Lepidoptera; Nymphalidae; Danainae), Elva Yang

Dissertations and Theses

No abstract provided.