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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Response Cost In The Treatment Of Lunging In Dogs, Sobie Dec 2003

Response Cost In The Treatment Of Lunging In Dogs, Sobie

Master's Theses

Contemporary professional applied animal behavior management employs a diagnostic and treatment approach for unwanted pet behavior that incorporates ethology-based causal factors. As in behavior therapy for humans, behavioral assessment includes descriptive functional analysis when possible to determine relevant contingency variables. But this information is then considered in the context of an appropriate motivational classification, such as social or prey-directed motivation or fear-motivated, and treatments are designed accordingly. A different view is that behavior can be treated effectively without a presumption of the motivation through analysis of the manifestation of the behavior itself. This study sought to evaluate the efficacy of ...


Ethical Issues In The Use Of Animals In Biomedical And Psychopharmocological Research, John P. Gluck, Jordan Bell Dec 2003

Ethical Issues In The Use Of Animals In Biomedical And Psychopharmocological Research, John P. Gluck, Jordan Bell

Experimentation Collection

Rationale: The ethical debate concerning the use of animals in biomedical and pharmacological research continues to be replete with misunderstandings about whether animals have moral standing. Objectives: This article briefly reviews the central ethical positions and their relationship to the basic parameters of research regulation from an international perspective. The issues associated with the validation of animal models will then be discussed. Finally, suggestions for empirical ethics research will be presented. Methods: Recent literature reviews were accessed and analyzed. Results: This review summarizes the pertinent ethical and research literature. Conclusions: In summary, regardless of the ethical perspective one favors, there ...


Function Of The Zinc-Finger Repressor Nlz In The Developing Zebrafish Hindbrain: A Dissertation, Alexander Peter Runko Oct 2003

Function Of The Zinc-Finger Repressor Nlz In The Developing Zebrafish Hindbrain: A Dissertation, Alexander Peter Runko

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Generation of the primitive neuroectoderm into specialized brain subdivisions, such as the hindbrain primordium, involves the regulated coordination of complex morphogenetic and molecular mechanisms. These processes are evident in the segregation of the zebrafish hindbrain into seven distinct lineage-restricted compartments, termed rhombomeres (r), which are established by the interplay of several spatially-restricted expressed genes. These include transcription factors, members of specific signaling pathways and specialized molecules that mediate cell adhesion and identity. Despite their extensive characterization, it is evident that other genes are involved to mediate the proper specification and segregation of individual rhombomeres. One candidate that likely fits this ...


Regulation Of Zebrafish Hindbrain Development By Fibroblast Growth Factor And Retinoic Acid: A Dissertation, Nicole Marie Roy Oct 2003

Regulation Of Zebrafish Hindbrain Development By Fibroblast Growth Factor And Retinoic Acid: A Dissertation, Nicole Marie Roy

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Fibroblast growth factor (Fgf) and Retinoic acid (RA) are known to be involved in patterning the posterior embryo. Work has shown that Fgf can convert anterior tissue into posterior fates and that embryos deficient in Fgf signaling lack posterior trunk and tail structures. Likewise, studies performed on RA have shown that overexpression of RA posteriorizes anterior tissue, while disrupting RA signaling yields a loss of posterior fates. While it appears these signals are necessary for posterior development, the role Fgf and RA play in development of the hindbrain is still enigmatic. A detailed study of the requirements for Fgf and ...


Poly(Adp)-Ribose Polymerase Activity In The Eukaryotic Mono-Adp-Ribosyl Transferase, Art2: A Dissertation, Alan R. Morrison Sep 2003

Poly(Adp)-Ribose Polymerase Activity In The Eukaryotic Mono-Adp-Ribosyl Transferase, Art2: A Dissertation, Alan R. Morrison

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

The glycophosphatidylinositol(GPI)-linked membrane protein ART2 is an antigenic determinant for T lymphocytes that regulate the expression of diabetes in the BB/W rat model. Though little is understood of the physiologic role of ART2 on T lymphocytes, ART2 is a member of the mono-ADP-ribosyl transferase subgroup ofthe ADP-ribosyl transferase (ART) protein family. The ART protein family, which traditionally has been divided into mono-ADP-ribosyl transferases (mono-ARTs), poly(ADP)-ribose polymerases (PARPs), and ADP-ribosyl cyclases, influences various aspects of cellular physiology including: apoptosis, DNA damage repair, chromatin remodeling, telomere replication, cellular transport, immune regulation, neuronal function, and bacterial virulence. A ...


Conserved Nucleosome Remodeling/Histone Deacetylase Complex And Germ/Soma Distinction In C. Elegans: A Dissertation, Yingdee Unhavaithaya Aug 2003

Conserved Nucleosome Remodeling/Histone Deacetylase Complex And Germ/Soma Distinction In C. Elegans: A Dissertation, Yingdee Unhavaithaya

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

A rapid cascade of regulatory events defines the differentiated fates of embryonic cells, however, once established, these differentiated fates and the underlying transcriptional programs can be remarkably stable. Here, we describe two proteins, MEP-1, a novel protein, and LET-418/Mi-2, both of which are required for the maintenance of somatic differentiation in C. elegans. MEP-1 was identified as an interactor of PIE-1, a germ-specific protein required for germ cell specification, while LET-418 is a protein homologous to Mi-2, a core component of the nuc1eosome remodeling/histone deacetylase (NuRD) complex. In animals lacking MEP-1 and LET-418, germline-specific genes become derepressed in ...


Sheep Updates 2003 - Pastures, Ed Barrett-Lennard, Hayley Norman, Robyn Dynes, David Masters, David Henry, Stephen Gherardi, Graham Donald, Asoka Edirisinghe, Chris Oldham, Richard Smith, Joanne Sneddon, Mike Hyder, Andrew Thompson, Kazue Tanaka, Roy Latta, Chris Matthews, Brad Nutt, Angela Loi, Tim Wiley Aug 2003

Sheep Updates 2003 - Pastures, Ed Barrett-Lennard, Hayley Norman, Robyn Dynes, David Masters, David Henry, Stephen Gherardi, Graham Donald, Asoka Edirisinghe, Chris Oldham, Richard Smith, Joanne Sneddon, Mike Hyder, Andrew Thompson, Kazue Tanaka, Roy Latta, Chris Matthews, Brad Nutt, Angela Loi, Tim Wiley

Sheep Updates

This session covers seven papers from different authors: 1. Pastures for saline land, Ed Barrett-Lennard 1Department of Agriculture, Western Australia, Hayley Norman, Robyn Dynes and David Masters CSIRO Livestock Industries, Centre for Mediterranean Agricultural Research, Floreat Park, 2. Feeding value - the essential link between pastures and animals CSIRO Livestock Industries, Centre for Environmental and Life Sciences 3. ‘Pastures from space’ - how do we do it, how well do we do it and what do producers think about it? Stephen Gherardi Department of Agriculture Western Australia Graham Donald Asoka Edirisinghe Dave Henry CSIRO Livestock Industries Chris Oldham Department of Agriculture Western ...


The Function Of The Tyrosine Kinase, Itk, In Cd4+ T Cell Differentiation And Death: A Dissertation, Andrew Todd Miller Jul 2003

The Function Of The Tyrosine Kinase, Itk, In Cd4+ T Cell Differentiation And Death: A Dissertation, Andrew Todd Miller

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

The Tec family tyrosine kinase, Itk, plays an important role in signal transduction following T cell receptor engagement. Several prior studies have established the importance of Itk in immune system processes, such as T cell development and T cell activation. Additional biochemical studies have found that Itk specifically functions within a multi-molecular signalosome complex, which ultimately functions to provide a platform by which Itk can phosphorylate and activate PLC-γ1, a crucial step in T cell activation. To further study how Itk regulates distinct immune outcomes via T cell effector processes within the peripheral immune system, and to further understand how ...


Behavioral Evaluation Of The Psychological Welfare And Environmental Requirements Of Agricultural Research Animals: Theory, Measurement, Ethics, And Practical Implications, Lesley A. King Jul 2003

Behavioral Evaluation Of The Psychological Welfare And Environmental Requirements Of Agricultural Research Animals: Theory, Measurement, Ethics, And Practical Implications, Lesley A. King

Experimentation Collection

The welfare of agricultural research animals relies not only on measures of good health but also on the presence of positive emotional states and the absence of aversive or unpleasant subjective states such as fear, frustration, or association with pain. Although subjective states are not inherently observable, their interaction with motivational states can be measured through assessment of motivated behavior, which indicates the priority animals place on obtaining or avoiding specific environmental stimuli and thus allows conclusions regarding the impact of housing, husbandry, and experimental procedures on animal welfare. Preference tests and consumer demand models demonstrate that animal choices are ...


Developmental Toxicity Of Atrazine And Copper Sulfate Using The Frog Embryo Teratogenesis Assay-Xenopus (Fetax), Misty D. Hamilton Jun 2003

Developmental Toxicity Of Atrazine And Copper Sulfate Using The Frog Embryo Teratogenesis Assay-Xenopus (Fetax), Misty D. Hamilton

Morehead State Theses and Dissertations

A thesis presented to the faculty of the College of Science and Technology at Morehead State University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Science by Misty D. Hamilton on June 25, 2003.


Cd40-Cd154 Blockade Facilitates Induction Of Allogeneic Hematopoietic Chimerism And Transplantation Tolerance: A Dissertation, Edward Seung May 2003

Cd40-Cd154 Blockade Facilitates Induction Of Allogeneic Hematopoietic Chimerism And Transplantation Tolerance: A Dissertation, Edward Seung

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Allogeneic hematopoietic chimerism leading to central tolerance has significant therapeutic potential. Establishment of hematopoietic chimerism created by stem cell transplantation has been shown to prevent and cure a number of autoimmune diseases and induce the most robust and long-lasting form of transplantation tolerance known. However, the realization of the vast clinical potential of hematopoietic chimerism for induction of transplantation tolerance has been impeded by the toxicity of the host conditioning regimen and the development of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). This thesis describes the development of stem cell transplantation protocols that 1) reduce the host conditioning regimen; and 2) abrogate the development ...


The Dopamine Transporter Constitutively Internalizes And Recycles In A Protein Kinase C-Regulated Manner In Stably Transfected Pc12 Cell Lines, Merewyn K. Loder, Haley Melikian Apr 2003

The Dopamine Transporter Constitutively Internalizes And Recycles In A Protein Kinase C-Regulated Manner In Stably Transfected Pc12 Cell Lines, Merewyn K. Loder, Haley Melikian

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

The dopamine transporter (DAT) removes dopamine from the extracellular milieu and is potently inhibited by number of psychoactive drugs, including cocaine, amphetamines, and methylphenidate (Ritalin). Multiple lines of evidence demonstrate that protein kinase C (PKC) down-regulates dopamine transport, primarily by redistributing DAT from the plasma membrane to endosomal compartments, although the mechanisms facilitating transporter sequestration are not defined. Here, we demonstrate that DAT constitutively internalizes and recycles in rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells. Temperature blockades demonstrated basal internalization and reliance on recycling to maintain DAT cell surface levels. In contrast, recycling blockade with bafilomycin A1 significantly decreased transferrin receptor (TfR) surface ...


Intranuclear Trafficking Of Runx/Aml/Cbfa/Pebp2 Transcription Factors In Living Cells: A Dissertation, Kimberly Stacy Harrington Mar 2003

Intranuclear Trafficking Of Runx/Aml/Cbfa/Pebp2 Transcription Factors In Living Cells: A Dissertation, Kimberly Stacy Harrington

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

The family of runt related transcription factors (RUNX/Cbfa/AML/PEBP2) are essential for cellular differentiation and fetal development. RUNX factors are distributed throughout the nucleus in punctate foci that are associated with the nuclear matrix/scaffold and generally correspond with sites of active transcription. Truncations of RUNX proteins that eliminate the C-terminus including a 31-amino acid segment designated the nuclear matrix targeting signal (NMTS) lose nuclear matrix association and result in lethal hematopoietic (RUNX1) and skeletal (RUNX2) phenotypes in mice. These findings suggest that the targeting of RUNX factors to subnuclear foci may mediate the formation of multimeric regulatory ...


The Genetic Basis Of Resistance To Transplantation Tolerance Induced By Costimulation Blockade In Nod Mice: A Dissertation, Todd Pearson Mar 2003

The Genetic Basis Of Resistance To Transplantation Tolerance Induced By Costimulation Blockade In Nod Mice: A Dissertation, Todd Pearson

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

The NOD mouse is a widely studied model of type 1 diabetes. The loss of self-tolerance leading to autoimmune diabetes in NOD mice involves at least 27 genetic loci. Curing type I diabetes in mice and humans by islet transplantation requires overcoming both allorejection and recurrent autoimmunity. This has been achieved with systemic immunosuppression, but tolerance induction would be preferable. In addition to their genetic defects in self-tolerance, NOD mice resist peripheral transplantation tolerance induced by costimulation blockade using donor-specific transfusion and anti-CDl54 antibody. Failure has been attributed to the underlying autoimmunity, assuming that autoimmunity and resistance to transplantation tolerance ...


The Role Of The Swi/Snf Component Ini1 In Mammalian Development And Tumorigenesis: A Dissertation, Cynthia J. Guidi Feb 2003

The Role Of The Swi/Snf Component Ini1 In Mammalian Development And Tumorigenesis: A Dissertation, Cynthia J. Guidi

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

In vivo DNA is compacted tightly, via its association with histones and non-histone proteins, into higher-order chromatin structure. In this state, the DNA is refractory to the cellular factors that require access to DNA. The repressive nature of chromatin is alleviated in part by the action enzymes that modify chromatin structure. There are two major groups of chromatin modifying enzymes: those that post-translationally modify histones by the addition of small chemical moieties and those that utilize the energy derived from ATP hydrolysis to physically disrupt chromatin structure. The SWI/SNF enzyme belongs to this latter group.

The SWI/SNF complex ...


Sleep Deprivation Selectively Impairs Memory Consolidation For Contextual Fear Conditioning, Laurel A. Graves, Elizabeth A. Heller, Allan I. Pack, Ted Abel Jan 2003

Sleep Deprivation Selectively Impairs Memory Consolidation For Contextual Fear Conditioning, Laurel A. Graves, Elizabeth A. Heller, Allan I. Pack, Ted Abel

Departmental Papers (Department of Systems Pharmacology and Translational Therapeutics)

Many behavioral and electrophysical studies in animals and humans have suggested that sleep and circadian rhythms influence memory consolidation. In rodents, hippocampus-dependent memory may be particularly sensitive to sleep deprivation after training, as spatial memory in the Morris water maze is impaired by rapid eye movement sleep deprivation following training. Spatial learning in the Morris water maze, however, requires multiple training trials and performance, as measured by time to reach the hidden platform is influenced by not only spatial learning but also procedural learning. To determine if sleep is important for the consolidation of a single-trial, hippocampus-dependent task, we sleep ...


Evaluation Of The Amino Sugar-N Based Soil Test In Iowa Corn Production, John E. Sawyer, Daniel W. Barker, John P. Lundvall, Mahdi Al-Kaisi Jan 2003

Evaluation Of The Amino Sugar-N Based Soil Test In Iowa Corn Production, John E. Sawyer, Daniel W. Barker, John P. Lundvall, Mahdi Al-Kaisi

Agronomy Conference Proceedings and Presentations

An important improvement in estimating economic N applications for com production would be to predict the soil N supply capacity each year. The objective of this research is to evaluate the adaptability and potential calibration of the amino sugar-N based Illinois N Soil Test in corn production fields across diverse Iowa soils. Nitrogen rate trials were conducted at multiple sites over several years. many on producer fields. Soil samples were collected at 0-6 and 0-12 inch depths in the fall and spring preplant where no N was applied. Samples were analyzed for hydrolyzable amino sugar-N (limited nwnber of sites). the ...


What It Is To Be A Dog: A Qualitative Method For The Study Of Animals Other Than Humans, Kenneth J. Shapiro Jan 2003

What It Is To Be A Dog: A Qualitative Method For The Study Of Animals Other Than Humans, Kenneth J. Shapiro

Experimentation Collection

No abstract provided.


Toxicology And New Social Ethics For Animals, Bernard E. Rollin Jan 2003

Toxicology And New Social Ethics For Animals, Bernard E. Rollin

Experimentation Collection

The issue of animal treatment has emerged as a major social concern over the past three decades. This ramified in a new ethic for animal treatment that goes beyond concern about cruelty and attempts to eliminate animal pain and suffering, whatever its source. This is evidenced by laws governing animal research in many countries. Insofar as toxicology can entail significant and prolonged animal suffering, it is at loggerheads with this new ethic. Ways are suggested for the toxicological community to put itself in harmony with the ethic and thereby preserve its autonomy.


Pain And Distress Associated With Polyclonal Antibody Production: Discussion And Recommendations, The Humane Society Of The United States Jan 2003

Pain And Distress Associated With Polyclonal Antibody Production: Discussion And Recommendations, The Humane Society Of The United States

ANIMAL RESEARCH

The Humane Society of the United States (HSUS) held a workshop in August 2002 in order to develop recommendations for minimizing pain and distress associated with polyclonal antibody (Pab) production. A small group of experts in the fields of antibody production, animal welfare, in vitro alternatives, and/or regulatory compliance participated in the roundtable discussion. The workshop was a scientifically based meeting, and recommendations were based on the extensive experience of the workshop participants as well as published literature regarding the relevant issues.

Participants recognized that insufficient attention has been paid to animal welfare aspects of Pab production, in part ...