Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Life Sciences Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 1 - 30 of 46

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Dictyostelium Discoideum Protein Kinase C-Orthologue Pkca Regulates The Actin Cytoskeleton Through Interaction With Phospholipase D And P21-Activated Kinase, Sean Singh Jun 2020

Dictyostelium Discoideum Protein Kinase C-Orthologue Pkca Regulates The Actin Cytoskeleton Through Interaction With Phospholipase D And P21-Activated Kinase, Sean Singh

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Proper regulation of the actin cytoskeleton is crucial to many cellular processes. Many of these processes are regulated by extracellular signaling cues, which direct changes in the actin cytoskeleton, resulting in changes to cellular morphology, and directed motility. The social amoeba, Dictyostelium discoideum, is used as a simple model system to study the translation of extracellular signals to the actin cytoskeleton. When starved, these unicellular amoebae undergo a multicellular developmental process characterized by a tightly regulated sequence of signaling events. This results in chemotaxis and formation of a multicellular aggregate, and ultimately cell differentiation and the formation of a fruiting ...


Characterization Of Early Biofilm Formation And Physiology In Neisseria Gonorrhoeae, Kelly Eckenrode Sep 2019

Characterization Of Early Biofilm Formation And Physiology In Neisseria Gonorrhoeae, Kelly Eckenrode

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Many bacteria rely on the dynamics of their extracellular appendages to perform important tasks, like motility and biofilm formation. Interestingly, these dynamics have been linked to physiological responses in some pathogenic bacteria; therefore, it is important to understand more about the role of physical forces in bacteria. I used the causative agent of the human disease gonorrhea, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, as a model system to study the role of physical force on early biofilm formation. The advantage of this system is that cell-cell interactions are controlled by extracellular filaments called type IV pili (tfp). Tfp is composed of monomers that give ...


Innate Antibodies, Murine Models, And Evolution: A Study Of Trypanosome Lytic Factor Functions And Their Translational Applications, Joseph P. Verdi Sep 2019

Innate Antibodies, Murine Models, And Evolution: A Study Of Trypanosome Lytic Factor Functions And Their Translational Applications, Joseph P. Verdi

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Trypanosome lytic factors (TLFs) are primate-specific antimicrobial protein complexes that lyse African trypanosome parasites by delivering the channel-forming toxin APOL1 to the invading microorganisms. Human serum contains two TLFs that are delivered to the parasite by separate mechanisms, only one of which has been characterized. TLF1 is endocytosed by a receptor that is typically blocked by other serum factors in vivo, suggesting that TLF2 is the more relevant lytic factor in the context of trypanosome immunity. TLF2 is non-covalently associated with polyclonal immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies, which we report here to be involved in the uptake mechanism. The TLF2-IgMs are ...


The Role And Regulation Of Alternative Polyadenylation In The Dna Damage Response, Michael R. Murphy May 2019

The Role And Regulation Of Alternative Polyadenylation In The Dna Damage Response, Michael R. Murphy

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Cellular homeostasis is achieved by the dynamic flux in gene expression. Post-transcriptional regulation of coding and non-coding RNA offers a fast method of adapting to a changing cellular environment, including deadenylation, microRNA (miRNA) pathway, and alternative polyadenylation (APA). In this dissertation, I explored some of the mechanisms involved in the post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. The main hypothesis in these studies is that a single APA event after DNA damage is governed by specific conditions and factors outside of current known regulators of APA, and that the resultant transcript has a role in the DNA damage response (DDR). My aims ...


Arabinose Substitution Effect On Xylan Rigidity And Self-Aggregation, Mai Zahran, Utsab Shrestha, Sydney Smith, Sai Venkatesh Pingali, Hui Yang, Llyod Breunig, Liza Wilson, Daniel Cosgrove, Hugh O'Neill, Loukas Petridis Mar 2019

Arabinose Substitution Effect On Xylan Rigidity And Self-Aggregation, Mai Zahran, Utsab Shrestha, Sydney Smith, Sai Venkatesh Pingali, Hui Yang, Llyod Breunig, Liza Wilson, Daniel Cosgrove, Hugh O'Neill, Loukas Petridis

Publications and Research

Substituted xylans play an important role in the structure and mechanics of the primary cell wall of plants. Arabinoxylans (AX) consist of a xylose backbone substituted with arabinose, while glucuronoarabinoxylans (GAX) also contain glucuronic acid substitutions and ferulic acid esters on some of the arabinoses. We provide a molecular-level description on the dependence of xylan conformational, selfaggregation properties and binding to cellulose on the degree of arabinose substitution. Molecular dynamics simulations reveal fully solubilized xylans with a low degree of arabinose substitution (lsAX) to be stiffer than their highly substituted (hsAX) counterparts. Small-angle neutron scattering experiments indicate that both wild-type ...


Ck2 Negatively Regulates 5-Ht4 Receptor Signaling In The Prefrontal Cortex And Mediates Depression-Like Behaviors, Julia Castello Saval Feb 2019

Ck2 Negatively Regulates 5-Ht4 Receptor Signaling In The Prefrontal Cortex And Mediates Depression-Like Behaviors, Julia Castello Saval

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The serotonergic system has been the major candidate in the pathophysiology of mood related disorders such as anxiety and major depressive disorder (MDD). Unfortunately, current antidepressant drugs are ineffective in 50% of the population and require chronic administration for a period of 3-6 weeks before the onset of therapeutic response. 5-HT4 receptor (5-HT4R) agonists have emerged as potential candidates for fast antidepressant action, since an antidepressant response can be achieved after 3 days of pharmacological administration in rodents.

This dissertation aims to investigate the role of casein kinase 2 (CK2) as a regulator of 5-HT4R expression ...


Cryptic Diversity In The Mexican Highlands: Thousands Of Uce Loci Help Illuminate Phylogenetic Relationships, Species Limits And Divergence Times Of Montane Rattlesnakes (Viperidae: Crotalus ), Christopher Blair, Robert W. Bryson Jr, Charles W. Linkem, David Lazcano, John Klicka, John E. Mccormack Nov 2018

Cryptic Diversity In The Mexican Highlands: Thousands Of Uce Loci Help Illuminate Phylogenetic Relationships, Species Limits And Divergence Times Of Montane Rattlesnakes (Viperidae: Crotalus ), Christopher Blair, Robert W. Bryson Jr, Charles W. Linkem, David Lazcano, John Klicka, John E. Mccormack

Publications and Research

With the continued adoption of genome‐scale data in evolutionary biology comes the challenge of adequately harnessing the information to make accurate phylogenetic inferences. Coalescent‐based methods of species tree inference have become common, and concatenation has been shown in simulation to perform well, particularly when levels of incomplete lineage sorting are low. However, simulation conditions are often overly simplistic, leaving empiricists with uncertainty regarding analytical tools. We use a large ultraconserved element data set (>3,000 loci) from rattlesnakes of the Crotalus triseriatus group to delimit lineages and estimate species trees using concatenation and several coalescent‐based methods. Unpartitioned ...


Renal Risk Variants Of Apolipoprotein L-1 Form Channels At The Plasma Membrane That Lead To A Cytotoxic Influx Of Calcium, Joseph A. Giovinazzo Sep 2018

Renal Risk Variants Of Apolipoprotein L-1 Form Channels At The Plasma Membrane That Lead To A Cytotoxic Influx Of Calcium, Joseph A. Giovinazzo

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Apolipoprotein L-1 (APOL1) is a secreted protein that provides protection against several protozoan parasites due to its channel forming properties. Recently evolved variants, G1 and G2, increase kidney disease risk when present in two copies. In mammalian cells, overexpression of G1 and G2, but not wild-type G0, leads to swelling and eventual lysis. However, the mechanism of cell death remains elusive with multiple pathways being invoked, such as autophagic cell death mediated by a BH3 domain in APOL1, which we evaluated in this study. We hypothesized that the common trigger for these pathways is the APOL1 cation channel, which is ...


Water Pharmacophore: Designing Ligands Using Molecular Dynamics Simulations With Water, Sang Won Jung, Minsup Kim, Steven Ramsey, Tom Kurtzman, Art E. Cho Jul 2018

Water Pharmacophore: Designing Ligands Using Molecular Dynamics Simulations With Water, Sang Won Jung, Minsup Kim, Steven Ramsey, Tom Kurtzman, Art E. Cho

Publications and Research

In this study, we demonstrate a method to construct a water-based pharmacophore model which can be utilized in the absence of known ligands. This method utilizes waters found in the binding pocket, sampled through molecular dynamics. Screening of compound databases against this water-based pharmacophore model reveals that this approach can successfully identify known binders to a target protein. The method was tested by enrichment studies of 7 therapeutically important targets and compared favourably to screening-by-docking with Glide. Our results suggest that even without experimentally known binders, pharmacophore models can be generated using molecular dynamics with waters and used for virtual ...


Binding Of Maize Necrotic Streak Virus (Mnesv) 3’ I-Shaped Structure (3’ Iss) To Eukaryotic Translation Factors (Eifs) And Implication In Eif4f Mediated Translation Initiation, Qiao Liu May 2018

Binding Of Maize Necrotic Streak Virus (Mnesv) 3’ I-Shaped Structure (3’ Iss) To Eukaryotic Translation Factors (Eifs) And Implication In Eif4f Mediated Translation Initiation, Qiao Liu

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

5' m7GpppN cap and the 3' poly adenosine (A) tail of eukaryotic mRNAs are key elements for recruiting translation initiation machinery in canonical translation initiation. Unlike host mRNAs, many viruses lack these elements and yet they are translated efficiently. Plant viruses, in particular, have complex structures within their untranslated regions (UTR) that allow them to bypass some cellular translation control steps. In Maize necrotic streak virus (MNeSV) 3' UTR, an I-Shaped RNA Structure (ISS) has been reported to mediate the virus translation initiation progress. 3’ ISS binding with eIF4F has been shown to facilitate translation. 5’ -3’ kissing ...


Regulation Of The Tubulin Homolog Ftsz In Escherichia Coli, Monika S. Buczek May 2018

Regulation Of The Tubulin Homolog Ftsz In Escherichia Coli, Monika S. Buczek

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Escherichia coli is a well-known pathogen, and importantly, a widely used model organism in all fields of biological sciences for cloning, protein purification, and as a model for Gram-negative bacterial species. And yet, researchers do not fully understand how this bacterium replicates and divides. Every year additional division proteins are discovered, which adds complexity to how we understand E. coli undergoes cell division. Due to their specific roles in cytokinesis, some of these proteins may be potential targets for development of antibacterials or bacteriostatics, which are much needed for fighting the current global antibacterial deficit. My thesis work focuses on ...


Phase Diagram Of Water Confined By Graphene, Zhenghan Gao, Nicolas Giovambattista, Ozgur Sahin Apr 2018

Phase Diagram Of Water Confined By Graphene, Zhenghan Gao, Nicolas Giovambattista, Ozgur Sahin

Publications and Research

The behavior of water confined at the nanoscale plays a fundamental role in biological processes and technological applications, including protein folding, translocation of water across membranes, and filtration and desalination. Remarkably, nanoscale confinement drastically alters the properties of water. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we determine the phase diagram of water confined by graphene sheets in slab geometry, at T = 300 K and for a wide range of pressures. We find that, depending on the confining dimension D and density σ, water can exist in liquid and vapor phases, or crystallize into monolayer and bilayer square ices, as observed in experiments ...


Mechanisms For Survival And Drug Resistance In Cancer Cells, Matthew B. Utter Feb 2018

Mechanisms For Survival And Drug Resistance In Cancer Cells, Matthew B. Utter

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

PART I

Prostate cells are hormonally driven to grow and divide. Typical treatments for prostate cancer involve blocking the hormone androgen from activating the androgen receptor (AR) and thus inhibit growth and proliferation of the cancer. Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) can lead to the selection of cancer cells that grow and divide independently of androgen receptor activation. Prostate cancer cells that are insensitive to androgens commonly display metastatic phenotypes and reduced long-term survival of patients. In this study, we provide evidence that androgen-insensitive prostate cancer cells have elevated phospholipase D (PLD) activity relative to the androgen-sensitive prostate cancer cells. PLD ...


Wnt Secretion Proteins Modulate Rankl-Induced Expression Of Aire In Thymic Epithelial Cells, Daniel Pollack Jan 2018

Wnt Secretion Proteins Modulate Rankl-Induced Expression Of Aire In Thymic Epithelial Cells, Daniel Pollack

Dissertations and Theses

Thymic epithelial cells (TEC) are essential for a proper adaptive immune response by regulating thymocyte development and establishing central tolerance. In the thymus, TECs differentially express Wnt proteins, which activate canonical and non-canonical Wnt signaling pathways. Wnt signaling is thought to regulate cell survival, proliferation, and development although the direct molecular mechanisms in TECs have yet to be elucidated. The inducible inhibition of canonical Wnt signaling with Dkk1 leads to a rapid loss of TEC progenitors as well as a decline in mature Aire-expressing mTECs. Therefore, we explore the role of Wnt ligands potentially responsible for stimulating and/or regulating ...


Pharmacological Antagonism And The Olfactory Code, Mihwa Na Sep 2017

Pharmacological Antagonism And The Olfactory Code, Mihwa Na

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Mammals can detect and discriminate uncountable odors through their odorant receptors. To accommodate the countless and diverse odors, exceptionally large numbers of odorant receptor (OR) genes are expressed in mammals. In addition, the mammals utilize a combinatorial code, where an odorant molecule can activate multiple ORs; an OR also responds to a set of multiple odorants. In nature, an odor is often a complex mixture of multiple odorant molecules. The combination of the ORs activated by each constituent generates the unique olfactory code for the particular odor.

Some odorants can antagonize select ORs, as discussed in Chapter 1. An antagonist ...


Structural And Biochemical Studies Of The Dna Replication Initiation Mechanism Of The Second Chromosome Of Vibrio Cholerae, Natalia Orlova Sep 2017

Structural And Biochemical Studies Of The Dna Replication Initiation Mechanism Of The Second Chromosome Of Vibrio Cholerae, Natalia Orlova

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Transmission of genetic information through DNA replication is one of the key processes for any living organism. Despite the extensive effort put into studies of the mechanism of DNA replication, the understanding of the process on the molecular level is still incomplete. Specifically the molecular details of the very first events of DNA replication initiation are not sufficiently understood.

The majority of bacteria possess a single circular chromosome, and in order to initiate DNA replication these organisms utilize a conserved system, consisting of a specific DNA sequence - replication origin, called oriC, and replication initiator protein DnaA. However, bacteria with multipartite ...


Mutagenesis Of Human Alpha-Galactosidase A For The Treatment Of Fabry Disease, Erin Stokes Sep 2017

Mutagenesis Of Human Alpha-Galactosidase A For The Treatment Of Fabry Disease, Erin Stokes

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Fabry disease is an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder caused by the deficiency of the enzyme, α-galactosidase A, which results in the accumulation of the lipid substrate. This accumulation results in obstruction of blood flow in patients and early demise at approximately 40-60 years of age. There is currently only one FDA approved treatment (Fabrazyme) classified as an enzyme replacement therapy. However, approximately 88% of patients experience a severe immune response that, rarely, can be fatal and is a huge cost burden at average $250,000 a year per patient. The structure of α-galactosidase A has been previously determined to be ...


Insight Into The Interaction Between The Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma (Pparγ) And Adipocyte Fatty Acid-Binding Protein (A-Fabp), Qian Wang Sep 2017

Insight Into The Interaction Between The Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma (Pparγ) And Adipocyte Fatty Acid-Binding Protein (A-Fabp), Qian Wang

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The Adipocyte Fatty Acid-Binding Protein (AFABP) is mainly expressed in fat cells. It can bind fatty acids and other lipophilic substances such as eicosanoids and retinoids. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is a nuclear receptor protein that requires ligand binding to regulate the specific gene transcription. PPARγ is expressed at extremely high levels in adipose tissue, macrophages, and the large intestine, where it controls lipid adipogenesis and energy conversion. Moreover, it has been found that AFABP and PPARγ can form a complex in vivo. It is proposed that AFABP carries the ligand and enters into the nucleus where it ...


A Combined Computational Strategy Of Sequence And Structural Analysis Predicts The Existence Of A Functional Eicosanoid Pathway In Drosophila Melanogaster, Michael Scarpati Sep 2017

A Combined Computational Strategy Of Sequence And Structural Analysis Predicts The Existence Of A Functional Eicosanoid Pathway In Drosophila Melanogaster, Michael Scarpati

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

With increased understanding of their roles in signal transduction and metabolism, eicosanoids have emerged as important players in human health and disease. Mammalian prostanoids and related lipid mediators perform varied functions in different tissues and organs. Synthesized through the oxygenation of C20 polyunsaturated fatty acids, mammalian eicosanoids are both pro- and anti-inflammatory. The physiological contexts in which eicosanoid family members act at the cellular level are not well understood. In this study, we examined whether the genome of Drosophila melanogaster, a powerful model for innate immunity and inflammation, codes for the enzymes required for eicosanoid biosynthesis. We report the existence ...


Engineered Aptamers To Probe Molecular Interactions On The Cell Surface, Sana Batool, Sanam Bhandari, Shanell George, Precious Okeoma, Nabeela Van, Hazan E. Zümrüt, Prabodhika Mallikaratchy Aug 2017

Engineered Aptamers To Probe Molecular Interactions On The Cell Surface, Sana Batool, Sanam Bhandari, Shanell George, Precious Okeoma, Nabeela Van, Hazan E. Zümrüt, Prabodhika Mallikaratchy

Publications and Research

Significant progress has been made in understanding the nature of molecular interactions on the cell membrane. To decipher such interactions, molecular scaffolds can be engineered as a tool to modulate these events as they occur on the cell membrane. To guarantee reliability, scaffolds that function as modulators of cell membrane events must be coupled to a targeting moiety with superior chemical versatility. In this regard, nucleic acid aptamers are a suitable class of targeting moieties. Aptamers are inherently chemical in nature, allowing extensive site-specific chemical modification to engineer sensing molecules. Aptamers can be easily selected using a simple laboratory-based in ...


Thermodynamic And Kinetic Analyses Of Iron Response Element (Ire)-Mrna Binding To Iron Regulatory Protein, Irp1, Mateen A. Khan, William E. Walden, Elizabeth C. Theil, Dixie J. Goss Aug 2017

Thermodynamic And Kinetic Analyses Of Iron Response Element (Ire)-Mrna Binding To Iron Regulatory Protein, Irp1, Mateen A. Khan, William E. Walden, Elizabeth C. Theil, Dixie J. Goss

Publications and Research

Comparison of kinetic and thermodynamic properties of IRP1 (iron regulatory protein1) binding to FRT (ferritin) and ACO2 (aconitase2) IRE-RNAs, with or without Mn2+, revealed differences specific to each IRE-RNA. Conserved among animal mRNAs, IRE-RNA structures are noncoding and bind Fe2+ to regulate biosynthesis rates of the encoded, iron homeostatic proteins. IRP1 protein binds IRERNA, inhibiting mRNA activity; Fe2+ decreases IRE-mRNA/IRP1 binding, increasing encoded protein synthesis. Here, we observed heat, 5 °C to 30 °C, increased IRP1 binding to IRE-RNA 4-fold (FRT IRE-RNA) or 3-fold (ACO2 IRE-RNA), which was enthalpy driven and entropy favorable. Mn2+ (50 μM, 25 °C) increased ...


Bow-Tie Signaling In C-Di-Gmp: Machine Learning In A Simple Biochemical Network, Jinyuan Yan, Maxime Deforet, Kerry E. Boyle, Rayees Rahman, Raymond Liang, Chinweike Okegbe, Lars E. P. Dietrich, Weigang Qiu, Joao B. Xavier Aug 2017

Bow-Tie Signaling In C-Di-Gmp: Machine Learning In A Simple Biochemical Network, Jinyuan Yan, Maxime Deforet, Kerry E. Boyle, Rayees Rahman, Raymond Liang, Chinweike Okegbe, Lars E. P. Dietrich, Weigang Qiu, Joao B. Xavier

Publications and Research

Bacteria of many species rely on a simple molecule, the intracellular secondary messenger c-di-GMP (Bis-(3'-5')-cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate), to make a vital choice: whether to stay in one place and form a biofilm, or to leave it in search of better conditions. The c-di-GMP network has a bow-tie shaped architecture that integrates many signals from the outside worldÐthe input stimuliÐinto intracellular c-di-GMP levels that then regulate genes for biofilm formation or for swarming motilityÐthe output phenotypes. How does the `uninformed' process of evolution produce a network with the right input/output association and enable bacteria to make ...


Range Of Detection For Proteins And Dna From Fingerprints On Fired And Unfired Cartridge Casings, Stacey-Ann R. Sterling Aug 2017

Range Of Detection For Proteins And Dna From Fingerprints On Fired And Unfired Cartridge Casings, Stacey-Ann R. Sterling

Student Theses

Cartridges and spent cartridge casings can be probative pieces of evidence. Unfortunately due to a combination of factors such as exposure to high temperatures and initially low amounts of biological material on the surface, DNA testing so far has been mostly unsuccessful for these items. Typing other marker systems, such as protein polymorphisms, on the same biological evidence would add power of discrimination. To explore this option we developed a DNA-protein trypsin-based co-extraction method that was optimized for unfired and fired cartridges. Various sample wet and dry collection methods and multiple metal casings, such as aluminum, nickel, steel, and brass ...


Transcriptional And Post-Transcriptional Regulation Of Histone Variant H2a.Z During Sea Urchin Development, Mihai Hajdu Feb 2017

Transcriptional And Post-Transcriptional Regulation Of Histone Variant H2a.Z During Sea Urchin Development, Mihai Hajdu

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Histone variant H2A.Z promotes chromatin accessibility at transcriptional regulatory elements and is developmentally regulated in metazoans. We characterize the transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of H2A.Z in the purple sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. H2A.Z depletion by antisense translation-blocking morpholino oligonucleotides during early development causes developmental collapse, in agreement with its previously demonstrated general role in transcriptional multipotency. During H2A.Z peak expression in 24-h embryos, endogenous H2A.Z 3’ UTR sequences stabilize GFP mRNAs relative to those with SV40 3’ UTR sequences, although the 3’UTR of H2A.Z does not determine the spatial distribution of H2A.Z ...


Evolution Of Complex Target Selex To Identify Aptamers Against Mammalian Cell-Surface Antigens, Prabodhika R. Mallikaratchy Jan 2017

Evolution Of Complex Target Selex To Identify Aptamers Against Mammalian Cell-Surface Antigens, Prabodhika R. Mallikaratchy

Publications and Research

The demand has increased for sophisticated molecular tools with improved detection limits. Such molecules should be simple in structure, yet stable enough for clinical applications. Nucleic acid aptamers (NAAs) represent a class of molecules able to meet this demand. In particular, aptamers, a class of small nucleic acid ligands that are composed of single-stranded modified/unmodified RNA/DNA molecules, can be evolved from a complex library using Systematic Evolution of Ligands by EXponential enrichment (SELEX) against almost any molecule. Since its introduction in 1990, in stages, SELEX technology has itself undergone several modifications, improving selection and broadening the repertoire of ...


Specific Binding Affinity Of The Non-Catalytic Domain Of Eukaryotic Like Type Ib Topoisomerase Of Vaccinia Virus, Benjamin R. Reed Sep 2016

Specific Binding Affinity Of The Non-Catalytic Domain Of Eukaryotic Like Type Ib Topoisomerase Of Vaccinia Virus, Benjamin R. Reed

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Topoisomerases are ubiquitous proteins that alter supercoiling in double stranded DNA (dsDNA) during transcription and replication and. vaccinia and the closely related poxvirus variola virus, at 314 amino acids in length, encode the smallest of the type I topoisomerases(TopIB). TopIB is a two domain protein that recognizes the sequence 5’-T/CCCTT, cleaves at the 3’-end and relaxes supercoiling through rotation. The C-terminal domain (CTD) alone contains the catalytic activity and specificity. Deletion of the N-terminal domain results in a greatly reduced rate of relaxation and rapid dissociation. Biochemical data suggests that the N-terminal domain (NTD) is important ...


Molecular Analysis Of Ftsz-Ring Assembly In E. Coli Cytokinesis, Kuo-Hsiang Huang Sep 2016

Molecular Analysis Of Ftsz-Ring Assembly In E. Coli Cytokinesis, Kuo-Hsiang Huang

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

An essential first step in bacterial division is the assembly of a cytokinetic ring (Z-ring) formed by the tubulin-like FtsZ at midcell. The highly conserved core domain of FtsZ has been reported to mediate assembly of FtsZ polymers in vivo and in vitro. Species-specific differences in the FtsZ C-terminal domain such as the FtsZ CTV region and interactions with several modulatory proteins such as ZapC and ZapD, restricted to certain bacterial classes, also serve as key determinants of FtsZ protofilament bundling. Here, we characterize (i) the roles of the FtsZ CTV region in mediating both longitudinal and lateral interactions of ...


Tuning Into Toxins And Channels: The Characterizations Of Tv1 And A Human Cardiac Sodium Channel Voltage-Sensor Domain, Mohammed H. Bhuiyan Sep 2016

Tuning Into Toxins And Channels: The Characterizations Of Tv1 And A Human Cardiac Sodium Channel Voltage-Sensor Domain, Mohammed H. Bhuiyan

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

In nature, peptide toxins are an abundant resource, produced both by marine and terrestrial organisms. A major target of these peptide toxins is the group of the highly important voltage-gated ion channels. Due to their high specificity and affinity, peptide toxins have been used for over a decade in discovery and characterization of voltage-gated ion channels. Although peptide toxins have been extensively characterized structurally, the structural characterization of eukaryotic voltage-gated sodium channels has seen much less progress, due to their large size and high hydrophobicity. Voltage-gated sodium channels play crucial roles in many physiological processes, and when these processes are ...


Circular Oligodeoxynucleotides (Coligos) As Chemically Synthesized, Promoter-Independent Small Rna Expression Vectors, Lodoe Lama Jun 2016

Circular Oligodeoxynucleotides (Coligos) As Chemically Synthesized, Promoter-Independent Small Rna Expression Vectors, Lodoe Lama

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Small RNAs (sRNA) such as microRNA (miRNA), small interfering RNA (siRNA), and other types of RNA have been found to play many important biological roles in regulation of different cellular process leading to their possible use as therapeutics. However, one of the biggest hurdles in exploiting these sRNAs in therapeutics has been the difficulty in delivering them safely and stably into human tissues. Many delivery approaches have been undertaken to deliver these sRNA, albeit with many shortcomings in terms of cost, stability, and side effects, necessitating the need for alternative approaches. We are exploring an entirely different approach for conveying ...


Antioxidant And Hepatoprotective Effects Of Procyanidins Fromwild Grape (Vitis Amurensis) Seeds In Ethanol-Induced Cells And Rats, Min Ji Bak, Van-Long Truong, Se-Yeon Ko, Xuan Ngan Giang Nguyen, Pajaree Ingkasupart, Mira Jun, Jin Young Shin, Woo-Sik Jeong May 2016

Antioxidant And Hepatoprotective Effects Of Procyanidins Fromwild Grape (Vitis Amurensis) Seeds In Ethanol-Induced Cells And Rats, Min Ji Bak, Van-Long Truong, Se-Yeon Ko, Xuan Ngan Giang Nguyen, Pajaree Ingkasupart, Mira Jun, Jin Young Shin, Woo-Sik Jeong

Publications and Research

In the present study, we characterized the antioxidant and hepatoprotective mechanisms underlying of wild grape seed procyanidins (WGP) against oxidative stress damage in ethanol-treated HepG2 cell and Sprague-Dawley (SD)-rat models. In HepG2 cells, WGP not only diminished the ethanol (EtOH, 100 mM)-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) expression, but also renovated both the activity and expression of antioxidant enzymes including catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase. Additionally, to investigate the hepatoprotective effect of WGP, rats were orally administered 10 or 50 mg/kg WGP once daily for seven days prior to the single ...