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Plant Biology

2018

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Articles 1 - 30 of 302

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Using Arabidopsis Mesophyll Protoplasts To Study Unfolded Protein Response Signaling, Yan Bao, Diane C. Bassham Dec 2018

Using Arabidopsis Mesophyll Protoplasts To Study Unfolded Protein Response Signaling, Yan Bao, Diane C. Bassham

Genetics, Development and Cell Biology Publications

Various environmental stresses or artificial reagents can trigger unfolded protein accumulation in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) due to the folding capacity of the ER being exceeded. This is termed ER stress, and triggers the unfolded protein response (UPR). Assays for activation of the UPR in plants include Tunicamycin (Tm)- or dithiothreitol (DTT)-mediated root growth inhibition, analysis of splicing of the UPR-responsive transcription factor bZIP60 (basic Leucine Zipper Domain 60), and upregulation of relevant UPR genes. We provide here a quick and robust method to detect UPR signaling in Arabidopsis thaliana protoplasts. This assay can also be applied to other ...


Autophagy In Crop Plants: What's New Beyond Arabidopsis?, Jie Tang, Diane C. Bassham Dec 2018

Autophagy In Crop Plants: What's New Beyond Arabidopsis?, Jie Tang, Diane C. Bassham

Genetics, Development and Cell Biology Publications

Autophagy is a major degradation and recycling pathway in plants. It functions to maintain cellular homeostasis and is induced by environmental cues and developmental stimuli. Over the past decade, the study of autophagy has expanded from model plants to crop species. Many features of the core machinery and physiological functions of autophagy are conserved among diverse organisms. However, several novel functions and regulators of autophagy have been characterized in individual plant species. In light of its critical role in development and stress responses, a better understanding of autophagy in crop plants may eventually lead to beneficial agricultural applications. Here, we ...


Suberin Biosynthesis And Deposition In The Wound-Healing Potato (Solanum Tuberosum L.) Tuber Model, Kathlyn Natalie Woolfson Dec 2018

Suberin Biosynthesis And Deposition In The Wound-Healing Potato (Solanum Tuberosum L.) Tuber Model, Kathlyn Natalie Woolfson

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Suberin is a heteropolymer comprising a cell wall-bound poly(phenolic) domain (SPPD) covalently linked to a poly(aliphatic) domain (SPAD) that is deposited between the cell wall and plasma membrane. Potato tuber skin contains suberin to protect against water loss and microbial infection. Wounding triggers suberin biosynthesis in usually non-suberized tuber parenchyma, providing a model system to study suberin production. Spatial and temporal coordination of SPPD and SPAD-related metabolism are required for suberization, as the former is produced soon after wounding, and the latter is synthesized later into wound-healing. Many steps involved in suberin biosynthesis remain uncharacterized, and the mechanism ...


Recoupling Fire And Grazing Reduces Wildland Fuel Loads On Rangelands, Heath D. Starns, Samuel D. Fuhlendore, R. Dwayne Elmore, Dirac L. Twidwell Jr, Eric T. Thacker, Torre J. Hovick, Barney Luttbeg Dec 2018

Recoupling Fire And Grazing Reduces Wildland Fuel Loads On Rangelands, Heath D. Starns, Samuel D. Fuhlendore, R. Dwayne Elmore, Dirac L. Twidwell Jr, Eric T. Thacker, Torre J. Hovick, Barney Luttbeg

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Fire suppression and exclusion, the historically dominant paradigm of fire management, has resulted in major modifications of fire-dependent ecosystems worldwide. These changes are partially credited with a recent increase in wildfire number and extent, as well as more extreme fire behavior. Fire and herbivory historically interacted, and research has shown that the interaction creates a unique mosaic of vegetation heterogeneity that each disturbance alone does not create. Because fire and grazing have largely been decoupled in modern times, the degree to which the interaction affects fuels and fire regimes has not yet been quantified. We evaluated effects of fire-only and ...


Evaluation Of Rice Stink Bug, Oebalus Pugnax (F.), Damage And Monitoring Techniques In Rice, Oryza Sativa L., And Grain Sorghum, Sorghum Bicolor (L.), Aaron Joseph Cato Dec 2018

Evaluation Of Rice Stink Bug, Oebalus Pugnax (F.), Damage And Monitoring Techniques In Rice, Oryza Sativa L., And Grain Sorghum, Sorghum Bicolor (L.), Aaron Joseph Cato

Theses and Dissertations

Rice stink bug, Oebalus pugnax (F.), is a serious pest of headed rice, Oryza sativa L. and an occasional pest of heading grain sorghum in the Mid-south. Work from this dissertation focuses on resolving gaps in and knowledge of rice stink bug sampling and management, and attempts to create a basis for rice stink bug damage assessment in future studies.

Field experiments were conducted from 2016-2018 to asses variation in sweep net sampling by observing producers, researchers, extension personnel, consultants and their workers. Large levels of variation were found in sweep lengths between observed sweepers and reliability of smaller sweep ...


Influence Of Loss Of Function Of The Fatty Acid Desaturase 7 Gene On Photosynthetic Activity And Foliar Redox Status, Janithri Savindya Wickramanayake Dec 2018

Influence Of Loss Of Function Of The Fatty Acid Desaturase 7 Gene On Photosynthetic Activity And Foliar Redox Status, Janithri Savindya Wickramanayake

Theses and Dissertations

Fatty Acid Desaturase7 (FAD7) is a chloroplast-localized enzyme that converts 16 and 18 carbon dienoic fatty acids to trienoic fatty acids. The suppressor of prosystemin-mediated response2 (spr2) mutant in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and the fad7-1 mutant in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) result in the loss of function of FAD7, which alter the fatty acid profiles of chloroplast membranes and enhance resistance against aphids. This research contributes toward the long-term goal of identifying factors that determine aphid resistance in FAD7 mutants. Previous data suggested constitutive differences between spr2 and WT including increased expression of genes associated with photosynthesis and differences in redox ...


Where Are All Of Arkansas' Chinquapins? An Ecological Assessment Of Castanea Throughout The State, Logan Pierce Estes Dec 2018

Where Are All Of Arkansas' Chinquapins? An Ecological Assessment Of Castanea Throughout The State, Logan Pierce Estes

Theses and Dissertations

Around the turn of the twentieth-century, the chestnut blight fungus (Cryphonectria parasitica) was accidentally introduced into North America. This strong pathogen, which specializes on trees of the genus Castanea, spread rapidly and within half a century had nearly extirpated North America’s Castanea natives from their ranges. During this catastrophe, the American chestnut (Castanea dentata) garnered much of the scientific attention, pushing the other Castanea natives – the chinquapins – to the wayside. More than a century following the spread of the blight, little research into the ecology of North America’s chinquapins had been performed, leaving these trees significantly underrepresented. The ...


Physiological Characterization Of The Soynam Parental Lines Under Field Conditions, Akshita Mishra Dec 2018

Physiological Characterization Of The Soynam Parental Lines Under Field Conditions, Akshita Mishra

Theses and Dissertations

The narrow genetic pool of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) in North America can limit its future yield gains. Among the worldwide germplasm collection of 45,000 unique landraces, only 80 contribute 99% to the collective parentage of North American soybean cultivars. Among these 80 landraces, just 17 contribute to 86% of the collective parentage of the modern cultivars. The Soybean Nested Association Mapping population (SoyNAM) was therefore developed with the objective of diversifying the soybean gene pool. Forty diverse soybean genotypes from maturity groups (MG) 1 through 5 were crossed with a common MG 3 parent to develop 40 ...


Understanding Spatial Dynamics Of Tallgrass Prairie Dominated By Tall Fescue, Callie Griffith Dec 2018

Understanding Spatial Dynamics Of Tallgrass Prairie Dominated By Tall Fescue, Callie Griffith

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

This study was conducted on restored tallgrass prairie and invaded tallgrass prairie located in the Grand River Grasslands of southern Iowa to determine differences in heterogeneity of plant structure and functional group composition at different scales. Restored tallgrass prairies were seeded with a species-rich seeding mixture and managed by burning the entire prairie, every three years. Data were collected in August 2014 and 2015 to compare heterogeneity of restoration of native plant structure and functional group composition to the heterogeneity of invaded tallgrass prairies that were managed with patch burning and conventionally grazed. Invaded tallgrass prairies were managed with patch-burning ...


Grazing Strategy Effects On Utilization, Animal Performance, Aboveground Production, Species Composition, And Soil Properties On Nebraska Sandhills Meadow, Aaron Shropshire Dec 2018

Grazing Strategy Effects On Utilization, Animal Performance, Aboveground Production, Species Composition, And Soil Properties On Nebraska Sandhills Meadow, Aaron Shropshire

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

Ultrahigh stocking density (a.k.a., mob grazing) is proposed as a management tool that results in greater harvest efficiency, animal performance, aboveground plant production, species richness, and soil carbon content. The study objective was to determine grazing treatment, haying, or non-defoliated control effects on forage utilization, aboveground production, animal performance, and soil properties. In 2010, 25 ha of Sandhills meadow were divided into 2 replications of 3 grazing, a hay, and control treatment. Grazing treatments were a 120-pasture rotation with one grazing cycle (mob), a 4-pasture rotation with one cycle (4PR1), and a 4-pasture rotation with two cycles (4PR2 ...


Effects Of Calcium Fertilization On Growth, Yield, And Nutrient Content Of Hydroponically Grown Radish Microgreens, Cady C. Goble Dec 2018

Effects Of Calcium Fertilization On Growth, Yield, And Nutrient Content Of Hydroponically Grown Radish Microgreens, Cady C. Goble

MSU Graduate Theses

Radish microgreens were grown in a hydroponic wicking system and subjected to a range of calcium chloride (Ca) solutions to evaluate growth, yield, and mineral content. A solution range of 0 to 160 mM Ca was applied to determine upper limits of Ca fertilization. Solutions above 20 mM Ca showed toxic effects to germination and growth, while 5 and 10 mM Ca resulted in the greatest percent of shoots that grew to a desired size for harvest (%H), as well as greater average hypocotyl length per plant (HL) and cotyledon surface area per plant (CSA). For subsequent experiments, Ca solution ...


Modulation Of Auxin And Cytokinin Responses By Early Steps Of The Phenylpropanoid Pathway, Jasmina Kurepa, Timothy E. Shull, Sumudu S. Karunadasa, Jan A. Smalle Nov 2018

Modulation Of Auxin And Cytokinin Responses By Early Steps Of The Phenylpropanoid Pathway, Jasmina Kurepa, Timothy E. Shull, Sumudu S. Karunadasa, Jan A. Smalle

Plant and Soil Sciences Faculty Publications

Background: The phenylpropanoid pathway is responsible for the synthesis of numerous compounds important for plant growth and responses to the environment. In the first committed step of phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, the enzyme phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) deaminates L-phenylalanine into trans-cinnamic acid that is then converted into p-coumaric acid by cinnamate-4-hydroxylase (C4H). Recent studies showed that the Kelch repeat F-box (KFB) protein family of ubiquitin ligases control phenylpropanoid biosynthesis by promoting the proteolysis of PAL. However, this ubiquitin ligase family, alternatively named Kiss Me Deadly (KMD), was also implicated in cytokinin signaling as it was shown to promote the degradation of ...


Investigation Of Alternative Hosts And Agronomic Factors Affecting Xanthomonas Vasicola Pv. Vasculorum, Causal Agent Of Bacterial Leaf Streak Of Corn, Terra Marie Hartman Nov 2018

Investigation Of Alternative Hosts And Agronomic Factors Affecting Xanthomonas Vasicola Pv. Vasculorum, Causal Agent Of Bacterial Leaf Streak Of Corn, Terra Marie Hartman

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

Xanthomonas vasicola pv. vasculorum, causal agent of bacterial leaf streak of corn, was first reported in the U.S. in 2016 on Nebraska corn leaf samples. Prior to this report, the pathogen had only been reported on corn in South Africa. After the Nebraska report, the pathogen was reported on corn in Argentina, Brazil, and several U.S. states. This pathogen has an extensive host range, which includes sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum), grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), palm species (Dictyosperma album, Roystonea regia, and Areca catechu) and broom bamboo (Thysanolaena maxima). Plants commonly found in the U.S. had not been evaluated ...


Biological Activity Of A Tertiary Amine Plant Growth Regulator, Bmve, In Arabidopsis Thaliana And Wheat (Triticum Aestivum), Jaspinder Singh Nov 2018

Biological Activity Of A Tertiary Amine Plant Growth Regulator, Bmve, In Arabidopsis Thaliana And Wheat (Triticum Aestivum), Jaspinder Singh

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

Plant growth regulators are synthetic compounds that influence plant growth and development and can increase growth, yield, and nutritive value of food crops. Research in the past has shown that a class of plant growth regulators known collectively as substituted tertiary amines have the potential to increase crop productivity, photosynthetic efficiency, and overall plant vigor. However, earlier efficacy studies that involved spraying plants were sometimes inconsistent or showed only minimal benefits. A new delivery method involving seed application of tertiary amines before sowing has shown promise in field trials for multiple crop species (US patent 9464283) (Yokoyama, Chan, Oyama, & Hov ...


Identification Of Genes/Genomic Regions Controlling Resistance To Biotic And Abiotic Stresses In Synthetic Hexaploid Wheat, Madhav Bhatta Nov 2018

Identification Of Genes/Genomic Regions Controlling Resistance To Biotic And Abiotic Stresses In Synthetic Hexaploid Wheat, Madhav Bhatta

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

Synthetic hexaploid wheat (SHW; 2n=6x=42, AABBDD, Triticum aestivumL.) is produced from an interspecific cross between durum wheat (2n=4x=28, AABB, T. turgidumL.) and goat grass (2n=2x=14, DD, AegilopstauschiiCoss.). It is reported to have a considerable amount of genetic diversity and is a potential source of novel alleles controlling abiotic and biotic stresses resistance and improving wheat quality. Therefore, the first study was to understand the genetic diversity and population structure of SHWs and compare the genetic diversity of SHWs with elite bread wheat (BW) cultivars. The result of this study identified a ...


A Third Class: Functional Gibberellin Biosynthetic Operon In Beta-Proteobacteria, Raimund Nagel, John E. Bieber, Mark G. Schmidt-Dannert, Ryan S. Nett, Reuben J. Peters Nov 2018

A Third Class: Functional Gibberellin Biosynthetic Operon In Beta-Proteobacteria, Raimund Nagel, John E. Bieber, Mark G. Schmidt-Dannert, Ryan S. Nett, Reuben J. Peters

Biochemistry, Biophysics and Molecular Biology Publications

The ability of plant-associated microbes to produce gibberellin A (GA) phytohormones was first described for the fungal rice pathogen Gibberella fujikuroi in the 1930s. Recently the capacity to produce GAs was shown for several bacteria, including symbiotic alpha-proteobacteria (α-rhizobia) and gamma-proteobacteria phytopathogens. All necessary enzymes for GA production are encoded by a conserved operon, which appears to have undergone horizontal transfer between and within these two phylogenetic classes of bacteria. Here the operon was shown to be present and functional in a third class, the beta-proteobacteria, where it is found in several symbionts (β-rhizobia). Conservation of function was examined by ...


Canavalia Gladiata And Dolichos Lablab Extracts For Sustainable Pest Biocontrol And Plant Nutrition Improvement In El Salvador, Carlos Martinez Oct 2018

Canavalia Gladiata And Dolichos Lablab Extracts For Sustainable Pest Biocontrol And Plant Nutrition Improvement In El Salvador, Carlos Martinez

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

Botanical repellents and pesticides are now being rediscovered as new tools for integrated pest management in order to reduce the use of toxic chemicals in crop production. Canavalia gladiata and Dolichos lablab are two Fabaceae very well adapted to farmlands of El Salvador, effective as living barriers and mostly as cover crops, however, they are not yet very well disseminated. This document describes the potential for using the liquid extracts and the dry flour of raw seeds of those plants for economic benefit and practical convenience for pest management in Salvadorian agriculture under field conditions. Seed extracts were useful when ...


Assessment Of Soil Fertility Under Different Land-Use Systems In Dhading District Of Nepal, Sudarshan Kharal, Babu Ram Khanal, Dinesh Panday Oct 2018

Assessment Of Soil Fertility Under Different Land-Use Systems In Dhading District Of Nepal, Sudarshan Kharal, Babu Ram Khanal, Dinesh Panday

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Unscientific land use and cropping techniques have led high soil erosion and degradation of soil quality in the mid-hills of Nepal. To understand the effects of land use systems for selected soil chemical properties in mid-hills, composite soil samples at 0 cm to 20 cm depth were collected from five different land-use systems: Grassland, forest land, upland, lowland, and vegetable farms from Dhading district of Nepal in 2017. Soil samples were analyzed for soil fertility parameters: Soil pH, organic matter (OM), total nitrogen (N), available phosphorus (P), available potassium (K) and its effect due to different land use systems were ...


Research Report: Prevalence And Mechanism Of Atrazine Resistance In Waterhemp From Nebraska, Rodrigo Werle, Mithila Jugulam, Greg Kruger, Amaranatha Vennapusa, Felipe Faleco, Bruno Viera, Spencer Samuelson Oct 2018

Research Report: Prevalence And Mechanism Of Atrazine Resistance In Waterhemp From Nebraska, Rodrigo Werle, Mithila Jugulam, Greg Kruger, Amaranatha Vennapusa, Felipe Faleco, Bruno Viera, Spencer Samuelson

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Waterhemp is a troublesome summer annual broadleaf weed species that has evolved resistance to glyphosate and other herbicide sites of action (SOA) in Nebraska, including to groups 2 (i.e., Classic, Pursuit, FirstRate), 4 (i.e., 2, 4-D), 5(i.e., atrazine) and 27 (e.g., Callisto, Laudis). The overall objectives of this study were to

  1. Evaluate the eficay of PRE applied atrazine, metribuzin and sulfentrazone to control Nebraska waterhemp populations;
  2. Evaluate the efficacy of POST applied atrazine to control Nebraska waterhemp populations; and
  3. Determine the mechanism of atrazine resistance in Nebraska waterhemp populations.


Digital Soil Mapping In The Bara District Of Nepal Using Kriging Tool In Arcgis, Dinesh Panday, Bijesh Maharjan, Devraj Chalise, Ram Kumar Shrestha, Bikesh Twanabasu Oct 2018

Digital Soil Mapping In The Bara District Of Nepal Using Kriging Tool In Arcgis, Dinesh Panday, Bijesh Maharjan, Devraj Chalise, Ram Kumar Shrestha, Bikesh Twanabasu

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Digital soil mapping has been widely used to develop statistical models of the relationships between environmental variables and soil attributes. This study aimed at determining and mapping the spatial distribution of the variability in soil chemical properties of the agricultural floodplain lands of the Bara district in Nepal. The study was carried out in 23 Village Development Committees with 12,516 ha total area, in the southern part of the Bara district. A total of 109 surface soil samples (0 to 15 cm depth) were collected and analyzed for pH, organic matter (OM), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P, expressed as P ...


Variation And Evolution Of Fruit Ripening Traits In Tomato Species, Ian M. Gillis Oct 2018

Variation And Evolution Of Fruit Ripening Traits In Tomato Species, Ian M. Gillis

Doctoral Dissertations

As angiosperm seeds mature within their ovaries, ovary tissue tends to grow and transform itself into fruit, which aids the success of the seeds. Fruits that are fleshy provide numerous ways to aid in the protection and the dispersal of seeds. First, they keep seeds hidden, encased in hard walls, surrounded by poisons and unpalatable compounds, and second, they undergo developmental changes that facilitate seeds’ release. Tomatoes, a model fleshy fruit, have all these protective traits, and over the course of ripening they become the familiar fruit that is a staple crop around the world. The wild relatives of cultivated ...


Grass-Specific Mechanisms Of Iron Uptake: Investigation Of Phytosiderophore Transporters And Discovery Of Novel Iron Deficiency Loci, David Chan Rodriguez Oct 2018

Grass-Specific Mechanisms Of Iron Uptake: Investigation Of Phytosiderophore Transporters And Discovery Of Novel Iron Deficiency Loci, David Chan Rodriguez

Doctoral Dissertations

Iron-deficiency anemia is one of the most prevalent forms of malnutrition worldwide, affecting 1.62 billion people, with the population in developing countries being the most affected. Iron is equally vital in plants to perform essential functions such as photosynthesis. Crop grasses form part of everyday human nutrition, contribute fundamentally to human caloric intake, and, in some parts of the world, are the primary source of food. Grasses acquire iron from the soil by secreting chelator molecules called phytosiderophores to solubilize iron, making it available to be transported by the Yellow Stripe1 (YS1) transporter.

In this dissertation, I studied aspects ...


The Interplay Between Polarity Regulators, Calcium, And The Actin Cytoskeleton During Tip Growth, Carlisle Bascom Jr Oct 2018

The Interplay Between Polarity Regulators, Calcium, And The Actin Cytoskeleton During Tip Growth, Carlisle Bascom Jr

Doctoral Dissertations

Plant cell growth is a meticulously regulated process whereby the cell wall is selectively loosened to allow for turgor-pressure driven expansion. The rate of expansion must equal delivery of new material, or the cell will lyse. In many plant cells, this process happens diffusely around the cell. However, a number of plant cells have anisotropic shapes that require exquisite spatial control of secretion. One simple example of anisotropic patterning is tip growth; highly polarized cell expansion utilized by pollen tubes, root hairs, and moss protonemata. Investigating the role various molecules have in tip growth sheds light on how plant cells ...


Overexpression Of The Sorghum Bicolor Sbccoaomt Alters Cell Wall Associated Hydroxycinnamoyl Groups, Hannah M. Tetreault, Erin D. Scully, Tammy Gries, Nathan A. Palmer, Deanna L. Funnell-Harris, Bruce S. Dien, Gautam Sarath, Thomas E. Clemente, Scott E. Sattler Oct 2018

Overexpression Of The Sorghum Bicolor Sbccoaomt Alters Cell Wall Associated Hydroxycinnamoyl Groups, Hannah M. Tetreault, Erin D. Scully, Tammy Gries, Nathan A. Palmer, Deanna L. Funnell-Harris, Bruce S. Dien, Gautam Sarath, Thomas E. Clemente, Scott E. Sattler

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) is a drought tolerant crop, which is being developed as a bioenergy feedstock. The monolignol biosynthesis pathway is a major focus for altering the abundance and composition of lignin. Caffeoyl coenzyme-A O-methyltransferase (CCoAOMT) is an S-adenosyl methionine (SAM)-dependent O-methyltransferase that methylates caffeoyl-CoA to generate feruloyl-CoA, an intermediate required for the biosynthesis of both G- and S-lignin. SbCCoAOMT was overexpressed to assess the impact of increasing the amount of this enzyme on biomass composition. SbCCoAOMT overexpression increased both soluble and cell wall-bound (esterified) ferulic and sinapic acids, however lignin concentration and its composition (S ...


Elucidating Sorghum Biomass, Nitrogen And Chlorophyll Contents With Spectral And Morphological Traits Derived From Unmanned Aircraft System, Jiating Li, Yeyin Shi, Arun-Narenthiran Veeranampalayam-Sivakumar, Daniel P. Schachtman Oct 2018

Elucidating Sorghum Biomass, Nitrogen And Chlorophyll Contents With Spectral And Morphological Traits Derived From Unmanned Aircraft System, Jiating Li, Yeyin Shi, Arun-Narenthiran Veeranampalayam-Sivakumar, Daniel P. Schachtman

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) provide an efficient way to phenotype cropmorphology with spectral traits such as plant height, canopy cover and various vegetation indices (VIs) providing information to elucidate genotypic responses to the environment. In this study, we investigated the potential use of UAS-derived traits to elucidate biomass, nitrogen and chlorophyll content in sorghum under nitrogen stress treatments. A nitrogen stress trial located in Nebraska, USA, contained 24 different sorghum lines, 2 nitrogen treatments and 8 replications, for a total of 384 plots. Morphological and spectral traits including plant height, canopy cover and various VIs were derived from UAS flights ...


A Catalog Of Orchid Species And Their Distribution In Mazumbai Forest Reserve, Tanga Region, Tanzania, Sierra Loomis Oct 2018

A Catalog Of Orchid Species And Their Distribution In Mazumbai Forest Reserve, Tanga Region, Tanzania, Sierra Loomis

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Although orchids are common in Mazumbai Forest Reserve (MFR), there are limited resources on where they grow and how to identify them. The primary objective of this study is to create an updated catalog of orchids in MFR, using species abundance, richness and diversity of the orchids as indicators of where orchids prefer to grow in MFR. Orchid species vary greatly as altitude changes, making it important to survey orchids across different altitudes. Therefore, Mazumbai Forest was split into five different altitudinal bands spanning 1400 – 1900m and six 100 x 20m plots in each band were surveyed for both epiphytic ...


Effect Of Evapotranspiration Rate On Almond Yield In California, Dafne Isaac Serrano Oct 2018

Effect Of Evapotranspiration Rate On Almond Yield In California, Dafne Isaac Serrano

Master's Theses

Since 2011, California has been under drought conditions. These conditions have not only affected water availability for farmers, but also production. California’s second most valuable crop, almonds, has been affected by drought conditions. This study used three models (Model 1-3) to describe almond yield variability from year to year and almond yield variability within a year in Kern County, CA. The study evaluated 185 almond farms that were classified in three locations (east side, west side and north west side). The years of the study were 2011 (wet year) and 2013-2015 (drought condition years). Model 1 determined a functional ...


The Effect Of Ingredient-Specific Calorie Information On Calories Ordered, Christopher R. Gustafson, Eliana Zeballos Sep 2018

The Effect Of Ingredient-Specific Calorie Information On Calories Ordered, Christopher R. Gustafson, Eliana Zeballos

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Providing calorie labeling is a widely used strategy to combat obesity. However, there is little evidence that the availability of calorie information at food-away-from-home establishments has an effect on food choices. Listing calorie information for each ingredient, though, may allow customers to avoid high-calorie items that add little to their enjoyment. Data from a natural experiment were used to compare total calories ordered before and after the provision of per-ingredient versus for build-your-own sandwiches, and per-sandwich for pre-defined sandwiches, at a supermarket sandwich counter. Sandwich order slips from a Lincoln, Neb. supermarket were collected from December 15, 2016 to February ...


Phylogenomic Evidence For Ancient Recombination Between Plastid Genomes Of The Cupressus-Juniperus-Xanthocyparis Complex (Cupressaceae), Andan Zhu, Weishu Fan, Robert P. Adams, Jeffrey P. Mower Sep 2018

Phylogenomic Evidence For Ancient Recombination Between Plastid Genomes Of The Cupressus-Juniperus-Xanthocyparis Complex (Cupressaceae), Andan Zhu, Weishu Fan, Robert P. Adams, Jeffrey P. Mower

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Background: Phylogenetic relationships among Eastern Hemisphere cypresses, Western Hemisphere cypresses, junipers, and their closest relatives are controversial, and generic delimitations have been in flux for the past decade. To address relationships and attempt to produce a more robust classification, we sequenced 11 new plastid genomes (plastomes) from the five variously described genera in this complex (Callitropsis, Cupressus, Hesperocyparis, Juniperus, and Xanthocyparis) and compared them with additional plastomes from diverse members of Cupressaceae.

Results: Phylogenetic analysis of protein-coding genes recovered a topology in which Juniperus is sister to Cupressus, whereas a tree based on whole plastomes indicated that the Callitropsis-Hesperocyparis ...


Foliar Water Uptake: Processes, Pathways, And Integration Into Plant Water Budgets, Z. Carter Berry, Nathan C. Emery, Sybil G. Gotsch, Gregory R. Goldsmith Sep 2018

Foliar Water Uptake: Processes, Pathways, And Integration Into Plant Water Budgets, Z. Carter Berry, Nathan C. Emery, Sybil G. Gotsch, Gregory R. Goldsmith

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Nearly all plant families, represented across most major biomes, absorb water directly through their leaves. This phenomenon is commonly referred to as foliar water uptake. Recent studies have suggested that foliar water uptake provides a significant water subsidy that can influence both plant water and carbon balance across multiple spatial and temporal scales. Despite this, our mechanistic understanding of when, where, how, and to what end water is absorbed through leaf surfaces remains limited. We first review the evidence for the biophysical conditions necessary for foliar water uptake to occur, focusing on the plant and atmospheric water potentials necessary to ...