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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Association Mapping Of Seed Weight, Protein, And Sucrose Content; And Kinetics Of Edamame Under Infrared Treatment, Laura Melissa Lara Santisteban Dec 2016

Association Mapping Of Seed Weight, Protein, And Sucrose Content; And Kinetics Of Edamame Under Infrared Treatment, Laura Melissa Lara Santisteban

Theses and Dissertations

Edamame is a specialty large-seeded soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) harvested at an immature stage (R6) that has become the second largest consumed soyfood. Although United States is the largest soybean producer, majority of edamame is imported from Asia, highlighting the importance of developing new edamame varieties. Association mapping (AM) provides an alternative to bi-parental linkage mapping method to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) adding higher resolution and broader germplasm information. Seed weight, sucrose, and protein are quantitative traits of value when selecting edamame lines. However molecular mechanisms controlling each of these traits are still inconclusive and have not been ...


Dissecting Salt Tolerance In Soybean By Profiling Differential Physiological Responses Under Salt Stress, Jade Amber Newsome Dec 2016

Dissecting Salt Tolerance In Soybean By Profiling Differential Physiological Responses Under Salt Stress, Jade Amber Newsome

Theses and Dissertations

Saline soils are common worldwide and limit the yield potential of many crops. Plants respond in a variety of ways to the stress imposed by saline soils. Plants under salt stress must first sense their surroundings and transmit a signal alerting the rest of the plant to the saline conditions. Salt tolerance in soybeans is typically defined by exclusion of chloride ions from foliar tissues. Though differences in ion uptake among soybean genotypes is well documented, the key mechanisms employed by tolerant cultivars to cope with salt stress on the whole-plant level are still largely unknown. Objectives of the current ...


Cover Crop Establishment And Potential Benefits To Arkansas Farmers, Ashley Elizabeth Humphreys Dec 2016

Cover Crop Establishment And Potential Benefits To Arkansas Farmers, Ashley Elizabeth Humphreys

Theses and Dissertations

Soybean farmers in Arkansas need best management practices (BMPs) that maximize the benefits of using cover crops including planting date and fertilization recommendations. An evaluation of cover crop species, planting dates, seeding rates, fertilizer rates, and N accumulation aids in providing these BMPs. The first objective of this research is to assess the effect of planting date on biomass production, as well as looking at the interaction of seeding rate or fertilizer rate for legumes or non-legumes, respectively, using Austrian winter pea (Pisum sativum), cereal rye (Secale cereale), black oats (Avena strigosa), wheat (Triticum aestivum), and tillage radish (Raphanus sativus ...


Quantitative Trait Loci (Qtl) For Salt Tolerance In Soybean And Physiological Response To Salt Stress During Early Growth Stage, Cindy Massiel Lopez Ramirez Dec 2016

Quantitative Trait Loci (Qtl) For Salt Tolerance In Soybean And Physiological Response To Salt Stress During Early Growth Stage, Cindy Massiel Lopez Ramirez

Theses and Dissertations

Soybean is a major cash crop used as a source of high–quality protein and oil. Salt stress is one of the main abiotic stresses causing significant yield losses in soybean, which is considered a moderately salt–sensitive crop. Breeding selection is a promising strategy to improve salt tolerance as soybean germplasm display wide variation in response to salinity stress. However, the physiological and genetic mechanisms for salt tolerance are not quite clear. The discovery of novel QTL/genes associated with salt tolerance facilitates the development of tolerant cultivars through marker-assisted selection (MAS). The objectives of this study were: 1 ...


The Biology And Management Of Palmer Amaranth (Amaranthus Palmeri S. Wats) In Indiana, Douglas J. Spaunhorst Dec 2016

The Biology And Management Of Palmer Amaranth (Amaranthus Palmeri S. Wats) In Indiana, Douglas J. Spaunhorst

Open Access Dissertations

Palmer amaranth is a pernicious summer annual weed that has evolved resistance to six herbicide sites of action in the U.S. and threatens agriculture production. In 2011, Palmer amaranth was identified in flood plains in two southern Indiana counties (Posey and Vanderburgh). Determining if Palmer amaranth can survive and reproduce in northern Indiana may provide insight if this weed will be problematic for northern row crop producers. The objectives of our research were to identify fields containing Palmer amaranth and determine the distribution of herbicide resistance traits in Indiana; determine the influence of tillage frequency and tillage intervals on ...


Genetic Basis Of Biosynthesis And Cytotoxic Activity Of Medicago Truncatula Triterpene Saponins, Brynn Kathleen Lawrence Aug 2016

Genetic Basis Of Biosynthesis And Cytotoxic Activity Of Medicago Truncatula Triterpene Saponins, Brynn Kathleen Lawrence

Theses and Dissertations

Saponins are a large family of specialized metabolites produced in many plants. They can have negative effects on a number of plant pests and are thought to play a role in plant defense. With current and possible future uses in industry and agriculture, saponins have also been shown to be hypocholesterolemic, hypoglycemic, immunostimulatory, antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and cytotoxic. In spite of their usefulness, our understanding of the genetic basis for saponin biosynthesis is still incomplete. We generated recombinant populations with parents from genetically distinct accessions of Medicago truncatula, with either high or low accumulation and varying profiles of saponins. Primers for ...


The Biology And Management Of Waterhemp In Indiana, Joseph M. Heneghan Aug 2016

The Biology And Management Of Waterhemp In Indiana, Joseph M. Heneghan

Open Access Theses

Waterhemp is a dioecious weed species indigenous to the Midwestern United states yet it has only recently become problematic in agronomic crop production in Indiana. Waterhemp is a small-seeded broadleaf which has increased in prevalence in conjunction with an increase in conservation tillage practices. Waterhemp germinates and emerges from the top 3 cm of soil and is known to exhibit extended periods of continual emergence, longer than most other summer annual weed species that are typically present in agronomic production settings. As a C4 species, waterhemp then grows rapidly and is capable of producing thousands of seeds, while effectively competing ...


Characterization Of Echinochloa Spp. In Arkansas, Hussain Tahir Aug 2016

Characterization Of Echinochloa Spp. In Arkansas, Hussain Tahir

Theses and Dissertations

Echinochloa species are the most problematic grass weeds in rice and soybean production throughout the southern United States. The species under this genus has high intra- and interspecific variability, with many ecotypes, observed within a species. This study was conducted to: i) characterize the morphology and phenology of Echinochloa accessions from Arkansas in a common garden; ii) verify the species identity of these accessions based on their morphological traits, and iii) evaluate the dormancy characteristics of Echinochloa accessions. Junglerice (E. colona) was identified as the most common species, comprising about 78% of the accessions collected, with barnyardgrass (E. crus-galli) and ...


High Throughput Phenotypic Evaluation Of Drought-Related Traits In Soybean, Hua Bai Aug 2016

High Throughput Phenotypic Evaluation Of Drought-Related Traits In Soybean, Hua Bai

Theses and Dissertations

Drought limits crop growth and yield in soybean. Rapid and effective methods of screening large numbers of soybean lines for drought tolerance are urgently needed. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of drought in soybean during reproductive stages. In the first experiment five genotypes from maturity groups 2 through 5 were tested under well-irrigated and drought conditions. Beginning at R5, leaf samples were taken for nitrogen concentration analysis. Pictures were taken across the top of each plot to determine the intensity of greenness using the Dark Green Color Index (DGCI). Aerial photographs were also taken to determine aerial ...


Genetic Determinism Of Xanthomonas Arboricola Pv. Pruni (Xap) Resistance, Fruit Quality, And Phenological Traits In Peach And Incorporation Of Marker-Assisted Selection (Mas) In The University Of Arkansas Peach And Nectarine Breeding Program, Terrence James Frett May 2016

Genetic Determinism Of Xanthomonas Arboricola Pv. Pruni (Xap) Resistance, Fruit Quality, And Phenological Traits In Peach And Incorporation Of Marker-Assisted Selection (Mas) In The University Of Arkansas Peach And Nectarine Breeding Program, Terrence James Frett

Theses and Dissertations

For over two decades the incorporation of marker-assisted selection (MAS) has been discussed as an innovative approach to increase peach breeding efficiency. Although hundreds of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) have been identified, only a few have been converted into usable MAS tools. This highlights a disconnect between genomic discoveries and practical application in breeding programs, which has delayed use of MAS.

In this dissertation, three sequential steps were performed with the objective to bridge this gap and develop breeding-relevant DNA tests for MAS of fruit bacterial spot resistance (Xap1 and Xap6), fruit quality [blush (Rf), acidity (D), and acidity and ...


Influence Of Fatty Acids And Their Derivatives On Aphid Resistance In Arabidopsis And Tomato, Jiamei Li May 2016

Influence Of Fatty Acids And Their Derivatives On Aphid Resistance In Arabidopsis And Tomato, Jiamei Li

Theses and Dissertations

Fatty acid desaturases (FADs) are enzymes that act in the chloroplast or the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to incorporate double bonds into the acyl chains of fatty acids, and recent evidence indicates that at least one of these enzymes, FAD7, also influences plant resistance to aphids. FAD7 is an enzyme in the chloroplast that is found throughout the plant kingdom and that desaturates 16- and 18-carbon fatty acids (FAs) with two double bonds (dienoic acids) to generate FAs with three double bonds (trienoic acids). In tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, mutants with impaired FAD7 function are more ...


Growth And Productivity Of Irrigated Rice (Oryza Sativa L.) For A Tropical High Altitude Environment In Rwanda, Elie Rene Gasore May 2016

Growth And Productivity Of Irrigated Rice (Oryza Sativa L.) For A Tropical High Altitude Environment In Rwanda, Elie Rene Gasore

Theses and Dissertations

Yield components, grain yield, biomass and plant N accumulation, and N fertilizer responses of irrigated rice (Oryza sativa, L.) were evaluated for a tropical inland valley environment in the high altitudes in Rwanda. Effects were measured for nitrogen (N) fertilizer rate (0, 60, 90,120,150,180 kg N ha-1), season, growth stage and cultivar of different subspecies and plant types during 2012 dry season (DS) and 2013 wet season (WS) at Cyili Rice Research Farm (1380 m above sea level). Variations in irradiance (17.2± 0.32 MJ m-2 day-1 in DS and 9.4 ± 0.66 MJ m-2 ...


Geospatial Analysis Of Droughts, Rice And Wheat Production, And Agrarian Vulnerability: A District-Level Study Of The Self-Calibrated Palmer Drought Severity Index In India, Aaron Michael Shew May 2016

Geospatial Analysis Of Droughts, Rice And Wheat Production, And Agrarian Vulnerability: A District-Level Study Of The Self-Calibrated Palmer Drought Severity Index In India, Aaron Michael Shew

Theses and Dissertations

Droughts have affected more people than any other natural disaster in the last century, causing billions in economic damages and millions of deaths. As the Sea Surface Temperatures (SST) have heated in the Indian Ocean, drought patterns across South Asia have changed; the Indian monsoon has become more volatile and less predictable. In this study, monthly self-calibrated Palmer Drought Severity Index (sc-PDSI) data for the time period between 1950 and 2009 were interpolated to India’s districts; then the data were analyzed for changes in frequency and severity. The data were further evaluated using Anselin’s Local Moran’s I ...


Heat Stress Effects On Cotton During Reproductive Development And Subsequent Acclimation Responses, Toby Ryan Fitzsimons May 2016

Heat Stress Effects On Cotton During Reproductive Development And Subsequent Acclimation Responses, Toby Ryan Fitzsimons

Theses and Dissertations

High temperature stress is among the most difficult to control abiotic factors affecting crop yields in the Southern United States due to its wide regional influence. Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) though a tropical plant in origin, it is sensitive to the effects of high temperature. This is of particular concern when the warmest temperatures coincide with the most sensitive developmental stage of flowering. Thus, the capacity to improve cotton’s ability to tolerate heat stress has been a significant focus for many decades. Therefore, this research was composed of several different components all designed to investigate heat stress effects. Using ...


Effect Of Potassium Deficiency On Uptake And Partitioning In The Cotton (Gossypium Hirsutum L.) Plant And Detection By A Crop Reflectance Sensor, Taylor Dayne Coomer May 2016

Effect Of Potassium Deficiency On Uptake And Partitioning In The Cotton (Gossypium Hirsutum L.) Plant And Detection By A Crop Reflectance Sensor, Taylor Dayne Coomer

Theses and Dissertations

For cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) to grow and develop normally, plants need to uptake the necessary amount of nutrients and use those nutrients in a beneficial fashion. It is recognized that cotton needs a certain tissue concentration of ions to achieve and maintain growth rates (Siddiqi et al., 1987). One of the most essential and abundant nutrients in cotton is potassium (K), second only by mass to nitrogen (N) (Marschner, 1995; Oosterhuis et al., 2013). Potassium exists in the soil in four separate pools and moves through soil to roots mainly through diffusion (Rengel & Damon, 2008; Samal et al., 2010; Ogaard et ...


Design Of A Nutrient Reclamation System For The Cultivation Of Microalgae For Biofuel Production And Other Industrial Applications, Heather Sandefur May 2016

Design Of A Nutrient Reclamation System For The Cultivation Of Microalgae For Biofuel Production And Other Industrial Applications, Heather Sandefur

Theses and Dissertations

Microalgal biomass has been identified as a promising feedstock for a number of industrial applications, including the synthesis of new pharmaceutical and biofuel products. However, there are several economic limitations associated with the scale up of existing algal production processes. Critical economic studies of algae-based industrial processes highlight the high cost of supplying essential nutrients to microalgae cultures. With microalgae cells having relatively high nitrogen contents (4 to 8%), the N fertilizer cost in industrial-scale production is significant. In addition, the disposal of the large volumes of cell residuals that are generated during product extraction stages can pose other economic ...


Optimizing A Luciferase-Based Tool For Studying The Effects Of Fatty Acid Desaturase 7 On Singlet Oxygen Accumulation In Arabidopsis Thaliana, Abeer Muhammedali Alnasrawi Dec 2015

Optimizing A Luciferase-Based Tool For Studying The Effects Of Fatty Acid Desaturase 7 On Singlet Oxygen Accumulation In Arabidopsis Thaliana, Abeer Muhammedali Alnasrawi

Theses and Dissertations

In plants, reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated as a byproduct of normal metabolism, as well as in response to adverse conditions such as light stress, extreme temperatures, and exposure to pests and pathogens. Singlet oxygen (1O2) is a ROS that is formed during photosynthesis in photosystem II (PSII) of the chloroplasts. Levels of 1O2 and other ROS are tightly controlled in healthy plants, but some studies suggest that levels of fatty acid desaturase (FAD) activity in Arabidopsis thaliana can influence constitutive and/or stress-responsive ROS accumulation. In this study, a luciferase-based reporter gene that is selectively stimulated by 1O2 ...


Storage Of Round And Square Switchgrass Bales: Effect Of Storage Time And Fungal Inoculation On Saccharification Efficiency, Noaa Frederick Dec 2015

Storage Of Round And Square Switchgrass Bales: Effect Of Storage Time And Fungal Inoculation On Saccharification Efficiency, Noaa Frederick

Theses and Dissertations

To produce fermentable sugars from lignocellulosic biomass feedstock, severe pretreatment conditions are needed (either high acid concentration, temperature, or retention times). High severities can produce toxic byproducts which inhibit enzymatic hydrolysis or fermentation. In order to reduce pretreatment severities (and thus increase enzyme and fermentation efficiency), the white-rot fungus Pleurotus ostreastus was seeded into square and round bales of Kanlow switchgrass (Panicum virgastum L.) and left in the field over a period of 9 month. The laccase producing fungus is believed to selectively degrade lignin, a common plant structural polymer, which can function as an enzymatic inhibitor. Samples were taken ...


Field Screening Of Diverse Soybean Cultivars For Flood Tolerance, Jane Achando Khatenje Mokua Dec 2015

Field Screening Of Diverse Soybean Cultivars For Flood Tolerance, Jane Achando Khatenje Mokua

Theses and Dissertations

Flooding can significantly reduce soybean growth, development, and yield. Therefore, screening and identification of flood-tolerant soybeans will enhance development of cultivars that are well suited for flood-prone areas. Sets of screening tests were conducted in Stuttgart, Arkansas using three separate but related experiments, with the purpose of establishing effective flood tolerance screening protocol that can identify tolerant and sensitive cultivars. Each experiment was completely randomized with three replications. The first experiment involved screening of 256 maturity group (IV and V) cultivars. Flooding was imposed at the fifth-node (V5) or first-bloom (R1) stage for ten days. Post-flood visual ratings and stand ...


Pythium: Characterization Of Resistance In Soybean And Population Diversity, Keiddy Esperanza Urrea Romero Jul 2015

Pythium: Characterization Of Resistance In Soybean And Population Diversity, Keiddy Esperanza Urrea Romero

Theses and Dissertations

Pythium spp. are an important group of pathogens causing stand losses in Arkansas soybean production. New inoculation methods and advances in molecular techniques allow a better understanding of cultivar resistance and responses of Pythium communities to cultural practices. The objectives of this research were to i) characterize the resistance of soybean to P. aphanidermatum with two phenotyping assays that evaluated the seed rot phase of the disease; and ii) understand the effect of long term crop rotation on species diversity and iii) to determine the effect of location, temperature and continuous soybean and soybean-rice rotation on Pythium spp. diversity in ...


Investigations Of Ethylene And Ethylene Inhibition, Ball Lie, And Synthetic Turf Color, William Daniel Strunk Jul 2015

Investigations Of Ethylene And Ethylene Inhibition, Ball Lie, And Synthetic Turf Color, William Daniel Strunk

Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation is comprised of several studies over three unrelated areas of focus. Chapters two and three investigate the role of the hormone ethylene on growth of creeping bentgrass through (1) exposure of turf to exogenous ethylene and (2) testing an ethylene inhibiting compound for use to alleviate stress related injury. Previous research demonstrated a correlation of stress injury and ethylene and lessening of injury through ethylene inhibition, but little work has been conducted evaluating the direct effects of ethylene. These studies failed to confirm findings in previous research. Chapters four and five aim to illustrate the impact of turfgrass ...


Alliaria Petiolata (M.Bieb.) Cavara & Grande [Brassicaceae], An Invasive Herb In The Southern Ozark Plateaus: A Comparison Of Species Composition And Richness, Soil Properties, And Earthworm Composition And Biomass In Invaded Versus Non-Invaded Sites, Jennifer D. Ogle Jul 2015

Alliaria Petiolata (M.Bieb.) Cavara & Grande [Brassicaceae], An Invasive Herb In The Southern Ozark Plateaus: A Comparison Of Species Composition And Richness, Soil Properties, And Earthworm Composition And Biomass In Invaded Versus Non-Invaded Sites, Jennifer D. Ogle

Theses and Dissertations

Invasive species are widely recognized as organisms that severely alter ecosystem processes in the habitats to which they are introduced. Alliaria petiolata is one of the most important invasive plants in forests of the northern United States. This study examined the geographic distribution of the plant in the southern Ozarks, as well as the effect that it may be having on natural processes within forests of the region by comparing plant species richness, plant cover, and soil properties in invaded and non-invaded plots. It was found that A. petiolata is not significantly altering species richness, cover, or soil properties in ...


Temperature In The Cotton (Gossypium Hirsutum L.) Canopy And Effects On Cotton Leaf And Boll Growth, Maria Soledad Berlangieri Costa Jul 2015

Temperature In The Cotton (Gossypium Hirsutum L.) Canopy And Effects On Cotton Leaf And Boll Growth, Maria Soledad Berlangieri Costa

Theses and Dissertations

Cotton development and yield are negatively influenced by extremes temperatures, mainly during reproductive stage. Ambient air temperature is used to evaluate temperature stress effect on yield under field conditions; however, there is evidence that actual temperatures in the canopy where bolls develop are different. In terms of cotton responses, there is limited research about the effects of elevated day and night temperatures upon boll carbohydrate content, size, and boll respiration. Field and growth chamber experiments were performed during 2014-2015 using the cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) cultivar DP0912B2RF. Field studies for determining temperature gradients through the canopy consisted of two planting ...


Rice Grain Yield And Nitrogen Uptake And Ammonia Volatilization From Urea As Affected By Urea Amendment And Simulated Rainfall, Randy Dempsey May 2015

Rice Grain Yield And Nitrogen Uptake And Ammonia Volatilization From Urea As Affected By Urea Amendment And Simulated Rainfall, Randy Dempsey

Theses and Dissertations

The effect of rainfall between urea application and flood establishment on N loss and grain yield of rice (Oryza sativa L.) has not been studied. The first research objective was to compare the effects of simulated rainfall amounts and N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide (NBPT) urease inhibitor rate on NH3 volatilization and rice growth. Three field experiments were conducted and NH3 volatilization was measured in two experiments for 11 days after urea application (DAU) in semi-open chambers. Urea or NBPT-treated urea (NBPT-Urea) was subjected to six simulated rainfall amounts (0-25 mm) applied 5 to 15 h after urea application and flooded ...


A Microhabitat Assessment Of Five Species Of Invasive Plants In The Ozarks And Appalachians, Eric Hearth May 2015

A Microhabitat Assessment Of Five Species Of Invasive Plants In The Ozarks And Appalachians, Eric Hearth

Theses and Dissertations

Invasive species present a threat to native communities and their introduction and expansion can alter community structure and dynamics. Multiple approaches can be employed for invasive species management including prevention and detection. In this study, microhabitat assessments were conducted on colonies of five species of invasive plants, Alliaria petiolata (M. Bieb.) Cavara & Grande, Lespedeza cuneata (Dum. Cours.) G. Don, Lonicera japonica Thunb., Microstegium vimineum (Trin.) A. Camus, and Rosa multiflora Thunb. in the Ozark Plateau and Appalachians. Elevation, soil moisture, soil pH, light ratio, slope, aspect, distance to disturbance, as well as soil nutrient levels were recorded for each colony ...


Disaggregating The Effect Of Drought And Heat Stress During Flowering On Spikelet Fertility In Rice, Lisa Straussberger Jan 2015

Disaggregating The Effect Of Drought And Heat Stress During Flowering On Spikelet Fertility In Rice, Lisa Straussberger

Theses and Dissertations

Due to rice’s wide geographic distribution, extending from 50°N to 35°S, rice is

forecasted to be the most vulnerable crop to warming global climates. Previous studies have

predicted lower rice yields and increasing rice yield variability due to higher frequencies of heat

stress events, and a higher variability in precipitation patterns due to global warming. As such,

understanding the effects of drought and heat stress intensity and frequency on rice yields is of

upmost importance to feeding the growing global population.

Given that drought and high-temperature stress often occur together, it is essential to

disaggregate the two ...


Using Energy-Efficient Technologies To Produce Bedding Plants And Microgreens In Protected And Controlled Environments, Joshua R. Gerovac Oct 2014

Using Energy-Efficient Technologies To Produce Bedding Plants And Microgreens In Protected And Controlled Environments, Joshua R. Gerovac

Open Access Theses

Gerovac, Joshua R. M.S., Purdue University, December 2014. Using Energy-Efficient Technologies to Produce Bedding Plants and Microgreens in Protected and Controlled Environments. Major Professor: Roberto G. Lopez. Production of bedding plants in commercial greenhouses (GHs) located in northern latitudes begins in late winter and continues through late spring when low outdoor temperatures generally necessitate active heating to maintain temperatures suitable for growth and development. Meanwhile, year-round production of microgreens using multi-layer systems requires sole-source (SS) photosynthetic lighting for production. Energy used to provide active heating in commercial GHs or SS lighting in multi-layer systems is second only to labor ...


Invasive Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys Moltrix) Protein Hydrolysates And Their Efficacy In Increasing Seedling Vigor And Reducing Seed Borne Pathogen Growth, Shanleigh Pauline Thomson Oct 2014

Invasive Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys Moltrix) Protein Hydrolysates And Their Efficacy In Increasing Seedling Vigor And Reducing Seed Borne Pathogen Growth, Shanleigh Pauline Thomson

Open Access Theses

Silver carp are an invasive fish species introduced into the United States within the last forty years. Unable to be effectively eradicated or commercialized as a source of food, other methods must be developed to control and/or use these fish. Fish protein hydrolysates (FPH) are products derived from the proteins inherent within fish. Development of FPH from Silver carp for a variety of uses could aid in controlling their expanding population and provide organic produces with a seed treatment option which is not available to them currently.

In the first study, FPH were used as a seed vigor treatment ...


Spatial And Temporal Distribution Of Fungicides Applied To Creeping Bentgrass, Kurt Ronald Hockemeyer Jul 2014

Spatial And Temporal Distribution Of Fungicides Applied To Creeping Bentgrass, Kurt Ronald Hockemeyer

Open Access Theses

Turf managers often rely on fungicides to limit damage caused by root diseases. Since fungicides do not move basipetally, they are effective only when fungitoxic concentrations are delivered to the rhizosphere. This research focused on the distribution of modern fungicides in verdure, thatch, sand, and roots of creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L. var. palustris (Huds.) Farw.) maintained as a putting green. Fungicides (azoxystrobin (methyl (E)-2-[2-[6-(2-cyanophenoxy)pyrimidin-4-yloxy]phenyl]-3-methoxyacrylate), propiconazole (1,2,4-Triazole, 1-((2-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-4-propyl-1,3-dioxolan-2-yl)methyl), pyraclostrobin (carbamic acid, [2-[[[1-(4-chlorophenyl)-1H-pyrazol-3-yl]oxy]methyl]phenyl]methoxy-,methyl ester), and thiophanate-methyl (dimethyl 4 ...


Molecular And Biochemical Mechanisms Of Pathogenesis In The Maize Foliar Pathogen Cercospora Zeae-Maydis, Winfred-Peck Dorleku Dec 2013

Molecular And Biochemical Mechanisms Of Pathogenesis In The Maize Foliar Pathogen Cercospora Zeae-Maydis, Winfred-Peck Dorleku

Theses and Dissertations

GLS is a serious foliar disease of maize, a major staple crop grown commercially in the USA for both human and animal feed production, and increasingly, for ethanol production. The disease is caused by two Cercospora species, C. zeae-maydis and C. zeina, both of which infect maize in the USA and in other parts of the world, with yield losses potentially greater than 50%, depending on local conditions. In culture, C. zeae-maydis produces a phytotoxic, host non-specific perylenequinone, cercosporin, and abscisic acid (ABA), for which there is no known pathological or physiological function in the fungus. Experimental evidence indicates that ...