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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Investigating The Effects Of Temperature On Lesser Celandine, Regina Bellian Apr 2020

Investigating The Effects Of Temperature On Lesser Celandine, Regina Bellian

The Downtown Review

This paper explores invasive species Ficaria verna (Lesser celandine) and the effects of temperature on its growth. Trials were completed with two treatments, 13OC cold temperature and 20OC ambient temperature. Germinated bulbils of Lesser celandine were planted on February 15, 2017 and placed in their respective growing chambers. The plants were watered weekly and monitored for growth until harvest on March 29, 2017. Upon harvest, the plants’ height, largest leaf diameter and biomass were measured after extraction from soil and the removal of the leftover soil debris. Average height was found to be 11.66cm for the cold treatment and ...


Floral Trait Architecture In Crop Sunflower (Helianthus Annuus) Under Drought Conditions, Lauren Segarra Jan 2020

Floral Trait Architecture In Crop Sunflower (Helianthus Annuus) Under Drought Conditions, Lauren Segarra

All Master's Theses

Longer and more intense droughts are predicted to become more common in the coming century due to anthropogenic climate change. Drought can reduce crop yield and decrease food security. In order to mitigate the negative effects of drought on crop production, it is important to elucidate the underlying mechanisms that promote drought stress resistance in crop plants. Floral traits impact yield, especially in oilseed crops such as sunflower (Helianthus annuus), but their susceptibility to drought stress is understudied. The goal of this study was to describe the floral trait architecture of H. annuus crop lines under drought versus well-watered conditions ...


The Effect Of Kalanchoe Pinnata In Astrocitome Metastasis, Jorge Rosa Jun 2018

The Effect Of Kalanchoe Pinnata In Astrocitome Metastasis, Jorge Rosa

The International Student Science Fair 2018

Astrocytomas, from cell line 1321N1,are cancerous astrocytes. These are a type of glial cell in the brain which is responsible for maintaining synaptic contact and the signaling capacities among neurons. They also represent a fundamental element in controlling blood flow and defining brain micro structure. Due to the fact that this variant is cancerous, a condition commonly described as an abnormal cell cycle and uncontrolled reproduction of cells, they have the ability to metastasize.

In the metastatic process of cancer cells the initial phase is know as tumor invasion. This stage consists mainly of the cells migrating away from ...


Investigating The Ecology Of A Rare Species On St. John, Usvi: Reintroducing Solanum Conocarpum In Light Of Climate Change, Cecilia Rogers Jan 2018

Investigating The Ecology Of A Rare Species On St. John, Usvi: Reintroducing Solanum Conocarpum In Light Of Climate Change, Cecilia Rogers

Senior Honors Projects, 2010-2019

Approximately two thirds of St. John is National Park territory. However, the land has been threatened with tourism and development, greatly impacting island biodiversity. One species that may become extinct due to this degradation is Solanum conocarpum. S. conocarpum is a rare shrub, endemic to the dry tropical forests of St. John, USVI. This plant is a species of conservation concern and is one of very few native and endemic plants on this island. Very little is known about the ecology and reproduction of S. conocarpum. Most plants are found on the southern half of the island. Recent observations have ...


Uncovering Tasselsheath3. A Genomic And Phenotypic Analysis Of A Maize Floral Mutant., Thompson Zhang Oct 2017

Uncovering Tasselsheath3. A Genomic And Phenotypic Analysis Of A Maize Floral Mutant., Thompson Zhang

Masters Theses

In the modern era, maize has become the most successful crop grown in the United States. According to the USDA over 90 million acres of land are planted to corn and 96.2% of the U.S feed grain production is made up of the cereal. Part of the success of maize is due to its floral architecture, and its pollination technique in which the flower opens, exposing stamens containing pollen into the air. A unique organ called the lodicule functions as a release mechanism, forcing the flower to open. Lodicules from grasses and eudicot petals are homologous, yet there ...


Studying The Effects Of Serpentine Soil On Adapted And Non-Adapted Species Using Arduino Technology, Kiana Saniee, Edward Himelblau, Brian Paavo Oct 2016

Studying The Effects Of Serpentine Soil On Adapted And Non-Adapted Species Using Arduino Technology, Kiana Saniee, Edward Himelblau, Brian Paavo

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

Abstract: Serpentine soils are formed from ultramafic rocks and are represent an extreme environment for plants. Serpentine soils are unique in that they carry high concentrations of heavy metals, are nutrient deficient, particularly in calcium, and have poor water retention capabilities. Although these soils constitute harsh conditions for plant growth, there are a number of species that are adapted and even endemic to serpentine soil. Water retention by commercial potting mix was compared with serpentine soil. Also, serpentine adapted and non-adapted species were grown in both soil treatments and physiological data were collected. We used the Arduino electronic platform to ...


Principles Of Biology, Robert Bear, David Rintoul, Bruce Snyder, Martha Smith-Caldas, Christopher Herren, Eva Horne Jan 2016

Principles Of Biology, Robert Bear, David Rintoul, Bruce Snyder, Martha Smith-Caldas, Christopher Herren, Eva Horne

Open Access Textbooks

This textbook is designed specifically for Kansas State's Biology 198 Class. The course is taught using the studio approach and based on active learning. The studio manual contains all of the learning objectives for each class period and is the record of all student activities. Hence, this textbook is more of a reference tool while the studio manual is the learning tool.

The textbook was originally published and is also available to download at http://cnx.org/contents/db89c8f8-a27c-4685-ad2a-19d11a2a7e2e@24.1.It is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 license.


Comparison Of Pea Seed Germination Due To Manipulation Of Soil Conditions, Ariel M. Kershner Jan 2016

Comparison Of Pea Seed Germination Due To Manipulation Of Soil Conditions, Ariel M. Kershner

Faculty Curated Undergraduate Works

This experiment was done with the intent to understand optimal soil conditions for pea seed germination. We investigated this using three soil conditions – 100% potting soil, 50% potting soil/50% sand, and 100% sand. Seemingly healthy pea seeds were planted and observed over five weeks. We measured both the total number of sprouts per week and the combined weight of the plants and seeds per condition before planting and after uprooting. We expected to find that the 100% potting soil condition would germinate the best, resulting in the most sprouts and heaviest weight of the condition’s seeds and plants ...


Plant Functionality Across An Environmental Gradient, Taylor L. Price, Julie Zinnert Jan 2016

Plant Functionality Across An Environmental Gradient, Taylor L. Price, Julie Zinnert

Undergraduate Research Posters

Community assemblages provide insight into ecosystem processes, both spatially and temporally. They interact with biotic and abiotic factors that vary with habitat structure, influencing community composition. Ecological theory demonstrates that species have the potential for a wide fundamental niche, but habitat range may be restricted by factors exposed to species in their realized niche. In barrier island ecosystems, edaphic and environmental characteristics (e.g. elevation and distance to shoreline) are major drivers determining where and how plant communities establish. Physical stressors, such as salt stress and drought influence community grouping and can alter plant function within the environment. With projected ...


Mechanisms For Regulation Of Plant Kinesins, Anindya Ganguly, Ram Dixit Dec 2013

Mechanisms For Regulation Of Plant Kinesins, Anindya Ganguly, Ram Dixit

Biology Faculty Publications & Presentations

Throughout the eukaryotic world, kinesins serve as molecular motors for the directional transport of cellular cargo along microtubule tracks. Plants contain a large number of kinesins that have conserved as well as specialized functions. These functions depend on mechanisms that regulate when, where and what kinesins transport. In this review, we highlight recent studies that have revealed conserved modes of regulation between plant kinesins and their non-photosynthetic counterparts. These findings lay the groundwork for understanding how plant kinesins are differentially engaged in various cellular processes that underlie plant growth and development.


Mscs-Like Mechanosensitive Channels In Plants And Microbes, Margaret E. Wilson, Grigory Maksaev, Elizabeth S. Haswell Aug 2013

Mscs-Like Mechanosensitive Channels In Plants And Microbes, Margaret E. Wilson, Grigory Maksaev, Elizabeth S. Haswell

Biology Faculty Publications & Presentations

The challenge of osmotic stress is something all living organisms must face as a result of environmental dynamics. Over the past three decades, innovative research and cooperation across disciplines have irrefutably established that cells utilize mechanically gated ion channels to release osmolytes and prevent cell lysis during hypoosmotic stress. Early electrophysiological analysis of the inner membrane of Escherichia coli identified the presence of three distinct mechanosensitive activities. The subsequent discoveries of the genes responsible for two of these activities, the mechanosensitive channels of large (MscL) and small (MscS) conductance, led to the identification of two diverse families of mechanosensitive channels ...


Leaf Mechanical Strength Corresponds To Water Relations In Twelve Species Of California Ferns, Breahna Gillespie Jul 2013

Leaf Mechanical Strength Corresponds To Water Relations In Twelve Species Of California Ferns, Breahna Gillespie

Featured Research

Mentor: Stephen D. Davis

In angiosperms and gymnosperms, mechanically strong leaves are positively correlated with dehydration-tolerance. In general, leaves that are stronger mechanically tend to be evergreen while those that are not are usually mechanically weak and deciduous in response to water stress. Avoiding water stress, especially in a chaparral Mediterranean-type climate, which receives less than 500 mm of water per year, requires energy-intensive adaptation. Ferns residing in the chaparral are presumed to adopt a similar strategy: either they maintain or abscise their pinnae in drought. It was reasoned that ferns with lower water potential and able to survive in ...


Variation In Mechanical Strength Of Ferns In The Santa Monica And Santa Cruz Mountains, Helen I. Holmlund Jul 2013

Variation In Mechanical Strength Of Ferns In The Santa Monica And Santa Cruz Mountains, Helen I. Holmlund

Featured Research

Mentor: Stephen D. Davis

In recent years, experts in plant physiology have begun to explore the functional traits of ferns, especially in regards to their tissue-water relations. However, to our knowledge, no scientist had yet examined the relationship between fern biomechanics and physiology. We examined the mechanical properties of fern stipes (stems) and attempted to relate those properties to ecological and physiological traits. Based on our knowledge of fern anatomy, we hypothesized that stipe mechanical strength would not correlate with cavitation resistance as it does in seed-bearing plants. This assertion that mechanical strength will not relate to cavitation resistance begs ...


Role Of Nucleation In Cortical Microtubule Array Organization: Variations On A Theme, Erica A. Fishel, Ram Dixit Jul 2013

Role Of Nucleation In Cortical Microtubule Array Organization: Variations On A Theme, Erica A. Fishel, Ram Dixit

Biology Faculty Publications & Presentations

The interphase cortical microtubules (CMTs) of plant cells form strikingly ordered arrays in the absence of a dedicated microtubule-organizing center. Considerable research effort has focused on activities such as bundling and severing that occur after CMT nucleation and are thought to be important for generating and maintaining ordered arrays. In this review, we focus on how nucleation affects CMT array organization. The bulk of CMTs are initiated from γ-tubulin-containing nucleation complexes localized to the lateral walls of pre-existing CMTs. These CMTs grow either at an acute angle or parallel to the pre-existing CMT. Although the impact of microtubule-dependent nucleation is ...


Immunomodulatory Activity Of Sambucus Mexicana And Trichostema Lanatum On Lps Stimulated Raw 264.7 Macrophage Cells, Victoria Hester, P. Matthew Joyner Jul 2013

Immunomodulatory Activity Of Sambucus Mexicana And Trichostema Lanatum On Lps Stimulated Raw 264.7 Macrophage Cells, Victoria Hester, P. Matthew Joyner

Featured Research

Chumash medicinal plants Sambucus mexicana (Mexican elderberry) and Trichostema lanatum (woolly blue curls) were tested for immunomodulatory activity. Anti-inflammatory effects were determined by treating LPS induced RAW 264.7 macrophage cells with plant extracts and measuring the levels of cytokines: tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin 10 (IL-10). We hypothesized that both plants would exert immunomodulatory activity by reducing the pro-inflammatory production of TNF-alpha or by promoting M2 polarization with a concurrent increase in IL-10 production. At concentration 0.01 mg/mL woolly blue curls and Mexican elderberry demonstrated anti-inflammatory activity by reducing the concentration of TNF-alpha in vitro ...


Plant Cytoskeleton: Della Connects Gibberellins To Microtubules, Ram Dixit Jun 2013

Plant Cytoskeleton: Della Connects Gibberellins To Microtubules, Ram Dixit

Biology Faculty Publications & Presentations

A new study reveals that DELLA proteins directly interact with the prefoldin complex, thus regulating tubulin subunit availability in a gibberellin-dependent manner. This finding provides a mechanistic link between the growth-promoting plant hormone gibberellin and cortical microtubule organization.


The Effects Of Leaf Hydration On Light Reflectance In Salvia Leucophylla And S. Mellifera, Logan A. Schmitz, Kolina Mah-Ginn, Hayley Presthus Apr 2013

The Effects Of Leaf Hydration On Light Reflectance In Salvia Leucophylla And S. Mellifera, Logan A. Schmitz, Kolina Mah-Ginn, Hayley Presthus

Featured Research

The presence of trichomes on a plant affect the plant’s ability to retain water; this, in turn, must affect light propagation and reflectance. It was hypothesized that a plant with a higher trichome density (Salvia leucophylla) would have a greater change in reflectance when exposed to a more aired or hydrated environment than a species with a lower trichome density (S. mellifera). Results obtained using a Unispec suggest that Salvia mellifera is more resistant to change in NDVI in response to drying and wetting. Water potential data suggest this may be related to the plant’s resistance to actual ...


Comparative Study Of The Mechanical Strength In Two Species Of Ferns: Polystichum Munitum And Pteridium Aquilinum, Russell P. Baetiong, Victoria M. Lekson, Olivier B. Monty Apr 2013

Comparative Study Of The Mechanical Strength In Two Species Of Ferns: Polystichum Munitum And Pteridium Aquilinum, Russell P. Baetiong, Victoria M. Lekson, Olivier B. Monty

Featured Research

A comparative study of the mechanical strength in two species of ferns, the winter deciduous Pteridium aquilinum and the evergreen Polystichum munitum, was done. The mechanical strength of the leaf and stipe were used as a means for comparison. Additional data such as specific leaf mass (g/cm2) were also collected. The first hypothesis was that the evergreen fern would have higher leaf mechanical strength, while the second hypothesis was that there would be no difference in the mechanical strength of the stipe. The mechanical strength of the stipe was compared through the Modulus of Elasticity (MOE), while the leaf ...


Fire Edge Effect On Water Potential And Stomatal Conductance In Salvia Leucophylla, Brigid N. Bergin, Paul Chung, Laura C. Miranda Apr 2013

Fire Edge Effect On Water Potential And Stomatal Conductance In Salvia Leucophylla, Brigid N. Bergin, Paul Chung, Laura C. Miranda

Featured Research

While most plants caught in the middle of wildfires are completely incinerated, many in the edges survive despite suffering partial incineration and/or heat-induced damage. We hypothesized that heat damaged Salvia leucophylla will display a decrease in both stomatal conductance and water potential. We suspected that applying excess heat would lower the plant’s water levels and damage functional components necessary for photosynthesis, so the stomata would close to conserve water. S. leucophylla was chosen to study due to the likelihood of this widespread coastal sage to be found in the edges of wildfires in the Santa Monica Mountains. Using ...


Top And Bottom Photosynthetic Activity In Nerium Oleander And Pandanus Baptistii, Ryan Arima, Jacob Gonzalez Apr 2013

Top And Bottom Photosynthetic Activity In Nerium Oleander And Pandanus Baptistii, Ryan Arima, Jacob Gonzalez

Featured Research

Photosynthesis can be performed on any part of a leaf, yet many plants orient their leaves in different ways and are composed of different leaf anatomies. In this experiment we attempted to discover if there is a significant difference between photosynthesis on the top and bottom of Nerium oleander, a dicot that orients its dorsal face towards the sun, and Pandanus baptistii, a monocot that does not orient its leaves specifically to the sun. To perform this experiment, we used both the LI-6400 and the LiCor Integrating Sphere. With the LI-6400, we measured the photosynthetic rate of the top and ...


Mechanical Strength Comparison Of Hydrated And Dehydrated Pteridium Stems, Michelle I. Kang, Kevin M. Ko, John H. Noh, Veronica R. Vega Apr 2013

Mechanical Strength Comparison Of Hydrated And Dehydrated Pteridium Stems, Michelle I. Kang, Kevin M. Ko, John H. Noh, Veronica R. Vega

Featured Research

In this experiment, the mechanical strength of Pteridium stems was tested in two differing conditions: hydrated and dehydrated. It was hypothesized that there would be an increased performance of hydrated stems in the presence of mechanical stress. In order to test this hypothesis, twelve 20 cm pieces of stems were cut in alternation, separating those that would be dehydrated (6) with those that were hydrated (6). The dehydrated specimens were left to dry over a period of 24 hours. The diameters of each individual stem were measured to account for variation in size and remove excess variables. All twelve stems ...


Using The Unispec To Test The Difference In Reflectance Of The Yellow Petals Of Encelia Californica, Encelia Farinosa, And Spartium Junceum, Mariam E. Fam, Valerie E. Espinoza Apr 2013

Using The Unispec To Test The Difference In Reflectance Of The Yellow Petals Of Encelia Californica, Encelia Farinosa, And Spartium Junceum, Mariam E. Fam, Valerie E. Espinoza

Featured Research

The reflectance spectrum of three yellow flowered species (Encelia californica, Encelia farinosa, and Spartium junceum), all grown on the coast of California, was tested to determine if reflectance among the yellow flowers was significantly different. It was hypothesized that there would be a significant difference in reflectance in the 400-700 nm wavebands for the three different species of flowers which all possess yellow petals. Using a Unispec Spectral Analysis System to obtain reflectance spectra for 12 yellow petals of three flowered species, a custom index was created in order to observe differences in the yellow color of the petals, which ...


Emerging Technologies For Non-Invasive Quantification Of Physiological Oxygen Transport In Plants, P. Chaturvedi, M. Taguchi, S. L. Burrs, B. A. Hauser, W.W. A.W. Salim, Jonathan C. Claussen, E. S. Mclamore Jan 2013

Emerging Technologies For Non-Invasive Quantification Of Physiological Oxygen Transport In Plants, P. Chaturvedi, M. Taguchi, S. L. Burrs, B. A. Hauser, W.W. A.W. Salim, Jonathan C. Claussen, E. S. Mclamore

Jonathan C. Claussen

Oxygen plays a critical role in plant metabolism, stress response/signaling, and adaptation to environmental changes (Lambers and Colmer, Plant Soil 274:7-15, 2005; Pitzschke et al., Antioxid Redox Signal 8:1757-1764, 2006; Van Breusegem et al., Plant Sci 161:405-414, 2001). Reactive oxygen species (ROS), by-products of various metabolic pathways in which oxygen is a key molecule, are produced during adaptation responses to environmental stress. While much is known about plant adaptation to stress (e.g., detoxifying enzymes, antioxidant production), the link between ROS metabolism, O2 transport, and stress response mechanisms is unknown. Thus, non-invasive technologies for measuring O2 ...


The Relationship Of Stomatal Conductnace To Mechanical Strength In Leaves Of Santa Monica Plants, Russell P. Mott, Steven R. Fleming, John R. Macbeth Oct 2012

The Relationship Of Stomatal Conductnace To Mechanical Strength In Leaves Of Santa Monica Plants, Russell P. Mott, Steven R. Fleming, John R. Macbeth

Featured Research

The Santa Monica Mountains ecosystem has a high diversity of plants with different lifestyles that produce different physiological characteristics individual to all plants. Studies in Australia, another Mediterranean ecosystem, have shown that mechanical strength of leaves is relatable to soil stress. This experiment seeks to determine whether mechanical strengths of leaves correlate to stomatal conductance of leaves across different species in the Santa Monica Mountains. Four species of plants are tested for their stomatal conductance in the field, and the leaves are tested for tensile strength using Young’s Modulus for comparison across leaves. These data show that there was ...


Effect Of Ambient Air Temperature On Leaf Size In Raphanus Sativus, Matthew Fleming, Michael Mccormack Oct 2012

Effect Of Ambient Air Temperature On Leaf Size In Raphanus Sativus, Matthew Fleming, Michael Mccormack

Featured Research

Global warming is an increasing problem in today’s society. Thus, it is important to know how plants, specifically those that are cultivated for human consumption, react to rising average temperatures. This experiment tested how the leaf size of a common crop plant, Raphanus sativus (radish), is affected by two different temperatures. It is hypothesized that as temperature rises, the leaf size will increase, giving the leaf greater ability to cool via transpiration because of an larger surface area for stomatal conductance. This hypothesis was tested by growing two samples of plants in separate incubators. One sample was grown at ...


The Effect Of Leaf Trichome Density On Stem Mechanical Strength In Salvia Leucophylla, S. Mellifera, And S. Apiana, Brieanna English, Jeff Scanlon, Anushree Mahajan Oct 2012

The Effect Of Leaf Trichome Density On Stem Mechanical Strength In Salvia Leucophylla, S. Mellifera, And S. Apiana, Brieanna English, Jeff Scanlon, Anushree Mahajan

Featured Research

Salvia species in southern California exhibit a variety of leaf trichome densiIes. S. mellifera, S. leucophylla, and S. apiana were chosen as study organisms because they exhibit varying trichome densiIes. A UniSpec was used to measure NDVI in leaves and an Instron was used to measure stem mechanical strength. This study provides preliminary evidence that suggests plants with high leaf trichome density have less stem mechanical strength, and those with low leaf trichome density have greater mechanical strength. Data generated from this study supports the idea that this may be a general and loose trend amongst plant families similar to ...


A Comparison Of Brittlebush (Encelia Farinosa) Productivity And Health During Drought And Post Rainfall, Gabi Diciolli, Karre Lawson, Anders Reimer Oct 2012

A Comparison Of Brittlebush (Encelia Farinosa) Productivity And Health During Drought And Post Rainfall, Gabi Diciolli, Karre Lawson, Anders Reimer

Featured Research

Encelia farinosa is well adapted for drought tolerance as its leaves transform color based on water availability. We were puzzled by a question that any desert botanist must consider. How does the photosynthetic efficiency of E. farinosa fluctuate as it transitions from a state of drought to a state of soil saturation within a 72 hour period? In this experiment we looked at the effects of irrigation on the health and quantum yield of the brittlebush by looking at photosynthetic rates using the portable photosynthesis system LI-COR 6400 when applied to two leaves on a given plant and water potential ...


Is There A Correlation Between Water Potential And Mechanical Strength Of Stems Of Malosma Laurina?, William Chang, Lauren Price, Nicolas Pak Oct 2012

Is There A Correlation Between Water Potential And Mechanical Strength Of Stems Of Malosma Laurina?, William Chang, Lauren Price, Nicolas Pak

Featured Research

The purpose of this experiment was to see if there was a correlation between water potential and the stem mechanical strength of the Malosma laurina. This experiment was conducted with the use of a Scholander-Hammel pressure chamber to find water potential and the Instron 5500 to test the mechanical strength of the stems. After analysis of the data, there was no direct correlation between water potential and the mechanical strength of stems of Malosma laurina.


Stomatal Conductance Trends Of The Jade Plant (Crassula Ovata) In Relation To Circadian Rhythm Entrainability, Katie Cahoon, Martin Garcia, Matthew Pierga Oct 2012

Stomatal Conductance Trends Of The Jade Plant (Crassula Ovata) In Relation To Circadian Rhythm Entrainability, Katie Cahoon, Martin Garcia, Matthew Pierga

Featured Research

The effect of an inverse light cycle on a Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plant was observed in the study. CAM plants are unique in that they open their stomata at night in order to conserve water, an evolution that has come about because these plants primarily exist in very arid climates. By placing a plant in a chamber in which the lights could be programmed to turn on when it was dark out, and to turn off during normal daylight hours, the stomatal conductance of the leaves of a jade plant (Crassula ovata) were recorded several times a day over ...


The Relationship Between Leaf Mechanical Strength And Photosynthetic Rates, Aaron Van Loon, Brianna Manes, Taylor Stucky, Thomas Addington Oct 2012

The Relationship Between Leaf Mechanical Strength And Photosynthetic Rates, Aaron Van Loon, Brianna Manes, Taylor Stucky, Thomas Addington

Featured Research

Photosynthesis is the process by which plants convert light energy to chemical energy, helping sustain life in the biosphere. There are many factors that affect the rate of photosynthesis such as atmospheric CO2 concentration, temperature, and sunlight. In this experiment, we attempt to determine what effect, if any, the mechanical strength of a plant has on its rate of photosynthesis. To perform this experiment we used both the LI-COR 6400 and the Instron Mechanical Testing Device. With the LI-COR we measured photosynthetic rate of our plant subjects in real time during the prime photosynthetic hours, 10-12am. The Instron allowed us ...