Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Life Sciences Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

City University of New York (CUNY)

Discipline
Keyword
Publication Year
Publication
Publication Type
File Type

Articles 1 - 30 of 1245

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Minimalistic Peptide-Based Supramolecular Systems Relevant To The Chemical Origin Of Life, Daniela Kroiss Sep 2019

Minimalistic Peptide-Based Supramolecular Systems Relevant To The Chemical Origin Of Life, Daniela Kroiss

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

All forms of life are based on biopolymers, which are made up of a selection of simple building blocks, such as amino acids, nucleotides, fatty acids and sugars. Their individual properties govern their interactions, giving rise to complex supramolecular structures with highly specialized functionality, including ligand recognition, catalysis and compartmentalization. In this thesis, we aim to answer the question whether short peptides could have acted as precursors of modern proteins during prebiotic evolution. Using a combination of experimental and computational techniques, we screened a large molecular search space for peptide sequences that are capable of forming supramolecular complexes with adenosine ...


Anti-Cancer Effects Of Oleocanthal And Extra Virgin Olive Oil, Limor Goren Sep 2019

Anti-Cancer Effects Of Oleocanthal And Extra Virgin Olive Oil, Limor Goren

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Oleocanthal is a phenolic compound found in varying concentrations in extra virgin olive oil. Oleocanthal has been shown to be active physiologically, benefiting several diseased states by conferring anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective benefits. Recently, we and other groups have demonstrated its specific and selective toxicity toward cancer cells; however, the mechanism leading to cancer cell death is still disputed. The current study demonstrates that oleocanthal induced damage to cancer cells’ lysosomes leading to cellular toxicity in vitro. Non-cancer cells were significantly less affected. Lysosomal membrane permeabilization following oleocanthal treatment in various cell lines was assayed via three complementary methods. Additionally, we ...


Neurogenesis Is Altered Between And Across Brain Regions After Neurodegeneration And Injury, Alice Perez Sep 2019

Neurogenesis Is Altered Between And Across Brain Regions After Neurodegeneration And Injury, Alice Perez

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Adult neurogenesis is the addition of new neurons in the adult brain. In mammals, neurogenesis is largely restricted to the hippocampus and olfactory bulb, which underlie learning, memory, and olfaction. In songbirds, new neurons are incorporated into telencephalic regions that subserve the production, perception, and maintenance of song. Studies of the regulation of neurogenesis have exclusively focused on a single brain region and within a single hemisphere. Interestingly, it has yet to be investigated whether there are correlations between numbers of new neurons across regions and hemispheres within the same animal. Here we examined these differences in a rat model ...


Scavenger Hunt Reflection Lab Report, Angela Padilla Aug 2019

Scavenger Hunt Reflection Lab Report, Angela Padilla

Open Educational Resources

A. Scavenger Hunt Description

❏ This Scavenger Hunt Assignment is designed for the First Year Seminar for Natural Sciences (NSF 101) and the First Year Seminar for Liberal Arts: Math and Science (LMF 101) (STEM majors).

❏ The main objective of this assignment is to familiarize students with their campus and its resources, to encourage students to collaborate with each other, and to be aware that the scientific method is applied to solve any problem, not just scientific issues. It is meant to address the Integrative Learning Core Competency.

❏ Students are given the entire class time (at least two hours) to complete ...


A Mendelian Randomization Study Of Coronary Artery Disease And Three Amino Acids: Alanine, Glycine, And Glutamine, Allan Uribe Jun 2019

A Mendelian Randomization Study Of Coronary Artery Disease And Three Amino Acids: Alanine, Glycine, And Glutamine, Allan Uribe

Dissertations and Theses

Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide. Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) accounts for the majority of those deaths. Observational studies have identified risk factors that have been helpful in lowering the death rate, including hypertension, high cholesterol, diabetes, smoking, physical inactivity and poor diet. The effects of these risk factors on CAD remain unclear. To clarify the effect of three amino acids, alanine, glutamine, and glycine on CAD I applied a two sample Mendelian randomization analysis to extensively genotyped observational data. In a sample with up to 184,000 individuals and approximately 60,000 controls, SNPs that reached ...


Development And Validation Of A Lc-Ms/Ms Method For Detection And Quantification Of 18 Antidepressants In Whole Blood, Linda Kim Jun 2019

Development And Validation Of A Lc-Ms/Ms Method For Detection And Quantification Of 18 Antidepressants In Whole Blood, Linda Kim

Student Theses

Antidepressants are one of the most commonly prescribed drugs in America, with researchers reporting one in six Americans take some form of psychiatric drugs-mostly antidepressants (NBC News, 2016). Antidepressants are often present in combination with other drugs in suicides and drug-related deaths, so a sensitive and specific method to detect and quantify antidepressants is necessary. We developed a method for the detection and quantification of 18 different antidepressants in whole blood, with a range of 2.5-900 ng/mL and LOQ of 2.5 ng/mL. Three hundred uL of blood was used and the analytes were extracted using solid-phase ...


Enclosures And Dichotomies: Coexistence Vs. Distance In The Poems Of John Clare, Jordan P. Finn May 2019

Enclosures And Dichotomies: Coexistence Vs. Distance In The Poems Of John Clare, Jordan P. Finn

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

John Clare’s poetry emphasizes an affinity with environment by suspending the distinction between the inside (subject) and the outside (object). Clare’s identification with objects and perception rather than subjects and aesthetics renders his work as a prescient and radical example of ecological poetry in the Romantic period. Raymond Williams’ “green language” and Timothy Morton’s ambient poetics both cite Clare as an ideal figure for their above theories and evoke Clare as a writer who positions the environment as governing thought rather than thought governing the environment. This thesis especially relates Clare to Morton’s Ecology without Nature ...


Green Infrastructure Design Influences Communities Of Urban Soil Bacteria, Jessica Lee Joyner, Jordan Kerwin, Maha Deeb, George Lozefski, Bharath Prithiviraj, Anna Paitseva, John Mclaughin, Peter M. Groffman, Zhongqi Cheng, Theodore R. Muth May 2019

Green Infrastructure Design Influences Communities Of Urban Soil Bacteria, Jessica Lee Joyner, Jordan Kerwin, Maha Deeb, George Lozefski, Bharath Prithiviraj, Anna Paitseva, John Mclaughin, Peter M. Groffman, Zhongqi Cheng, Theodore R. Muth

Publications and Research

The importance of natural ecosystem processes is often overlooked in urban areas. Green Infrastructure (GI) features have been constructed in urban areas as elements to capture and treat excess urban runoff while providing a range of ancillary benefits, e.g., ecosystem processes mediated by microorganisms that improve air and water quality, in addition to the associations with plant and tree rhizospheres. The objective of this study was to characterize the bacterial community and diversity in engineered soils (Technosols) of five types of GI in New York City; vegetated swales, right of way bioswales (ROWB; including street-side infiltration systems and enhanced ...


Epigenetic Modifications In Alzheimer’S Neuropathology And Therapeutics, Michelle Esposito, Goldie Libby Sherr May 2019

Epigenetic Modifications In Alzheimer’S Neuropathology And Therapeutics, Michelle Esposito, Goldie Libby Sherr

Publications and Research

Transcriptional activation is a highly synchronized process in eukaryotes that requires a series of cis- and trans-acting elements at promoter regions. Epigenetic modifications, such as chromatin remodeling, histone acetylation/deacetylation, and methylation, have frequently been studied with regard to transcriptional regulation/dysregulation. Recently however, it has been determined that implications in epigenetic modification seem to expand into various neurodegenerative disease mechanisms. Impaired learning and memory deterioration are cognitive dysfunctions often associated with a plethora of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease. Through better understanding of the epigenetic mechanisms underlying these dysfunctions, new epigenomic therapeutic targets, such as histone deacetylases, are ...


Observation Of Visitors At A Chimpanzee (Pan Troglodytes Schweinfurthii) Ecotourism Site Reveals Opportunity For Multiple Modes Of Pathogen Transmission, Darcey Glasser May 2019

Observation Of Visitors At A Chimpanzee (Pan Troglodytes Schweinfurthii) Ecotourism Site Reveals Opportunity For Multiple Modes Of Pathogen Transmission, Darcey Glasser

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) tracking is a popular ecotourism activity across Sub-Saharan Africa, offering visitors a personal wildlife experience. However, chimpanzee ecotourism may increase the risk of disease transmission between chimpanzees and people. This study assessed how tourist behaviors might facilitate cross-species disease transmission in Kibale National Park, Uganda.


Receptor-Mediated Maturation Of Olfactory Sensory Neurons: A Time Course Evaluation Of Neuronal Maturation In Neomorphic Mutants, Elizabeth Miller May 2019

Receptor-Mediated Maturation Of Olfactory Sensory Neurons: A Time Course Evaluation Of Neuronal Maturation In Neomorphic Mutants, Elizabeth Miller

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

How expression of odorant receptors affects the maturation of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) is not known. In a time course experiment, we show that wild type OSNs mature significantly more than those expressing Neomorphic mutant receptors. We conclude that functional receptors are critical to the differentiation and survival of OSNs.


Designing Computational Biology Workflows With Perl - Part 2, Esma Yildirim May 2019

Designing Computational Biology Workflows With Perl - Part 2, Esma Yildirim

Open Educational Resources

This material briefly reintroduces the DNA double Helix structure, explains SNP and INDEL mutations in genes and describes FASTA, FASTQ, BAM and VCF file formats. It also explains the index creation, alignment, sorting, marking duplicates and variant calling steps of a simple preprocessing workflow and how to write a Perl script to automate the execution of these steps on a Virtual Machine Image.


Designing Computational Biology Workflows With Perl - Part 1, Esma Yildirim May 2019

Designing Computational Biology Workflows With Perl - Part 1, Esma Yildirim

Open Educational Resources

This material introduces Linux File System structures and demonstrates how to use commands to communicate with the operating system through a Terminal program. Basic program structures and system() function of Perl are discussed. A brief introduction to gene-sequencing terminology and file formats are given.


Designing Computational Biology Workflows With Perl - Part 1, Esma Yildirim May 2019

Designing Computational Biology Workflows With Perl - Part 1, Esma Yildirim

Open Educational Resources

This material introduces the AWS console interface, describes how to create an instance on AWS with the VMI provided, connect to that machine instance using the SSH protocol. Once connected, it requires the students to write a script to enter the data folder, which includes gene-sequencing input files and print the first five line of each file remotely. The same exercise can be applied if the VMI is installed on a local machine using virtualization software (e.g. Oracle VirtualBox). In this case, the Terminal program of the VMI can be used to do the exercise.


Designing Computational Biology Workflows With Perl - Part 2, Esma Yildirim May 2019

Designing Computational Biology Workflows With Perl - Part 2, Esma Yildirim

Open Educational Resources

This material introduces the AWS console interface, describes how to create an instance on AWS with the VMI provided and connect to that machine instance using the SSH protocol. Once connected, it requires the students to write a script to automate the tasks to create VCF files from two different sample genomes belonging to E.coli microorganisms by using the FASTA and FASTQ files in the input folder of the virtual machine. The same exercise can be applied if the VMI is installed on a local machine using virtualization software (e.g. Oracle VirtualBox). In this case, the Terminal program ...


Designing Computational Biology Workflows With Perl - Part 1 & 2, Esma Yildirim May 2019

Designing Computational Biology Workflows With Perl - Part 1 & 2, Esma Yildirim

Open Educational Resources

This manual guides the instructor to combine the partial files of the virtual machine image and construct sequencer.ova file. It is accompanied by the partial files of the virtual machine image.


The 5-Ht1a-R Knockout Mouse As A Model Of Later Life Anxiety Disorders: Implications For Sex Differences, Tatyana Budylin May 2019

The 5-Ht1a-R Knockout Mouse As A Model Of Later Life Anxiety Disorders: Implications For Sex Differences, Tatyana Budylin

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Anxiety affects nearly twice as many women as it affects men across all cultures and economic groups. Importantly, girls have a higher chance of inheriting anxiety disorders than boys, and many anxiety disorders appear at a very young age. However, little is known about sex differences in brain and behavioral development and how they relate to anxiety in adulthood. Serotonin 1A receptor (5-HT1A-R) mediated signaling has been implicated in depression and anxiety, however most studies that focus on the involvement of the 5-HT1A-R have been conducted in adults. Little is known about how the 5-HT1A ...


Modeling Changes In Cellular Micro-Environment In Mild To Moderate Head Trauma, Xiangfu Zhang, Subhendra N. Sarkar Phd, Rt May 2019

Modeling Changes In Cellular Micro-Environment In Mild To Moderate Head Trauma, Xiangfu Zhang, Subhendra N. Sarkar Phd, Rt

Publications and Research

Our work aims to connect and model multiple small, inter-related tissue injuries as a consequence of mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBI). It has been shown that frontal and temporal lobes are vulnerable regions for brain traumatic injury. A brain injury from a blow or high-speed impact can cause undersurface of the frontal and temporal lobes to deform against the anterior and cranial fossae. This deformation can often trigger damage to the cerebral vasculature, which is ill-understood and can result in chronic damage to larger vessels over time. These physiological injuries can be manifested psychologically; such as patients’ sleep-wake disturbances. The ...


Cognitive Models Of Defense Behaviors In Hosts Of Brood Parasites, Thomas J. Manna May 2019

Cognitive Models Of Defense Behaviors In Hosts Of Brood Parasites, Thomas J. Manna

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Social parasites exploit the behavioral repertoire of their hosts for their own benefit, thereby reducing host reproductive success. Whether and how hosts respond to prevent, reduce, or eliminate the costs of parasitism requires the characterization of host cognitive algorithms in response to parasites. In this dissertation, I review the suite of the defense behaviors and decision rules of hosts targeted by avian and insect brood parasites, and present new experimental data on the detection of parasitism through the visual system of focal host species. In Chapter 1, I review extensive data already accumulated to isolate the cognitive mechanisms used by ...


Interhemispheric Communication And Lateralization In The Mouse Hippocampus, Jake Jordan May 2019

Interhemispheric Communication And Lateralization In The Mouse Hippocampus, Jake Jordan

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The hippocampus is essential for memory and spatial navigation. Many theories have been proposed to explain how the hippocampus contributes to cognition; however, none has fully explained relevant neurophysiological and behavioral data. Hemispheric lateralization of hippocampal function has been reported in humans and in rodents, and lateralization of hippocampal neural circuitry has been reported in rodents. Most theories of hippocampal function fail to consider the hippocampus as a bilateral structure with hemispheric differences. Further, proposed theories of hippocampal lateralization have their own limitations in explaining empirical data concerning left/right function. Little is known about communication between the hippocampi across ...


A Novel Kinesin Adapter Directly Mediates Dendritic Mrna Localization During Synapse Development, Hao Wu May 2019

A Novel Kinesin Adapter Directly Mediates Dendritic Mrna Localization During Synapse Development, Hao Wu

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Cytoskeleton based active transport with motor proteins is essential for mRNA localization and local protein translation in animal cells, yet how mRNA granules interact with motor proteins remains poorly understood. Using an unbiased screen for interaction between mRNA binding proteins (RBP) and motor proteins, we identified protein interacting with APP tail 1 (PAT1) as a potential direct adapter between the β-actin mRNA Zipcode-binding protein 1 (ZBP1) and Kinesin-1 motor complex.

Mouse PAT1 is similar to the Kinesin Light Chain (KLC) in amino acid sequence and binds directly to KLC. High-resolution images from structured illumination microscopy (SIM) indicates that synaptic stimulation ...


Human Anatomy And Physiology I: Course Map With Expected Learning Outcomes, Carlos Liachovitzky May 2019

Human Anatomy And Physiology I: Course Map With Expected Learning Outcomes, Carlos Liachovitzky

Open Educational Resources

This document contains a list with all the Anatomy and Physiology I expected learning outcomes organized by topics, and grouped into ten units: 1. Introduction to A&P: body plan & organization; 2. Introduction to A&P: homeostasis; 3. The chemical level of organization; 4. Levels of organization: the cellular level of organization; 5. Levels of organization: the tissue level of organization; 6. Support and movement: integumentary system; 7. Support and movement: skeletal system & articulations; 8. Support and movement: muscular system; 9. Regulation, integration, and control: nervous system; 10. Regulation, integration, and control: special senses

Each learning outcome is referred to a section in the textbook “Anatomy and ...


The Molecular Mechanisms Underlying The Cancer Killing Effect Of Interleukin-24, Leah Eshanie Persaud May 2019

The Molecular Mechanisms Underlying The Cancer Killing Effect Of Interleukin-24, Leah Eshanie Persaud

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Interleukin-24 (IL-24) is an immunomodulatory cytokine that also displays specific anti-tumor effects across many cancer cell types. The tumor suppressor activities of IL-24 include inhibition of angiogenesis, metastasis, toxic autophagy, cancer-specific apoptosis, and sensitization to traditional cancer treatments like chemotherapy and radiation. Overexpression of IL-24 can selectively induce apoptosis in various cancer cells while having no adverse effects on normal cells. Due to this favorable killing effect, IL-24 is currently in phase II clinical trials. There is accumulating evidence that IL-24’s anti-cancer activity is primarily through the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathway but other pathways leading to cell death ...


Resisting Industrial Food Systems On The Web: How Non-Profit Organizations Use Digital Technology For Sustainability Education, Aleksandr Segal May 2019

Resisting Industrial Food Systems On The Web: How Non-Profit Organizations Use Digital Technology For Sustainability Education, Aleksandr Segal

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This thesis examines the link between how community-based organizations use digital tools with the fundamentally resistance-based philosophy that these organizations have at the core of their mission. It aims to uncover how non-profit organizations (NPOs) that work in community development through food and agriculture use digital tools, and how their digital communication strategies relate to issues of resistance to neoliberalism and industrialization in the food and agriculture sectors.

Using a foundation of existing literature on food and agriculture, climate change and waste management, critical theory, and technology in pedagogy, this thesis will contextualize how non-profits resist neoliberal regimes of de-traditionalization ...


Cultural Heritage Preservation In The Context Of Climate Change Adaptation Or Relocation: Barbuda As A Case Study, Martha B. Lerski May 2019

Cultural Heritage Preservation In The Context Of Climate Change Adaptation Or Relocation: Barbuda As A Case Study, Martha B. Lerski

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This case study introduces an arts camp methodology of engaging communities in identifying their key cultural heritage features, thus serving as a meta study. It presents original research based on field studies on the climate-vulnerable Caribbean island of Barbuda during 2017 and 2018. Its Valued Cultural Elements survey, enabling precise identification of key tangible and intangible art forms and biocultural practices, may serve as a basis for further studies. Such approaches may facilitate future research or planning as climate-vulnerable communities harness Local or Indigenous Knowledge for purposes of biocultural heritage preservation, or towards adaptation or relocation. I report on findings ...


Design And Application Of Matrix Metalloproteinase-9-Responsive Peptide Nanostructures, Jiye Son May 2019

Design And Application Of Matrix Metalloproteinase-9-Responsive Peptide Nanostructures, Jiye Son

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-responsive materials have been investigated since the late 1990’s as scaffolds for tissue engineering and since then, have evolved into sophisticated nanomaterials for cancer-targeting therapy. In this thesis titled, “Design and Application of Matrix Metalloproteinase-9-Responsive Peptide Nanostructures,” we aim to answer the following key questions: can MMP-responsive nanomaterials improve the efficacy of anti-cancer treatments? How can we achieve specificity towards MMPs using nanomaterials? Finally, what are the advantages in using peptides as building blocks to create MMP-responsive nanostructures? Each chapter in the thesis will address one or more of the key questions and draw conclusions at ...


Getting At The Surface: A Promoter And Coding Sequence Characterization Of An Odorant Receptor, Irena G. Parvanova May 2019

Getting At The Surface: A Promoter And Coding Sequence Characterization Of An Odorant Receptor, Irena G. Parvanova

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Odorant receptors (ORs) are expressed by mature olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs), in a monogenic and monoallelic fashion (singular gene choice). It has been repeatedly published that the singular expression of ORs is a consequence of epigenetic regulation. The model invokes the depositing of epigenetic marks (off marks) that reflect transcriptional inactivity on all OR genes in immature neurons followed by the activation of one OR allele in maturing neurons. OR expression has been exclusively studied via transgenic animal models, due to the lack of cell line system that can undergo singular gene choice. Here, we used chromatin immunoprecipitation-quantitative polymerase chain ...


Context Dependent Roles Of Mdmx (Mdm4) And Mdm2 In Breast Cancer Proliferation And Circulating Tumor Cells, Chong Gao May 2019

Context Dependent Roles Of Mdmx (Mdm4) And Mdm2 In Breast Cancer Proliferation And Circulating Tumor Cells, Chong Gao

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Many human breast cancers overexpress the E3 ubiquitin ligase MDM2 and its homolog MDMX. Expression of MDM2 and MDMX occurs in both estrogen receptor α positive (ER+) and triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). We and others have reported that estrogen activated MDM2 strongly promotes proliferation in ER+ T47D breast cancer cells in a p53-independent manner. Whether MDM2 elicits in vivo p53-independent proliferative functions in T47D breast cancer cells has not been determined. Furthermore it has been shown that ectopic expression of MDM2 targets E-Cadherin for degradation thus leading to increased cell migration and invasion. Therefore we assessed the in vivo ...


The Dionysus Project: Classifying & Monitoring Vineyards With Satellite Remote Sensing & Image Analysis, Evelin Perez-Flores, Nicole Flores May 2019

The Dionysus Project: Classifying & Monitoring Vineyards With Satellite Remote Sensing & Image Analysis, Evelin Perez-Flores, Nicole Flores

Publications and Research

Climate change is expected to impact the wine industry by shifting suitable growing regions away from established regions and increasing the demand for freshwater supplies to maintain vineyard health. This creates challenges for maintaining vineyards since the grapevines need to be appropriately stressed to produce quality grapes for quality wine. This requires precision management of freshwater application and canopy management to produce a grape that has the appropriate concentration of flavors and sugars. Vineyards in the U.S. are typically monitored by vineyard managers at the large scale, lacking the resolution needed to identify grapevine growth at the subfield level ...


Cultural Competence: Issues And Benefits In Healthcare Delivery, Tetiana Soloviova, Amina Shahbaz, Fahaneda Hassan, Zoya Vinokur May 2019

Cultural Competence: Issues And Benefits In Healthcare Delivery, Tetiana Soloviova, Amina Shahbaz, Fahaneda Hassan, Zoya Vinokur

Publications and Research

The extreme growth of New York State population causes to bring more challenges and opportunities for healthcare organization to provide culturally competent service to meet the need of diverse population. According to data from the US Census Bureau, minority groups are projected to make up nearly 50% of the population by the year 2050 compared with 30% in 2000. Outside of ethnicity, there are also many cultural and social groups with which people identify that may affect how they view or receive healthcare. It is very difficult to provide quality service for a diverse population due to language barriers, health ...