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Plant Biology

2017

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Articles 1 - 30 of 241

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Provitamin A Biofortification Of Cassava Enhances Shelf Life But Reduces Dry Matter Content Of Storage Roots Due To Altered Carbon Partitioning Into Starch, Getu Beyene, Felix R. Solomon, Raj D. Chauhan, Eliana Gaitán-Solis, Narayanan Narayanan, Jackson Gehan, Dimuth Siritunga, Robin L. Stevens, John Jifon, Joyce Van Eck, Edward Linsler, Malia Gehan, Muhammad Ilyas, Martin Fregene, Richard T. Sayre, Paul Anderson, Nigel Taylor, Edgar B. Cahoon Dec 2017

Provitamin A Biofortification Of Cassava Enhances Shelf Life But Reduces Dry Matter Content Of Storage Roots Due To Altered Carbon Partitioning Into Starch, Getu Beyene, Felix R. Solomon, Raj D. Chauhan, Eliana Gaitán-Solis, Narayanan Narayanan, Jackson Gehan, Dimuth Siritunga, Robin L. Stevens, John Jifon, Joyce Van Eck, Edward Linsler, Malia Gehan, Muhammad Ilyas, Martin Fregene, Richard T. Sayre, Paul Anderson, Nigel Taylor, Edgar B. Cahoon

Faculty Publications from the Center for Plant Science Innovation

Storage roots of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz), a major subsistence crop of sub-Saharan Africa, are calorie rich but deficient in essential micronutrients, including provitamin A β-carotene. In this study, β-carotene concentrations in cassava storage roots were enhanced by coexpression of transgenes for deoxy-d-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase (DXS) and bacterial phytoene synthase (crtB), mediated by the patatin-type 1 promoter. Storage roots harvested from field-grown plants accumulated carotenoids to ≤50 lg/g DW, 15- to 20-fold increases relative to roots from nontransgenic plants. Approximately 85%–90% of these carotenoids accumulated as all-trans-β-carotene, the most nutritionally efficacious carotenoid. β-Carotene-accumulating storage roots displayed delayed onset of ...


Monitoring Soft-Mast Production In Pine Woodland Restoration Areas On The Ouachita National Forest, Tamara B. Wood Dec 2017

Monitoring Soft-Mast Production In Pine Woodland Restoration Areas On The Ouachita National Forest, Tamara B. Wood

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The use of prescribed fire is integral to the restoration of open woodland habitats in the southeast, including shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata) woodlands in the Ouachita Mountains. Mature pine habitats maintained with recurrent disturbances have an open understory with a rich floristic diversity that provides quality habitat for many wildlife species, including the endemic and endangered red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis). Fire has many potential benefits for wildlife; however, the effects of fire on several important woody soft-mast producing species are not fully understood. Soft-mast quantity and quality is a key component in determining year-round habitat quality for several wildlife species ...


Survey Of Trap Contents Of Four Species Of Bladderworts (Utricularia) From Harlow Lake In Marquette, Mi., Jenna Happach Dec 2017

Survey Of Trap Contents Of Four Species Of Bladderworts (Utricularia) From Harlow Lake In Marquette, Mi., Jenna Happach

Conspectus Borealis

No abstract provided.


Non-Canonical Signaling From The Etr1 And Etr2 Ethylene Receptors In Arabidopsis Thaliana, Arkadipta Bakshi Dec 2017

Non-Canonical Signaling From The Etr1 And Etr2 Ethylene Receptors In Arabidopsis Thaliana, Arkadipta Bakshi

Doctoral Dissertations

The gaseous phytohormone ethylene regulates several physiological and developmental processes in higher plants. There are five ethylene receptor isoforms that mediate the responses to ethylene in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Prior research has shown that these five ethylene receptor isoforms in Arabidopsis have both overlapping and non-overlapping roles in regulating diverse responses such as growth in air, growth recovery after removal of ethylene, and ethylene stimulated nutational bending. Functional divergence of ETR1 has been determined in controlling some of these traits and in some of these cases, ETR1 subfunctionalization requires the receiver domain. Using homology modeling and sequence alignment ...


The Effect Of Preflood Nitrogen And Flood Establishment Timing On Rice Development, Nitrogen Uptake And Grain Yield, Tyler Richmond Dec 2017

The Effect Of Preflood Nitrogen And Flood Establishment Timing On Rice Development, Nitrogen Uptake And Grain Yield, Tyler Richmond

Theses and Dissertations

Urea-N fertilizer is typically applied at the 5-leaf stage to rice (Oryza sativa L.) grown in a dry-seeded, delayed-flood production system. How long the preflood-N can be delayed without adverse effects on yield potential is poorly understood. The research objective was to determine the effects of preflood-N application and flood establishment timing on aboveground-N content, 50% heading, yield components, and grain yield. Trials were established on silt loam soils at the Pine Tree Research Station (PTRS) and Rice Research and Extension Center (RREC) during 2015 and 2016. Urea-N was applied at 0, 45, 90, 135, and 180 kg N ha-1 ...


A High-Throughput, Field-Based Phenotyping Technology For Tall Biomass Crops, Maria G. Salas Fernandez, Yin Bao, Lie Tang, Patrick Schnable Dec 2017

A High-Throughput, Field-Based Phenotyping Technology For Tall Biomass Crops, Maria G. Salas Fernandez, Yin Bao, Lie Tang, Patrick Schnable

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Recent advances in "omics" technologies have not been accompanied by equally efficient, cost-effective and accurate phenotyping methods required to dissect the genetic architecture of complex traits. Even though high-throughput phenotyping platforms have been developed for controlled environments, field-based aerial and ground technologies have only been designed and deployed for short stature crops. Therefore, we developed and tested Phenobot 1.0, an auto-steered and self-propelled field-based high-throughput phenotyping platform for tall dense canopy crops, such as sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench). Phenobot 1.0 was equipped with laterally positioned and vertically stacked stereo RGB cameras. Images collected from 307 diverse sorghum ...


Phyllotactic Regularity Requires The Paf1 Complex In Arabidopsis, Kateryna Fal, Mengying Liu, Assem Duisembekova, Yassin Refahi, Elizabeth S. Haswell, Olivier Hamant Nov 2017

Phyllotactic Regularity Requires The Paf1 Complex In Arabidopsis, Kateryna Fal, Mengying Liu, Assem Duisembekova, Yassin Refahi, Elizabeth S. Haswell, Olivier Hamant

Biology Faculty Publications & Presentations

In plants, aerial organs are initiated at stereotyped intervals, both spatially (every 137° in a pattern called phyllotaxis) and temporally (at prescribed time intervals called plastochrons). To investigate the molecular basis of such regularity, mutants with altered architecture have been isolated. However, most of them only exhibit plastochron defects and/or produce a new, albeit equally reproducible, phyllotactic pattern. This leaves open the question of a molecular control of phyllotaxis regularity. Here, we show that phyllotaxis regularity depends on the function of VIP proteins, components of the RNA polymerase II-associated factor 1 complex (Paf1c). Divergence angles between successive organs along ...


Evaluating The Impact Of Two Contrasting Tillage Practices On Soil Properties In Central Kentucky, Emily Cook Nov 2017

Evaluating The Impact Of Two Contrasting Tillage Practices On Soil Properties In Central Kentucky, Emily Cook

Posters-at-the-Capitol

Farming practices such as no tillage and plowing can institute change on soil physical and chemical characteristics. In this research, the effects of long-term conventional and no-tillage systems on the selected soil properties were determined in a continuous corn system on a farm with Maury silt loam soil. These samples were taken from University of Kentucky's Research Farm (Spindletop Farm). The field used was tilled in 1969 from bluegrass sod and the first time research was conduced was in 1970. Each plot is 20 ft. by 40 ft. and for many years each plot was split with winter cover ...


A Pectin Methylesterase Zmpme3 Is Expressed In Gametophyte Factor1-S (Ga1-S) Silks And Maps To That Locus In Maize (Zea Mays L.), Adrienne N. Moran Lauter, Michael G. Muszynski, Ryan D. Huffman, M. Paul Scott Nov 2017

A Pectin Methylesterase Zmpme3 Is Expressed In Gametophyte Factor1-S (Ga1-S) Silks And Maps To That Locus In Maize (Zea Mays L.), Adrienne N. Moran Lauter, Michael G. Muszynski, Ryan D. Huffman, M. Paul Scott

Agronomy Publications

The ga1 locus of maize confers unilateral cross incompatibility, preventing cross pollination between females carrying the incompatible Ga1-s allele and males not carrying a corresponding compatible allele. To characterize this system at the molecular level, we carried out a transcript profiling experiment in which silks from near isogenic lines carrying the Ga1-sand ga1 alleles were compared. While several differentially expressed genes were identified, only one mapped to the known location of ga1. This gene is a pectin methylesterase (PME), which we designated as ZmPme3, and is present and expressed only in Ga1-s genotypes. While a functional ZmPME3 is ...


Uncovering Tasselsheath3. A Genomic And Phenotypic Analysis Of A Maize Floral Mutant., Thompson Zhang Oct 2017

Uncovering Tasselsheath3. A Genomic And Phenotypic Analysis Of A Maize Floral Mutant., Thompson Zhang

Masters Theses

In the modern era, maize has become the most successful crop grown in the United States. According to the USDA over 90 million acres of land are planted to corn and 96.2% of the U.S feed grain production is made up of the cereal. Part of the success of maize is due to its floral architecture, and its pollination technique in which the flower opens, exposing stamens containing pollen into the air. A unique organ called the lodicule functions as a release mechanism, forcing the flower to open. Lodicules from grasses and eudicot petals are homologous, yet there ...


Substantial Contribution Of Genetic Variation In The Expression Of Transcription Factors To Phenotypic Variation Revealed By Erd-Gwas, Hung-Ying Lin, Qiang Liu, Xiao Li, Jinliang Yang, Sanzhen Liu, Yinlian Huang, Michael J. Scanlon, Dan Nettleton, Patrick S. Schnable Oct 2017

Substantial Contribution Of Genetic Variation In The Expression Of Transcription Factors To Phenotypic Variation Revealed By Erd-Gwas, Hung-Ying Lin, Qiang Liu, Xiao Li, Jinliang Yang, Sanzhen Liu, Yinlian Huang, Michael J. Scanlon, Dan Nettleton, Patrick S. Schnable

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Background: There are significant limitations in existing methods for the genome-wide identification of genes whose expression patterns affect traits.

Results: The transcriptomes of five tissues from 27 genetically diverse maize inbred lines were deeply sequenced to identify genes exhibiting high and low levels of expression variation across tissues or genotypes. Transcription factors are enriched among genes with the most variation in expression across tissues, as well as among genes with higher-than-median levels of variation in expression across genotypes. In contrast, transcription factors are depleted among genes whose expression is either highly stable or highly variable across genotypes. We developed a ...


Can Hemiparasitic Plants Stabilize Coexistence Of Multiple Competing Hosts?, Matthew Wittman, Steven A. Juliano Oct 2017

Can Hemiparasitic Plants Stabilize Coexistence Of Multiple Competing Hosts?, Matthew Wittman, Steven A. Juliano

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology Education and Research

No abstract provided.


Identifying Ecologically Relevant Scales Of Habitat Selection: Diel Habitat Selection In Elk, Caleb P. Roberts, James W. Cain Iii, Robert D. Cox Oct 2017

Identifying Ecologically Relevant Scales Of Habitat Selection: Diel Habitat Selection In Elk, Caleb P. Roberts, James W. Cain Iii, Robert D. Cox

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Although organisms make resource selection decisions at multiple spatiotemporal scales, not all scales are ecologically relevant to any given organism. Ecological patterns and rhythms such as behavioral and climatic patterns may provide a consistent method for identifying ecologically relevant scales of habitat selection. Using elk (Cervus canadensis) as an example species, we sought to test the ability of behavioral patterns to empirically partition diel scales for modeling habitat selection. We used model selection to partition diel scales by shifts in dominant behavior and then used resource selection probability functions to model elk habitat selection hierarchically at diel scales within seasons ...


Characterization Of Acaricide Resistance, Plant-Mediated Rnai Against Two-Spotted Spider Mites (Tetranychus Urticae Koch), And Assessing Off- And Non-Target Effects, Hooman Hosseinzadeh Namin Oct 2017

Characterization Of Acaricide Resistance, Plant-Mediated Rnai Against Two-Spotted Spider Mites (Tetranychus Urticae Koch), And Assessing Off- And Non-Target Effects, Hooman Hosseinzadeh Namin

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The two-spotted spider mite (TSSM), Tetranychus urticae (Koch), is one of the most damaging agricultural pests in the world. It feeds on over 150 crops, causing considerable yield losses in greenhouses and agricultural fields. Currently, using synthetic acaricides is the main method to control TSSM. However, it can develop resistance to acaricides with repeated exposure, and typically resistance can occur within two to four years. To understand the underlying mechanisms of spider mite adaptation to acaricides is an essential part of resistance management strategy. The resistance ratio of the pyridaben-selected strain compared with the pre-selection strain was estimated at greater ...


Phylogenetic Patterns Of Foliar Mineral Nutrient Accumulation Among Gypsophiles And Their Relatives In The Chihuahuan Desert, Clare Muller, Michael J. Moore, Zoe Feder, Helene Tiley, Rebecca E. Drenovsky Oct 2017

Phylogenetic Patterns Of Foliar Mineral Nutrient Accumulation Among Gypsophiles And Their Relatives In The Chihuahuan Desert, Clare Muller, Michael J. Moore, Zoe Feder, Helene Tiley, Rebecca E. Drenovsky

2017 Faculty Bibliography

PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Gypsum endemism in plants (gypsophily) is common on gypsum outcrops worldwide, but little is known about the functional ecology of Chihuahuan Desert gypsophiles. We investigated whether leaf chemistry of gypsophile lineages from the northern Chihuahuan Desert are similar to leaves of related nonendemic (gypsovag) species relative to their soil chemistry. We expected widely distributed gypsophiles (hypothesized to be older lineages on gypsum) would have distinct leaf chemistry from narrowly distributed, relatively younger lineages endemic to gypsum and gypsovags, reflecting adaptation to gypsum.

METHODS: We collected leaves from 23 gypsophiles and related nonendemic taxa growing on nongypsum ...


Microscopic Characterization Of A Transposon-Induced Male-Sterile, Female-Sterile Mutant In Glycine Max L., Katherine A. Thilges, Mark A. Chamberlin, Marc C. Albertsen, Harry T. Horner Oct 2017

Microscopic Characterization Of A Transposon-Induced Male-Sterile, Female-Sterile Mutant In Glycine Max L., Katherine A. Thilges, Mark A. Chamberlin, Marc C. Albertsen, Harry T. Horner

Genetics, Development and Cell Biology Publications

Premise of research. A male-sterile, female-sterile mutant was discovered in a w4-m mutable line of Glycine max L. The mechanism of its sterility was not well understood. Therefore, different cytological and microscopic techniques were undertaken to better understand the process of mutant phenotype development. Molecular research indicated that mer3 was responsible for the sterility.

Methodology. Macro images were collected of whole plants, flowers, anthers, pods, and ovules. Chromosome spreads from anthers at various meiotic stages were examined. Confocal scanning laser microscopy using optical sectioning was utilized on whole anthers and ovules at various developmental stages. Whole mature anthers and ...


Interchromosomal Transfer Of Immune Regulation During Infection Of Barley With The Powdery Mildew Pathogen, Priyanka Surana, Ruo Xu, Gregory Fuerst, Antony V. E. Chapman, Dan Nettleton, Roger P. Wise Oct 2017

Interchromosomal Transfer Of Immune Regulation During Infection Of Barley With The Powdery Mildew Pathogen, Priyanka Surana, Ruo Xu, Gregory Fuerst, Antony V. E. Chapman, Dan Nettleton, Roger P. Wise

Statistics Publications

Powdery mildew pathogens colonize over 9500 plant species, causing critical yield loss. The Ascomycete fungus, Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei (Bgh), causes powdery mildew disease in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Successful infection begins with penetration of host epidermal cells, culminating in haustorial feeding structures, facilitating delivery of fungal effectors to the plant and exchange of nutrients from host to pathogen. We used expression Quantitative Trait Locus (eQTL) analysis to dissect the temporal control of immunity-associated gene expression in a doubled haploid barley population challenged with Bgh. Two highly significant regions possessing trans eQTL were identified near the telomeric ends of ...


Characterization Of A Novel Mitochondrial Plasmid In Brassica, Mackenzie Strehle Oct 2017

Characterization Of A Novel Mitochondrial Plasmid In Brassica, Mackenzie Strehle

UCARE Research Products

Possessing some of the largest and most complex genomes of any eukaryotic organelles, plant mitochondria are notorious for their rapidly rearranging genetic framework. In addition to containing a large and complex mitochondrial genome, the mitochondria of several plants in the genus Brassica have also been shown to contain an independent, self-replicating linear plasmid. Interestingly, the plasmid appears to be able to move independently between the cytoplasm and the mitochondria, and it can be paternally inherited, unlike the rest of the mitochondrial genome. The plasmid also has features similar to those of adenoviruses, including terminal inverted repeats and covalently bound proteins ...


Photosensing And Thermosensing By Phytochrome B Require Both Proximal And Distal Allosteric Features Within The Dimeric Photoreceptor, E Sethe Burgie, Adam N. Bussell, Shu-Hui Lye, Tong Wang, Weiming Hu, Katrice E. Mcloughlin, Erin L. Weber, Huilin Li, Richard D. Vierstra Oct 2017

Photosensing And Thermosensing By Phytochrome B Require Both Proximal And Distal Allosteric Features Within The Dimeric Photoreceptor, E Sethe Burgie, Adam N. Bussell, Shu-Hui Lye, Tong Wang, Weiming Hu, Katrice E. Mcloughlin, Erin L. Weber, Huilin Li, Richard D. Vierstra

Biology Faculty Publications & Presentations

Phytochromes (Phys) encompass a diverse collection of bilin-containing photoreceptors that help plants and microorganisms perceive light through photointerconversion between red light (Pr) and far-red light (Pfr)-absorbing states. In addition, Pfr reverts thermally back to Pr via a highly enthalpic process that enables temperature sensation in plants and possibly other organisms. Through domain analysis of the Arabidopsis PhyB isoform assembled recombinantly, coupled with measurements of solution size, photoconversion, and thermal reversion, we identified both proximal and distal features that influence all three metrics. Included are the downstream C-terminal histidine kinase-related domain known to promote dimerization and a conserved patch just ...


Chlorophyll Can Be Reduced In Crop Canopies With Little Penalty To Photosynthesis, Berkley J. Walker, Darren T. Drewry, Rebecca A. Slattery, Andy Vanloocke, Young B. Cho, Donald R. Ort Oct 2017

Chlorophyll Can Be Reduced In Crop Canopies With Little Penalty To Photosynthesis, Berkley J. Walker, Darren T. Drewry, Rebecca A. Slattery, Andy Vanloocke, Young B. Cho, Donald R. Ort

Agronomy Publications

The hypothesis that reducing chlorophyll content (Chl) can increase canopy photosynthesis in soybeans was tested using an advanced model of canopy photosynthesis. The relationship between leaf Chl, leaf optical properties, and photosynthetic biochemical capacity were measured in 67 soybean accessions showing large variation in leaf Chl. These relationships were integrated into a biophysical model of canopy-scale photosynthesis to simulate the intercanopy light environment and carbon assimilation capacity of canopies with WT, a Chl-deficient mutant (Y11y11), and 67 other mutants spanning the extremes of Chl to quantify the impact of variation in leaf-level Chl on canopy-scale photosynthetic assimilation and identify possible ...


Effects Of Nitrogen And Phosphorus Fertilizer And Topsoil Amendment On Native Plant Cover In Roadside Revegetation Projects, Heidi L. Hillhouse, Walter H. Schacht, Jonathan M. Soper, Carol E. Wienhold Oct 2017

Effects Of Nitrogen And Phosphorus Fertilizer And Topsoil Amendment On Native Plant Cover In Roadside Revegetation Projects, Heidi L. Hillhouse, Walter H. Schacht, Jonathan M. Soper, Carol E. Wienhold

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Establishing vegetation on roadsides following construction can be challenging, especially for relatively slow growing native species. Topsoil is generally removed during construction, and the surface soil following construction (“cut-slope soils”) is often compacted and low in nutrients, providing poor growing conditions for vegetation. Nebraska Department of Transportation (NDOT) protocols have historically called for nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fertilization when planting roadside vegetation following construction, but these recommendations were developed for cool-season grass plantings and most current plantings use slower-establishing, native warmseason grasses that may benefit less than expected from current planting protocols. We evaluated the effects of nitrogen and ...


Floristic Response To Urbanization: Filtering Of The Bioregional Flora In Indianapolis, Indiana, Usa, Rebecca W. Dolan, Myla F.J. Aronson, Andrew L. Hipp Sep 2017

Floristic Response To Urbanization: Filtering Of The Bioregional Flora In Indianapolis, Indiana, Usa, Rebecca W. Dolan, Myla F.J. Aronson, Andrew L. Hipp

Rebecca W. Dolan

PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Globally, urban plant populations are becoming increasingly important, as these plants play a vital role in ameliorating effects of ecosystem disturbance and climate change. Urban environments act as filters to bioregional flora, presenting survival challenges to spontaneous plants. Yet, because of the paucity of inventory data on plants in landscapes both before and after urbanization, few studies have directly investigated this effect of urbanization. METHODS: We used historical, contemporary, and regional plant species inventories for Indianapolis, Indiana USA to evaluate how urbanization filters the bioregional flora based on species diversity, functional traits, and phylogenetic community structure ...


Genetic Architecture Of Charcoal Rot (Macrophomina Phaseolina) Resistance In Soybean Revealed Using A Diverse Panel, Sara M. Coser, R. V. Chowda Reddy, Jiaoping Zhang, Daren S. Mueller, Alemu Mengistu, Kiersten A. Wise, Tom W. Allen, Arti Singh, Asheesh K. Singh Sep 2017

Genetic Architecture Of Charcoal Rot (Macrophomina Phaseolina) Resistance In Soybean Revealed Using A Diverse Panel, Sara M. Coser, R. V. Chowda Reddy, Jiaoping Zhang, Daren S. Mueller, Alemu Mengistu, Kiersten A. Wise, Tom W. Allen, Arti Singh, Asheesh K. Singh

Agronomy Publications

Charcoal rot (CR) disease caused by Macrophomina phaseolina is responsible for significant yield losses in soybean production. Among the methods available for controlling this disease, breeding for resistance is the most promising. Progress in breeding efforts has been slow due to the insufficient information available on the genetic mechanisms related to resistance. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) enable unraveling the genetic architecture of resistance and identification of causal genes. The aims of this study were to identify new sources of resistance to CR in a collection of 459 diverse plant introductions from the USDA Soybean Germplasm Core Collection using field and ...


How Fast Do Soybeans Dry Down During The Preharvest Time?, Rafael A. Martinez-Feria, Sotirios Archontoulis, Mark Licht Sep 2017

How Fast Do Soybeans Dry Down During The Preharvest Time?, Rafael A. Martinez-Feria, Sotirios Archontoulis, Mark Licht

Agronomy Publications

Soybean fields are nearing maturing across Iowa with minimal delay compared to 2016 due to cool temperatures. However, soybean sensitivity to day length speeds up crop development towards physiological maturity. During this time, senescence is occurring and carbohydrates are being converted to oils. Soybean seed moisture changes very little and remains near 60 percent during the de-greening period. As the pods turn to mature color at the beginning of maturity stage (R7), seed dry matter accumulation is complete and seed moisture rapidly decreases.


The Gmo/Ge Debate, Joanna K. Sax Sep 2017

The Gmo/Ge Debate, Joanna K. Sax

Texas A&M Law Review

We live longer and healthier lives because advances in science create easier and better ways to sustain and survive. Society has an intricate relationship with biotechnology. Vaccines save lives. Fluoridated water decreases dental issues. Antibiotics treat bacterial infections. Nuclear power is a form of clean energy. With any emerging technology, the benefits do not exist in a vacuum, thus, negative consequences result as well. Our widespread uses of antibiotics are creating antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria. Our research into nuclear energy also facilitated the creation of nuclear bombs. Perhaps it is human nature to use scientific advances for good and for ...


Recognizing Challenges And Opportunities In The Quest To End Hunger, Jennifer Williams Zwagerman Sep 2017

Recognizing Challenges And Opportunities In The Quest To End Hunger, Jennifer Williams Zwagerman

Texas A&M Law Review

As an attorney and professor that does not focus on intellectual property law, I was a bit apprehensive about providing a keynote address for a Symposium focusing on “Agriculture, Intellectual Property, and Feeding the World in the 21st Century.” As I thought about this topic, knowing that there were other speakers who would focus more on the IP issues and technical aspects of various topics, I kept coming back to the importance of technology as we worktowards the goal of feeding the world, and the many ways in which innovation plays a role in meeting that goal. It also brought ...


Plant Mechanosensitive Ion Channels: An Ocean Of Possibilities, Debarati Basu, Elizabeth S. Haswell Sep 2017

Plant Mechanosensitive Ion Channels: An Ocean Of Possibilities, Debarati Basu, Elizabeth S. Haswell

Biology Faculty Publications & Presentations

Mechanosensitive ion channels, transmembrane proteins that directly couple mechanical stimuli to ion flux, serve to sense and respond to changes in membrane tension in all branches of life. In plants, mechanosensitive channels have been implicated in the perception of important mechanical stimuli such as osmotic pressure, touch, gravity, and pathogenic invasion. Indeed, three established families of plant mechanosensitive ion channels play roles in cell and organelle osmoregulation and root mechanosensing - and it is likely that many other channels and functions await discovery. Inspired by recent discoveries in bacterial and animal systems, we are beginning to establish the conserved and the ...


Deciphering Sulfur Amino Acid Metabolism In Developing Seeds Of Common Bean, Jaya Joshi Aug 2017

Deciphering Sulfur Amino Acid Metabolism In Developing Seeds Of Common Bean, Jaya Joshi

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

With increasing food insecurity in the populated world, the number of people affected by chronic undernourishment is also increasing. Alone, protein energy malnutrition is linked to 6 million deaths annually. Despite being a good source of protein and dietary fibre, the quality of bean protein is limited because of sub optimal levels of essential sulfur amino acids: methionine and cysteine. Levels of cysteine and methionine in developing seeds have an inverse relationship with the non-protein sulfur amino acid S-methyl-cysteine (S-methylCys) and dipeptide g-glutamyl-S-methyl-cysteine (g-Glu-S-methylCys).

One of the strategies to improve protein quality in bean ...


Surface-Soil Properties Of Alder Balds With Respect To Grassy And Rhododendron Balds On Roan Mountain, North Carolina—Tennessee, James T. Donaldson, Zachary C. Dinkins, Foster Levy, Arpita Nandi Aug 2017

Surface-Soil Properties Of Alder Balds With Respect To Grassy And Rhododendron Balds On Roan Mountain, North Carolina—Tennessee, James T. Donaldson, Zachary C. Dinkins, Foster Levy, Arpita Nandi

Foster Levy

We analyzed soils in Alder Bald, Grassy Bald, and Rhododendron Bald communities on Roan Mountain to infer the influence of vegetation on soil and to help guide management strategies. In all vegetation types, soils were acid (pH = 4–5) sandy loams. We found vegetation-associated differences for organic content, cation exchange capacity, acidity, two plant macronutrients (K, Mg), and three cations (Fe, Na, Zn). We predicted that nitrogen compounds would be highest in the Alder Bald because Alnus viridis ssp. crispa (Green Alder) can harbor nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Organic content was highest at the alder-bald sites, ammonium was similar among vegetation types ...


Pattern And Rate Of Decline Of A Population Of Carolina Hemlock (Tsuga Caroliniana Engelm.) In North Carolina, Foster Levy, Elaine S. Walker Aug 2017

Pattern And Rate Of Decline Of A Population Of Carolina Hemlock (Tsuga Caroliniana Engelm.) In North Carolina, Foster Levy, Elaine S. Walker

Foster Levy

We monitored a population of Carolina Hemlocks in northwestern North Carolina for four years to examine the rate and pattern of decline in response to infestation by Adelges tsugae (Hemlock Woolly Adelgid). Our yearly census of hemlock condition and severity of the adelgid infestation included trees of all sizes. We estimated declines in condition as the portions of the leaf canopy that were lost. Initially, infestation occurred throughout the population but was severe in only a small cluster of individuals. Within 1 year, the area of severe infestation increased in size to encompass 48% of the population. In another region ...