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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Evaluation Of A Newly Implemented Undergraduate Global Health Course In The Public University Setting, Brianna Moore, William Sorensen, Cheryl Cooper Jun 2016

Evaluation Of A Newly Implemented Undergraduate Global Health Course In The Public University Setting, Brianna Moore, William Sorensen, Cheryl Cooper

William Sorensen

This study evaluates the effectiveness of a new undergraduate global health course by assessing students' pre/post global knowledge and beliefs. Using factor analysis, student beliefs coalesced into two belief foci: safety/comfort and responsibility/connectedness. Knowledge significantly increased across the board, whereas belief change was more localized.


Hla Class I Supertype Associations With Clinical Outcome Of Secondary Dengue Virus Infections In Ethnic Thais, Sasijit Vejbaesya, Rungrot Thongpradit, Siripen Kalayanarooj, Komon Luangtrakool, Panpimon Luangtrakool, Robert V. Gibbons, Duangporn Srinak, Somporn Ngammthaworn, Kusuma Apisawes, In-Kyu Yoon, Stephen J. Thomas, Richard G. Jarman, Anon Srikiatkhachorn, Sharone Green, Dasnayanee Chandanayingyong, Sangshin Park, Jennifer Friedman, Alan L. Rothman, Henry A.F. Stephens May 2016

Hla Class I Supertype Associations With Clinical Outcome Of Secondary Dengue Virus Infections In Ethnic Thais, Sasijit Vejbaesya, Rungrot Thongpradit, Siripen Kalayanarooj, Komon Luangtrakool, Panpimon Luangtrakool, Robert V. Gibbons, Duangporn Srinak, Somporn Ngammthaworn, Kusuma Apisawes, In-Kyu Yoon, Stephen J. Thomas, Richard G. Jarman, Anon Srikiatkhachorn, Sharone Green, Dasnayanee Chandanayingyong, Sangshin Park, Jennifer Friedman, Alan L. Rothman, Henry A.F. Stephens

Sharone Green

BACKGROUND: Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) supertypes are groups of functionally related alleles that present structurally similar antigens to the immune system.

OBJECTIVES: To analyze HLA class I supertype associations with clinical outcome in hospitalized Thai children with acute dengue illness.

METHODS: Seven hundred sixty-two patients and population-matched controls recruited predominantly in Bangkok were HLA-A and -B typed. HLA supertype frequencies were compared and tested for significant dengue disease associations using logistic regression analyses. Multivariable models were built by conducting forward stepwise selection procedures.

RESULTS: In the final logistic regression model, the HLA-B44 supertype was protective against dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF ...


Regardless Of Genotype, Offspring Of Vip-Deficient Female Mice Exhibit Developmental Delays And Deficits In Social Behavior., Hewlet Mcfarlane May 2016

Regardless Of Genotype, Offspring Of Vip-Deficient Female Mice Exhibit Developmental Delays And Deficits In Social Behavior., Hewlet Mcfarlane

Hewlet McFarlane

Pharmacological studies indicate that vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) may be necessary for normal embryonic development in the mouse. For example, VIP antagonist treatment before embryonic day 11 resulted in developmental delays, growth restriction, modified adult brain chemistry and reduced social behavior. Here, developmental milestones, growth, and social behaviors of neonates of VIP-deficient mothers (VIP +/-) mated to VIP +/- males were compared with the offspring of wild type mothers (VIP +/+) mated to VIP +/+ and +/- males, to assess the contributions of both maternal and offspring VIP genotype. Regardless of their own genotype, all offsprings of VIP-deficient mothers exhibited developmental delays. No delays were ...


Reduced Ultrasonic Vocalizations In Vasopressin 1b Knockout Mice., Hewlet Mcfarlane May 2016

Reduced Ultrasonic Vocalizations In Vasopressin 1b Knockout Mice., Hewlet Mcfarlane

Hewlet McFarlane

The neuropeptides oxytocin and vasopressin have been implicated in rodent social and affiliative behaviors, including social bonding, parental care, social recognition, social memory, vocalizations, territoriality, and aggression, as well as components of human social behaviors and the etiology of autism. Previous investigations of mice with various manipulations of the oxytocin and vasopressin systems reported unusual levels of ultrasonic vocalizations in social settings. We employed a vasopressin 1b receptor (Avpr1b) knockout mouse to evaluate the role of the vasopressin 1b receptor subtype in the emission of ultrasonic vocalizations in adult and infant mice. Avpr1b null mutant female mice emitted fewer ultrasonic ...


The Effectiveness And Restoration Potential Of Riparian Ecotones For The Management Of Nonpoint Source Pollution, Particularly Nitrate, Siobhan Fennessy May 2016

The Effectiveness And Restoration Potential Of Riparian Ecotones For The Management Of Nonpoint Source Pollution, Particularly Nitrate, Siobhan Fennessy

Siobhan Fennessy

The interface found where rivers meet terrestrial systems is an ecotone that has a profound influence on the movement of water and waterborne contaminants. Maintaining or restoring ecotone functions and characteristics such as natural near stream vegetation and channel morphology are important means to safeguard water quality in agricultural landscapes. A riparian buffer zone of 20 to 30 m width can remove up to 100% of incoming nitrate. Denitrification is the major pathway of removal and rates depend on nitrate loadings, carbon availability, and hydrology. Denitrification occurs throughout the year as long as subsurface hydrology is intact, whereas plant uptake ...


Restoration And Creation Of Freshwater And Estuarine Wetlands, Siobhan Fennessy May 2016

Restoration And Creation Of Freshwater And Estuarine Wetlands, Siobhan Fennessy

Siobhan Fennessy

The restoration and creation of freshwater and estuarine wetlands are important practices designed to increase wetland acreage and mitigate for the extensive losses of wetland area all over the world. Wetland restoration, defined as the reestablishment of wetlands where they once existed, and wetland creation, where entirely new wetlands are established in upland locations, require an understanding of hydrology, soils and landscape setting to foster the development of native biotic communities, including vegetation, invertebrates and amphibians. Restoration projects may take decades to fully develop; success may be measured by comparison of key indicators with natural wetlands.


Modeling To Improve Vegetation-Based Wetland Biological Assessment, Siobhan Fennessy May 2016

Modeling To Improve Vegetation-Based Wetland Biological Assessment, Siobhan Fennessy

Siobhan Fennessy

The accurate and precise biological assessment of wetland ecosystems has proven to be a significant challenge to natural resource managers. Biological assemblages in wetland ecosystems are highly variable and this variability can confound inferences of biological condition resulting from biological assessments. Efforts to control for this natural biological variation have led to the development of many different biological assessment indices that are based on classification. Classification-based indices often lack broad applicability and may not adequately control for natural sources of biological variation. Biological variation is often associated with natural environmental gradients that modeling techniques may be able to account for ...


Hydrophytes In The Mid-Atlantic Region: Ecology, Communities, Assessment, And Diversity, Siobhan Fennessy May 2016

Hydrophytes In The Mid-Atlantic Region: Ecology, Communities, Assessment, And Diversity, Siobhan Fennessy

Siobhan Fennessy

Hydrophytes, or wetland plants, are the most conspicuous and perhaps most colorful element of wetland systems. In the mid-Atlantic region, hydrophytes have been the focus of many studies, resulting in a wealth of information on wetland classification, vegetation stressors, and plant-based assessment tools. For example, exploration of the relationship between hydrophytes and the physical aspects of wetlands has led to a new hydrogeomorphic classification of headwater systems that combines three previously distinct classes. Studies of stressors have shown that plants respond differentially to human-mediated disturbances in the surrounding landscape. Reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea), a native but highly invasive wetland ...


Invertebrates And Plants: Methods And Applications, Siobhan Fennessy May 2016

Invertebrates And Plants: Methods And Applications, Siobhan Fennessy

Siobhan Fennessy

Invertebrates and plants are among the most ubiquitous and abundant macroscopic organisms in aquatic ecosystems; they dominate most habitats in both diversity and biomass and play central roles in aquatic food webs. Plants regulate and create habitats for a wide array of organisms (Cooke et al. 2005). Snail grazing and bivalve filtering profoundly alter habitats and communities (Harvey and Hill 1991; Vaughn and Hakenkamp 2001). Aquatic habitats in North America support extremely diverse floras and invertebrate faunas; groups such as crayfishes and freshwater mollusks reach their highest worldwide diversity here. Crayfishes are important economically for human food, fishing bait, and ...


Carbon Sequestration In Mediterranean Tidal Wetlands: San Francisco Bay And The Ebro River Delta, Siobhan Fennessy May 2016

Carbon Sequestration In Mediterranean Tidal Wetlands: San Francisco Bay And The Ebro River Delta, Siobhan Fennessy

Siobhan Fennessy

Tidal wetlands accumulate soil carbon at relatively rapid rates, in large part because they build soil to counteract increases in sea-level rise. Because of the rapid rates of carbon sequestration, there is growing interest in evaluating carbon dynamics in tidal wetlands around the world; however, few measurements have been completed for mediterranean-type tidal wetlands, which tend to have relatively high levels of soil salinity, likely affecting both plant productivity and decomposition rates. We measured sediment accretion and carbon sequestration rates at tidal wetlands in two mediterranean regions: the San Francisco Bay Estuary (California, USA) and the Ebro River Delta (Catalonia ...


Biological Indices Based On Macrophytes: An Overview Of Methods Used In Catalonia (Spain) And The Us To Determine The Status Of Rivers And Wetlands In A.Munné, A. Ginebreda, And N. Prat Ed., Experience From Surface Water Quality Monitoring: The European Union Water Framework Directive Implementation In Catalonia., Siobhan Fennessy May 2016

Biological Indices Based On Macrophytes: An Overview Of Methods Used In Catalonia (Spain) And The Us To Determine The Status Of Rivers And Wetlands In A.Munné, A. Ginebreda, And N. Prat Ed., Experience From Surface Water Quality Monitoring: The European Union Water Framework Directive Implementation In Catalonia., Siobhan Fennessy

Siobhan Fennessy

Aquatic macrophytes are commonly used as the basis for assessing the ecological condition of wetlands and rivers and are considered the basis for some of the best indicators of these ecosystems within their landscape. We review key approaches that utilize plant traits as the basis for water resource assessment, including the floristic quality assessment index (FQAI), the Qualitat del Bosc de Ribera (riparian forest quality index or QBR), indicator species analysis (IndVal), and multimetric indexes of ecological integrity (MMIs). The FQAI quantifies how “conservative” a plant species is by evaluating the degree to which it is adapted to a specific ...


Hypoglycemic Effect Of Allium Sativum On Oral Glucose Tolerance Test In Rabbits., Nyyer Ma, Anwar Ali Siddiqui, Athar Hs. Athar Hs. May 2016

Hypoglycemic Effect Of Allium Sativum On Oral Glucose Tolerance Test In Rabbits., Nyyer Ma, Anwar Ali Siddiqui, Athar Hs. Athar Hs.

Anwar Ali Siddiqui

The effect of crude garlic and its two organic extracts on blood glucose levels of rabbits have been studied. It was found that the petroleum ether extract and crude garlic juice had some hypoglycemic effect on the induced hyperglycemia in the experimental animals, whereas no effect was observed on the group fed on ethanol extract


Comparison Of Rna Isolation And Associated Methods For Extracellular Rna Detection By High-Throughput Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction, Kahraman Tanriverdi, Alper Kucukural, Ekaterina Mikhalev, Selim E. Tanriverdi, Rosalind Lee, Victor R. Ambros, Jane Freedman Apr 2016

Comparison Of Rna Isolation And Associated Methods For Extracellular Rna Detection By High-Throughput Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction, Kahraman Tanriverdi, Alper Kucukural, Ekaterina Mikhalev, Selim E. Tanriverdi, Rosalind Lee, Victor R. Ambros, Jane Freedman

Victor R. Ambros

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNA molecules that function in RNA silencing and posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression. miRNAs in biofluids are being used for clinical diagnosis as well as disease prediction. Efficient and reproducible isolation methods are crucial for extracellular RNA detection. To determine the best methodologies for miRNA detection from plasma, the performance of four RNA extraction kits, including an in-house kit, were determined with miScript miRNA assay technology; all were measured using a high-throughput quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) platform (BioMark System) with 90 human miRNA assays. In addition, the performances of complementary DNA (cDNA) and preamplification ...


Cold Tolerance Of Photosynthesis As A Determinant Of Tree Species Regeneration Patterns In An Evergreen Temperate Forest, Christopher P. Bickford, Sarah J. Richardson, Karen I. Bonner Apr 2016

Cold Tolerance Of Photosynthesis As A Determinant Of Tree Species Regeneration Patterns In An Evergreen Temperate Forest, Christopher P. Bickford, Sarah J. Richardson, Karen I. Bonner

Christopher P Bickford

Niche partitioning of light among seedling species is a key mechanism supporting coexistence in forests. Species sort along light gradients through direct responses to light and through indirect responses mediated by other environmental factors. Canopy gaps in temperate evergreen rainforests experience sub-zero temperatures and thus gap-dependent species are vulnerable to cold photoinhibition from exposure to high light at low temperatures. We used a shadehouse experiment to test two hypotheses: (1) that gap-dependent species are resistant to cold photoinhibition; and (2) that gap-dependence observed in the field may be driven by the interaction between high light and low temperatures. Specifically, we ...


Kontes Seo Dadupoker.Com Agen Judi Poker Domino Bandarq Online Terpercaya Di Indonesia, Dadupoker.Com Agen Judi Poker Domino Bandarq Online Terpercaya Di Indonesia Mar 2016

Kontes Seo Dadupoker.Com Agen Judi Poker Domino Bandarq Online Terpercaya Di Indonesia, Dadupoker.Com Agen Judi Poker Domino Bandarq Online Terpercaya Di Indonesia

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Giants Among Micromorphs: Were Cincinnatian (Ordovician, Katian) Small Shelly Phosphatic Faunas Dwarfed?, Benjamin F. Dattilo, Rebecca L. Freeman, Winfried S. Peters, William P. Heimbrock, Bradley Deline, Anthony J. Martin, Jack W. Kallmeyer, Jesse Reeder, Anne Argast Feb 2016

Giants Among Micromorphs: Were Cincinnatian (Ordovician, Katian) Small Shelly Phosphatic Faunas Dwarfed?, Benjamin F. Dattilo, Rebecca L. Freeman, Winfried S. Peters, William P. Heimbrock, Bradley Deline, Anthony J. Martin, Jack W. Kallmeyer, Jesse Reeder, Anne Argast

Winfried S. Peters

Small fossils are preserved as phosphatic (carbonate fluorapatite) micro-steinkerns (∼ 0.5 mm diameter) in Upper Ordovician beds of the Cincinnati area. Mollusks are common, along with bryozoan zooecia, echinoderm ossicles, and other taxa. Similar occurrences of Ordovician micromorphic mollusks have been interpreted as ecologically dwarfed and adapted to oxygen-starved conditions, an interpretation with implications for ocean anoxia. An alternative explanation for small phosphatic steinkerns is taphonomic. Stable carbonate fluorapatite selectively filled small voids, thus preserving small fossils, including larval/young mollusks. Reworking concentrated small phosphatic steinkerns from multiple generations while larger, unfilled calcareous shells were destroyed, resulting in small fossils ...


Weight Loss And The Prevention Of Weight Regain: Evaluation Of A Treatment Model Of Exercise Self-Regulation Generalizing To Controlled Eating, Jim Annesi, Ping H. Johnson, Gisele A. Tennant, Kandice J. Porter, Kristin L. Mcewen Jan 2016

Weight Loss And The Prevention Of Weight Regain: Evaluation Of A Treatment Model Of Exercise Self-Regulation Generalizing To Controlled Eating, Jim Annesi, Ping H. Johnson, Gisele A. Tennant, Kandice J. Porter, Kristin L. Mcewen

Jim Annesi

Context: For decades, behavioral weight-loss treatments have been unsuccessful beyond the short term. Development and testing of innovative, theoretically based methods that depart from current failed practices is a priority for behavioral medicine.

Objective: To evaluate a new, theory-based protocol in which exercise support methods are employed to facilitate improvements in psychosocial predictors of controlled eating and sustained weight loss.

Methods: Women with obesity were randomized into either a comparison treatment that incorporated a print manual plus telephone follow-ups (n = 55) or an experimental treatment of The Coach Approach exercise-support protocol followed after 2 months by group nutrition sessions focused ...


Scientific Research Needs More Funding, But Also Smarter Spending, Deepti Pradhan Jan 2016

Scientific Research Needs More Funding, But Also Smarter Spending, Deepti Pradhan

Deepti Pradhan

Although the budget for the NIH has been increased for FY 2016, in inflation adjusted dollars it is in fact 15% smaller than it was in 2006. The article discusses avenues for smarter spending of shrinking research dollars.


Pharmacology Of Legal And Illicit Drugs, Ashraf Mozayani Dec 2015

Pharmacology Of Legal And Illicit Drugs, Ashraf Mozayani

Ashraf Mozayani, Ph.D., PharmD

The pharmacology of any xenobiotic is a complex set of processes that is frequently divided into two categories: pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. These two processes encompass the various steps that the body takes to transform the drug to facilitate its excretion (pharmacokinetics) and the interactions of the drug with the body which result in the observed effects (pharmacodynamics). The study of these processes includes the determination of kinetic parameters to describe the rate of elimination of the drug from the body, binding affinities to describe the interaction of the drug with endogenous receptors, and the determination of enzymes that are instrumental ...


The Effect Of The Use Of Temperature On The Breakage Of Dormancy And The Subsequent Performance Of Rice (Oryza Spp.), Grace Doku, Mawutor Glover, Edinam Glover, Kofi Dartey Dec 2015

The Effect Of The Use Of Temperature On The Breakage Of Dormancy And The Subsequent Performance Of Rice (Oryza Spp.), Grace Doku, Mawutor Glover, Edinam Glover, Kofi Dartey

Dr. Edinam K. Glover

The principal aim of this study was to find out if the temperature at which dormancy was broken would affect the subsequent performance of rice on the field in terms of plant stand (emergence), plant height and number of leaves produced. The varieties TOG6565 (VI), CG17 (V2), WAB 450-24-2-5-P4-HB (V3) and CG14 (V4) were exposed to temperatures of 50°C for 4 days and 80°C for 1, 2, 3 and 4 days, and temperature effects on their field performance studied in a randomized complete block design of three replicates (i.e. a two factor experiment). The result indicated that ...


Effects Of Threonine Supplementation On Whole-Body Protein Synthesis And Plasma Metabolites In Growing And Mature Horses, Sara Mastellar, A. Moffet, P.A. Harris, K.L. Urschel Dec 2015

Effects Of Threonine Supplementation On Whole-Body Protein Synthesis And Plasma Metabolites In Growing And Mature Horses, Sara Mastellar, A. Moffet, P.A. Harris, K.L. Urschel

Sara Mastellar

Current equine threonine requirement estimates do not account for probable use of threonine to maintain gut health and mucin synthesis. The objective of this study was to determine if threonine supplementation (+Thr) would increase whole-body protein synthesis (WBPS) in weanling colts (Study 1) and adult mares (Study 2). Both studies used a crossover design, where each of six animals was studied twice while receiving the isonitrogenous diets. The basal diets contained lower threonine levels (Basal) than the threonine (+Thr) supplemented diets. Threonine intakes in mg/kg BW/day were as follows: 79 (Basal) and 162 (+Thr) for Study 1 and ...


The Minimization Of Research Animal Distress And Pain: Conclusions And Recommendations, Kathleen Conlee, Martin Stephens, Andrew Rowan Dec 2015

The Minimization Of Research Animal Distress And Pain: Conclusions And Recommendations, Kathleen Conlee, Martin Stephens, Andrew Rowan

Kathleen Conlee

While the attention given to preventing, assessing, and alleviating pain in research animals has increased noticeably in recent decades, much remains to be done both in terms of implementing best practices and conducting studies to answer outstanding questions. In contrast, the attention to distress (particularly non-pain induced distress) has shown no comparable increase. There are many reasons for this discrepancy, including the conceptual untidiness of the distress concept, the paucity of pharmacological treatments for distress, and perceived lack of regulatory emphasis on distress. These are challenges that need to be addressed and overcome. This book is intended to help meet ...


Chimpanzees In Research: Past, Present, And Future, Kathleen Conlee, Sarah Boysen Dec 2015

Chimpanzees In Research: Past, Present, And Future, Kathleen Conlee, Sarah Boysen

Kathleen Conlee

Although the welfare of chimpanzees encompasses many issues, this chapter addresses their use in research, including their historical and current use in the United States, ethical and scientific concerns, public opinion, international legislation, and future directions.


Resolving Animal Distress And Pain: Principles And Examples Of Good Practice In Various Fields Of Research, Alicia Karas, Matthew Leach, Karl Andrutis, Kathleen Conlee, John Gluck, Andrew Rowan, Martin Stephens Dec 2015

Resolving Animal Distress And Pain: Principles And Examples Of Good Practice In Various Fields Of Research, Alicia Karas, Matthew Leach, Karl Andrutis, Kathleen Conlee, John Gluck, Andrew Rowan, Martin Stephens

Kathleen Conlee

Pain and distress are central topics in legislation, regulations, and standards regarding the use of animals in research. However, in practice, pain has received greatly increased attention in recent years, while attention to distress has lagged far behind, especially for distress that is not induced by pain. A contributing factor is that there is less information readily available on distress, including practical information on its recognition, assessment and alleviation.

This chapter attempts to help fill that void by reversing the usual pattern and giving greater attention to distress than to pain. In addition, we also bypass the pain versus distress ...


Language And Literacy Development In Individuals With Velo­‐Cardio­‐Facial Syndrome, Kevin Antshel, Eileen Marrinan, Wendy Kates, Wanda Fremont, Robert Shprintzen Dec 2015

Language And Literacy Development In Individuals With Velo­‐Cardio­‐Facial Syndrome, Kevin Antshel, Eileen Marrinan, Wendy Kates, Wanda Fremont, Robert Shprintzen

Robert J. Shprintzen

Velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS) is a genetic disorder caused by a microdeletion of chromosome 22q11.2. Although there is some variability, VCFS is associated with a characteristic physical, behavioral, and cognitive phenotype. This review article focuses on aspects of language and literacy development in VCFS, describing what is known and offering avenues for future research. The most consistently reported language and literacy findings in the VCFS population include reading, spelling, phonological processing, and auditory verbal rote memory abilities as areas of relative strength. Receptive language abilities are noted to be relatively stronger than expressive language abilities in individuals with VCFS. Speech ...


Atlas-Based White Matter Analysis In Individuals With Velo-Cardio-Facial Syndrome (22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome) And Unaffected Siblings, Petya Radoeva, Ioana Coman, Kevin Antshel, Wanda Fremont, Christopher Mccarthy, Ashwini Kotkar, Dongliang Wang, Robert Shprintzen, Wendy Kates Dec 2015

Atlas-Based White Matter Analysis In Individuals With Velo-Cardio-Facial Syndrome (22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome) And Unaffected Siblings, Petya Radoeva, Ioana Coman, Kevin Antshel, Wanda Fremont, Christopher Mccarthy, Ashwini Kotkar, Dongliang Wang, Robert Shprintzen, Wendy Kates

Robert J. Shprintzen

Background: Velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS, MIM#192430, 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome) is a genetic disorder caused by a deletion of about 40 genes at the q11.2 band of one copy of chromosome 22. Individuals with VCFS present with deficits in cognition and social functioning, high risk of psychiatric disorders, volumetric reductions in gray and white matter (WM) and some alterations of the WM microstructure. The goal of the current study was to characterize the WM microstructural differences in individuals with VCFS and unaffected siblings, and the correlation of WM microstructure with neuropsychological performance. We hypothesized that individuals with VCFS would ...


Carbon Dioxide For Euthanasia: Concerns Regarding Pain And Distress, With Special Reference To Mice And Rats, Kathleen Conlee, Martin Stephens, Andrew Rowan, Lesley King Dec 2015

Carbon Dioxide For Euthanasia: Concerns Regarding Pain And Distress, With Special Reference To Mice And Rats, Kathleen Conlee, Martin Stephens, Andrew Rowan, Lesley King

Kathleen Conlee

Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the most commonly used agent for euthanasia of laboratory rodents, used on an estimated tens of millions of laboratory rodents per year worldwide, yet there is a growing body of evidence indicating that exposure to CO2 causes more than momentary pain and distress in these and other animals. We reviewed the available literature on the use of CO2 for euthanasia (as well as anaesthesia) and also informally canvassed laboratory animal personnel for their opinions regarding this topic. Our review addresses key issues such as CO2 flow rate and final concentration, presence of oxygen, and prefilled chambers ...


Velo-Cardio-Facial Syndrome, Doron Gothelf, Amos Frisch, Elena Michaelovsky, Abraham Weizman, Robert Shprintzen Dec 2015

Velo-Cardio-Facial Syndrome, Doron Gothelf, Amos Frisch, Elena Michaelovsky, Abraham Weizman, Robert Shprintzen

Robert J. Shprintzen

Velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS), also known as DiGeorge, conotruncal anomaly face, and Cayler syndromes, is caused by a microdeletion in the long arm of Chromosome 22. We review the history of the syndrome from the first clinical reports almost half a century ago to the current intriguing molecular findings associating genes from the microdeletion region and the physical and neuropsychiatric phenotype of the syndrome. Velocardiofacial syndrome has a wide spectrum of more than 200 physical manifestations including palate and cardiac anomalies. Yet, the most challenging manifestations of VCFS are the learning disabilities and neuropsychiatric disorders. As VCFS is relatively common and ...


Report Of The Working Group On Animal Distress In The Laboratory, Marilyn Brown, Larry Carbone, Kathleen Conlee, Marian Dawkins, Ian Duncan, David Fraser, Gilly Griffin, Victoria Hampshire, Lesley Lambert, Joy Mench, David Morton, Jon Richmond, Bernard Rollin, Andrew Rowan, Martin Stephens, Hanno Würbel Dec 2015

Report Of The Working Group On Animal Distress In The Laboratory, Marilyn Brown, Larry Carbone, Kathleen Conlee, Marian Dawkins, Ian Duncan, David Fraser, Gilly Griffin, Victoria Hampshire, Lesley Lambert, Joy Mench, David Morton, Jon Richmond, Bernard Rollin, Andrew Rowan, Martin Stephens, Hanno Würbel

Kathleen Conlee

Finding ways to minimize pain and distress in research animals is a continuing goal in the laboratory animal research field. Pain and distress, however, are not synonymous, and often measures that alleviate one do not affect the other. Here, the authors provide a summary of a meeting held in February 2004 that focused on distress in laboratory animals. They discuss the difficulties associated with defining ‘distress,’ propose methods to aid in recognizing and alleviating distressful conditions, and provide recommendations for animal research conduct and oversight that would minimize distress experienced by laboratory animals.


Genomic Disorders On Chromosome 22, Shihui Yu, William Graf, Robert Shprintzen Dec 2015

Genomic Disorders On Chromosome 22, Shihui Yu, William Graf, Robert Shprintzen

Robert J. Shprintzen

Purpose of review: Chromosome 22, the first human chromosome to be completely sequenced, is prone to genomic alterations. Copy-number variants (CNVs) are common because of an enrichment of low-copy repeat sequences that precipitate a high frequency of nonallelic homologous misalignments and unequal recombination during meiosis. Among these is one of the most common multiple anomaly syndromes in humans and the most common microdeletion syndrome, velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS), also known as 22q11.2 deletion syndrome and DiGeorge syndrome. This review will focus on the recent literature dealing with both the molecular and clinical aspects of chromosome 22 genomic variations. Although the ...