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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Metabolomic Differences Between Invasive Alien Plants From Native And Invaded Habitats, Sarah A. Skubel, Xiaoyang Su, Alexander Poulev, Llewellyn C. Foxcroft, Vyacheslav Dushenkov, Ilya Raskin Jun 2020

Metabolomic Differences Between Invasive Alien Plants From Native And Invaded Habitats, Sarah A. Skubel, Xiaoyang Su, Alexander Poulev, Llewellyn C. Foxcroft, Vyacheslav Dushenkov, Ilya Raskin

Publications and Research

Globalization facilitated the spread of invasive alien species (IAS), undermining the stability of the world’s ecosystems. We investigated the metabolomic profiles of three IAS species: Chromolaena odorata (Asteraceae) Datura stramonium (Solanaceae), and Xanthium strumarium (Asteraceae), comparing metabolites of individual plants in their native habitats (USA), to their invasive counterparts growing in and around Kruger National Park (South Africa, ZA). Metabolomic samples were collected using RApid Metabolome Extraction and Storage (RAMES) technology, which immobilizes phytochemicals on glass fiber disks, reducing compound degradation, allowing long-term, storage and simplifying biochemical analysis. Metabolomic differences were analyzed using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) of ...


On The Distribution Of Genetic Variation In Ecological Communities, Isaac Overcast Feb 2020

On The Distribution Of Genetic Variation In Ecological Communities, Isaac Overcast

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Biodiversity in ecological communities is structured hierarchically across spatial and temporal scales. Many open questions remain as to how this structure accumulates. For example, what are the relative contributions of dispersal versus in situ speciation? Or, how important are stochastic drift versus deterministic processes? Up to this point, these questions have been investigated by isolated disciplines (e.g. macroecology, comparative phylogeography, macroevolution) using tools and data that tend to focus on only one axis of community scale data (e.g. phylogenies, relative abundances, and/or trait information). Yet we know that there are feedbacks among processes that respond on short ...


Network Structure Of Vertebrate Scavenger Assemblages At The Global Scale: Drivers And Ecosystem Functioning Implications, Esther Sebastián-González, Zebensui Morales-Reyes, Francisco Botella, Lara Naves-Alegre, Juan M. Pérez-García, Patricia Mateo-Tomás, Pedro P. Olea, Marcos Moleón, Jomar M. Barbosa, Fernando Hiraldo, Eneko Arrondo, José A. Donázar, Ainara Cortés-Avizanda, Nuria Selva, Sergio A. Lambertucci, Aishwarya Bhattacharjee, Alexis L. Brewer, Erin F. Abernethy, Kelsey L. Turner, James C. Beasley, Travis L. Devault, Hannah C. Gerke, Olin E. Rhodes Jr, Andrés Ordiz, Camilla Wikenros, Barbara Zimmermann, Petter Wabakken, Christopher C. Wilmers, Justine A. Smith, Corinne Kendall, Darcy Ogada, Ethan Frehner, Maximilian L. Allen, Heiko U. Wittmer, James R. A. Butler, Johan T. Du Toit, Antoni Margalida, Pilar Oliva-Vidal, David Wilson, Klemen Jerina, Miha Krofel, Rich Kostecke, Richard Inger, Esra Per, Yunus Ayhan, Hasan Ulusoy, Doğanay Vural, Akino Inagaki, Shinsuke Koike, Arockianathan Samson, Paula L. Perrig, Emma Spencer, Thomas M. Newsome, Marco Heurich, José D. Anadón, Evan R. Buechley, José A. Sánchez-Zapata Jan 2020

Network Structure Of Vertebrate Scavenger Assemblages At The Global Scale: Drivers And Ecosystem Functioning Implications, Esther Sebastián-González, Zebensui Morales-Reyes, Francisco Botella, Lara Naves-Alegre, Juan M. Pérez-García, Patricia Mateo-Tomás, Pedro P. Olea, Marcos Moleón, Jomar M. Barbosa, Fernando Hiraldo, Eneko Arrondo, José A. Donázar, Ainara Cortés-Avizanda, Nuria Selva, Sergio A. Lambertucci, Aishwarya Bhattacharjee, Alexis L. Brewer, Erin F. Abernethy, Kelsey L. Turner, James C. Beasley, Travis L. Devault, Hannah C. Gerke, Olin E. Rhodes Jr, Andrés Ordiz, Camilla Wikenros, Barbara Zimmermann, Petter Wabakken, Christopher C. Wilmers, Justine A. Smith, Corinne Kendall, Darcy Ogada, Ethan Frehner, Maximilian L. Allen, Heiko U. Wittmer, James R. A. Butler, Johan T. Du Toit, Antoni Margalida, Pilar Oliva-Vidal, David Wilson, Klemen Jerina, Miha Krofel, Rich Kostecke, Richard Inger, Esra Per, Yunus Ayhan, Hasan Ulusoy, Doğanay Vural, Akino Inagaki, Shinsuke Koike, Arockianathan Samson, Paula L. Perrig, Emma Spencer, Thomas M. Newsome, Marco Heurich, José D. Anadón, Evan R. Buechley, José A. Sánchez-Zapata

Publications and Research

The organization of ecological assemblages has important implications for ecosystem functioning, but little is known about how scavenger communities organize at the global scale. Here, we test four hypotheses on the factors affecting the network structure of terrestrial vertebrate scavenger assemblages and its implications on ecosystem functioning. We expect scavenger assemblages to be more nested (i.e. structured): 1) in species-rich and productive regions, as nestedness has been linked to high competition for carrion resources, and 2) regions with low human impact, because the most efficient carrion consumers that promote nestedness are large vertebrate scavengers, which are especially sensitive to ...


Sperm Storage Reduces The Strength Of The Mate-Finding Allee Effect, María V. Jiménez-Franco, Andrés Giménez, Roberto C. Rodríguez-Caro, Ana Sanz-Aguilar, Francisco Botella, Jose D. Anadon, Thorsten Wiegand, Eva Graciá Jan 2020

Sperm Storage Reduces The Strength Of The Mate-Finding Allee Effect, María V. Jiménez-Franco, Andrés Giménez, Roberto C. Rodríguez-Caro, Ana Sanz-Aguilar, Francisco Botella, Jose D. Anadon, Thorsten Wiegand, Eva Graciá

Publications and Research

Mate searching is a key component of sexual reproduction that can have important implications for population viability, especially for the mate-finding Allee effect. Interannual sperm storage by females may be an adaptation that potentially attenuates mate limitation, but the demographic consequences of this functional trait have not been studied. Our goal is to assess the effect of female sperm storage durability on the strength of the mate-finding Allee effect and the viability of populations subject to low population density and habitat alteration. We used an individual-based simulation model that incorporates realistic representations of the demographic and spatial processes of our ...


Venom Diversity And Evolution In The Most Divergent Cone Snail Genus Profundiconus, Guilia Fassio, Maria Vittoria Modica, Lou Mary, Paul Zaharias, Alexander E. Fedosov, Juliette Gorson, Yuri I. Kantor, Mandë E. Holford, Nicolas Puillandre Oct 2019

Venom Diversity And Evolution In The Most Divergent Cone Snail Genus Profundiconus, Guilia Fassio, Maria Vittoria Modica, Lou Mary, Paul Zaharias, Alexander E. Fedosov, Juliette Gorson, Yuri I. Kantor, Mandë E. Holford, Nicolas Puillandre

Publications and Research

Profundiconus is the most divergent cone snail genus and its unique phylogenetic position, sister to the rest of the family Conidae, makes it a key taxon for examining venom evolution and diversity. Venom gland and foot transcriptomes of Profundiconus cf. vaubani and Profundiconus neocaledonicus were de novo assembled, annotated, and analyzed for differential expression. One hundred and thirty-seven venom components were identified from P. cf. vaubani and 82 from P. neocaledonicus, with only four shared by both species. The majority of the transcript diversity was composed of putative peptides, including conotoxins, profunditoxins, turripeptides, insulin, and prohormone-4. However, there were also ...


Spatial Upscaling Of Forest Response To Drought, Wei Fang, Peipei Xu, Tao Zhao, Xiang Zhao, Hui Luo, George Hendrey, Chuixiang Yi Oct 2019

Spatial Upscaling Of Forest Response To Drought, Wei Fang, Peipei Xu, Tao Zhao, Xiang Zhao, Hui Luo, George Hendrey, Chuixiang Yi

Publications and Research

We have integrated the observational capability of satellite remote sensing with plot-scale tree ring data to up-scale the evaluation of forest responses to drought. Satellite data, such as Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), can provide a spatially continuous measure with limited temporal coverage, while tree Ring Width Index (RWI) provides accurate assessment with much longer time series local scales. Here, we explored the relationship between RWI and NDVI of three dominant species in the Southwestern United States (SWUS), and predicted RWI spatial distribution from 2001 to 2017 based on MODIS 1-km resolution NDVI data with stringent quality control. We detected ...


The Evolution Of Spinosad Resistance In Colorado Potato Beetles (Leptinotarsa Decemlineata), Coby Michael Klein Sep 2019

The Evolution Of Spinosad Resistance In Colorado Potato Beetles (Leptinotarsa Decemlineata), Coby Michael Klein

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Colorado potato beetles (Leptinotarsa decemlineata) are a major pest of cultivated potato plants worldwide. They are well-known for their ability to rapidly evolve resistance to all major classes of pesticides. Defoliation of potato plants by L. decemlineata can reduce potato yields by a considerable margin. The damage done by resistant beetles is steep and much research is focused on developing new chemical controls, especially those derived from naturally occurring compounds. Spinosad is a relatively new natural product insecticide, introduced approximately a decade ago, suitable for use in organic farming. Potato beetles on Long Island, NY developed very strong resistance to ...


Innate Antibodies, Murine Models, And Evolution: A Study Of Trypanosome Lytic Factor Functions And Their Translational Applications, Joseph P. Verdi Sep 2019

Innate Antibodies, Murine Models, And Evolution: A Study Of Trypanosome Lytic Factor Functions And Their Translational Applications, Joseph P. Verdi

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Trypanosome lytic factors (TLFs) are primate-specific antimicrobial protein complexes that lyse African trypanosome parasites by delivering the channel-forming toxin APOL1 to the invading microorganisms. Human serum contains two TLFs that are delivered to the parasite by separate mechanisms, only one of which has been characterized. TLF1 is endocytosed by a receptor that is typically blocked by other serum factors in vivo, suggesting that TLF2 is the more relevant lytic factor in the context of trypanosome immunity. TLF2 is non-covalently associated with polyclonal immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies, which we report here to be involved in the uptake mechanism. The TLF2-IgMs are ...


Sex, Scents, And Cephalopods: Factors That Affect Social And Reproductive Behavior In Chambered Nautilus And Oval Squid, Naomi J. Lewandowski Sep 2019

Sex, Scents, And Cephalopods: Factors That Affect Social And Reproductive Behavior In Chambered Nautilus And Oval Squid, Naomi J. Lewandowski

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Cephalopods are a highly specialized group of molluscs that show a wide range of behavioral patterns. Chambered nautilus (Nautilus pompilius) and oval squid (Sepioteuthis lessoniana) are two very distinct species of cephalopod that both provide unique insight into cephalopod reproductive and social behavior. In experiments utilizing both species, I aimed to fill in knowledge gaps in a range of reproductive behaviors from fundamental responses to conspecifics, to preferred mating habitat.

In Chapter 1 and 2 I tested individual nautiluses in a Y-maze where recipients were exposed to paired odors of two donor nautiluses. I collected data on both their choice ...


Comparison Of Play Frequency In Four Sympatric Monkey Species In Kibale National Park, Uganda, Sara G. Lucci Aug 2019

Comparison Of Play Frequency In Four Sympatric Monkey Species In Kibale National Park, Uganda, Sara G. Lucci

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

This study describes play in red colobus (Procolobus rufomitratus), grey-cheeked mangabeys (Lophocebus albigena), black-and-white colobus (Colobus guereza), and redtail monkeys (Cercopithecus ascanius) to test Instinct-Practice Theory. Solitary locomotor play was different among the species. Rough-and-tumble play was different between male and female redtail monkeys. These results partially support Instinct-Practice Theory.


Reduced Alphabet Of Prebiotic Amino Acids Optimally Encodes The Conformational Space Of Diverse Extant Protein Folds, Armando D. Solis Jul 2019

Reduced Alphabet Of Prebiotic Amino Acids Optimally Encodes The Conformational Space Of Diverse Extant Protein Folds, Armando D. Solis

Publications and Research

Background

There is wide agreement that only a subset of the twenty standard amino acids existed prebiotically in sufficient concentrations to form functional polypeptides. We ask how this subset, postulated as {A,D,E,G,I,L,P,S,T,V}, could have formed structures stable enough to found metabolic pathways. Inspired by alphabet reduction experiments, we undertook a computational analysis to measure the structural coding behavior of sequences simplified by reduced alphabets. We sought to discern characteristics of the prebiotic set that would endow it with unique properties relevant to structure, stability, and folding.

Results

Drawing on a large ...


An Early Modern Human Outside Africa, Eric Delson Jul 2019

An Early Modern Human Outside Africa, Eric Delson

Publications and Research

Analysis of two fossils from a Greek cave has shed light on early hominins in Eurasia. One fossil is the earliest known specimen of Homo sapiens found outside Africa; the other is a Neanderthal who lived 40,000 years later.


Enclosures And Dichotomies: Coexistence Vs. Distance In The Poems Of John Clare, Jordan P. Finn May 2019

Enclosures And Dichotomies: Coexistence Vs. Distance In The Poems Of John Clare, Jordan P. Finn

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

John Clare’s poetry emphasizes an affinity with environment by suspending the distinction between the inside (subject) and the outside (object). Clare’s identification with objects and perception rather than subjects and aesthetics renders his work as a prescient and radical example of ecological poetry in the Romantic period. Raymond Williams’ “green language” and Timothy Morton’s ambient poetics both cite Clare as an ideal figure for their above theories and evoke Clare as a writer who positions the environment as governing thought rather than thought governing the environment. This thesis especially relates Clare to Morton’s Ecology without Nature ...


Contagious Yawning In The Domestic Cat (Felis Catus), Ariel M. Lombardo Aghishian May 2019

Contagious Yawning In The Domestic Cat (Felis Catus), Ariel M. Lombardo Aghishian

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

This study investigates contagious yawning in domestic cats towards their owners, looking at potential links with empathy. Results showed no significant difference in yawning between conditions. The solitary nature of wildcats and their shared ancestor, and the unique social behavior in domesticated cats may explain these findings.


Cognitive Models Of Defense Behaviors In Hosts Of Brood Parasites, Thomas J. Manna May 2019

Cognitive Models Of Defense Behaviors In Hosts Of Brood Parasites, Thomas J. Manna

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Social parasites exploit the behavioral repertoire of their hosts for their own benefit, thereby reducing host reproductive success. Whether and how hosts respond to prevent, reduce, or eliminate the costs of parasitism requires the characterization of host cognitive algorithms in response to parasites. In this dissertation, I review the suite of the defense behaviors and decision rules of hosts targeted by avian and insect brood parasites, and present new experimental data on the detection of parasitism through the visual system of focal host species. In Chapter 1, I review extensive data already accumulated to isolate the cognitive mechanisms used by ...


Stabilizing Forces In Acoustic Cultural Evolution: Comparing Humans And Birds, Daniel C. Mann May 2019

Stabilizing Forces In Acoustic Cultural Evolution: Comparing Humans And Birds, Daniel C. Mann

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Learned acoustic communication systems, like birdsong and spoken human language, can be described from two seemingly contradictory perspectives. On one hand, learned acoustic communication systems can be remarkably consistent. Substantive and descriptive generalizations can be made which hold for a majority of populations within a species. On the other hand, learned acoustic communication systems are often highly variable. The degree of variation is often so great that few, if any, substantive generalizations hold for all populations in a species.

Within my dissertation, I explore the interplay of variation and uniformity in three vocal learning species: budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus), house finches ...


Evolution Of Endurance Running Genes Across Primates, Natalia T. Grube Apr 2019

Evolution Of Endurance Running Genes Across Primates, Natalia T. Grube

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

The endurance running hypothesis has emerged as a key idea to explain several unique anatomical, physiological, and genetic features of modern humans—among these features is the evolution of ACTN3 (Bramble & Lieberman 2004, Nature), a gene linked to human athletic performance. An additional gene linked to human endurance performance is ACE. Because endurance running is a uniquely human trait, I predicted that ACE and ACTN3 genes would be evolving adaptively in the human lineage when examined in a wider primatological framework. To test this I compiled ACE and ACTN3 genes from 14 primate species and phylogenetically tested if these genes ...


Area And Distance From Mainland Affect In Different Ways Richness And Phylogenetic Diversity Of Snakes In Atlantic Forest Coastal Islands, José Thales Da Motta Portillo, Lilian Sayuri Ouchi-Melo, Lucas Batista Crivellari, Thiago Alves Lopes De Oliveira, Ricardo J. Sawaya, Leonardo Da Silva Duarte Mar 2019

Area And Distance From Mainland Affect In Different Ways Richness And Phylogenetic Diversity Of Snakes In Atlantic Forest Coastal Islands, José Thales Da Motta Portillo, Lilian Sayuri Ouchi-Melo, Lucas Batista Crivellari, Thiago Alves Lopes De Oliveira, Ricardo J. Sawaya, Leonardo Da Silva Duarte

Publications and Research

Aim: The Theory of Island Biogeography posits that ecological and evolutionary processes regulate species richness of isolated areas. We assessed the influences of an island area and distance from the mainland on species richness, phylogenetic diversity, and phylogenetic composition of snakes on coastal islands.

Location: Coastal islands of the megadiverse Atlantic Forest in southeastern Brazil.

Methods: We compiled the species composition of 17 coastal islands in southeastern Brazil. Species richness and phylogenetic diversity were calculated for each island. Phylogenetic composition was measured using principal coordinates of phylogenetic structure. We then employed generalized linear models to test the influence of area ...


Phylogenetic History Of The Amy Gene Cluster In Catarrhines, Christian M. Gagnon Feb 2019

Phylogenetic History Of The Amy Gene Cluster In Catarrhines, Christian M. Gagnon

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

This study phylogenetically analyzed 30 AMY-related genes from 11 primates. The results show the gradual expansion of the AMY gene family which could have allowed primates to adapt to various ecological landscapes and maximize energy intake from starch-rich foods in periods of food scarcity.


Climatic Variables Are Strong Predictors Of Allonursing And Communal Nesting In Primates, Alexandra Louppova Feb 2019

Climatic Variables Are Strong Predictors Of Allonursing And Communal Nesting In Primates, Alexandra Louppova

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

Allomaternal care (AMC) is widespread throughout the primate order, previous studies have focused on benefits and costs to individuals. However, our understanding of environmental impacts on AMC behaviors in primates is still limited. Our study examines how ecology and environmental factors can predict certain AMC behaviors more than others.


Dolphins In Space: Quantifying The Relative Positions Of Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops Truncatus), Megan S. Mcgrath Feb 2019

Dolphins In Space: Quantifying The Relative Positions Of Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops Truncatus), Megan S. Mcgrath

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

Bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) are socially sophisticated mammals with high fission-fusion dynamics and complex communication. The relative positioning of individual dolphins as they swim within their social group may aid in the expression of social roles. This study sought to quantify relative positioning in a small social group of female bottlenose dolphins at the National Aquarium in Baltimore that included two mother-daughter pairs, maternal and paternal half-sisters, a half-aunt and niece, and one unrelated female. We devised a method for scoring relative positioning in three dimensions. We found that the two mothers and their juvenile and adult daughters often swam ...


Distribution And Population Structure Of The Invasive Nitellopsis Obtusa (Desv. In Loisel.) J. Groves And Native Species Of Characeae In The Northeast U.S.A., Robin Sleith Feb 2019

Distribution And Population Structure Of The Invasive Nitellopsis Obtusa (Desv. In Loisel.) J. Groves And Native Species Of Characeae In The Northeast U.S.A., Robin Sleith

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Freshwater ecosystems are some of the most biologically diverse environments on Earth. Billions of humans rely on functioning freshwater ecosystems for drinking water and many other services. These ecosystems are increasingly threatened by human impacts including nutrient pollution, invasive species, and climate change. Here I contribute four research chapters that investigate freshwater diversity and ecosystem threats using the Characeae, a family of freshwater green macroalgae, as a study system. Characeae are a diverse and ancient group with more than 500 extant species and a fossil history spanning at least 250 million years. These algae are macrophytes in freshwater ecosystems, and ...


The Morphology And Evolution Of The Primate Brachial Plexus, Brian M. Shearer Feb 2019

The Morphology And Evolution Of The Primate Brachial Plexus, Brian M. Shearer

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Primate evolutionary history is inexorably linked to the evolution of a broad array of locomotor adaptations that have facilitated the clade’s invasion of new niches. Researchers studying the evolution of primates and of their individual locomotor adaptations have traditionally relied on bony morphology – a practical choice given the virtual non-existence of any other type of tissue in the fossil record. However, this focus downplays the potential importance of the many other structures involved in locomotion, such as muscle, cartilage, and neural tissue, which may each be influenced by separate selective forces because of their different roles in facilitating movement ...


Standards For Distribution Models In Biodiversity Assessments, Miguel B. Araújo, Robert P. Anderson, A. Márcia Barbosa, Colin M. Beale, Carsten F. Dormann, Regan Early, Raquel A. Garcia, Antoine Guisan, Luigi Maiorano, Babak Naimi, Robert B. O'Hara, Niklaus E. Zimmermann, Carsten Rahbek Jan 2019

Standards For Distribution Models In Biodiversity Assessments, Miguel B. Araújo, Robert P. Anderson, A. Márcia Barbosa, Colin M. Beale, Carsten F. Dormann, Regan Early, Raquel A. Garcia, Antoine Guisan, Luigi Maiorano, Babak Naimi, Robert B. O'Hara, Niklaus E. Zimmermann, Carsten Rahbek

Publications and Research

Demand for models in biodiversity assessments is rising, but which models are adequate for the task? We propose a set of best-practice standards and detailed guidelines enabling scoring of studies based on species distribution models for use in biodiversity assessments. We reviewed and scored 400 modeling studies over the past 20 years using the proposed standards and guidelines. We detected low model adequacy overall, but with a marked tendency of improvement over time in model building and, to a lesser degree, in biological data and model evaluation. We argue that implementation of agreed-upon standards for models in biodiversity assessments would ...


Social Learning Through Associative Processes: A Computational Theory, Johan Lind, Stefano Ghirlanda, Magnus Enquist Jan 2019

Social Learning Through Associative Processes: A Computational Theory, Johan Lind, Stefano Ghirlanda, Magnus Enquist

Publications and Research

Social transmission of information is a key phenomenon in the evolution of behaviour and in the establishment of traditions and culture. The diversity of social learning phenomena has engendered a diverse terminology and numerous ideas about underlying learning mechanisms, at the same time that some researchers have called for a unitary analysis of social learning in terms of associative processes. Leveraging previous attempts and a recent computational formulation of associative learning, we analyse the following learning scenarios in some generality: learning responses to social stimuli, including learning to imitate; learning responses to non-social stimuli; learning sequences of actions; learning to ...


Multi-Locus Phylogenetic Inference Of The Howler Monkey (Alouatta) Radiation In South America., Esmeralda Ferreira Jan 2019

Multi-Locus Phylogenetic Inference Of The Howler Monkey (Alouatta) Radiation In South America., Esmeralda Ferreira

Dissertations and Theses

Abstract

Howler monkeys (Alouatta) are the most widely distributed New World primates, ranging from southern Mexico to northern Argentina. They occur in tropical rain forests, flooded and gallery forests, and deciduous and semi-deciduous environments. Despite their importance as seed dispersers, howlers have also been known to be ecological indicators. Available phylogenetic hypotheses for this genus have used chromosomal characters, morphological characteristics, and a limited number of molecular markers and specimens. In spite of these analyses, branching patterns among howler species lineages conflict between studies or remain unresolved. Using 14 unlinked non-coding intergenic nuclear regions under both a concatenated Bayesian approach ...


Local Adaptation In Mainland Anole Lizards: Integrating Population History And Genome–Environment Associations, Ivan Prates, Anna Penna, Miguel Trefaut Rodrigues, Ana Carolina Carnaval Nov 2018

Local Adaptation In Mainland Anole Lizards: Integrating Population History And Genome–Environment Associations, Ivan Prates, Anna Penna, Miguel Trefaut Rodrigues, Ana Carolina Carnaval

Publications and Research

Environmental gradients constrain physiological performance and thus species’ ranges, suggesting that species occurrence in diverse environments may be associated with local adaptation. Genome–environment association analyses (GEAA) have become central for studies of local adaptation, yet they are sensitive to the spatial orientation of historical range expansions relative to landscape gradients. To test whether potentially adaptive genotypes occur in varied climates in wide‐ranged species, we implemented GEAA on the basis of genomewide data from the anole lizards Anolis ortonii and Anolis punctatus, which expanded from Amazonia, presently dominated by warm and wet settings, into the cooler and less rainy ...


The Transcriptome Of The Bermuda Fireworm Odontosyllis Enopla (Annelida: Syllidae): A Unique Luciferase Gene Family And Putative Epitoky-Related Genes, Mercer R. Brugler, M. Teresa Aguado, Michael Tessler, Mark Siddall Aug 2018

The Transcriptome Of The Bermuda Fireworm Odontosyllis Enopla (Annelida: Syllidae): A Unique Luciferase Gene Family And Putative Epitoky-Related Genes, Mercer R. Brugler, M. Teresa Aguado, Michael Tessler, Mark Siddall

Publications and Research

The Bermuda fireworm Odontosyllis enopla exhibits an extremely tight circalunar circadian behavior that results in an impressive bioluminescent mating swarm, thought to be due to a conventional luciferase-mediated oxidation of a light-emitting luciferin. In addition, the four eyes become hypertrophied and heavily pigmented, and the nephridial system is modified to store and release gametes and associated secretions. In an effort to elucidate transcripts related to bioluminescence, circadian or circalunar periodicity, as well as epitoky-related changes of the eyes and nephridial system, we examined the transcriptomic profile of three female O. enopladuring a bioluminescent swarm in Ferry Reach, Bermuda. Using ...


Forest Drought Resistance Distinguished By Canopy Height, Wei Fang, Peipei Xu, Tao Zhou, George Hendrey, Xiang Zhao Jun 2018

Forest Drought Resistance Distinguished By Canopy Height, Wei Fang, Peipei Xu, Tao Zhou, George Hendrey, Xiang Zhao

Publications and Research

How are the survival and growth of trees under severe drought affected by their size? While some studies have shown that large trees are more vulnerable to drought than smaller trees, others found that small trees are the more vulnerable. We explored the potential relationships between canopy height and forest responses to drought indicated by tree mortality, tree ring width index (RWI), and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) in the southwestern United States (SWUS) in 2002. In that year many trees had zero tree ring growth due to mortality and dieback, presumably related to drought-stress. With RWI data from a ...


Anchored Phylogenomics Illuminates The Skipper Butterfly Tree Of Life, Emmanuel F. A. Toussaint, Jesse W. Breinholt, Chandra Earl, Andrew D. Warren, Andrew V. Z. Brower, Masaya Yago, Kelly M. Dexter, Marianne Espeland, Naomi E. Pierce, David J. Lohman, Akito Y. Kawahara Jun 2018

Anchored Phylogenomics Illuminates The Skipper Butterfly Tree Of Life, Emmanuel F. A. Toussaint, Jesse W. Breinholt, Chandra Earl, Andrew D. Warren, Andrew V. Z. Brower, Masaya Yago, Kelly M. Dexter, Marianne Espeland, Naomi E. Pierce, David J. Lohman, Akito Y. Kawahara

Publications and Research

Background: Butterflies (Papilionoidea) are perhaps the most charismatic insect lineage, yet phylogenetic relationships among them remain incompletely studied and controversial. This is especially true for skippers (Hesperiidae), one of the most species-rich and poorly studied butterfly families.

Methods: To infer a robust phylogenomic hypothesis for Hesperiidae, we sequenced nearly 400 loci using Anchored Hybrid Enrichment and sampled all tribes and more than 120 genera of skippers. Molecular datasets were analyzed using maximum-likelihood, parsimony and coalescent multi-species phylogenetic methods.

Results: All analyses converged on a novel, robust phylogenetic hypothesis for skippers. Different optimality criteria and methodologies recovered almost identical phylogenetic trees ...