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Plant Biology

2016

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Articles 1 - 30 of 263

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Can Sub-Saharan Africa Feed Itself?, Martin K. Van Ittersum, Lenny G. J. Van Bussel, Joost Wolf, Patricio Grassini, Justin Van Wart, Nicolas Guilpart, Lieven Claessens, Hugo De Groot, Keith Wiebe, Daniel Mason-D'Croz, Haishun Yang, Hendrik Boogard, Pepijn A. J. Van Oort, Marloes P. Van Loon, Kazuki Saito, Ochieng Adimo, Samuel Adjei-Nsiah, Alhassane Agali, Abdullahi Bala, Regis Chikowo, Kayuki Kaizzi, Mamoutou Kouressy, Joachim H. J. R. Makoi, Korodjouma Ouattara, Kindie Tesfaye, Kenneth G. Cassman Dec 2016

Can Sub-Saharan Africa Feed Itself?, Martin K. Van Ittersum, Lenny G. J. Van Bussel, Joost Wolf, Patricio Grassini, Justin Van Wart, Nicolas Guilpart, Lieven Claessens, Hugo De Groot, Keith Wiebe, Daniel Mason-D'Croz, Haishun Yang, Hendrik Boogard, Pepijn A. J. Van Oort, Marloes P. Van Loon, Kazuki Saito, Ochieng Adimo, Samuel Adjei-Nsiah, Alhassane Agali, Abdullahi Bala, Regis Chikowo, Kayuki Kaizzi, Mamoutou Kouressy, Joachim H. J. R. Makoi, Korodjouma Ouattara, Kindie Tesfaye, Kenneth G. Cassman

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Although global food demand is expected to increase 60% by 2050 compared with 2005/2007, the rise will be much greater in sub- Saharan Africa (SSA). Indeed, SSA is the region at greatest food security risk because by 2050 its population will increase 2.5-fold and demand for cereals approximately triple, whereas current levels of cereal consumption already depend on substantial imports. At issue is whether SSA can meet this vast increase in cereal demand without greater reliance on cereal imports or major expansion of agricultural area and associated biodiversity loss and greenhouse gas emissions. Recent studies indicate that the ...


Can Functional Traits Predict Plant Community Response To Global Change?, Sarah Kimball, Jennifer L. Funk, Marko J. Spasojevic, Katharine N. Suding, Scot Parker, Michael K. Goulden Dec 2016

Can Functional Traits Predict Plant Community Response To Global Change?, Sarah Kimball, Jennifer L. Funk, Marko J. Spasojevic, Katharine N. Suding, Scot Parker, Michael K. Goulden

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

One primary goal at the intersection of community ecology and global change biology is to identify functional traits that are useful for predicting plant community response to global change. We used observations of community composition from a long-term field experiment in two adjacent plant communities (grassland and coastal sage shrub) to investigate how nine key plant functional traits were related to altered water and nitrogen availability following fire. We asked whether the functional responses of species found in more than one community type were context dependent and whether community-weighted mean and functional diversity were significantly altered by water and nitrogen ...


Impacts Of Long-Term Precipitation Manipulation On Hydraulic Architecture, Xylem Function, And Canopy Status In A Piñon-Juniper Woodland, Patrick J. Hudson Dec 2016

Impacts Of Long-Term Precipitation Manipulation On Hydraulic Architecture, Xylem Function, And Canopy Status In A Piñon-Juniper Woodland, Patrick J. Hudson

Biology ETDs

The Southwestern US is predicted to become hotter and drier, as global climate change forces increasing temperatures and variability in timing and size of precipitation inputs. Drought stress has become more frequent in recent decades, and resulted in massive forest mortality in piñon-juniper woodlands. During recent severe droughts (2000-2003, 2009-2012), piñon pine (Pinus edulis Englem.) suffered disproportionately high mortality compared to co-occurring one-seed juniper (Juniperus monosperma [Engelm.] Sarg.). A large-scale precipitation manipulation experiment was established in a piñon-juniper woodland in central New Mexico to test hypotheses regarding tree survival and mortality with respect to altered water regimes. Our treatments consisted ...


Salvinia Molesta: An Assessment Of The Effects And Methods Of Eradication, Arti Lal Dec 2016

Salvinia Molesta: An Assessment Of The Effects And Methods Of Eradication, Arti Lal

Master's Projects and Capstones

Salvinia molesta is an invasive aquatic fern. It is now the second worse aquatic invader in the world. Since the 1930s, it has invaded most tropical and some temperate countries. S. molesta plants grow vegetatively and can increase in size rapidly. S. molesta can form thick mats of up to 1-meter-thick. There are a number of ways these thick mats negatively affect the environment: 1) reduce light to benthic organisms, 2) reduce oxygen in the water column for other organisms, 3) accumulate as organic matter at the bottom of the water column, 4) decrease nutrients for other organisms, and 5 ...


Vascular Flora Of The Rocky Fork Tract, Tennessee, Usa, And Its Use In Conservation And Management, Foster Levy, Elaine S. Walker Dec 2016

Vascular Flora Of The Rocky Fork Tract, Tennessee, Usa, And Its Use In Conservation And Management, Foster Levy, Elaine S. Walker

ETSU Faculty Works

A flora of the 3800 ha Rocky Fork Tract in northeast Tennessee produced 749 species of which 19 were on the Tennessee Rare Plant List and 34 were on the Cherokee National Forest Species Viability List with 87 county records from Greene County and 217 from Unicoi County. Rare species were particularly numerous in the Cyperaceae and Orchidaceae. The tract serves as a refuge for several regionally uncommon species by supporting either large populations or metapopulations of these species. Exotic species comprised 15% of the flora and were most common in the Fabaceae and Poaceae. The most unique habitat was ...


Characterization Of The Cytokinin-Responsive Transcriptome In Rice, Tracy Raines, Ivory C. Blakley, Yu-Chang Tsai, Jennifer M. Worthen, José M. Franco-Zorrilla, Roberto Solano, G. Eric Schaller Dec 2016

Characterization Of The Cytokinin-Responsive Transcriptome In Rice, Tracy Raines, Ivory C. Blakley, Yu-Chang Tsai, Jennifer M. Worthen, José M. Franco-Zorrilla, Roberto Solano, G. Eric Schaller

Open Dartmouth: Published works by Dartmouth faculty

Cytokinin activates transcriptional cascades important for development and the responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Most of what is known regarding cytokinin-regulated gene expression comes from studies of the dicotyledonous plant Arabidopsis thaliana. To expand the understanding of the cytokinin-regulated transcriptome, we employed RNA-Seq to analyze gene expression in response to cytokinin in roots and shoots of the monocotyledonous plant rice.


American Chestnut Sem Portfolio, Dakota Matthews Dec 2016

American Chestnut Sem Portfolio, Dakota Matthews

N.C. Brown Center for Ultrastructure Studies

Scanning electron microscopy micrographs of transgenic american chestnut pollen and anthers. Chinkapin anthers and pollen imaged also.


Association Mapping Of Seed Weight, Protein, And Sucrose Content; And Kinetics Of Edamame Under Infrared Treatment, Laura Melissa Lara Santisteban Dec 2016

Association Mapping Of Seed Weight, Protein, And Sucrose Content; And Kinetics Of Edamame Under Infrared Treatment, Laura Melissa Lara Santisteban

Theses and Dissertations

Edamame is a specialty large-seeded soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) harvested at an immature stage (R6) that has become the second largest consumed soyfood. Although United States is the largest soybean producer, majority of edamame is imported from Asia, highlighting the importance of developing new edamame varieties. Association mapping (AM) provides an alternative to bi-parental linkage mapping method to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) adding higher resolution and broader germplasm information. Seed weight, sucrose, and protein are quantitative traits of value when selecting edamame lines. However molecular mechanisms controlling each of these traits are still inconclusive and have not been ...


Dissecting Salt Tolerance In Soybean By Profiling Differential Physiological Responses Under Salt Stress, Jade Amber Newsome Dec 2016

Dissecting Salt Tolerance In Soybean By Profiling Differential Physiological Responses Under Salt Stress, Jade Amber Newsome

Theses and Dissertations

Saline soils are common worldwide and limit the yield potential of many crops. Plants respond in a variety of ways to the stress imposed by saline soils. Plants under salt stress must first sense their surroundings and transmit a signal alerting the rest of the plant to the saline conditions. Salt tolerance in soybeans is typically defined by exclusion of chloride ions from foliar tissues. Though differences in ion uptake among soybean genotypes is well documented, the key mechanisms employed by tolerant cultivars to cope with salt stress on the whole-plant level are still largely unknown. Objectives of the current ...


Selection Of Efficient Taq Dna Polymerase To Optimize T-Dna Genotyping Method For Rapid Detection Of Mutant Arabidopsis Thaliana Plants, Inna B. Chastukhina, Liliia R. Nigmatullina, Lia R. Valeeva, Eugene V. Shakirov Dec 2016

Selection Of Efficient Taq Dna Polymerase To Optimize T-Dna Genotyping Method For Rapid Detection Of Mutant Arabidopsis Thaliana Plants, Inna B. Chastukhina, Liliia R. Nigmatullina, Lia R. Valeeva, Eugene V. Shakirov

Biological Sciences Faculty Research

Plants harbor homologues of various animal genes involved in phosphorus metabolism, telomere biology and other cellular processes. Compared to experiments with many other multicellular organisms, research in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana takes advantage of short generation time and an ever increasing arsenal of genetic and transgenic tools, including large collections of T-DNA knockout and activation lines. The availability of thousands of publicly available transgenic Arabidopsis lines provides a unique opportunity to address a number of important biological questions. However, identification of individual T-DNA mutant plants from a pool of seeds provided by a biological stock distribution center remains a ...


The Coat Protein And Nia Protease Of Two Potyviridae Family Members Independently Confer Superinfection Exclusion, Satyanarayana Tatineni, Roy French Dec 2016

The Coat Protein And Nia Protease Of Two Potyviridae Family Members Independently Confer Superinfection Exclusion, Satyanarayana Tatineni, Roy French

Papers in Plant Pathology

Superinfection exclusion (SIE) is an antagonistic virus-virus interaction whereby initial infection by one virus prevents subsequent infection by closely related viruses. Although SIE has been described in diverse viruses infecting plants, humans, and animals, its mechanisms, including involvement of specific viral determinants, are just beginning to be elucidated. In this study, SIE determinants encoded by two economically important wheat viruses, Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV; genus Tritimovirus, family Potyviridae) and Triticum mosaic virus (TriMV; genus Poacevirus, family Potyviridae), were identified in gain-of-function experiments that used heterologous viruses to express individual virus-encoded proteins in wheat. Wheat plants infected with TriMV expressing ...


Identification And Characterization Of Genes Involved In Metabolism Of N5 Monoene Precursors To N5 Anacardic Acids In The Trichomes Of Pelargonium X Hortorum., Richa A. Singhal Dec 2016

Identification And Characterization Of Genes Involved In Metabolism Of N5 Monoene Precursors To N5 Anacardic Acids In The Trichomes Of Pelargonium X Hortorum., Richa A. Singhal

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Unusual monoenoic fatty acids (UMFA’s) and specialized metabolites called anacardic acids (AnAc) are produced in glandular trichomes of Pelargonium ´ hortorum (geranium). The UMFA’s, 16:1∆11 and 18:1∆13 are precursors for the synthesis of unsaturated AnAc 22:1n5and 24:1n5 that contribute to pest resistance in geraniums. UMFAs and their derived AnAc metabolites not only provide a useful biological marker that differentiates the biosynthetic pathway for unusual mononenes from the common fatty acids (i.e. stearic, palmitic, oleic, linoleic and linolenic) but also have industrial, medical and agricultural applications. Fatty acid biosynthesis enzymes like acyl carrier ...


Quantifying Variation In The Seed Scatter-Hoarder Relationship, Gina M. Sawaya Dec 2016

Quantifying Variation In The Seed Scatter-Hoarder Relationship, Gina M. Sawaya

Undergraduate Honors Theses

The relationship between scatter-hoarders and trees varies on a continuum from mutualism to antagonism and can change across time, location, and among species. We examined five tree species across five sites to quantify this variability: red oak (Quercus rubra), white oak, (Quercus alba), American chestnut (Castanea dentata), Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima), and a hybrid American/Chinese chestnut. In the fall of 2012, 2013, and 2015, we set up field sites across the east coast, including in Virginia, Pennsylvania, Indiana, Massachusetts, and Maine. We tested the potential for mutualism between scatter-hoarders and trees by using a simple model proposed in the ...


Cover Crop Establishment And Potential Benefits To Arkansas Farmers, Ashley Elizabeth Humphreys Dec 2016

Cover Crop Establishment And Potential Benefits To Arkansas Farmers, Ashley Elizabeth Humphreys

Theses and Dissertations

Soybean farmers in Arkansas need best management practices (BMPs) that maximize the benefits of using cover crops including planting date and fertilization recommendations. An evaluation of cover crop species, planting dates, seeding rates, fertilizer rates, and N accumulation aids in providing these BMPs. The first objective of this research is to assess the effect of planting date on biomass production, as well as looking at the interaction of seeding rate or fertilizer rate for legumes or non-legumes, respectively, using Austrian winter pea (Pisum sativum), cereal rye (Secale cereale), black oats (Avena strigosa), wheat (Triticum aestivum), and tillage radish (Raphanus sativus ...


Quantitative Trait Loci (Qtl) For Salt Tolerance In Soybean And Physiological Response To Salt Stress During Early Growth Stage, Cindy Massiel Lopez Ramirez Dec 2016

Quantitative Trait Loci (Qtl) For Salt Tolerance In Soybean And Physiological Response To Salt Stress During Early Growth Stage, Cindy Massiel Lopez Ramirez

Theses and Dissertations

Soybean is a major cash crop used as a source of high–quality protein and oil. Salt stress is one of the main abiotic stresses causing significant yield losses in soybean, which is considered a moderately salt–sensitive crop. Breeding selection is a promising strategy to improve salt tolerance as soybean germplasm display wide variation in response to salinity stress. However, the physiological and genetic mechanisms for salt tolerance are not quite clear. The discovery of novel QTL/genes associated with salt tolerance facilitates the development of tolerant cultivars through marker-assisted selection (MAS). The objectives of this study were: 1 ...


Nkd Transcription Factors Are Central Regulators Of Maize Endosperm Development, Bryan C. Gontarek, Anjanasree K. Neelakandan, Hao Wu, Philip W. Becraft Dec 2016

Nkd Transcription Factors Are Central Regulators Of Maize Endosperm Development, Bryan C. Gontarek, Anjanasree K. Neelakandan, Hao Wu, Philip W. Becraft

Genetics, Development and Cell Biology Publications

NAKED ENDOSPERM1 (NKD1) and NKD2 are duplicate INDETERMINATE DOMAIN (IDD) transcription factors important for maize (Zea mays) endosperm development. RNA-seq analysis of the nkd1 nkd2 mutant endosperm revealed that NKD1 and NKD2 influence 6.4% of the transcriptome in developing aleurone and 6.7% in starchy endosperm. Processes regulated by NKD1 and NKD2 include gene expression, epigenetic functions, cell growth and division, hormone pathways, and resource reserve deposition. The NKD1 and NKD2 proteins bind a consensus DNA sequence of TTGTCGT with slightly different properties. This motif was enriched in the promoters of gene transcripts differentially expressed (DE) in mutant endosperm ...


Comparison Of Mesophyll Protoplast Isolation And Transformation Between Panicum Virgatum And Panicum Hallii, Andrea Grace Collins Dec 2016

Comparison Of Mesophyll Protoplast Isolation And Transformation Between Panicum Virgatum And Panicum Hallii, Andrea Grace Collins

Masters Theses

Protoplasts are appropriate targets for genome editing, DNA functional screens and transgenesis. This project focuses on the comparison of inexpensive mesophyll protoplast isolation via the use of food-grade enzymes and transformation between diploid Panicum hallii Vasey (PAH) and polyploid cellulosic feedstock Panicum virgatum L (switchgrass), a relative of PAH. PAH has great potential as a C4 model species for crop and bioenergy research. Here an inexpensive switchgrass and PAH mesophyll protoplast isolation and transformation system was developed; the first protoplast system for PAH. Using low-cost commercial food-grade enzymes, a cost reduction of ~1000-fold was achieved compared to traditional protoplast isolating ...


The Biology And Management Of Palmer Amaranth (Amaranthus Palmeri S. Wats) In Indiana, Douglas J. Spaunhorst Dec 2016

The Biology And Management Of Palmer Amaranth (Amaranthus Palmeri S. Wats) In Indiana, Douglas J. Spaunhorst

Open Access Dissertations

Palmer amaranth is a pernicious summer annual weed that has evolved resistance to six herbicide sites of action in the U.S. and threatens agriculture production. In 2011, Palmer amaranth was identified in flood plains in two southern Indiana counties (Posey and Vanderburgh). Determining if Palmer amaranth can survive and reproduce in northern Indiana may provide insight if this weed will be problematic for northern row crop producers. The objectives of our research were to identify fields containing Palmer amaranth and determine the distribution of herbicide resistance traits in Indiana; determine the influence of tillage frequency and tillage intervals on ...


Phytochrome B Integrates Light And Temperature Signals In Arabidopsis, Martina Legris, Cornelia Klose, E Sethe Burgie, Cecilia Costigliolo Rojas Rojas, Maximiliano Neme, Andreas Hiltbrunner, Philip A. Wigge, Eberhard Schäfer, Richard D. Vierstra, Jorge J. Casal Nov 2016

Phytochrome B Integrates Light And Temperature Signals In Arabidopsis, Martina Legris, Cornelia Klose, E Sethe Burgie, Cecilia Costigliolo Rojas Rojas, Maximiliano Neme, Andreas Hiltbrunner, Philip A. Wigge, Eberhard Schäfer, Richard D. Vierstra, Jorge J. Casal

Biology Faculty Publications & Presentations

Ambient temperature regulates many aspects of plant growth and development, but its sensors are unknown. Here, we demonstrate that the phytochrome B (phyB) photoreceptor participates in temperature perception through its temperature-dependent reversion from the active Pfr state to the inactive Pr state. Increased rates of thermal reversion upon exposing Arabidopsis seedlings to warm environments reduce both the abundance of the biologically active Pfr-Pfr dimer pool of phyB and the size of the associated nuclear bodies, even in daylight. Mathematical analysis of stem growth for seedlings expressing wild-type phyB or thermally stable variants under various combinations of light and temperature revealed ...


Uncovering The Genetic Basis For Biofuel-Related Traits In Brachypodium Distachyon, Scott J. Lee Nov 2016

Uncovering The Genetic Basis For Biofuel-Related Traits In Brachypodium Distachyon, Scott J. Lee

Doctoral Dissertations

Biofuels derived from plant biomass present a promising avenue to address the negative aspects of fossil-fuel dependence. The sustainability of biofuel production relies in part on the efficient degradation of lignocellulosic feedstocks. In order to capitalize on the potential of lignocellulosic biofuels, the genes underlying natural genetic variation for conversion efficiency must be determined. We have developed a robust and high-throughput assay to measure feedstock quality using the anaerobic bacterium Clostridium phytofermentans. We have measured biomass accumulation phenotypes and utilized this assay to perform quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping and a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in the model grass species ...


Iron Signaling In Arabidopsis Thaliana, Celina Abundis Nov 2016

Iron Signaling In Arabidopsis Thaliana, Celina Abundis

Masters Theses

Iron is among the essential micronutrients for all living organisms and is a cofactor for many cellular redox reactions. Although iron is a highly abundant metal element found in the earth’s crust, it is also a limiting factor in plant development when it is present as insoluble ferric oxides. Plants have evolved two strategies to acquire soluble iron referred to as Strategy I and Strategy II. Our lab has focused on the Arabidopsis thaliana double mutant ysl1ysl3. The mutants display a chlorotic phenotype and are unable to correctly respond to iron deficiency.

Grafting is a common method for joining ...


Msl1 Is A Mechanosensitive Ion Channel That Dissipates Mitochondrial Membrane Potential And Maintains Redox Homeostasis In Mitochondria During Abiotic Stress, Chun Pong Lee, Grigory Maksaev, Gregory S. Jensen, Monika W. Murcha, Margaret E. Wilson, Mark Fricker, Ruediger Hell, Elizabeth S. Haswell, A Harvey Millar, Lee J. Sweetlove Nov 2016

Msl1 Is A Mechanosensitive Ion Channel That Dissipates Mitochondrial Membrane Potential And Maintains Redox Homeostasis In Mitochondria During Abiotic Stress, Chun Pong Lee, Grigory Maksaev, Gregory S. Jensen, Monika W. Murcha, Margaret E. Wilson, Mark Fricker, Ruediger Hell, Elizabeth S. Haswell, A Harvey Millar, Lee J. Sweetlove

Biology Faculty Publications & Presentations

Mitochondria must maintain tight control over the electrochemical gradient across their inner membrane to allow ATP synthesis while maintaining a redox-balanced electron transport chain and avoiding excessive reactive oxygen species production. However, there is a scarcity of knowledge about the ion transporters in the inner mitochondrial membrane that contribute to control of membrane potential. We show that loss of MSL1, a member of a family of mechanosensitive ion channels related to the bacterial channel MscS, leads to increased membrane potential of Arabidopsis mitochondria under specific bioenergetic states. We demonstrate that MSL1 localises to the inner mitochondrial membrane. When expressed in ...


Modeling Long-Term Corn Yield Response To Nitrogen Rate And Crop Rotation, Laila A. Puntel, John E. Sawyer, Daniel W. Barker, Ranae Dietzel, Hanna Poffenbarger, Michael J. Castellano, Kenneth J. Moore, Peter J. Thorburn, Sotirios V. Archontoulis Nov 2016

Modeling Long-Term Corn Yield Response To Nitrogen Rate And Crop Rotation, Laila A. Puntel, John E. Sawyer, Daniel W. Barker, Ranae Dietzel, Hanna Poffenbarger, Michael J. Castellano, Kenneth J. Moore, Peter J. Thorburn, Sotirios V. Archontoulis

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Improved prediction of optimal N fertilizer rates for corn (Zea mays L.) can reduce N losses and increase profits. We tested the ability of the Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator (APSIM) to simulate corn and soybean (Glycine max L.) yields, the economic optimum N rate (EONR) using a 16-year field-experiment dataset from central Iowa, USA that included two crop sequences (continuous corn and soybean-corn) and five N fertilizer rates (0, 67, 134, 201, and 268 kg N ha-1) applied to corn. Our objectives were to: (a) quantify model prediction accuracy before and after calibration, and report calibration steps; (b) compare ...


The Variation Of Productivity And Its Allocation Along A Tropical Elevation Gradient: A Whole Carbon Budget Perspective, Yadvinder Malhi, Cécile A. J. Girardin, Gregory R. Goldsmith, Christopher E. Doughty, Norma Salinas, Daniel B. Metcalfe, Walter Huaraca Huasco, Javier E. Silva-Espejo, Jhon Del Aguilla-Pasquell, Filio Farfán Amézquita, Luiz E.O.C. Aragão, Rossella Guerrieri, Françoise Yoko Ishida, Nur Bahar, William Farfan-Rios, Oliver L. Phillips, Patrick Meir, Miles Silman Oct 2016

The Variation Of Productivity And Its Allocation Along A Tropical Elevation Gradient: A Whole Carbon Budget Perspective, Yadvinder Malhi, Cécile A. J. Girardin, Gregory R. Goldsmith, Christopher E. Doughty, Norma Salinas, Daniel B. Metcalfe, Walter Huaraca Huasco, Javier E. Silva-Espejo, Jhon Del Aguilla-Pasquell, Filio Farfán Amézquita, Luiz E.O.C. Aragão, Rossella Guerrieri, Françoise Yoko Ishida, Nur Bahar, William Farfan-Rios, Oliver L. Phillips, Patrick Meir, Miles Silman

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

  • Why do forest productivity and biomass decline with elevation? To address this question, research to date generally has focused on correlative approaches describing changes in woody growth and biomass with elevation.

  • We present a novel, mechanistic approach to this question by quantifying the autotrophic carbon budget in 16 forest plots along a 3300 m elevation transect in Peru.

  • Low growth rates at high elevations appear primarily driven by low gross primary productivity (GPP), with little shift in either carbon use efficiency (CUE) or allocation of net primary productivity (NPP) between wood, fine roots and canopy. The lack of trend in ...


The Archaeopalynology Of Crystal River Site (8ci1), Citrus County, Florida, Kendal Jackson Oct 2016

The Archaeopalynology Of Crystal River Site (8ci1), Citrus County, Florida, Kendal Jackson

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The Woodland-period (ca. 1000 B.C. to A.D. 1050) fisher-hunter-gatherers of the Crystal River drainage on Florida’s Big Bend Coast are well known among southeastern archaeologists for their elaborate shell mound architecture, maritime lifeway, and exotic exchange goods. Recent archaeological investigations at the Crystal River site have employed high-resolution topographic mapping, geophysical surveys, trench excavations, and coring to model the temporality of mound construction and occupation at the site; this work has set the stage for subsequent research focusing on community structure, resource extraction, and human-ecosystem dynamics. However, like many central and north peninsular Gulf Coast sites, our ...


Characterization And Development Mechanism Of Apios Americana Tuber Starch, Hanyu Yangchen, Vikas Belamkar, Steven B. Cannon, Jay-Lin Jane Oct 2016

Characterization And Development Mechanism Of Apios Americana Tuber Starch, Hanyu Yangchen, Vikas Belamkar, Steven B. Cannon, Jay-Lin Jane

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Apios americana is a wild legume-bearing plant with edible tubers. Domestication of Apios is in progress because of the superior nutritional value and health benefits of the tuber. Objectives of this study were to: (1) characterize physicochemical properties of the Apios tuber starch; and (2) understand differences in starch structures and properties between the mother (seed) and child (progeny) tubers and the mechanism of starch development. Granules of the Apios tuber starch displayed ellipsoidal, rod, or kidney shape with diameter ranges of 1–30 m. The mother tuber starches displayed greater percentage crystallinity, larger gelatinization enthalpy-changes, longer branch-chain lengths of ...


Tanscriptomic Study Of The Soybean-Fusarium Virguliforme Interaction Revealed A Novel Ankyrin-Repeat Containing Defense Gene, Expression Of Whose During Infection Led To Enhanced Resistance To The Fungal Pathogen In Transgenic Soybean Plants, Micheline N. Ngaki, Bing Wang, Binod B. Sahu, Subodh K. Srivastava, Mohammad S. Farooqi, Sekhar Kambakam, Sivakumar Swaminathan, Madan K. Bhattacharyya Oct 2016

Tanscriptomic Study Of The Soybean-Fusarium Virguliforme Interaction Revealed A Novel Ankyrin-Repeat Containing Defense Gene, Expression Of Whose During Infection Led To Enhanced Resistance To The Fungal Pathogen In Transgenic Soybean Plants, Micheline N. Ngaki, Bing Wang, Binod B. Sahu, Subodh K. Srivastava, Mohammad S. Farooqi, Sekhar Kambakam, Sivakumar Swaminathan, Madan K. Bhattacharyya

Agronomy Publications

Fusarium virguliforme causes the serious disease sudden death syndrome (SDS) in soybean. Host resistance to this pathogen is partial and is encoded by a large number of quantitative trait loci, each conditioning small effects. Breeding SDS resistance is therefore challenging and identification of single-gene encoded novel resistance mechanisms is becoming a priority to fight this devastating this fungal pathogen. In this transcriptomic study we identified a few putative soybean defense genes, expression of which is suppressed during F. virguliformeinfection. The F. virguliforme infection-suppressed genes were broadly classified into four major classes. The steady state transcript levels of many of ...


Genomics-Assisted Characterization Of A Breeding Collection Of Apios Americana, An Edible Tuberous Legume, Vikas Belamkar, Andrew Farmer, Nathan T. Weeks, Scott R. Kalberer, William J. Blackmon, Steven B. Cannon Oct 2016

Genomics-Assisted Characterization Of A Breeding Collection Of Apios Americana, An Edible Tuberous Legume, Vikas Belamkar, Andrew Farmer, Nathan T. Weeks, Scott R. Kalberer, William J. Blackmon, Steven B. Cannon

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

For species with potential as new crops, rapid improvement may be facilitated by new genomic methods. Apios (Apios americana Medik.), once a staple food source of Native American Indians, produces protein-rich tubers, tolerates a wide range of soils, and symbiotically fixes nitrogen. We report the first high-quality de novo transcriptome assembly, an expression atlas, and a set of 58,154 SNP and 39,609 gene expression markers (GEMs) for characterization of a breeding collection. Both SNPs and GEMs identify six genotypic clusters in the collection. Transcripts mapped to the Phaseolus vulgaris genome–another phaseoloid legume with the same chromosome number ...


Plants Having Increased Bomass And Methods For Making The Same, Aleel K. Grennan, Donald R. Ort, Stephen Patrick Moose, Damla D. Bilgin, Thomas Clemente, Fredy Altpeter, Stephen P. Long Oct 2016

Plants Having Increased Bomass And Methods For Making The Same, Aleel K. Grennan, Donald R. Ort, Stephen Patrick Moose, Damla D. Bilgin, Thomas Clemente, Fredy Altpeter, Stephen P. Long

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

The impact of plastid size change in both monocot and dicot plants has been examined. In both, when plastid size is increased there is an increase in biomass relative to the parental lines. Thus, provided herein are methods for increasing the biomass of a plant, comprising decreasing the expression of at least one plastid division protein in a plant. Optionally, the level of chlorophyll in the plant is also reduced.


Studying The Effects Of Serpentine Soil On Adapted And Non-Adapted Species Using Arduino Technology, Kiana Saniee, Edward Himelblau, Brian Paavo Oct 2016

Studying The Effects Of Serpentine Soil On Adapted And Non-Adapted Species Using Arduino Technology, Kiana Saniee, Edward Himelblau, Brian Paavo

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

Abstract: Serpentine soils are formed from ultramafic rocks and are represent an extreme environment for plants. Serpentine soils are unique in that they carry high concentrations of heavy metals, are nutrient deficient, particularly in calcium, and have poor water retention capabilities. Although these soils constitute harsh conditions for plant growth, there are a number of species that are adapted and even endemic to serpentine soil. Water retention by commercial potting mix was compared with serpentine soil. Also, serpentine adapted and non-adapted species were grown in both soil treatments and physiological data were collected. We used the Arduino electronic platform to ...